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# JJ207-THERMODYNAMICS 1

## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

TOPIC 3
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
At the end of the topic you will be able to:

3.0

## Review the properties of pure substances

Analyze the state of steam using the properties of pure substances
Calculate saturation temperature and pressure, specific enthalpy, specific volume,
dryness fraction.
Determine steam/water properties by referring to steam table (any condition
except supercritical)
Relate the ideal gas model to pure substances
Explain the gas constant, universal gas constant and general gas equation.
Describe the law of ideal gas.
Explain the specific heat at constant pressure and constant volume.
Describe the characteristic of gas equation (equation of state) constant pressure
process, constant volume process, isothermal process, polytrophic process and

INTRODUCTION
In thermodynamic systems, the working fluid can be in the liquid, steam or gaseous
phase. In this unit, the properties of liquid and steam are investigated in some details
as the state of a system can be described in terms of its properties. A substance that
has a fixed composition throughout is called a pure substance. Pure chemicals (H2O,
N2, O2, Ar, Ne, Xe) are always pure substances. We all know from experience that
substances exist in different phases. A phase of substance can be defined as that part of
a pure substance that consists of a single, homogenous aggregate of matter. The three
common phases for H2O that are usually used are solid, liquid and steam.
When studying phases or phase changes in thermodynamics, one does not need to be
concerned with the molecular structure and behavior of the different phases.
However, it is very helpful to have some understanding of the molecular phenomena
involved in each phase.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Molecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in steams. One reason is that
molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in steams they are separated
by great distances.
The three phases of pure substances are: Solid Phase
In the solid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore relatively dense; and
(b) arranged in a rigid three-dimensional pattern so that they do not easily deform. An
example of a pure solid state is ice.
Liquid Phase
In the liquid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a space;
but
(b) they are no longer rigidly structured so much so that they are free to move within a
fixed volume. An example is a pure liquid state.
Steam Phase
In the steam phase, the molecules;
(a) virtually do not attract each other. The distance between the molecules are not as
close as those in the solid and liquid phases;
(b) are not arranged in a fixed pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed
shape for steam.
The three phases described above are illustrated in Fig. 3.0 below. The following are
discovered:
(a)
the positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase;
(b)
chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase; and
(c)
the molecules move about at random in the steam phase.

(a)

(b)

(c)

## Figure 3.0 The arrangement of atoms in different phases

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3.1

## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Phase-Change Process
The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary manner)
by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. However liquid will
present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. Steam on the other
hand will always fill its container.
With this information, let us consider the following system:
A container is filled with water, and a moveable, frictionless piston is placed on the
container at State 1, as shown in Fig. 3.1. As heat is added to the system, the
temperature of the system will increase. Note that the pressure on the system is being
kept constant by the weight of the piston. The continued addition of heat will cause
the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam generated
exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to the weight of
the piston.

STATE 1

STATE 2

STATE 4

STATE 3

W
W
W
W

Liquid

Steam

Superheated
Steam

## Figure 3.1 Heating water and steam at constant pressure

At this point, the steam and liquid are said to be saturated. As more heat is added, the
liquid that was at saturation will start to vaporize until State 2. The two-phase mixture
of steam and liquid at State 2 has only one degree of freedom, and as long as liquid is
present, vaporization will continue at constant temperature. As long as liquid is
present, the mixture is said to be wet steam, and both the liquid and steam are
saturated. After all the liquid is vaporized, only steam is present at State 3, and the
further addition of heat will cause the temperature of steam to increase at constant
system pressure. This state is called the superheated state, and the steam is said to be
superheated steam as shown in State 4.

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3.2

## Saturated and Superheated Steam

While tables provide a convenient way of presenting precise numerical presentations
of data, figures provide us with a clearer understanding of trends and patterns.
Consider the following diagram in which the specific volume of H2O is presented as a
function of temperature and pressure1:
T, oC

300

Superheated
steam
2

100

Saturated
mixture

Compressed
liquid
20

1
v, m3/kg

Figure 3.2-1 T-v diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure
Imagine that we are to run an experiment. In this experiment, we start with a mass of
water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. At this temperature and pressure we
may measure the specific volume (1/ = 1/1000 kg/m3). We plot this state at point 1
on the diagram.
If we proceed to heat the water, the temperature will rise. In addition, water expands
slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly. We may plot
the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2. We speak of liquid in
one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid.
State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100 oC). We speak of State 2 as
being the saturated liquid state, which means that all of the water is in still liquid
form, but ready to boil. As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2, a fundamental
change occurs in the process. The temperature of the water no longer continues to
rise. Instead, as we continue to add energy, liquid progressively changes to steam
phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific volume. In this part of

## Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

the process, we speak of the water as being a saturated mixture (liquid + steam).
This is also known as the quality region.
At State 3, all liquid will have been vaporised. This is the saturated steam state.
As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3, the temperature of the steam again
rises as we add energy. States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated steam.
Summary of nomenclature:
Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2)
A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state, and below
the saturation state.
Saturated liquid (State 2)
All fluid is in the liquid state. However, even the slightest addition of energy would
result in the formation of some vapour.
Saturated Liquid-Steam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3)
Liquid and steam exist together in a mixture.
Saturated steam (State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state, but even the slightest loss of energy from the system
would result in the formation of some liquid.
Superheated steam (The right of State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. The superheated steam
temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the
pressure.
Saturation Pressure
The pressure at which the liquid and vapour phases are in equilibrium at a given
temperature.
Saturation Temperature
The temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases are in equilibrium at a given
pressure.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. We see that as
pressure increases, the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases.2
T, oC

P = 221.2 bar
Critical point

P = 150 bar
P = 80 bar

374.15

P = 10 bar
P = 5 bar
P = 1.01325 bar

Saturated
liquid

Saturated
steam
v, m3/kg

0.00317

## Figure 3.2-2 T-v diagram of constant pressure phase change processes

of a pure substance at various pressures for water.
It can be seen that as pressure increases, the specific volume increase in the liquid to
steam transition will decrease.
At a pressure of 221.2 bar, the specific volume change which is associated to a phase
increase will disappear. Both liquid and steam will have the same specific volume,
0.00317 m3/kg. This occurs at a temperature of 374.15 oC. This state represents an
important transition in fluids and is termed the critical point.

## Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

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## If we connect the locus of points corresponding to the saturation condition, we will

obtain a diagram which allows easy identification of the distinct regions3:
Saturated liquid line

Critical
point

P2 = const.

COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION

P2 > P1

P1 = const.
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION

Figure 3.2-3

## T-v diagram of a pure substance

The general shape of the P-v diagram of a pure substance is very much like the T-v
diagram, but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend, as shown
in Fig. 3.2-4.
Saturated liquid line

Critical
point
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION

T2 = const.
WET STEAM
REGION

T2 > T1

T1 = const.

3.3
3

## Figures from Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 3rd Ed by Cengel and Boles

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam, there exist a mixture of steam
plus liquid (wet steam region). To denote the state of a liquid-steam mixture, it is
necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam in
the mixture. This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x). Thus, in 1 kg of wet
mixture, there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 x) kg of saturated liquid.

x kg of steam
total mass = 1 kg
(1 - x ) kg of liquid

## Figure 3.3-1 Liquid-steam mixture

The steam dryness fraction (x) is defined as follows;
steam dryness fraction, ( x)

## mass of dry saturated steam

total mass

mg
masssaturated steam

mass total
m f mg

(3.1)

## where masstotal = massliquid + masssteam

The quality is zero for the saturated liquid and one for the saturated steam (0 x 1).
Consider a mixture of saturated liquid and saturated steam. The liquid has a mass mf
and occupies a volume Vf. The steam has a mass mg and occupies a volume Vg.
Sat. steam
Sat. liquid

x = 0.2

Sat. steam

At point A, x = 0
At point B, x = 1
Between point A and B, 0 x 1.0

Sat. liquid

x = 0.8

## Note that for a saturated liquid, x = 0;

and that for dry saturated steam, x = 1.

B
ts

vf

vg

Figure 3.3-2 P-v diagram showing the location point of the dryness fraction
3.3.1 Specific volume
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

For a wet steam, the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of
liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present.
Therefore, the specific volume is given by,
v

## volume of a liquid volume of dry steam

total mass of wet steam

Now for 1 kg of wet steam, there are (1 x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry steam,
where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. Hence,
v = vf(1 x) + vgx
The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the volume
of dry saturated steam. Hence, for most practical problems,
v = xvg

(3.2)

Where,
vf = specific volume of saturated liquid (m3/kg)
vg = specific volume of saturated steam (m3/kg)
x = dryness fraction
3.3.2

Specific enthalpy
In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation
and refrigeration, we frequently encounter the combination of properties
U + PV. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, this combination is
defined as a new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol H.
H = U + PV (kJ)
or, per unit mass
h = u + Pv

(kJ/kg)

(3.3)

The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid
plus the enthalpy of the dry steam,
i.e.

h = hf(1 x) + xhg
h = hf + x(hg hf )
h = hf + xhfg

(3.4)

Where,
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## hf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)

hg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
hfg = difference between hg and hf (that is, hfg = hg - hf )
3.3.3

## Specific Internal Energy

Similarly, the specific internal energy of a wet steam is given by the internal
energy of the liquid plus the internal energy of the dry steam,
i.e.
u = uf(1 x) + xug

u = uf + x(ug uf )
(3.5)
Where,
uf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
ug = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
ug uf = difference between ug and uf
Equation 3.5 can be expressed in a form similar to equation 3.4. However,
equation 3.5 is more convenient since ug and uf are tabulated. The difference is
that, ufg is not tabulated.

