TOPIC 3
PROPERTIES OF PURE SUBSTANCES
At the end of the topic you will be able to:
3.0
INTRODUCTION
In thermodynamic systems, the working fluid can be in the liquid, steam or gaseous
phase. In this unit, the properties of liquid and steam are investigated in some details
as the state of a system can be described in terms of its properties. A substance that
has a fixed composition throughout is called a pure substance. Pure chemicals (H2O,
N2, O2, Ar, Ne, Xe) are always pure substances. We all know from experience that
substances exist in different phases. A phase of substance can be defined as that part of
a pure substance that consists of a single, homogenous aggregate of matter. The three
common phases for H2O that are usually used are solid, liquid and steam.
When studying phases or phase changes in thermodynamics, one does not need to be
concerned with the molecular structure and behavior of the different phases.
However, it is very helpful to have some understanding of the molecular phenomena
involved in each phase.
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Molecular bonds are strongest in solids and weakest in steams. One reason is that
molecules in solids are closely packed together, whereas in steams they are separated
by great distances.
The three phases of pure substances are: Solid Phase
In the solid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore relatively dense; and
(b) arranged in a rigid threedimensional pattern so that they do not easily deform. An
example of a pure solid state is ice.
Liquid Phase
In the liquid phase, the molecules are;
(a) closely bound, therefore also relatively dense and unable to expand to fill a space;
but
(b) they are no longer rigidly structured so much so that they are free to move within a
fixed volume. An example is a pure liquid state.
Steam Phase
In the steam phase, the molecules;
(a) virtually do not attract each other. The distance between the molecules are not as
close as those in the solid and liquid phases;
(b) are not arranged in a fixed pattern. There is neither a fixed volume nor a fixed
shape for steam.
The three phases described above are illustrated in Fig. 3.0 below. The following are
discovered:
(a)
the positions of the molecules are relatively fixed in a solid phase;
(b)
chunks of molecules float about each other in the liquid phase; and
(c)
the molecules move about at random in the steam phase.
(a)
(b)
(c)
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3.1
PhaseChange Process
The distinction between steam and liquid is usually made (in an elementary manner)
by stating that both will take up the shape of their containers. However liquid will
present a free surface if it does not completely fill its container. Steam on the other
hand will always fill its container.
With this information, let us consider the following system:
A container is filled with water, and a moveable, frictionless piston is placed on the
container at State 1, as shown in Fig. 3.1. As heat is added to the system, the
temperature of the system will increase. Note that the pressure on the system is being
kept constant by the weight of the piston. The continued addition of heat will cause
the temperature of the system to increase until the pressure of the steam generated
exactly balances the pressure of the atmosphere plus the pressure due to the weight of
the piston.
STATE 1
STATE 2
STATE 4
STATE 3
W
W
W
W
Liquid
Steam
Superheated
Steam
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3.2
300
Superheated
steam
2
100
Saturated
mixture
Compressed
liquid
20
1
v, m3/kg
Figure 3.21 Tv diagram for the heating process of water at constant pressure
Imagine that we are to run an experiment. In this experiment, we start with a mass of
water at 1 atm pressure and room temperature. At this temperature and pressure we
may measure the specific volume (1/ = 1/1000 kg/m3). We plot this state at point 1
on the diagram.
If we proceed to heat the water, the temperature will rise. In addition, water expands
slightly as it is heated which makes the specific volume increase slightly. We may plot
the locus of such points along the line from State 1 to State 2. We speak of liquid in
one of these conditions as being compressed or subcooled liquid.
State 2 is selected to correspond to the boiling point (100 oC). We speak of State 2 as
being the saturated liquid state, which means that all of the water is in still liquid
form, but ready to boil. As we continue to heat past the boiling point 2, a fundamental
change occurs in the process. The temperature of the water no longer continues to
rise. Instead, as we continue to add energy, liquid progressively changes to steam
phase at a constant temperature but with an increasing specific volume. In this part of
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the process, we speak of the water as being a saturated mixture (liquid + steam).
This is also known as the quality region.
At State 3, all liquid will have been vaporised. This is the saturated steam state.
As we continue to heat the steam beyond State 3, the temperature of the steam again
rises as we add energy. States to the right of State 3 are said to be superheated steam.
Summary of nomenclature:
Compressed or subcooled liquid (Between States 1 & 2)
A liquid state in which the fluid remains entirely within the liquid state, and below
the saturation state.
Saturated liquid (State 2)
All fluid is in the liquid state. However, even the slightest addition of energy would
result in the formation of some vapour.
Saturated LiquidSteam or Wet Steam Region (Between States 2 & 3)
Liquid and steam exist together in a mixture.
Saturated steam (State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state, but even the slightest loss of energy from the system
would result in the formation of some liquid.
Superheated steam (The right of State 3)
All fluid is in the steam state and above the saturation state. The superheated steam
temperature is greater than the saturation temperature corresponding to the
pressure.
Saturation Pressure
The pressure at which the liquid and vapour phases are in equilibrium at a given
temperature.
Saturation Temperature
The temperature at which the liquid and vapour phases are in equilibrium at a given
pressure.
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The same experiment can be conducted at several different pressures. We see that as
pressure increases, the temperature at which boiling occurs also increases.2
T, oC
P = 221.2 bar
Critical point
P = 150 bar
P = 80 bar
374.15
P = 10 bar
P = 5 bar
P = 1.01325 bar
Saturated
liquid
Saturated
steam
v, m3/kg
0.00317
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P2 = const.
COMPRESS
LIQUID
REGION
P2 > P1
P1 = const.
SUPERHEATED
STEAM
REGION
WET STEAM
REGION
Figure 3.23
The general shape of the Pv diagram of a pure substance is very much like the Tv
diagram, but the T = constant lines on this diagram have a downward trend, as shown
in Fig. 3.24.
Saturated liquid line
T2 = const.
WET STEAM
REGION
T2 > T1
T1 = const.