3.3.4

Specific Entropy
A person looking at the steam tables carefully will notice two new properties
i.e. enthalpy h and entropy s. Entropy is a property associated with the Second
Law of Thermodynamics, and actually, we will properly define it later.
However, it is appropriate to introduce entropy at this point.
The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid plus
the entropy of the dry steam,
i.e.
s = sf(1 x) + xsg
s = sf + x(sg sf )

s = sf + xsfg
(3.6)
Where,

P
bar

v = xvg
sf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid
h = (kJ/kg
hf + xhfgK)
sg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam
u = u(kJ/kg
+ x(uK)
u)
f
g f
sfg = difference between sg and sf (that
is,
s
fg = sg - sf )
s = sf + xsfg

ts

uf
hf

v vg
u u
h g
h
s g

v m3/kg
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Figure 3.3-3 P-v diagram showing the location point v, u, h, s at wet steam.
3.4

## The Use of Steam Tables

The steam tables are available for a wide variety of substances which normally exist in
the vapour phase (e.g. steam, ammonia, freon, etc.). The steam tables which will be
used in this unit are those arranged by Mayhew and Rogers, which are suitable for
student use. The steam tables of Mayhew and Rogers are mainly concerned with
steam, but some properties of ammonia and freon-12 are also given.
Below is a list of the properties normally tabulated, with the symbols used being those
recommended by British Standard Specifications.
Table 3.4 The property of steam tables
Symbols

Units

bar

ts

vf

m3/kg
3

Description

vg

m /kg

uf

kJ/kg

ug

kJ/kg

hf

kJ/kg

hg

kJ/kg

hfg

kJ/kg

sf

kJ/kg K

sg

kJ/kg K

sfg

kJ/kg K

## Change of specific entropy during evaporation

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## These steam tables are divided into two types:

Type 1: Saturated Water and Steam (Page 2 to 5 of steam tables)
Type 2: Superheated Steam (Page 6 to 8 of steam tables)

3.4.1

## Saturated Water and Steam Tables

The table of the saturation condition is divided into two parts.
Part 1
Part 1 refers to the values of temperature from 0.01oC to 100oC, followed by
values that are suitable for the temperatures stated in the table. Table 3.4.1-1 is
an example showing an extract from the temperature of 10oC.
Table 3.4.1-1

## Saturated water and steam at a temperature of 10 oC

ps

hf

kPa

m3/kg

10

1.2281

106.32

vg

hfg

hg

sf

sfg

kJ/kg
42.022

2477.2

sg

kJ/kg K
2519.2

0.1511

8.7488

8.8999

sfg

sg

Example 3.1
Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam:
t
o

Ps

vg

kPa

m3/kg

0.01
100

hf

hfg

hg

sf

kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

206.1
2.3392
101.42

8.6661

## Solution to Example 3.1

t pageP2s of the vsteam
hf
g
From
tables,
wehfgcan directly
o
3

sfg

sg

kPa

m /kg

0.01

0.6117

206.1

0.001

2500.9

2500.9

0.000

9.155

9.1556

20

2.3392

57.76

83.91

2453.5

2537.5

0.2965

8.369

8.666

100

101.42

1.672

419.1

2256.4

2675.6

1.3072 6.047
7.354
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kJ/kg K

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Part 2
Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.006112 bar to
221.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the
table. Table 3.4.1-2 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of 1.0
bar.
Table 3.4.1-2 Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 100 kPa
p

ts
o

kpa
100

vg

uf

m3/kg

99.61

ug

hf

hfg

kJ/kg

1.694

417

hg

sf

sfg

kJ/kg

2506

417

sg

kJ/kg K

2258 2675

1.303

6.056

7.359

## Note the following subscripts:

f = property of the saturated liquid
g = property of the saturated steam
fg = change of the properties during evaporations
Example 3.2
Complete the missing properties in the following table for Saturated Water
and Steam:
p

ts

vg

kPa

m3/kg

5.0

uf

ug

hf

kJ/kg

hfg

sf

sfg

kJ/kg

32.87

1000

hg

sg

kJ/kg K
2560

0.1944
311.0

5.615

## Solution to Example 3.2

From page 3 to page 5 of the steam tables, we can directly read:
p

ts

uf

ug

hf

hfg

hg

sf

sfg

sg

m3/kg

kJ/kg

31.0

31.14

130 2418

130

2428 2558

0.451

7.980

8.431

1000

179.9

0.1944

762 2584

763

2015 2778

2.138

4.448

6.586

10000

## 311.0 0.01802 1393 2545 1408 1317 2725

kPa

vg

kJ/kg

kJ/kg K

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2.255 5.615

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Example 3.3
For a steam at 2000 kPa with a dryness fraction of 0.9, calculate the
a)
specific volume
b)
specific enthalpy
c)
specific internal energy

## Solution to Example 3.3

An extract from the steam tables
p

ts

vg

uf

ug

hf

hfg

hg

sf

sfg

sg

20000 212.4 0.09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2.447 3.893 6.340

a)

b)

c)

## Specific volume (v),

v = xvg
= 0.9(0.09957)
= 0.0896 m3/kg
Specific enthalpy (h),
h = hf + xhfg
= 909 + 0.9(1890)
= 2610 kJ/kg

P
bar

x = 0.9

20

## Specific internal energy (u),

u = uf + x( ug -uf )
= 907 + 0.9(2600 - 907)
= 2430.7 kJ/kg

ts = 212.4 oC

uf
hf
sf

v m3/kg

v vg
u u
h g
h
s g
sg

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Example 3.4
Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific enthalpy of
steam at 800 kPa and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg.

## Solution to Example 3.4

An extract from the steam tables,
p

ts

800

170.4

vg

uf

ug

hf

hfg

hg

sf

sfg

sg

## 0.2403 720 2577 721 2048 2769 2.046 4.617 6.663

At 800 kPa, ug = 2577 kJ/kg, since the actual specific internal energy is given
as 2450 kJ/kg, the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < ug).
From equation 8.5,
u = uf + x(ug -uf)
2450 = 720 + x(2577 - 720)

x = 0.932
From equation 8.2,
v = xvg
= 0.932 (0.2403)
= 0.2240 m3/kg
From equation 8.4,
h = hf + xhfg
= 721 + 0.932 (2048)
= 2629.7 kJ/kg
P
bar

x = 0.932

8
ts = 170.4 oC
v vg

v m3/kg

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3.4.2

## Superheated Steam Tables

The second part of the table is the superheated steam tables. The values of the specific
properties of a superheated steam are normally listed in separate tables for the selected
values of pressure and temperature.
A steam is called superheated when its temperature is greater than the saturation
temperature corresponding to the pressure. When the pressure and temperature are
given for the superheated steam then the state is defined and all the other properties
can be found. For example, steam at 10 bar and 200 oC is superheated since the
saturation temperature at 10 bar is 179.9 oC. The steam at this state has a degree of
superheat of 200 oC 179.9 oC = 20.1 oC. The equation of degree of superheat is:
Degree of superheat = tsuperheat tsaturation

(3.7)

The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from 0.006112 bar to
the critical pressure of 221.2 bar. At each pressure, there is a range of temperature up
to high degrees of superheat, and the values of specific volume, internal energy,
enthalpy and entropy are tabulated.
For the pressure above 70 bar, the specific internal energy is not tabulated. The
specific internal energy is calculated using the equation:
u = h pv

(3.8)

For reference, the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each pressure in
the superheat tables and values of vg, ug, hg and sg are also given.
A specimen row of values is shown in Table 3.4.2. For example, from the superheated
table at 10 bar and 200 oC, the specific volume is 0.2061 m3/kg and the specific
enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg.
Table 3.4.2
p
(ts)

## Superheated steam at a pressure of 10 bar

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

600

vg 0.1944
v 0.2061 0.2328 0.2580 0.2825 0.3065 0.3303 0.3540 0.4010
1000 u 2584
u
2711
2794
2875
2957
3124
3297
g
Complete the missing 2623
properties
in the
following
table
for3040
Superheated
(179.9)
hg 2778
h
2829
2944
3052
3158
3264
3370
3478
3698

Steam:

sg 6.586

p
(ts)

vg
Example 3.5
4000 ug
(250.3) hg
sg

6.695

0.0498
2602
2801
6.070

6.926

7.124

300

v
u
h
s

7.301

7.464

350

7.617

400

7.761

8.028

450
0.0800

2921
3094
6.364

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## Solution to Example 3.5

From page 7 of the steam tables, we can directly read
p
t
300
350
(ts)
vg 0.0498 v 0.0588 0.0664
u 2728 2828
4000 ug 2602
h 2963 3094
(250.3) hg 2801
sg 6.070
s 6.364 6.584

400

450

0.0733 0.0800
2921
3010
3214
3330
6.769 6.935

Example 3.6
Steam at 10000 kPa has a specific volume of 0.02812 m 3/kg. Find the
temperature, degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific
internal energy.

## Solution to Example 3.6

First, it is necessary to decide whether the steam is wet, dry saturated or
superheated.
At 10000 kPa, vg = 0.01802 m3/kg. This is less than the actual specific volume
of 0.02812 m3P/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated. The state of the steam is at
point A in the bar
diagram below.

100

425 oC
ts = 311.0 oC

vg= 0.01802
v = 0.02812

v m3/kg
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## An extract from the superheated table,

p
t
(ts)
vg 0.01802
v x 10-2
10000 hg 2725
h
(311.0) sg 5.615
s

425
2.812
3172
6.321

From the superheated table at 100 bar, the specific volume is 0.02812 m 3/kg at
a temperature of 425 oC. Hence, this is the isothermal line, which passes
through point A as shown in the P-v diagram above.
Degree of superheat = 425 oC 311 oC
= 114 oC
So, at 10000 kPa and 425 oC, we have
v = 2.812 x 10-2 m3/kg
h = 3172 kJ/kg
From equation 3.8,
u = h Pv
= 3172 kJ/kg (100 x 102 kN/m2)(2.812 x 10-2 m3/kg)
= 2890.8 kJ/kg

Note that equation 3.8 must be used to find the specific internal energy for
pressure above 70 bar as the specific internal energy is not tabulated in steam
tables.

8.5

Interpolation
The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of reading
between the lines of a published table, like the Steam Tables. For properties which
are not tabulated exactly in the tables, it is necessary to interpolate between the values
tabulated as shown in Fig. 3.5-1 below. In this process it is customary to use a straight
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

line that passes through two adjacent table points, denoted by and . If we use the
straight line then it is called interpolation.
f(x)

Interpolation

## Figure 3.5-1 Interpolation

The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and pressure.
Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at intermediate values.
It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig. 3.5-2.
y
y2
y
y1

## From Fig. 3.5.2, the value of x

can be determined by:
x x1 x 2 x1

y y1 y 2 y1

(x2 , y2)
(x , y)
(x1 , y1)

x1

x2

y y1 x2 x1
x1
y 2 y1

## There are two methods of interpolation:

i.
single interpolation
ii.
double interpolation

3.5.1

Single interpolation
Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the
values is not tabulated. For example, to find the saturation temperature,
specific volume, internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77 bar,
it is necessary to interpolate between the values given in the table.
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Example 3.6
Determine the saturation temperature at 7700 kPa.
Solution to Example 3.6
The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 7700 kPa are not
tabulated in the Steam Tables. So, we need to interpolate between the two
nearest values that are tabulated in the Steam Tables.
t s 290.5 295 290.5

77 75
80 75

P
80

## t s 290.5 295 290.5

2
5

77
75

ts
290.5

ts

295

ts

2 4.5
290.5
5

ts = 292.3 oC

Example 3.7
Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 10300 kPa.
Solution to Example 3.7
hg 2725

103 100

2715 2725
105 100

105
103

hg

100

2725

hg

2715

hg

3 10
2725
5

hg 2719 kJ/kg

Example 3.8
Determine the specific volume of steam at 800 kPa and 220oC.
Solution to Example 3.8
From the Steam Tables at 800 kPa, the saturated temperature (ts) is 170.4 oC.
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## The steam is at superheated condition as the temperature of the steam is

220oC > ts.
An extract from the Steam Tables,
p / (kPa)
t
200
o
o
(ts / C)
( C)
800
v
0.2610
(170.4)

220

250

0.2933

## v 0.2610 0.2933 0.2610

220 200
250 200

250
220

v 0.27392 m3/kg

200

0.2610 v

0.2933

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3.5.2

## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Double Interpolation
In some cases a double interpolation is necessary, and its usually used in the
Superheated Steam Table. Double interpolation must be used when two of the
properties (eg. temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam Tables.
For example, to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320 oC, an
interpolation between 2000 kPa and 3000 kPa is necessary (as shown in
example 8.9). An interpolation between 300oC and 350oC is also necessary.

Example 3.8
Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 2500 kpa and
320oC.

## Solution to Example 3.8

An extract from the Superheated Steam Tables:
t(oC)
p(kpa)
2000

300

320

350

3025

h1

3138

2500

3000

2995

h2

3117

Firstly, find the specific enthalpy (h1) at 20 bar and 320 oC;
At 20 bar,
T

## h1 3025 3138 3025

320 300
350 300

350
320

h1 3070.2 kJ/kg

300

3025

h1

3138

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Secondly, find the specific enthalpy (h2) at 3000 kPa and 320 oC;
At 30 bar,
h2 2995 3117 2995

320 300
350 300

T
350

h2 3043.8 kJ/kg

320
300

2995

h2

3117

## Now interpolate between h1 at 20 bar, 320oC, and h2 at 30 bar, 320oC in order

to find h at 25 bar and 320oC.
At 320oC,

h h1
h h1
2
25 20 30 20

P
30

## h 3070.2 3043.8 3070.2

25 20
30 20

25
20

h 3057 kJ/kg.
h1

h2

Example 3.9
0.9 m3 of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m2 is contained in a rigid
cylinder. If it is cooled at constant volume process until the pressure
drops to180 kN/m2, determine the following:
a)
mass of steam in the cylinder
b)
dryness fraction at the final state
Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.

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## Solution to Example 3.9

Data: V1 = 0.9 m3 , P1 = 225 kN/m2 = 2.25 bar, P2 = 180 kN/m2 = 180 kpa
a)

Firstly, find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2.25 bar.
Note that the pressure 2.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and it
is necessary to use the interpolation method.
From the Steam Tables,
vg at 22 0 kPa= 0.8100 m3/kg
vg at 230 kPa = 0.7770 m3/kg
vg1 at 225 kPa,
v g1 0.8100 0.7770 0.8100

2.25 2.20
2.30 2.20
vg1 0.7935 m3/kg
Mass of steam in cylinder, m

V1
vg1

(m3 x kg/m3)

0.9
0.7935

= 1.134 kg
b)

P
bar

2.25
1.80

## At constant volume process,

Initial specific volume = final specific volume
v1 = v2
x1vg1 at 225 kPa = x2vg2 at 180 kPa
1(0.7935) = x2 (0.9774)
1(0.7935)
x2
0.9774
= 0.81

v1 = v2

0.7935 0.9774

v m3/kg

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Activity 3
3.1

Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure substances. Fill in
the phase column in the table with the correct answer.
Statement

Phase

## The molecules are closely bound, they are also relatively

dense and unable to expand to fill a space. However they are
no longer rigidly structured so that they are free to move
within a fixed volume.
The molecules are closely bound, they are relatively dense
and arranged in a rigid three-dimensional patterns so that they
do not easily deform.
The molecules virtually do not attract each other. The
distance between the molecules are not as close as those in the
solid and liquid phases. They are not arranged in a fixed
pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape for
steam.
3.2

i._____________

ii.____________

iii.____________

Write the suitable names of the phases for the H2O in the P-v diagram below.
( ii )
P
( iv )
( vi )
(v)

(i)
T2 = const.
( iii)

T2 > T1

T1 = const.

3.3

The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. If the pressure is 42 bar, what is the
value of dryness fraction?

3.4

Determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet
steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0.92.
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

3.5

Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at 105
bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.

3.6

Steam at 120 bar is at 500 oC. Find the degree of superheat, specific volume, specific
enthalpy and specific internal energy.

3.7

Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Find the temperature, degree
of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.

3.8

## Determine the specific enthalpy of steam at 15 bar and 275oC.

3.9

Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380oC.

3.10

## A superheated steam at 12.5 MN/m2 is at 650oC. Determine its specific volume.

3.11

A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500oC expands at constant volume until the
pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0.9. Calculate the changes in the
internal energy of steam. Sketch the process in the form of a P-v diagram.

Feedback To Activity 3
3.1

i)
ii)
iii)

Liquid Phase
Solid Phase
Steam Phase

3.2

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

## Compress liquid region

Saturated liquid line
Wet steam region
Dry saturated steam line
Superheated steam region
Critical point

3.3

## Dryness fraction (x),

u = uf + x(ug -uf)
2000 = 1097 + x(2601 - 1097)
x = 0.6
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3.4

## Specific volume (v),

v = xvg
= 0.92(0.06246)
= 0.05746 m3/kg
Specific enthalpy (h),
h = hf + xhfg
= 1025 + 0.92(1778)
= 2661 kJ/kg
Specific internal energy (u),
u = uf + x( ug -uf )
= 1021 + 0.92(2603 - 1021)
= 2476 kJ/kg

3.5

## Dryness fraction (x),

h = hf + x hfg
2100 = 1429 + x(1286)
x = 0.52
Specific volume (v),
v = xvg
= 0.52(0.01696)
= 0.00882 m3/kg

3.6

## Specific internal energy (u),

u = uf + x( ug -uf )
= 1414 + 0.52(2537 1414)
= 1998 kJ/kg
From the superheated table at 120 bar, the saturation temperature is 324.6 oC.
Therefore, the steam is superheated.
Degree of superheat = 500 oC 324.6 oC
= 175.4 oC
So, at 120 bar and 500 oC, we have
v = 2.677 x 10-2 m3/kg
h = 3348 kJ/kg
From equation 8.6,
u = h Pv
= 3348 kJ/kg (120 x 102 kN/m2)(2.677 x 10-2 m3/kg)
= 3026.76 kJ/kg

3.7

At 160 bar, hg = 2582 kJ/kg. This is less than the actual specific enthalpy of
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## 3139 kJ/kg. Hence, the steam is superheated.