3.3
3
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Between the saturated liquid and the saturated steam, there exist a mixture of steam
plus liquid (wet steam region). To denote the state of a liquidsteam mixture, it is
necessary to introduce a term describing the relative quantities of liquid and steam in
the mixture. This is called the dryness fraction (symbol x). Thus, in 1 kg of wet
mixture, there must be x kg of saturated steam plus (1 x) kg of saturated liquid.
x kg of steam
total mass = 1 kg
(1  x ) kg of liquid
mg
masssaturated steam
mass total
m f mg
(3.1)
x = 0.2
Sat. steam
At point A, x = 0
At point B, x = 1
Between point A and B, 0 x 1.0
Sat. liquid
x = 0.8
B
ts
vf
vg
Figure 3.32 Pv diagram showing the location point of the dryness fraction
3.3.1 Specific volume
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For a wet steam, the total volume of the mixture is given by the volume of
liquid present plus the volume of dry steam present.
Therefore, the specific volume is given by,
v
Now for 1 kg of wet steam, there are (1 x) kg of liquid and x kg of dry steam,
where x is the dryness fraction as defined earlier. Hence,
v = vf(1 x) + vgx
The volume of the liquid is usually negligibly small as compared to the volume
of dry saturated steam. Hence, for most practical problems,
v = xvg
(3.2)
Where,
vf = specific volume of saturated liquid (m3/kg)
vg = specific volume of saturated steam (m3/kg)
x = dryness fraction
3.3.2
Specific enthalpy
In the analysis of certain types of processes, particularly in power generation
and refrigeration, we frequently encounter the combination of properties
U + PV. For the sake of simplicity and convenience, this combination is
defined as a new property, enthalpy, and given the symbol H.
H = U + PV (kJ)
or, per unit mass
h = u + Pv
(kJ/kg)
(3.3)
The enthalpy of wet steam is given by the sum of the enthalpy of the liquid
plus the enthalpy of the dry steam,
i.e.
h = hf(1 x) + xhg
h = hf + x(hg hf )
h = hf + xhfg
(3.4)
Where,
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u = uf + x(ug uf )
(3.5)
Where,
uf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid (kJ/kg)
ug = specific enthalpy of saturated steam (kJ/kg)
ug uf = difference between ug and uf
Equation 3.5 can be expressed in a form similar to equation 3.4. However,
equation 3.5 is more convenient since ug and uf are tabulated. The difference is
that, ufg is not tabulated.
3.3.4
Specific Entropy
A person looking at the steam tables carefully will notice two new properties
i.e. enthalpy h and entropy s. Entropy is a property associated with the Second
Law of Thermodynamics, and actually, we will properly define it later.
However, it is appropriate to introduce entropy at this point.
The entropy of wet steam is given by the sum of the entropy of the liquid plus
the entropy of the dry steam,
i.e.
s = sf(1 x) + xsg
s = sf + x(sg sf )
s = sf + xsfg
(3.6)
Where,
P
bar
v = xvg
sf = specific enthalpy of saturated liquid
h = (kJ/kg
hf + xhfgK)
sg = specific enthalpy of saturated steam
u = u(kJ/kg
+ x(uK)
u)
f
g f
sfg = difference between sg and sf (that
is,
s
fg = sg  sf )
s = sf + xsfg
ts
uf
hf
v vg
u u
h g
h
s g
v m3/kg
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Figure 3.33 Pv diagram showing the location point v, u, h, s at wet steam.
3.4
Units
bar
ts
vf
m3/kg
3
Description
vg
m /kg
uf
kJ/kg
ug
kJ/kg
hf
kJ/kg
hg
kJ/kg
hfg
kJ/kg
sf
kJ/kg K
sg
kJ/kg K
sfg
kJ/kg K
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3.4.1
ps
hf
kPa
m3/kg
10
1.2281
106.32
vg
hfg
hg
sf
sfg
kJ/kg
42.022
2477.2
sg
kJ/kg K
2519.2
0.1511
8.7488
8.8999
sfg
sg
Example 3.1
Complete the following table for Saturated Water and Steam:
t
o
Ps
vg
kPa
m3/kg
0.01
100
hf
hfg
hg
sf
kJ/kg
kJ/kg K
206.1
2.3392
101.42
8.6661
sfg
sg
kPa
m /kg
0.01
0.6117
206.1
0.001
2500.9
2500.9
0.000
9.155
9.1556
20
2.3392
57.76
83.91
2453.5
2537.5
0.2965
8.369
8.666
100
101.42
1.672
419.1
2256.4
2675.6
1.3072 6.047
7.354
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kJ/kg
kJ/kg K
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Part 2
Part 2 (Page 3 to 5 of steam tables) is values of pressure from 0.006112 bar to
221.2 bar followed by values that are suitable for the pressures stated in the
table. Table 3.4.12 is an example showing an extract from the pressure of 1.0
bar.
Table 3.4.12 Saturated water and steam at a pressure of 100 kPa
p
ts
o
kpa
100
vg
uf
m3/kg
99.61
ug
hf
hfg
kJ/kg
1.694
417
hg
sf
sfg
kJ/kg
2506
417
sg
kJ/kg K
2258 2675
1.303
6.056
7.359
ts
vg
kPa
m3/kg
5.0
uf
ug
hf
kJ/kg
hfg
sf
sfg
kJ/kg
32.87
1000
hg
sg
kJ/kg K
2560
0.1944
311.0
5.615
ts
uf
ug
hf
hfg
hg
sf
sfg
sg
m3/kg
kJ/kg
31.0
31.14
130 2418
130
2428 2558
0.451
7.980
8.431
1000
179.9
0.1944
762 2584
763
2015 2778
2.138
4.448
6.586
10000
kPa
vg
kJ/kg
kJ/kg K
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3.360
2.255 5.615
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Example 3.3
For a steam at 2000 kPa with a dryness fraction of 0.9, calculate the
a)
specific volume
b)
specific enthalpy
c)
specific internal energy
ts
vg
uf
ug
hf
hfg
hg
sf
sfg
sg
20000 212.4 0.09957 907 2600 909 1890 2799 2.447 3.893 6.340
a)
b)
c)
P
bar
x = 0.9
20
ts = 212.4 oC
uf
hf
sf
v m3/kg
v vg
u u
h g
h
s g
sg
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Example 3.4
Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific enthalpy of
steam at 800 kPa and specific internal energy 2450 kJ/kg.
ts
800
170.4
vg
uf
ug
hf
hfg
hg
sf
sfg
sg
At 800 kPa, ug = 2577 kJ/kg, since the actual specific internal energy is given
as 2450 kJ/kg, the steam must be in the wet steam state ( u < ug).