From the superheated table at 160 bar, the specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg is located at
a temperature of 450 oC.
The degree of superheat = 450 oC 347.3 oC
= 102.7 oC
At 160 bar and 450 oC, we have v = 1.702 x 10-2 m3/kg
From equation 8.6,
u = h Pv
= 3139 kJ/kg (160 x 102 kN/m2)(1.702 x 10-2 m3/kg)
= 2866.68 kJ/kg

3.8

h 2925
3039 2925

275 250
300 250

300
275

h 2982 kJ/kg

250

2925

3.9

3039

= 200.1oC
T

380 350
400 350

400
380
350

s 7.3988 kJ/kg K
7.301

3.10

7.464

## An extract from the superheated steam table:

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

t(oC)
p(bar)
120

600

650

3.159 x 10-2

v1

125

700
3.605 x 10-2

v
2.901 x 10-2

130

v2

3.318 x 10-2

Firstly, find the specific volume (v1) at 120 bar and 650 oC;
At 120 bar,
T

700

## v1 3.159 x 10 2 3.605 x 10 2 3.159 x 10 2

650

650 600
700 600
600

3.159 x 10-2

v1

3.605 x 10-2

v1 3.382 x 10 2 m3/kg

Secondly, find the specific volume (v2) at 130 bar and 650 oC;
At 130 bar,
T
700
650

650 600
700 600

600

## v2 = 3.1095 x 10-2 m3/kg

2.901 x 10-2

v2

3.318 x 10-2

Now interpolate between v1 at 120 bar, 650oC, and v2 at 130 bar, 650oC in order
to find v at 125 bar and 650oC.
At 650oC,

v v1
v v1
2
125 120 130 120

P
130
125

v 3.382 x 10 2
3.1095 x 10 2 3.382 x 10 2

130 120

v1

v2

## v = 3.246 x 10-2 m3/kg

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3.11

## Data: P1 = 24 bar, T1 = 500oC

P2 = 6 bar, x2 = 0.9
Firstly, find the initial internal energy at 24 bar, 500 oC. Note that the pressure
24 bar is not tabulated in the Superheated Steam Tables and it is necessary to
use the interpolation method to find the changes in the internal energy of
steam.
At 500oC,
P

24 20
30 20

30
24
20

u1 3112 .8 kJ/kg
3116

u1

3108

## Secondly, find the final internal energy at 6 bar where x = 0.9,

u2 = uf2 + x2( ug2 -uf2 )
= 669 + 0.9(2568 - 669)
= 2378.1 kJ/kg

## The changes in the internal energy of steam is,

(u2 u1) = 2378.1 3112.8
= - 734.7 kJ/kg
P
bar
500oC
o

24

221.8 C

v1 = v2
1

158.8oC

2
v1 = v2

500oC
221.8oC
158.8oC

v m3/kg

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SELF-ASSESSMENT

1.

## With reference to the Steam Tables,

i.
determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal
energy of wet steam at 15 bar with a dryness fraction of 0.9.
ii.
determine the degree of superheat, specific volume and specific internal
energy of steam at 80 bar and enthalpy 2990 kJ/kg.
iii.
complete the missing properties and a phase description in the
following table for water;
P
bar
2.0
12.0
175
200

2.

3.

t
C
120.2

354.6
425

v
m /kg
3

1
0.9

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kg K
6.4

Phase
description

2784

## With reference to the Steam Tables,

i.
find the dryness fraction and specific entropy of steam at 2.9 bar and
specific enthalpy 2020 kJ/kg.
ii.

## determine the degree of superheat and internal energy of superheated

steam at 33 bar and 313oC.

iii.

## determine the enthalpy change for a process involving a dry saturated

steam at 3.0 MN/m2 which is superheated to 600 oC and carried out at
constant pressure.

Steam at 7 bar and dryness fraction 0.9 expands in a cylinder behind a piston
isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 1.5 bar. Calculate the change of
internal energy and the change of enthalpy per kg of steam.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Feedback to Self-Assessment

1.

i.

v = 0.11853 m3/kg
h = 2600 kJ/kg
u = 2419.8 kJ/kg

ii.

degree of superheat = 55 oC
v = 2.994 x 10-2 m3/kg
u = 2750.48 kJ/kg

iii.

2.

3.

3.6

P
bar
2.0
12.0

t
C
120.2
188

175

354.6

200

425

x
0.87
1

v
m3/kg
0.7705
0.1632

u
kJ/kg
2267
2588

h
kJ/kg
2421
2784

s
kJ/kg K
6.4
6.523

0.9
-

0.007146
0.001147

2319.8
2725.6

2448.1
2955

5.0135
5.753

i.

x = 0.68
s = 5.2939 kJ/kg K

ii.

## Degree of superheat = 73.85oC

u = 2769 kJ/kg

iii.

h2 h1 = 879 kJ/kg

Phase
description
Wet steam
Dry sat.
steam
Wet steam
Superheated
steam

u2 u1 = 218 kJ/kg
h2 h1 = 246 kJ/kg

## Definition Of Perfect Gases

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Did you know, one important type of fluid that has many applications in
thermodynamics is the type in which the working temperature of the fluid remains
well above the critical temperature of the fluid? In this case, the fluid cannot be
liquefied by an isothermal compression, i.e. if it is required to condense the fluid, then
cooling of the fluid must first be carried out. In the simple treatment of such fluids,
their behaviours is likened to that a perfect gas. Although, strictly speaking, a perfect
gas is an ideal which can never be realized in practice. The behaviour of many
permanent gases, e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, air etc is very similar to the behaviour of a
perfect gas to a first approximation.
A perfect gas is a collection of particles that:

## have no intermolecular attractions (which leads to elastic collisions in which

no energy is exchanged or lost),

## are considered to be volume-less points.

You are more familiar with the term ideal gas. There is actually a distinction between
these two terms but for our purposes, you may consider them interchangeable. The
principle properties used to define the state of a gaseous system are pressure (P),
volume (V) and temperature (T). SI units (Systems International) for these properties
are Pascal (Pa) for pressure, m3 for volume (although litres and cm3 are often
substituted), and the absolute scale of temperature or Kelvin (K).
Two of the laws describing the behaviours of a perfect gas are Boyles Law and
Charles Law.
3.7

Boyles Law
The Boyles Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the temperature T of a perfect gas remains constant, then volume, V of a
given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure P of the gas, i.e. P 1/V
(as shown in Fig. 3.1-1), or P x V = constant if temperature remains constant.
P
P 1/V

1/V
Figure 3.1-1 Graph P 1/V
If a gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during an isothermal process, then
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

P1 V1 = P2 V2 = constant

(3.1)

If the process is represented on a graph having axes of pressure P and volume V, the
results will be as shown in Fig. 3.1-2. The curve is known as a rectangular hyperbola,
having the mathematical equation xy = constant.
P
P1

P2

2
3

P3
V1 V2

V3

V
PV = constant

## Figure 3.1-2 P-V graph for constant temperature

Example 3.1
A quantity of a certain perfect gas is heated at a constant temperature from an
initial state of 0.22 m3 and 325 kN/m2 to a final state of 170 kN/m2. Calculate
the final pressure of the gas.

## Solution to Example 3.1

From equation P1V1 = P2V2
V2 V1 x

3.8

P1
0.22 m 3
P2

325 kN/m 2
2
170 kN/m

0.421 m 3

Charles Law
The Charless Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the pressure P of a given mass of gas remains constant, then the volume V
of the gas will be directly proportional to the absolute temperature T of the gas, i.e.
V T, or V = constant x T. Therefore V/T = constant, for constant pressure P.
If gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during a constant pressure process, then
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V1 V2

constant
T1 T2

(3.2)

in Fig. 3.2.
P

V1

V2

## Figure 3.2 P-V graph for constant pressure process

Example 3.2
A quantity of gas at 0.54 m3 and 345 oC undergoes a constant pressure process
that causes the volume of the gas to decreases to 0.32 m 3. Calculate the
temperature of the gas at the end of the process.

## Solution to Example 3.2

From the question
V1 = 0.54 m3
T1 = 345 + 273 K = 618 K
V2 = 0.32 m3
V1
V
2
T1
T2
T2 T1 x

V2
V1
0.32 m 3
3
0.54 m

618 K

366 K

3.9

## Universal Gases Law

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Charles Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with temperature when the
pressure remains constant. Boyles Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with
pressure if the temperature remains constant.
The relation which gives the volume of a gas when both temperature and the pressure
are changed is stated as equation 3.3 below.
PV
constant R
T

(3.3)

i.e.

P1V1
PV
(3.4)
2 2
T1
T2
No gases in practice obey this law rigidly, but many gases tend towards it. An
PV
R
imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called a perfect gas, and the equation
T
is called the characteristic equation of state of a perfect gas.

The constant, R, is called the gas constant. The unit of R is Nm/kg K or J/kg K. Each
perfect gas has a different gas constant.
The characteristic equation is usually written
PV = RT

(3.5)

## or for m kg, occupying V m3,

PV = mRT

(3.6)

Another form of the characteristic equation can be derived using the kilogram-mole as
a unit. The kilogram-mole is defined as a quantity of a gas equivalent to m kg of the
gas, where M is the molecular weight of the gas (e.g. since the molecular weight of
oxygen is 32, then 1 kg mole of oxygen is equivalent to 32 kg of oxygen).
From the definition of the kilogram-mole, for m kg of a gas we have,
m = nM

(3.7)

## (where n is the number of moles).

Note: Since the standard of mass is the kg, kilogram-mole will be written simply as
mole.

## Substituting for m from equation 3.7 in equation 3.6,

MR

PV
nT

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

PV = nMRT or

(3.8)

Now Avogadros hypothesis states that the volume of 1 mole of any gas is the same as
the volume of 1 mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the same temperature and
pressure. Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the same value of P and T. That is
the quantity PV/nT is constant for all gases. This constant is called the universal gas
constant, and is given the symbol Ro.
i.e.