From equation 8.5,
u = uf + x(ug uf)
2450 = 720 + x(2577  720)
x = 0.932
From equation 8.2,
v = xvg
= 0.932 (0.2403)
= 0.2240 m3/kg
From equation 8.4,
h = hf + xhfg
= 721 + 0.932 (2048)
= 2629.7 kJ/kg
P
bar
x = 0.932
8
ts = 170.4 oC
v vg
v m3/kg
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3.4.2
(3.7)
The tables of properties of superheated steam range in pressure from 0.006112 bar to
the critical pressure of 221.2 bar. At each pressure, there is a range of temperature up
to high degrees of superheat, and the values of specific volume, internal energy,
enthalpy and entropy are tabulated.
For the pressure above 70 bar, the specific internal energy is not tabulated. The
specific internal energy is calculated using the equation:
u = h pv
(3.8)
For reference, the saturation temperature is inserted in brackets under each pressure in
the superheat tables and values of vg, ug, hg and sg are also given.
A specimen row of values is shown in Table 3.4.2. For example, from the superheated
table at 10 bar and 200 oC, the specific volume is 0.2061 m3/kg and the specific
enthalpy is 2829 kJ/kg.
Table 3.4.2
p
(ts)
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
vg 0.1944
v 0.2061 0.2328 0.2580 0.2825 0.3065 0.3303 0.3540 0.4010
1000 u 2584
u
2711
2794
2875
2957
3124
3297
g
Complete the missing 2623
properties
in the
following
table
for3040
Superheated
(179.9)
hg 2778
h
2829
2944
3052
3158
3264
3370
3478
3698
Steam:
sg 6.586
p
(ts)
vg
Example 3.5
4000 ug
(250.3) hg
sg
6.695
0.0498
2602
2801
6.070
6.926
7.124
300
v
u
h
s
7.301
7.464
350
7.617
400
7.761
8.028
450
0.0800
2921
3094
6.364
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400
450
0.0733 0.0800
2921
3010
3214
3330
6.769 6.935
Example 3.6
Steam at 10000 kPa has a specific volume of 0.02812 m 3/kg. Find the
temperature, degree of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific
internal energy.
100
425 oC
ts = 311.0 oC
vg= 0.01802
v = 0.02812
v m3/kg
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425
2.812
3172
6.321
From the superheated table at 100 bar, the specific volume is 0.02812 m 3/kg at
a temperature of 425 oC. Hence, this is the isothermal line, which passes
through point A as shown in the Pv diagram above.
Degree of superheat = 425 oC 311 oC
= 114 oC
So, at 10000 kPa and 425 oC, we have
v = 2.812 x 102 m3/kg
h = 3172 kJ/kg
From equation 3.8,
u = h Pv
= 3172 kJ/kg (100 x 102 kN/m2)(2.812 x 102 m3/kg)
= 2890.8 kJ/kg
Note that equation 3.8 must be used to find the specific internal energy for
pressure above 70 bar as the specific internal energy is not tabulated in steam
tables.
8.5
Interpolation
The first interpolation problem that an engineer usually meets is that of reading
between the lines of a published table, like the Steam Tables. For properties which
are not tabulated exactly in the tables, it is necessary to interpolate between the values
tabulated as shown in Fig. 3.51 below. In this process it is customary to use a straight
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line that passes through two adjacent table points, denoted by and . If we use the
straight line then it is called interpolation.
f(x)
Interpolation
The values in the tables are given in regular increments of temperature and pressure.
Often we wish to know the value of thermodynamic properties at intermediate values.
It is common to use linear interpolation as shown in Fig. 3.52.
y
y2
y
y1
y y1 y 2 y1
(x2 , y2)
(x , y)
(x1 , y1)
x1
x2
y y1 x2 x1
x1
y 2 y1
3.5.1
Single interpolation
Single interpolation is used to find the values in the table when one of the
values is not tabulated. For example, to find the saturation temperature,
specific volume, internal energy and enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 77 bar,
it is necessary to interpolate between the values given in the table.
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Example 3.6
Determine the saturation temperature at 7700 kPa.
Solution to Example 3.6
The values of saturation temperature at a pressure of 7700 kPa are not
tabulated in the Steam Tables. So, we need to interpolate between the two
nearest values that are tabulated in the Steam Tables.
t s 290.5 295 290.5
77 75
80 75
P
80
2
5
77
75
ts
290.5
ts
295
ts
2 4.5
290.5
5
ts = 292.3 oC
Example 3.7
Determine the specific enthalpy of dry saturated steam at 10300 kPa.
Solution to Example 3.7
hg 2725
103 100
2715 2725
105 100
105
103
hg
100
2725
hg
2715
hg
3 10
2725
5
hg 2719 kJ/kg
Example 3.8
Determine the specific volume of steam at 800 kPa and 220oC.
Solution to Example 3.8
From the Steam Tables at 800 kPa, the saturated temperature (ts) is 170.4 oC.
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220
250
0.2933
220 200
250 200
250
220
v 0.27392 m3/kg
200
0.2610 v
0.2933
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3.5.2
Double Interpolation
In some cases a double interpolation is necessary, and its usually used in the
Superheated Steam Table. Double interpolation must be used when two of the
properties (eg. temperature and pressure) are not tabulated in the Steam Tables.
For example, to find the enthalpy of superheated steam at 25 bar and 320 oC, an
interpolation between 2000 kPa and 3000 kPa is necessary (as shown in
example 8.9). An interpolation between 300oC and 350oC is also necessary.
Example 3.8
Determine the specific enthalpy of superheated steam at 2500 kpa and
320oC.