MR Ro

PV
or PV nRo T
nT

(3.9)

or since MR = Ro then,

Ro
M

(3.10)

Experiment has shown that the volume of 1 mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1 oC
is approximately 22.71 m3. Therefore from equation 3.8
R0

PV 1 x 10 5 x 22.71

8314.4 J/mole K
nT
1 x 273.15

From equation 3.10 the gas constant for any gas can be found when the molecular
weight is known, e.g. for oxygen of molecular weight 32, the gas constant is
R

Ro 8314.4

259.8 J/kg K
M
32

Example 3.3
0.046 m3 of gas are contained in a sealed cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m2
and a temperature of 45 oC. The gas is compressed until the pressure reaches
1.27 MN/m2 and the temperature is 83oC. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect
gas, determine:
a)
b)

## the mass of gas (kg)

the final volume of gas (m3)

Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K

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## Solution to Example 3.3

From the question
V1 = 0.046 m3
P1 = 300 kN/m2
T1 = 45 + 273 K = 318 K
P2 = 1.27 MN/m2 = 1.27 x 103 kN/m2
T2 = 83 + 273 K = 356 K
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
From equation 3.6
PV = mRT
m

0.1496 kg
RT1
0.29 x 318

P1
P
2
T1 T2
P2
P1

T2 T1

3.10

1.27 x 10 3
300

318

1346 K

## Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Volume (Cv)

The specific heat capacities of any substance is defined as the amount of heat energy
required to raise the unit mass through one degree temperature raise.
In
thermodynamics, two specified conditions are used, those of constant volume and
constant pressure. The two specific heat capacities do not have the same value and it
is essential to distinguish them.
If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the
temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the volume of the gas remains constant, then
the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at constant
volume, and is denoted by Cv. The unit of Cv is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.
For a reversible non-flow process at constant volume, we have
dQ = mCvdT

(3.11)

For a perfect gas the values of Cv are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equations (3.11) can then be expanded as follows :
Heat flow in a constant volume process, Q12 = mCv(T2 T1)

(3.12)

## Also, from the non-flow energy equation

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Q W = (U2 U1)
mcv(T2 T1) 0 = (U2 U1)
(U2 U1) = mCv(T2 T1)
i.e.

(3.13)

dU = Q

Note:
In a reversible constant volume process, no work energy transfer can take place
since the piston will be unable to move i.e. W = 0.
The reversible constant volume process is shown on a P-V diagram in Fig. 3.4.
P
P2

P1

1
V1 = V2

## Figure 3.4 P-V diagram for reversible constant volume process

Example 3.4
3.4 kg of gas is heated at a constant volume of 0.92 m 3 and temperature 17 oC
until the temperature rose to 147 oC. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas,
determine:
c)
d)
e)

## the heat flow during the process

the beginning pressure of gas
the final pressure of gas

Given
Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K

## Solution to Example 3.4

From the question
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

m = 3.4 kg
V1 = V2 = 0.92 m3
T1 = 17 + 273 K = 290 K
T2 = 147 + 273 K = 420 K
Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
a)

## From equation 3.13,

Q12 = mCv(T2 T1)
= 3.4 x 0.72(420 290)
= 318.24 kJ

b)

## From equation 3.6,

PV = mRT
Hence for state 1,
P1V1 = mRT1
mRT1 3.4 kg x 0.287 kJ/kgK x 290 K
P1

307.6 kN/m 2
V1
0.92 m 3

c)

3.11

For state 2,
P2V2 = mRT2
mRT2 3.4 kg x 0.287 kJ/kgK x 420 K
P2

445.5 kN/m 2
3
V2
0.92 m

## Specific Heat Capacity at Constant Pressure (Cp)

If 1 kg of a gas is supplied with an amount of heat energy sufficient to raise the
temperature of the gas by 1 degree whilst the pressure of the gas remains constant,
then the amount of heat energy supplied is known as the specific heat capacity at
constant pressure, and is denoted by Cp. The unit of Cp is J/kg K or kJ/kg K.
For a reversible non-flow process at constant pressure, we have
dQ = mCpdT

(3.14)

For a perfect gas the values of Cp are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equation (3.14) can then be expanded as follows:
Heat flow in a reversible constant pressure process Q = mCp(T2 T1)

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3.12

## Relationship Between The Specific Heats

Let a perfect gas be heated at constant pressure from T1 to T2. With reference to the
non-flow equation Q = U2 U1 + W, and the equation for a perfect gas
U2 U1 = mCv(T2 T1), hence,
Q = mCv(T2 T1) + W
In a constant pressure process, the work done by the fluid is given by the pressure
times the change in volume, i.e. W = P(V2 V1). Then using equation PV = mRT, we
have
W = mR(T2 T1)
Therefore substituting,
Q = mCv(T2 T1) + mR(T2 T1) = m(Cv + R)(T2 T1)
But for a constant pressure process from equation 3.15,
Q = mCp(T2 T1)
Hence, by equating the two expressions for the heat flow Q, we have
mCp(T2 T1) = m(Cv + R)(T2 T1)
Cp = Cv + R
Alternatively, it is usually written as
R = C p - Cv

3.13

3.16

## Specific Heat Ratio ()

The ratio of the specific heat at constant pressure to the specific heat at constant
volume is given the symbol (gamma),
i.e.

Cp

(3.17)

Cv

Note that since Cp - Cv= R, from equation 3.16, it is clear that Cp must be greater than
Cv for any perfect gas. It follows therefore that the ratio Cp/Cv = , is always greater
than unity. In general, is about 1.4 for diatomic gases such as carbon monoxide
(CO), hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2). For monatomic gases such as
argon (A), and helium (He), is about 1.6, and for triatomic gases such as carbon
dioxide (CO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), is about 1.3. For some hydro-carbons the
value of is quite low (e.g. for ethane (C2H6), = 1.22, and for iso-butane (C4H10),
= 1.11.
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## Some useful relationships between Cp , Cv , R, and can be derived.

From equation 3.17
Cp - Cv= R
Dividing through by Cv
Cp
Cv

R
Cv

1

Cv

Cp
Cv

, then,

R
Cv

R
( 1)

3.18

## Also from equation 3.17, Cp = Cv hence substituting in equation 3.18,

Cp = Cv =
Cp =

R
( 1)

R
( 1)

3.19

Example 3.5
A certain perfect gas has specific heat as follows
Cp = 0.846 kJ/kg K and Cv = 0.657 kJ/kg K
Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of the gas.

## Solution to Example 3.5

From equation 3.16
R = C p - Cv
i.e.
R = 0.846 0.657 = 0.189 kJ/kg K
or
R = 189 Nm/kg K
From equation 3.10
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i.e.

3.14

M=

R0
R

M=

8314
44
189

## Characteristic of Gas Equation

Once a fluid has entered a system, it may be possible for it to undergo a series of
processes in which the fluid does not flow. An example of this is the cylinder of an
internal combustion engine. In the suction stroke, the working fluid flows into the
cylinder in which it is then temporarily sealed. Whilst the cylinder is sealed, the fluid
is compressed by the piston moving into the cylinder, after which heat energy is
supplied so that the fluid possesses sufficient energy to force the piston back down the
cylinder, causing the engine to do external work. The exhaust valve is then opened and
the fluid is made to flow out of the cylinder into the surroundings. Processes which are
undergone by a system when the working fluid cannot cross the boundary are called
non-flow process.
The equation for non-flow process is given as follows:
U1 + Q = U 2 + W
or,
U2 U1 = Q W
This process occurs during the compression and the working stroke as mentioned in
the above example (refer to Fig. 3.8).

SUCTION
STROKE

COMPRESSION
STROKE

WORKING
STROKE

EXHAUST
STROKE

## 3.15.1 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process (pV = C)

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

If the change in temperature during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as an isothermal process. For example, the slow expansion or
compression of fluid in a cylinder, which is perfectly cooled by water may be
analysed, assuming that the temperature remains constant.
P

W
v

v1

v2

## Figure 3.8.1 Constant temperature (Isothermal) process

The general relation properties between the initial and final states of a perfect gas are
applied as follows:
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
If the temperature remains constant during the process, T1 = T2 and the above relation
becomes
p1V1 p 2V2

From the equation we can know that an increase in the volume results in a decrease in
the pressure. In other words, in an isothermal process, the pressure is inversely
proportional to the volume.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p V diagram in Fig.3.8.1 it is noted that
the volume increases during the process. In other words the fluid is expanding. The
expansion work is given by
2

pdV

1
2

c
dV
V
1

= c
1

(since pV = C, a constant)

dV
V
2

= p1V1
1

dV
V
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= p1V1 ln

V2
V1

V2
V1
p1
= mRT1 ln
p2

= mRT1 ln

## (since p1V1 = mRT1)

(since

V2
p
1 )
V1
p2

(3.20)

Note that during expansion, the volume increases and the pressure decreases. On the
p V diagram, the shaded area under the process line represents the amount of work
transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increasing volume), the work is done by the
system. In other words the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W.
Heat transfer:
Energy balance to this case is applied:
U1 + Q = U 2 + W
For a perfect gas
U1 = mcvT1 and U2 = mcvT2
As the temperature is constant
U1 = U2
Substituting in the energy balance equation,
Q=W

(3.21)