300
320
350
3025
h1
3138
2500
3000
2995
h2
3117
Firstly, find the specific enthalpy (h1) at 20 bar and 320 oC;
At 20 bar,
T
320 300
350 300
350
320
h1 3070.2 kJ/kg
300
3025
h1
3138
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Secondly, find the specific enthalpy (h2) at 3000 kPa and 320 oC;
At 30 bar,
h2 2995 3117 2995
320 300
350 300
T
350
h2 3043.8 kJ/kg
320
300
2995
h2
3117
h h1
h h1
2
25 20 30 20
P
30
25 20
30 20
25
20
h 3057 kJ/kg.
h1
h2
Example 3.9
0.9 m3 of dry saturated steam at 225 kN/m2 is contained in a rigid
cylinder. If it is cooled at constant volume process until the pressure
drops to180 kN/m2, determine the following:
a)
mass of steam in the cylinder
b)
dryness fraction at the final state
Sketch the process in the form of a Pv diagram.
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Firstly, find the specific volume of dry saturated steam at 2.25 bar.
Note that the pressure 2.25 bar is not tabulated in the steam tables and it
is necessary to use the interpolation method.
From the Steam Tables,
vg at 22 0 kPa= 0.8100 m3/kg
vg at 230 kPa = 0.7770 m3/kg
vg1 at 225 kPa,
v g1 0.8100 0.7770 0.8100
2.25 2.20
2.30 2.20
vg1 0.7935 m3/kg
Mass of steam in cylinder, m
V1
vg1
(m3 x kg/m3)
0.9
0.7935
= 1.134 kg
b)
P
bar
2.25
1.80
v1 = v2
0.7935 0.9774
v m3/kg
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Activity 3
3.1
Each line in the table below gives information about phases of pure substances. Fill in
the phase column in the table with the correct answer.
Statement
Phase
i._____________
ii.____________
iii.____________
Write the suitable names of the phases for the H2O in the Pv diagram below.
( ii )
P
( iv )
( vi )
(v)
(i)
T2 = const.
( iii)
T2 > T1
T1 = const.
3.3
The internal energy of wet steam is 2000 kJ/kg. If the pressure is 42 bar, what is the
value of dryness fraction?
3.4
Determine the specific volume, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy of wet
steam at 32 bar if the dryness fraction is 0.92.
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3.5
Find the dryness fraction, specific volume and specific internal energy of steam at 105
bar and specific enthalpy 2100 kJ/kg.
3.6
Steam at 120 bar is at 500 oC. Find the degree of superheat, specific volume, specific
enthalpy and specific internal energy.
3.7
Steam at 160 bar has a specific enthalpy of 3139 kJ/kg. Find the temperature, degree
of superheat, specific enthalpy and specific internal energy.
3.8
3.9
Determine the degree of superheat and entropy of steam at 10 bar and 380oC.
3.10
3.11
A superheated steam at 24 bar and 500oC expands at constant volume until the
pressure becomes 6 bar and the dryness fraction is 0.9. Calculate the changes in the
internal energy of steam. Sketch the process in the form of a Pv diagram.
Feedback To Activity 3
3.1
i)
ii)
iii)
Liquid Phase
Solid Phase
Steam Phase
3.2
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
3.3
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
At 160 bar, hg = 2582 kJ/kg. This is less than the actual specific enthalpy of
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3.8
h 2925
3039 2925
275 250
300 250
300
275
h 2982 kJ/kg
250
2925
3.9
3039
380 350
400 350
400
380
350
s 7.3988 kJ/kg K
7.301
3.10
7.464
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t(oC)
p(bar)
120
600
650
3.159 x 102
v1
125
700
3.605 x 102
v
2.901 x 102
130
v2
3.318 x 102
Firstly, find the specific volume (v1) at 120 bar and 650 oC;
At 120 bar,
T
700
650 600
700 600
600
3.159 x 102
v1
3.605 x 102
v1 3.382 x 10 2 m3/kg
Secondly, find the specific volume (v2) at 130 bar and 650 oC;
At 130 bar,
T
700
650
650 600
700 600
600
2.901 x 102
v2
3.318 x 102
Now interpolate between v1 at 120 bar, 650oC, and v2 at 130 bar, 650oC in order
to find v at 125 bar and 650oC.
At 650oC,
v v1
v v1
2
125 120 130 120
P
130
125
v 3.382 x 10 2
3.1095 x 10 2 3.382 x 10 2
v1
v2
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
3.11
24 20
30 20
30
24
20
u1 3112 .8 kJ/kg
3116
u1
3108
24
221.8 C
v1 = v2
1
158.8oC
2
v1 = v2
500oC
221.8oC
158.8oC
v m3/kg
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
SELFASSESSMENT
1.
2.
3.
t
C
120.2
354.6
425
v
m /kg
3
1
0.9
u
kJ/kg
h
kJ/kg
s
kJ/kg K
6.4
Phase
description
2784
iii.
Steam at 7 bar and dryness fraction 0.9 expands in a cylinder behind a piston
isothermally and reversibly to a pressure of 1.5 bar. Calculate the change of
internal energy and the change of enthalpy per kg of steam.
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Feedback to SelfAssessment
Have you tried the questions????? If YES, check your answers now.
1.
i.
v = 0.11853 m3/kg
h = 2600 kJ/kg
u = 2419.8 kJ/kg
ii.
degree of superheat = 55 oC
v = 2.994 x 102 m3/kg
u = 2750.48 kJ/kg
iii.
2.
3.
3.6
P
bar
2.0
12.0
t
C
120.2
188
175
354.6
200
425
x
0.87
1
v
m3/kg
0.7705
0.1632
u
kJ/kg
2267
2588
h
kJ/kg
2421
2784
s
kJ/kg K
6.4
6.523
0.9

0.007146
0.001147
2319.8
2725.6
2448.1
2955
5.0135
5.753
i.
x = 0.68
s = 5.2939 kJ/kg K
ii.
iii.
h2 h1 = 879 kJ/kg
Phase
description
Wet steam
Dry sat.
steam
Wet steam
Superheated
steam
u2 u1 = 218 kJ/kg
h2 h1 = 246 kJ/kg
79
JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Did you know, one important type of fluid that has many applications in
thermodynamics is the type in which the working temperature of the fluid remains
well above the critical temperature of the fluid? In this case, the fluid cannot be
liquefied by an isothermal compression, i.e. if it is required to condense the fluid, then
cooling of the fluid must first be carried out. In the simple treatment of such fluids,
their behaviours is likened to that a perfect gas. Although, strictly speaking, a perfect
gas is an ideal which can never be realized in practice. The behaviour of many
permanent gases, e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, air etc is very similar to the behaviour of a
perfect gas to a first approximation.
A perfect gas is a collection of particles that:
Boyles Law
The Boyles Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the temperature T of a perfect gas remains constant, then volume, V of a
given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure P of the gas, i.e. P 1/V
(as shown in Fig. 3.11), or P x V = constant if temperature remains constant.
P
P 1/V
1/V
Figure 3.11 Graph P 1/V
If a gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during an isothermal process, then
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
P1 V1 = P2 V2 = constant
(3.1)
If the process is represented on a graph having axes of pressure P and volume V, the
results will be as shown in Fig. 3.12. The curve is known as a rectangular hyperbola,
having the mathematical equation xy = constant.
P
P1
P2
2
3
P3
V1 V2
V3
V
PV = constant
3.8
P1
0.22 m 3
P2
325 kN/m 2
2
170 kN/m
0.421 m 3
Charles Law
The Charless Law may be stated as follows:
Provided the pressure P of a given mass of gas remains constant, then the volume V
of the gas will be directly proportional to the absolute temperature T of the gas, i.e.
V T, or V = constant x T. Therefore V/T = constant, for constant pressure P.
If gas changes from state 1 to state 2 during a constant pressure process, then
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
V1 V2
constant
T1 T2
(3.2)
V1
V2
V2
V1
0.32 m 3
3
0.54 m
618 K
366 K
3.9
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Charles Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with temperature when the
pressure remains constant. Boyles Law gives us the change in volume of a gas with
pressure if the temperature remains constant.
The relation which gives the volume of a gas when both temperature and the pressure
are changed is stated as equation 3.3 below.
PV
constant R
T
(3.3)
i.e.
P1V1
PV
(3.4)
2 2
T1
T2
No gases in practice obey this law rigidly, but many gases tend towards it. An
PV
R
imaginary ideal that obeys the law is called a perfect gas, and the equation
T
is called the characteristic equation of state of a perfect gas.
The constant, R, is called the gas constant. The unit of R is Nm/kg K or J/kg K. Each
perfect gas has a different gas constant.
The characteristic equation is usually written
PV = RT
(3.5)
(3.6)
Another form of the characteristic equation can be derived using the kilogrammole as
a unit. The kilogrammole is defined as a quantity of a gas equivalent to m kg of the
gas, where M is the molecular weight of the gas (e.g. since the molecular weight of
oxygen is 32, then 1 kg mole of oxygen is equivalent to 32 kg of oxygen).
From the definition of the kilogrammole, for m kg of a gas we have,
m = nM
(3.7)
PV
nT
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
PV = nMRT or
(3.8)
Now Avogadros hypothesis states that the volume of 1 mole of any gas is the same as
the volume of 1 mole of any other gas, when the gases are at the same temperature and
pressure. Therefore V/n is the same for all gases at the same value of P and T. That is
the quantity PV/nT is constant for all gases. This constant is called the universal gas
constant, and is given the symbol Ro.
i.e.
MR Ro
PV
or PV nRo T
nT
(3.9)
or since MR = Ro then,
Ro
M
(3.10)
Experiment has shown that the volume of 1 mole of any perfect gas at 1 bar and 1 oC
is approximately 22.71 m3. Therefore from equation 3.8
R0
PV 1 x 10 5 x 22.71
8314.4 J/mole K
nT
1 x 273.15
From equation 3.10 the gas constant for any gas can be found when the molecular
weight is known, e.g. for oxygen of molecular weight 32, the gas constant is
R
Ro 8314.4
259.8 J/kg K
M
32
Example 3.3
0.046 m3 of gas are contained in a sealed cylinder at a pressure of 300 kN/m2
and a temperature of 45 oC. The gas is compressed until the pressure reaches
1.27 MN/m2 and the temperature is 83oC. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect
gas, determine:
a)
b)
Given:
R = 0.29 kJ/kg K
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
0.1496 kg
RT1
0.29 x 318
T2 T1
3.10
1.27 x 10 3
300
318
1346 K
(3.11)
For a perfect gas the values of Cv are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equations (3.11) can then be expanded as follows :
Heat flow in a constant volume process, Q12 = mCv(T2 T1)
(3.12)
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Q W = (U2 U1)
mcv(T2 T1) 0 = (U2 U1)
(U2 U1) = mCv(T2 T1)
i.e.
(3.13)
dU = Q
Note:
In a reversible constant volume process, no work energy transfer can take place
since the piston will be unable to move i.e. W = 0.
The reversible constant volume process is shown on a PV diagram in Fig. 3.4.
P
P2
P1
1
V1 = V2
Example 3.4
3.4 kg of gas is heated at a constant volume of 0.92 m 3 and temperature 17 oC
until the temperature rose to 147 oC. If the gas is assumed to be a perfect gas,
determine:
c)
d)
e)
Given
Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
86
JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
m = 3.4 kg
V1 = V2 = 0.92 m3
T1 = 17 + 273 K = 290 K
T2 = 147 + 273 K = 420 K
Cv = 0.72 kJ/kg K
R = 0.287 kJ/kg K
a)
b)
307.6 kN/m 2
V1
0.92 m 3
c)
3.11
For state 2,
P2V2 = mRT2
mRT2 3.4 kg x 0.287 kJ/kgK x 420 K
P2
445.5 kN/m 2
3
V2
0.92 m
(3.14)
For a perfect gas the values of Cp are constant for any one gas at all pressures and
temperatures. Equation (3.14) can then be expanded as follows:
Heat flow in a reversible constant pressure process Q = mCp(T2 T1)
 KBD/JKM/PUO
(3.15)
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
3.12
3.13
3.16
Cp
(3.17)
Cv
Note that since Cp  Cv= R, from equation 3.16, it is clear that Cp must be greater than
Cv for any perfect gas. It follows therefore that the ratio Cp/Cv = , is always greater
than unity. In general, is about 1.4 for diatomic gases such as carbon monoxide
(CO), hydrogen (H2), nitrogen (N2), and oxygen (O2). For monatomic gases such as
argon (A), and helium (He), is about 1.6, and for triatomic gases such as carbon
dioxide (CO2), and sulphur dioxide (SO2), is about 1.3. For some hydrocarbons the
value of is quite low (e.g. for ethane (C2H6), = 1.22, and for isobutane (C4H10),
= 1.11.