Thus, for a perfect gas, all the heat added during a constant temperature process is
converted into work and the internal energy of the system remains constant.
Example 3.6
In an industrial process, 0.4 kg of oxygen is compressed isothermally from
1.01 bar and 22o C to 5.5 bar. Determine the work done and the heat transfer
during the process. Assume that oxygen is a perfect gas and take the molecular
weight of oxygen to be M = 32 kg/kmole.
Solution to Example 3.6
Data: m = 0.4 kg;
p2 = 5.5 bar;

## p1= 1.01 bar; t1= 22oC

W=?
Q=?
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## From the equation

R
R= 0
M
=

8314
32

= 260 J/kgK
= 0.260 kJ/kgK
For an isothermal process
Work input,
p2
W = mRTln
p1
= 0.4 x 0.260 x ( 22 273) ln

5 .5
1.01

= 52 kJ
In an isothermal process all the work input is transferred as heat.
Therefore, heat transferred, Q = W = 52 kJ
3.15.2 Adiabatic process (Q = 0)
If a system is thermally well insulated then there will be negligible heat transfer into or
out of the system. Such a system is thermally isolated and a process within that system
may be idealised as an adiabatic process. For example, the outer casing of steam
engine, steam turbines and gas turbines are well insulated to minimise heat loss. The
fluid expansion process in such machines may be assumed to be adiabatic.
P

2
W

Thermal insulation

v1
v2

## Figure 3.8.2 Adiabatic (zero heat transfer) process

For a perfect gas the equation for an adiabatic process is
pV = C

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Cp
Cv

## The above equation is applied to states 1 and 2 as:

p1V1 p 2V2
p 2 V1

p1 V2

(3.22)

Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is given by
the equation below
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2

(3.23)
By manipulating equations 3.22 and 3.23 the following relationship can be
determined:
p
T2
2
T1
p1

V1

V2

(3.24)

By examining equations 3.22 and 3.24 the following conclusion for an adiabatic
process on a perfect gas can be drawn:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p-V diagram (Fig.4.3) it is noted that the
volume increases during the process.
In other words, the fluid expanding and the expansion work is given by the formula:
2

pdV

1
2

c
dV

1 V

= c
1

(since pV = C, a constant)

dV
V

p V p 2V2
= 1 1
1

(3.25)
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Note that after expansion, p2 is smaller than p1. In the p V diagram, the shaded area
under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
As this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume) the work is done by the
system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W (as shown in Fig 3.8.2).
Heat transfer:
In an adiabatic process, Q = 0.
Applying an energy balance to this case (Fig.3.8.2):
U1 - W = U2
W = U1 U2
Thus, in an adiabatic expansion the work output is equal to the decrease in internal
energy. In other words, because of the work output the internal energy of the system
decreases by a corresponding amount.
For a perfect gas, U1 = mcvT1 and U1 = mcvT1
On substitution
W = mCv(T1-T2)
(3.26)
We know
Cp- Cv = R

or

Cv = 1

W

mR(T1 T2 )

(3.27)

## But, mRT2 = p2V2 and mRT1 = p1V1

Then the expression for the expansion becomes
W

p1V1 p 2V2
1

(3.28)

Referring to the process represented on the p-V diagram it is noted that during this
process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect gas, equation
3.24 tells that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.

Example 3.7
In a thermally insulated reciprocating air compressor, air at 0.98 bar and 20oC
is compressed into one sixth of its original volume. Determine the pressure and
temperature of the air after compression. If the compressor cylinder contains
95
0.05 kg of air, calculate the required work input. For air, take| KBD/JKM/PUO
= 1.4 and
cv = 0.718 kJ/kgK.

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## Solution to Example 3.7

Data : p1 = 0.98 bar; T1= 20 + 273 = 293 K
V2
1
;
m = 0.05 kg; W = ?
V1
6
As the cylinder is well insulated the heat transfer is negligible and the process may be
Considering air as a perfect gas

p 2 V1

p1 V2
p2 = 0.98 x 61.4
= 12 bar
1

T2 V 1

T1 V2
T2 = 293 x 60.4
= 600 K
= 327oC

## Re-writing equation 4.8 for an adiabatic compression process

W = mcv(T2-T1)
= 0.05 x 0.718 (600-293)
= 11 kJ

## 3.15.3 Polytropic process (pVn = C)

This is the most general type of process, in which both heat energy and work energy
cross the boundary of the system. It is represented by an equation in the form
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pVn = constant

(3.29)

## If a compression or expansion is performed slowly, and if the piston cylinder assembly

is cooled perfectly, then the process will be isothermal. In this case the index n = 1.
If a compression or expansion is performed rapidly, and if the piston cylinder
assembly is perfectly insulated, then the process will be adiabatic. In this case the
index n = .
If a compression or expansion is performed at moderate speed, and if the piston
cylinder assembly is cooled to some degree, then the process is somewhere between
those discussed above. Generally, this is the situation in many engineering
applications. In this case the index n should take some value, which is between 1 and
depending on the degree of cooling.
Some practical examples include:
compression in a stationary air compressor
compression in an air compressor cooled by a fan
compression in a water cooled air compressor
P
W

P1

(n = 1.3)
(n = 1.2)
(n = 1.1)

pVn=C

P2
W
v1

Qloss

v2

## Figure 5.1 Polytropic process

Equation 5.1 is applied at states 1 and 2 as:
p1V1n p 2V2n

Or
p 2 V1

p1 V2

(3.30)

Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is given by
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2

(3.31)
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

By the manipulation of equations 3.30 and 3.31 the following relationship can be
determined:
p
T2
2
T1
p1

n 1
n

V1

V2

n 1

(3.32)

By examining equations 5.2 and 5.4 the following conclusions for a polytropic process
on a perfect gas can be drawn as:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p-V diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that the
volume increases during the process.
In other words the fluid is expands and the expansion work is given by
2

pdV

1
2

c
dV
n
1 V

## (since pVn = C, a constant)

dV
n
1 V
p V p 2V2
= 1 1
n 1

= c

(3.33)

Note that after expansion p2 is smaller than p1. In the p V diagram, the shaded area
under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume), the work is done by the
system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W as shown in Fig. 5.1.

Heat transfer:
Energy balance is applied to this case (Fig.5.1) as:
U1 Qloss - W = U2
Qloss = (U1 U2) W
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

or
W = (U1 U2) - Qloss
Thus, in a polytropic expansion the work output is reduced because of the heat loses.
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that
during this process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect gas,
equation 5.4 tells us that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.

W=
For polytropic process:
W=

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Example 3.8
The combustion gases in a petrol engine cylinder are at 30 bar and 800oC
V2
8.5
before expansion. The gases expand through a volume ratio (
) of (
)
V1
1
and occupy 510 cm3 after expansion. When the engine is air cooled the
polytropic expansion index n = 1.15. What is the temperature and pressure of
the gas after expansion, and what is the work output?

## Solution to Example 3.8

P1= 30 bar
t1 = 800oC

V2 = 510 cm3
p2 = ?
t2 = ?

Qloss
W

State 1
Data: p1 = 30 bar;

State 2
T1 = 800 + 273 = 1073 K;

V2
= 8.5;
V1

V2 = 510 cm3;

t2 = ?

p2 = ?

n = 1.15

W=?

Considering air as a perfect gas, for the polytropic process, the property relation is
given by equation 5.4 as:
n 1

V
T2 T1 1
V2

1
8
.5

1.15 1

= 1073 x

= 778.4 K
= 505.4oC

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## From equation 5.2

V
p 2 p1 1
V2

1
= 30 x

8.5

1.15

= 2.56 bar
Now,
V2 = 510 cm3 = 510 x 10-6 m3
and,
V2
= 8.5
V1

Then,
V1

510 x10 6
8.5

= 60 x 10-6 m3
Work output during polytropic expansion is given by equation 5.5 as:
p1V1 p 2V2
n 1
(30 x10 5 )(60 x10 6 ) ( 2.56 x10 5 ) (510 x10 6 )
=
1.15 1

W =

= 330 J
= 0.33 kJ

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Activity 3A

INPUT!
3.1

## 0.112 m3 of gas has a pressure of 138 kN/m2. It is compressed to

690
kN/m2 according to the law pV1.4 = C. Determine the new volume of the gas.

3.2

## 0.014 m3 of gas at a pressure of 2070 kN/m2 expands to a pressure of

207
2
1.35
kN/m according to the law pV = C. Determine the work done by the gas
during expansion.

3.3

## A cylinder containing 0.07 kg of fluid has a pressure of 1 bar, a volume of 0.06

m3 and a specific internal energy of 200 kJ/kg. After polytropic compression,
the pressure and volume of the fluid are 9 bar and 0.011 m3 respectively, and
the specific internal energy is 370 kJ/kg.
Determine
a)
the amount of work energy required for the compression
b)
the quantity and direction of the heat energy that flows during the
compression.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

INPUT
INPUT
3.15.4 Constant volume process
If the change in volume during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant volume process. For example, heating or cooling a fluid in
a rigid walled vessel can be analysed by assuming that the volume remains constant.
Q
p

2
v

a) Heating

b) Cooling

## Figure 5.2 Constant volume process (V2=V1)

The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
If the volume remain constant during the process, V2 = V1 and then the above relation
becomes
p1
p
2
T1
T2
or
T2
p
2
(5.6)
T1
p1
From this equation it can be seen that an increase in pressure results from an increase
in temperature. In other words, in constant volume process, the temperature is
proportional to the pressure.
Work transfer:
Work transfer (pdV) must be zero because the change in volume, dV, during the
process is zero. However, work in the form of paddle-wheel work may be transferred.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation
Q W = U2 U1
gives Q 0 = U2 U1
i.e.
Q = U2 U1

(5.7)

This result, which is important and should be remembered, shows that the nett amount
of heat energy supplied to or taken from a fluid during a constant volume process is
equal to the change in the internal energy of the fluid.