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
R
Cv
Cv
Cp
Cv
, then,
R
Cv
R
( 1)
3.18
R
( 1)
R
( 1)
3.19
Example 3.5
A certain perfect gas has specific heat as follows
Cp = 0.846 kJ/kg K and Cv = 0.657 kJ/kg K
Find the gas constant and the molecular weight of the gas.
89
JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
i.e.
3.14
M=
R0
R
M=
8314
44
189
SUCTION
STROKE
COMPRESSION
STROKE
WORKING
STROKE
EXHAUST
STROKE
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
If the change in temperature during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as an isothermal process. For example, the slow expansion or
compression of fluid in a cylinder, which is perfectly cooled by water may be
analysed, assuming that the temperature remains constant.
P
W
v
v1
v2
From the equation we can know that an increase in the volume results in a decrease in
the pressure. In other words, in an isothermal process, the pressure is inversely
proportional to the volume.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the p V diagram in Fig.3.8.1 it is noted that
the volume increases during the process. In other words the fluid is expanding. The
expansion work is given by
2
pdV
1
2
c
dV
V
1
= c
1
(since pV = C, a constant)
dV
V
2
= p1V1
1
dV
V
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
= p1V1 ln
V2
V1
V2
V1
p1
= mRT1 ln
p2
= mRT1 ln
V2
p
1 )
V1
p2
(3.20)
Note that during expansion, the volume increases and the pressure decreases. On the
p V diagram, the shaded area under the process line represents the amount of work
transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increasing volume), the work is done by the
system. In other words the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W.
Heat transfer:
Energy balance to this case is applied:
U1 + Q = U 2 + W
For a perfect gas
U1 = mcvT1 and U2 = mcvT2
As the temperature is constant
U1 = U2
Substituting in the energy balance equation,
Q=W
(3.21)
Thus, for a perfect gas, all the heat added during a constant temperature process is
converted into work and the internal energy of the system remains constant.
Example 3.6
In an industrial process, 0.4 kg of oxygen is compressed isothermally from
1.01 bar and 22o C to 5.5 bar. Determine the work done and the heat transfer
during the process. Assume that oxygen is a perfect gas and take the molecular
weight of oxygen to be M = 32 kg/kmole.
Solution to Example 3.6
Data: m = 0.4 kg;
p2 = 5.5 bar;
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
8314
32
= 260 J/kgK
= 0.260 kJ/kgK
For an isothermal process
Work input,
p2
W = mRTln
p1
= 0.4 x 0.260 x ( 22 273) ln
5 .5
1.01
= 52 kJ
In an isothermal process all the work input is transferred as heat.
Therefore, heat transferred, Q = W = 52 kJ
3.15.2 Adiabatic process (Q = 0)
If a system is thermally well insulated then there will be negligible heat transfer into or
out of the system. Such a system is thermally isolated and a process within that system
may be idealised as an adiabatic process. For example, the outer casing of steam
engine, steam turbines and gas turbines are well insulated to minimise heat loss. The
fluid expansion process in such machines may be assumed to be adiabatic.
P
2
W
Thermal insulation
v1
v2
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Cp
Cv
p1 V2
(3.22)
Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is given by
the equation below
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
(3.23)
By manipulating equations 3.22 and 3.23 the following relationship can be
determined:
p
T2
2
T1
p1
V1
V2
(3.24)
By examining equations 3.22 and 3.24 the following conclusion for an adiabatic
process on a perfect gas can be drawn:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.4.3) it is noted that the
volume increases during the process.
In other words, the fluid expanding and the expansion work is given by the formula:
2
pdV
1
2
c
dV
1 V
= c
1
(since pV = C, a constant)
dV
V
p V p 2V2
= 1 1
1
(3.25)
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Note that after expansion, p2 is smaller than p1. In the p V diagram, the shaded area
under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
As this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume) the work is done by the
system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W (as shown in Fig 3.8.2).
Heat transfer:
In an adiabatic process, Q = 0.
Applying an energy balance to this case (Fig.3.8.2):
U1  W = U2
W = U1 U2
Thus, in an adiabatic expansion the work output is equal to the decrease in internal
energy. In other words, because of the work output the internal energy of the system
decreases by a corresponding amount.
For a perfect gas, U1 = mcvT1 and U1 = mcvT1
On substitution
W = mCv(T1T2)
(3.26)
We know
Cp Cv = R
or
Cv = 1
mR(T1 T2 )
(3.27)
p1V1 p 2V2
1
(3.28)
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram it is noted that during this
process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect gas, equation
3.24 tells that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.
Example 3.7
In a thermally insulated reciprocating air compressor, air at 0.98 bar and 20oC
is compressed into one sixth of its original volume. Determine the pressure and
temperature of the air after compression. If the compressor cylinder contains
95
0.05 kg of air, calculate the required work input. For air, take KBD/JKM/PUO
= 1.4 and
cv = 0.718 kJ/kgK.
JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
p 2 V1
p1 V2
p2 = 0.98 x 61.4
= 12 bar
1
T2 V 1
T1 V2
T2 = 293 x 60.4
= 600 K
= 327oC
96
JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
pVn = constant
(3.29)
P1
(n = 1.3)
(n = 1.2)
(n = 1.1)
pVn=C
P2
W
v1
Qloss
v2
Or
p 2 V1
p1 V2
(3.30)
Also, for a perfect gas, the general property relation between the two states is given by
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
(3.31)
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
By the manipulation of equations 3.30 and 3.31 the following relationship can be
determined:
p
T2
2
T1
p1
n 1
n
V1
V2
n 1
(3.32)
By examining equations 5.2 and 5.4 the following conclusions for a polytropic process
on a perfect gas can be drawn as:
An increase in volume results in a decrease in pressure.
An increase in volume results in a decrease in temperature.
An increase in pressure results in an increase in temperature.
Work transfer:
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that the
volume increases during the process.
In other words the fluid is expands and the expansion work is given by
2
pdV
1
2
c
dV
n
1 V
dV
n
1 V
p V p 2V2
= 1 1
n 1
= c
(3.33)
Note that after expansion p2 is smaller than p1. In the p V diagram, the shaded area
under the process represents the amount of work transfer.
Since this is an expansion process (i.e. increase in volume), the work is done by the
system. In other words, the system produces work output and this is shown by the
direction of the arrow representing W as shown in Fig. 5.1.
Heat transfer:
Energy balance is applied to this case (Fig.5.1) as:
U1 Qloss  W = U2
Qloss = (U1 U2) W
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
or
W = (U1 U2)  Qloss
Thus, in a polytropic expansion the work output is reduced because of the heat loses.
Referring to the process represented on the pV diagram (Fig.5.1) it is noted that
during this process the volume increases and the pressure decreases. For a perfect gas,
equation 5.4 tells us that a decrease in pressure will result in a temperature drop.
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Example 3.8
The combustion gases in a petrol engine cylinder are at 30 bar and 800oC
V2
8.5
before expansion. The gases expand through a volume ratio (
) of (
)
V1
1
and occupy 510 cm3 after expansion. When the engine is air cooled the
polytropic expansion index n = 1.15. What is the temperature and pressure of
the gas after expansion, and what is the work output?
V2 = 510 cm3
p2 = ?
t2 = ?
Qloss
W
State 1
Data: p1 = 30 bar;
State 2
T1 = 800 + 273 = 1073 K;
V2
= 8.5;
V1
V2 = 510 cm3;
t2 = ?
p2 = ?
n = 1.15
W=?
Considering air as a perfect gas, for the polytropic process, the property relation is
given by equation 5.4 as:
n 1
V
T2 T1 1
V2
1
8
.5
1.15 1
= 1073 x
= 778.4 K
= 505.4oC
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
1
= 30 x
8.5
1.15
= 2.56 bar
Now,
V2 = 510 cm3 = 510 x 106 m3
and,
V2
= 8.5
V1
Then,
V1
510 x10 6
8.5
= 60 x 106 m3
Work output during polytropic expansion is given by equation 5.5 as:
p1V1 p 2V2
n 1
(30 x10 5 )(60 x10 6 ) ( 2.56 x10 5 ) (510 x10 6 )
=
1.15 1
W =
= 330 J
= 0.33 kJ
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Activity 3A
3.2
3.3
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
INPUT
INPUT
3.15.4 Constant volume process
If the change in volume during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant volume process. For example, heating or cooling a fluid in
a rigid walled vessel can be analysed by assuming that the volume remains constant.
Q
p
2
v
a) Heating
b) Cooling
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation
Q W = U2 U1
gives Q 0 = U2 U1
i.e.
Q = U2 U1
(5.7)
This result, which is important and should be remembered, shows that the nett amount
of heat energy supplied to or taken from a fluid during a constant volume process is
equal to the change in the internal energy of the fluid.
Example 5.2
The specific internal energy of a fluid is increased from 120 kJ/kg to 180 kJ/kg
during a constant volume process. Determine the amount of heat energy
required to bring about this increase for 2 kg of fluid.
Solution to Example 5.2
The non flow energy equation is
Q W = U2 U1
For a constant volume process
W=0
and the equation becomes
Q = U2 U1
Q = 180 120
= 60 kJ/kg
Therefore for 2 kg of fluid
Q = 60 x 2 = 120 kJ
i.e.
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
If the change in pressure during a process is very small then that process may be
approximated as a constant pressure process. For example, heating or cooling a liquid
at atmospheric pressure may be analysed by assuming that the pressure remains
constant.
P
W
2
W
v1
v2 v1
v2
Consider the fluid in the piston cylinder as shown in Figure 5.2. If the load on the
piston is kept constant the pressure will also remain constant.
The general property relation between the initial and final states of a perfect gas is
applied as:
p1V1
pV
2 2
T1
T2
If the pressure remain constant during the process, p2 = p1 and then the above relation
becomes
V1 V2
T1
T2
or
T2 V2
(5.8)
T1
V1
From this equation it can be seen that an increase in volume results from an increase in
temperature. In other words, in constant pressure process, the temperature is
proportional to the volume.
Work transfer:
 KBD/JKM/PUO
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Referring to the process representation on the pV diagram it is noted that the volume
increases during the process. In other words, the fluid expands. This expansion work is
given by
2
pdV
1
p dV
(since p is constant)
= p (V2 V1)
(5.9)
Note that on a pV diagram, the area under the process line represents the amount of
work transfer. From Figure 5.3
W = area of the shaded rectangle
= height x width
= p (V2 V1)
(larger volume smaller volume)
This expression is identical to equation 5.9
Heat transfer:
Applying the non flow energy equation
Q W = U2 U1
or
Q = (U2 U1) + W
(5.10)
Thus part of the heat supplied is converted into work and the remainder is utilized in
increasing the internal energy of the system.
Substituting for W in equation 5.10
Q = (U2 U1) + p(V2 V1)
= U2 U1 + p2 V2 p1 V1
= (U2 + p2 V2) (U1 + p1 V1)
(since p2 = p1 )
(5.11)
Referring to the process representation on the pv diagram shown in Figure 5.3, it is
noted that heating increases the volume. In other words, the fluid expands. For a
perfect gas, equation 5.8 tells us that an increase in volume will result in
corresponding increase in temperature.