Example 5.2
The specific internal energy of a fluid is increased from 120 kJ/kg to 180 kJ/kg
during a constant volume process. Determine the amount of heat energy
Solution to Example 5.2
The non flow energy equation is
Q W = U2 U1
For a constant volume process
W=0
and the equation becomes
Q = U2 U1

Q = 180 120
= 60 kJ/kg
Therefore for 2 kg of fluid
Q = 60 x 2 = 120 kJ
i.e.

## 3.15.5 Constant pressure process

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

If the change in pressure during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant pressure process. For example, heating or cooling a liquid
at atmospheric pressure may be analysed by assuming that the pressure remains
constant.
P
W

2
W

v1

v2 v1

v2

## Figure 5.3 Constant pressure process

Consider the fluid in the piston cylinder as shown in Figure 5.2. If the load on the
piston is kept constant the pressure will also remain constant.
The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
If the pressure remain constant during the process, p2 = p1 and then the above relation
becomes
V1 V2

T1
T2
or
T2 V2

(5.8)
T1
V1

From this equation it can be seen that an increase in volume results from an increase in
temperature. In other words, in constant pressure process, the temperature is
proportional to the volume.

Work transfer:
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Referring to the process representation on the p-V diagram it is noted that the volume
increases during the process. In other words, the fluid expands. This expansion work is
given by
2

pdV
1

p dV

(since p is constant)

= p (V2 V1)

## (larger volume smaller volume)

(5.9)

Note that on a p-V diagram, the area under the process line represents the amount of
work transfer. From Figure 5.3
W = area of the shaded rectangle
= height x width
= p (V2 V1)
(larger volume smaller volume)
This expression is identical to equation 5.9
Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation
Q W = U2 U1
or

Q = (U2 U1) + W

(5.10)

Thus part of the heat supplied is converted into work and the remainder is utilized in
increasing the internal energy of the system.
Substituting for W in equation 5.10
Q = (U2 U1) + p(V2 V1)
= U2 U1 + p2 V2 p1 V1
= (U2 + p2 V2) (U1 + p1 V1)

(since p2 = p1 )

## Now, we know that h = u + pv or H = U + pV

Hence
Q = H2 H1

(5.11)

Referring to the process representation on the p-v diagram shown in Figure 5.3, it is
noted that heating increases the volume. In other words, the fluid expands. For a
perfect gas, equation 5.8 tells us that an increase in volume will result in
corresponding increase in temperature.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Example 5.3
2.25 kg of fluid having a volume of 0.1 m3 is in a cylinder at a constant
pressure of 7 bar. Heat energy is supplied to the fluid until the volume
becomes 0.2 m3. If the initial and final specific enthalpies of the fluid are
210 kJ/kg and 280 kJ/kg respectively, determine
a)
the quantity of heat energy supplied to the fluid
b)
the change in internal energy of the fluid
Solution to Example 5.3
Data: p = 7.0 bar; V1 = 0.1 m3 ; V2 = 0.2 m3
a)

## Heat energy supplied = change in enthalpy of fluid

Q = H2 H1
= m( h2 - h1 )
= 2.25( 280 210 )
= 157.5 kJ

b)

## For a constant pressure process

W = P(V2 V1)
= 7 x 105 x ( 0.2 0.1)
= 7 x 104 J
= 70 kJ
Applying the non-flow energy equation
Q W = U2 U1
gives
U2 U1 = 157.5 70
= 87.5 kJ

SUMMARY
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## R = gas constant. (unit Nm/kg K or J/kg K)

M = molecular weight (unit kg/kmol)
Ro = universal gas constant (unit 8.3144 kJ/kmol K or 8314 J/kmol K))
Cv = specific heat capacity at constant volume (unit J/kg K or kJ/kg K)
Cp = specific heat capacity at constant pressure (unit J/kg K or kJ/kg K)
= specific heat ratio
P1V1
PV
2 2
T1
T2

PV = mRT

R = C p - Cv

T2 p2

T1
p1

T2 p2

T1
p1

n 1
n

V1

V2

Cp
Cv

Cv

Ro
M
R
( 1)

n 1

V1

V2

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Activity 3B

## TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE NEXT

INPUT!
5.3

The pressure of the gas inside an aerosol can is 1.2 bar at a temperature of 25 o
C. Will the aerosol explode if it is thrown into a fire and heated to a
temperature of 600o C? Assume that the aerosol can is unable to withstand
pressure in excess of 3 bar.

5.4

## 0.05 kg of air, initially at 130o C is heated at a constant pressure of 2 bar until

the volume occupied is 0.0658 m3. Calculate the heat supplied and the work
done.

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Feedback To Activity 3B

5.4

## Data: p1 = 1.2 bar;

T2 = 600 + 273 = 873 K;

p2 = ?

## We can idealize this process at constant volume heating of a perfect gas.

Applying the general property relation between states 1 and 2
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
in this case V2 = V1
p1
p
2
Hence,
T1
T2
T
p 2 p1 2
or
T2
= 1.2 x

873
298

= 3.52 bar
Since the aerosol cannot withstand pressures above 3 bar, it will clearly
explode in the fire.
5.5 Data:

## m = 0.5 kg; p = 2 bar;

T1 = 130 + 273 =403 K

V2 = 0.0658 m3;

## Using the characteristic gas equation at state 2

p 2V2
mR
2 x 10 5 x 0.0658
=
0.05 x 0.287 x 10 3

T2 =

= 917 K

Q = mcp(T2 T1)
i.e.

## Heat supplied = 0.05 x 1.005(917 403)

= 25.83 kJ
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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

W = p (V2 V1)
From equation pV = RT

= 0.287(917 403)

i.e.

## Work done by the mass of gas present = 0.05 x 0.287 x 514

= 7.38 kJ

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

SELF-ASSESSMENT
You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and
check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the next
page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1.

A receiver vessel in a steam plant contains 20 kg of steam at 60 bar and 500 oC.
When the plant is switched off, the steam in the vessel cools at constant
volume until the pressure is 30 bar. Find the temperature of the steam after
cooling and the heat transfer that has taken place.

## 2. 0.25 kg of combustion gas in a diesel engine cylinder is at temperature of 727 oC.

The gas expands at constant pressure until its volume is 1.8 times its original
value. For the combustion gas, R = 0.302 kJ/kgK and
cp = 1.09
kJ/kgK. Find the following:
a)
temperature of the gas after expansion
b)
heat transferred
c)
work transferred
3.

A quantity of gas has an initial pressure and volume of 0.1 MN/m2 and 0.1 m3,
respectively. It is compressed to a final pressure of 1.4 MN/m2 according to the
law pV1.26 = constant. Determine the final volume of the gas.

## 4. A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40 oC and a pressure of 1 bar is

compressed polytropicly following the law pV1.25 = C. Determine the
following:
a) final temperature
b) final volume
c) work transfer
d) heat transfer
e) change in internal energy

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Feedback to Self-Assessment

1.

2.

3.

0.01235 m3

4.

## 158.9oC; 12390 cm3; 6.82 kJ input; 2.56 kJ rejected; 4.26 kJ increase

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Activity 3A
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!
3.1

Study the statements in the table below. Mark the answers as TRUE or
FALSE.
STATEMENT
i.

ii.

iii.

TRUE or FALSE

## Charles Law gives us the change in volume

of a gas with temperature when the
temperature remains constant.
Boyles Law gives us the change in volume of
a gas with pressure if the pressure remains
constant.
The characteristic equation of state of a
PV
perfect gas is
R.
T

iv.
v.
vi.

3.2

## Ro is the symbol for universal gas constant.

The constant R is called the gas constant.
The unit of R is Nm/kg or J/kg.

## 0.04 kg of a certain perfect gas occupies a volume of 0.0072 m 3 at a pressure

6.76 bar and a temperature of 127 oC. Calculate the molecular weight of the
gas (M). When the gas is allowed to expand until the pressure is 2.12 bar the
final volume is 0.065 m3. Calculate the final temperature.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Feedback To Activity 3A

3.1

i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.

False
False
True
True
True
False

3.2

## From the question,

m = 0.04 kg
V1 = 0.072 m3
P1 = 6.76 bar = 6.76 x 102 kN/m2
T1 = 127 + 273 K = 400 K

V2 = 0.072 m3
P2 = 2.12 bar = 2.12 x 102 kN/m2

## From equation 3.6

P1V1 = mRT1
R

P1V1
6.76 x 10 2 x 0.0072

0.3042 kJ/kg K
mT1
0.04 x 400

## Then from equation 3.10

Ro
M

i.e.

Ro 8.3144

27 kg/kmol
R
0.3042

Molecular weight = 27

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## From equation 3.6

P2V2 = mRT2
T2

i.e.

P2V2
2.12 x 10 2 x 0.065

1132.5 K
mR
0.04 x 0.3042

Activity 3B

NEXT INPUT!
3.3

## Two kilograms of a gas receive 200 kJ as heat at constant volume process. If

the temperature of the gas increases by 100 oC, determine the Cv of the process.

3.4

A perfect gas is contained in a rigid vessel at 3 bar and 315 oC. The gas is then
cooled until the pressure falls to 1.5 bar. Calculate the heat rejected per kg of
gas.
Given:
M = 26 kg/kmol and = 1.26.

3.5

## A mass of 0.18 kg gas is at a temperature of 15 oC and pressure 130 kN/m2. If

the gas has a value of Cv = 720 J/kg K, calculate the:
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

gas constant
molecular weight
specific heat at constant pressure
specific heat ratio

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Feedback To Activity 3B

3.3

## From the question,

m = 2 kg
Q = 200 kJ
(T2 T1) = 100 oC = 373 K
Q = mCv(T2 T1)
Q
200
Cv

0.268 kJ/kgK
m T2 T1 2(373)

3.4

## From the question,

P1 = 3 bar
T1 = 315 oC = 588 K
P2 = 1.5 bar
M = 26 kg/kmol
= 1.26
From equation 3.10,
R
8314
R o
319.8 J/kg K
M
26
From equation 3.18,
Cv

R
319.8

## 1230 J/kg K 1.230 kJ/kg K

( 1) 1.26 1

During the process, the volume remains constant (i.e. rigid vessel) for the mass
of gas present, and from equation 3.4,
P1V1
PV
2 2
T1
T2
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## Therefore since V1 = V2,

P
1.5
T2 T1 2 588 x
294 K
P1
3
Then from equation 3.12,
Heat rejected per kg gas,

3.5

Q = Cv(T2 T1)
= 1.230(588 294)
= 361.6 kJ/kg

## From the question

m = 0.18 kg
T = 15 oC = 288 K
V = 0.17 m3
Cv = 720 J/kg K = 0.720 kJ/kg K
i.

PV = mRT
R

PV 130 x 0.17

0.426 kJ/kgK
mT
0.18 x 288

ii.

R
R o
M
R
8.3144
M o
19.52 kg/kmol
R
0.426

iii.

## From equation 3.16,

R = C p - Cv
Cp = R + Cv = 0.426 + 0.720 = 1.146 kJ/kg K

iv.

## From equation 3.17,

Cp
Cv

1.146
1.59
0.720

PROCEED TO THE NEXT INPUT..

SELF-ASSESSMENT

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.

1. 1 m3 of air at 8 bar and 120 oC is cooled at constant pressure process until the
temperature drops to 27 oC.
Given R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
i.
ii.
iii.

mass of air
heat rejected in the process
volume of the air after cooling.

2.

## A system undergoes a process in which 42 kJ of heat is rejected. If the

pressure is kept constant at 125 kN/m2 while the volume changes from
0.20 m3 to 0.006 m3, determine the work done and the change in internal
energy.

3.

## Heat is supplied to a gas in a rigid container.The mass of the container is 1 kg

and the volume of gas is 0.6 m3. 100 kJ is added as heat. If gas has
Cv = 0.7186 kJ/kg K during a process, determine the:
i.
ii.

change in temperature
change in internal energy

Feedback To Self-Assessment

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1.

i.
ii.
iii.

2.

W = -24.25 kJ
(U2 U1) = -17.75 kJ

3.

i.
ii.

m = 7.093 kg
Q = 663 kJ
V2 = 0.763 m3

(U2 U1) = 100 kJ

Activity 4

INPUT!
4.1

## In the cylinder of a large engine, 1.0 kg of carbon dioxide at 527 o C and

20
bar expands isothermally to a pressure of 1.4 bar. What is the final volume of
the gas?
Take R = 189 Nm/kgK for carbon dioxide.

4.2

## 1 kg of nitrogen (molecular weight 28) is compressed reversibly and

isothermally from 1.01 bar, 20oC to 4.2 bar. Calculate the work done and the
heat flow during the process. Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas.

4.3

## Air at 1.02 bar, 22oC, initially occupying a cylinder volume of 0.015 m 3, is

compressed reversibly and adiabatically by a piston to a pressure of 6.8 bar.
Calculate the final temperature, the final volume, and the work done on the
mass of air in the cylinder.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Feedback to Activity 4

4.1

p1 = 20 bar;

## T1= 527 + 273 = 800 K

p2= 1.4 bar; V2 = ?

Carbon dioxide is a perfect gas and we can apply the following characteristic
gas equation at state 1.
p1V1 = mRT1
mRT1
V1 =
p1
1x189 x800
20 x10 5
= 0.0756 m3

## Applying the general property relation between state 1 and 2

p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
For an isothermal process T1 = T2
Hence,
p1V1 p 2V2
20
x 0.0756
V2 =
1.4

V2 = 1.08 m3

4.2

Data: m=1kg;
M= 28 kg/kmole
T1 = 20 + 272 = 293 K;

p1 = 1.01 bar;
p2 = 4.2 bar

From equation
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R=
=

## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

R0
M
8.314
28

= 0.297 kJ/kgK
The process is shown on a p-v diagram below. When a process takes place
from right to left on a p-v diagram the work done by the fluid is negative. That
is, work is done on the fluid.
p
4.2
pV=C

1.01
v

## From equation 4.2

W = mRT1 ln

p1
p2

= 1 x 0.297x293x ln

1.01
4 .2

= -124 kJ/kg
For an isothermal process for a perfect gas,
Q = W = -124 kJ/kg

4.3

## Data: p1=1.02 bar; T1=22 + 273 = 295 K;

v1= 0.015 m3; p2= 6.8 bar
From equation 4.6
p
T2
2
T1
p1

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

6.8

1
.02

(1.4 1) / 1.4

T2 = 295 x

= 507.5 K
(where for air = 1.4)
i.e.
Final temperature = 507.5 273 = 234.5oC
From equation 4.4
p 2 V1

p1 V2

v1 p 2

v 2 p1

or

0.015 6.8

v2
1.02

1/

1 / 1.4

## i.e. Final volume

v2 = 0.0038 m3
W = u1 u2
and for a perfect gas,
W = cv(T1- T2)
= 0.718(295-507.5)
= - 152.8 kJ/kg
i.e. work input per kg = -152.8 kJ
The mass of air can be found using equation pV = mRT
m

0.018kg
RT1
0.287 x10 3195

## i.e. Total work done = 0.018 kg x -152.8 kJ/kg = -2.76 kJ

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Activity 3A

INPUT!
3.1

## 0.112 m3 of gas has a pressure of 138 kN/m2. It is compressed to

690
kN/m2 according to the law pV1.4 = C. Determine the new volume of the gas.

3.2

## 0.014 m3 of gas at a pressure of 2070 kN/m2 expands to a pressure of

207
2
1.35
kN/m according to the law pV = C. Determine the work done by the gas
during expansion.

3.3

## A cylinder containing 0.07 kg of fluid has a pressure of 1 bar, a volume of 0.06

m3 and a specific internal energy of 200 kJ/kg. After polytropic compression,
the pressure and volume of the fluid are 9 bar and 0.011 m3 respectively, and
the specific internal energy is 370 kJ/kg.
Determine
c)
the amount of work energy required for the compression
d)
the quantity and direction of the heat energy that flows during the
compression.

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## Topic 3- Properties of Pure Substances

Feedback To Activity 3A

3.1

p1V11.4 p 2V21.4

p1 V2

p 2 V1

1 .4

p
V
or 2 1
V1 p 2

1 / 1.4

from which,
p
V2 V1 1
p2

1 / 1.4

= V1 1.4

= 0.012 x

1.4

p1
p2

138
690

= 0.0348 m3
3.2

W =

p1V1 p 2V2
n 1

Now
p1V1n p 2V2n
1/ n

p
V2 V1 1
p2

or

V2 = 0.014 x

2070

207

1 / 1.35

V2 = 0.077 m3

Work done =

1.35 1

= 37.3 x 103 Nm
= 37.3 x 103 J
= 37.3 kJ
3.3

a)

## For a polytropic process,

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p1V1n p 2V2n

## In the given case

1 x 0.06n = 9 x 0.011n
0.06

0.011

n = 1.302
p1V1 p 2V2
n 1
(1x10 5 x 0.06) (9 x10 5 x 0.0111)
=
1.302 1
= -13.2 kJ

W =

system during the process.
b) The non-flow energy equation gives
Q W = U2 U1
Q (- 13.2) = ( 370 x 0.07 ) ( 200 x 0.07 )

Q = - 1.3 kJ
The negative sign indicates that heat energy will flow out of the fluid
during the process.

SELF-ASSESSMENT

You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this self-assessment section and
check your answers with those given in the Feedback to Self-Assessment on the next
page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1.

## 0.05 m3 of a perfect gas at 6.3 bar undergoes a reversible isothermal process to

a pressure of 1.05 bar. Calculate the heat flow to or from the gas.

2.

## Nitrogen (molecular weight 28) expands reversibly in a perfectly thermally

insulated cylinder from 2.5 bar, 200oC to a volume of 0.09 m3. If the initial
volume occupied was 0.03 m3, calculate the work done during the expansion.
Assume nitrogen to be a perfect gas and take cv = 0.741 kJ/kg K.
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3.

## A mass of 0.05 kg of air at a temperature of 40 oC and a pressure of 1 bar is

compressed adiabatically to 5 bar. Determine the following:
a)
final temperature
b)
final volume
c)
work transfer
d)
heat transfer
e)
change in internal energy

4.

## A quantity of gas occupies a volume of 0.3 m 3 at a pressure of 100 kN/m2 and a

temperature of 20oC. The gas is compressed isothermally to a pressure of 500
kN/m2 and then expanded adiabatically to its initial volume.
For this quantity of gas determine the following:
a)
the heat received or rejected (state which) during the compression,
b)
the change of internal energy during the expansion,
c)
the mass of gas.

Feedback to Self-Assessment

1.

56.4 kJ

2.

9.31 kJ

3.

4.

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