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Example 5.3
2.25 kg of fluid having a volume of 0.1 m3 is in a cylinder at a constant
pressure of 7 bar. Heat energy is supplied to the fluid until the volume
becomes 0.2 m3. If the initial and final specific enthalpies of the fluid are
210 kJ/kg and 280 kJ/kg respectively, determine
a)
the quantity of heat energy supplied to the fluid
b)
the change in internal energy of the fluid
Solution to Example 5.3
Data: p = 7.0 bar; V1 = 0.1 m3 ; V2 = 0.2 m3
a)
b)
SUMMARY
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PV = mRT
R = C p  Cv
T2 p2
T1
p1
T2 p2
T1
p1
n 1
n
V1
V2
Cp
Cv
Cv
Ro
M
R
( 1)
n 1
V1
V2
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Activity 3B
The pressure of the gas inside an aerosol can is 1.2 bar at a temperature of 25 o
C. Will the aerosol explode if it is thrown into a fire and heated to a
temperature of 600o C? Assume that the aerosol can is unable to withstand
pressure in excess of 3 bar.
5.4
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Feedback To Activity 3B
5.4
873
298
= 3.52 bar
Since the aerosol cannot withstand pressures above 3 bar, it will clearly
explode in the fire.
5.5 Data:
V2 = 0.0658 m3;
T2 =
= 917 K
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
W = p (V2 V1)
From equation pV = RT
i.e.
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SELFASSESSMENT
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check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next
page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1.
A receiver vessel in a steam plant contains 20 kg of steam at 60 bar and 500 oC.
When the plant is switched off, the steam in the vessel cools at constant
volume until the pressure is 30 bar. Find the temperature of the steam after
cooling and the heat transfer that has taken place.
A quantity of gas has an initial pressure and volume of 0.1 MN/m2 and 0.1 m3,
respectively. It is compressed to a final pressure of 1.4 MN/m2 according to the
law pV1.26 = constant. Determine the final volume of the gas.
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1.
2.
3.
0.01235 m3
4.
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Activity 3A
TEST YOUR UNDERSTANDING BEFORE YOU CONTINUE WITH THE
NEXT INPUT!
3.1
Study the statements in the table below. Mark the answers as TRUE or
FALSE.
STATEMENT
i.
ii.
iii.
TRUE or FALSE
iv.
v.
vi.
3.2
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Feedback To Activity 3A
3.1
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
vi.
False
False
True
True
True
False
3.2
V2 = 0.072 m3
P2 = 2.12 bar = 2.12 x 102 kN/m2
P1V1
6.76 x 10 2 x 0.0072
0.3042 kJ/kg K
mT1
0.04 x 400
Ro
M
i.e.
Ro 8.3144
27 kg/kmol
R
0.3042
Molecular weight = 27
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
i.e.
P2V2
2.12 x 10 2 x 0.065
1132.5 K
mR
0.04 x 0.3042
Activity 3B
3.4
A perfect gas is contained in a rigid vessel at 3 bar and 315 oC. The gas is then
cooled until the pressure falls to 1.5 bar. Calculate the heat rejected per kg of
gas.
Given:
M = 26 kg/kmol and = 1.26.
3.5
gas constant
molecular weight
specific heat at constant pressure
specific heat ratio
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Feedback To Activity 3B
3.3
0.268 kJ/kgK
m T2 T1 2(373)
3.4
R
319.8
During the process, the volume remains constant (i.e. rigid vessel) for the mass
of gas present, and from equation 3.4,
P1V1
PV
2 2
T1
T2
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
3.5
Q = Cv(T2 T1)
= 1.230(588 294)
= 361.6 kJ/kg
PV 130 x 0.17
0.426 kJ/kgK
mT
0.18 x 288
ii.
iii.
iv.
Cp
Cv
1.146
1.59
0.720
SELFASSESSMENT
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You are approaching success. Try all the questions in this selfassessment section
and check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the
next page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1. 1 m3 of air at 8 bar and 120 oC is cooled at constant pressure process until the
temperature drops to 27 oC.
Given R = 0.287 kJ/kg K and Cp = 1.005 kJ/kg K, calculate the:
i.
ii.
iii.
mass of air
heat rejected in the process
volume of the air after cooling.
2.
3.
change in temperature
change in internal energy
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
1.
i.
ii.
iii.
2.
W = 24.25 kJ
(U2 U1) = 17.75 kJ
3.
i.
ii.
m = 7.093 kg
Q = 663 kJ
V2 = 0.763 m3
Activity 4
4.2
4.3
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Feedback to Activity 4
4.1
Carbon dioxide is a perfect gas and we can apply the following characteristic
gas equation at state 1.
p1V1 = mRT1
mRT1
V1 =
p1
1x189 x800
20 x10 5
= 0.0756 m3
V2 = 1.08 m3
4.2
Data: m=1kg;
M= 28 kg/kmole
T1 = 20 + 272 = 293 K;
p1 = 1.01 bar;
p2 = 4.2 bar
From equation
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
R=
=
R0
M
8.314
28
= 0.297 kJ/kgK
The process is shown on a pv diagram below. When a process takes place
from right to left on a pv diagram the work done by the fluid is negative. That
is, work is done on the fluid.
p
4.2
pV=C
1.01
v
p1
p2
= 1 x 0.297x293x ln
1.01
4 .2
= 124 kJ/kg
For an isothermal process for a perfect gas,
Q = W = 124 kJ/kg
4.3
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
6.8
1
.02
(1.4 1) / 1.4
T2 = 295 x
= 507.5 K
(where for air = 1.4)
i.e.
Final temperature = 507.5 273 = 234.5oC
From equation 4.4
p 2 V1
p1 V2
v1 p 2
v 2 p1
or
0.015 6.8
v2
1.02
1/
1 / 1.4
0.018kg
RT1
0.287 x10 3195
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
Activity 3A
3.2
3.3
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Feedback To Activity 3A
3.1
p1 V2
p 2 V1
1 .4
p
V
or 2 1
V1 p 2
1 / 1.4
from which,
p
V2 V1 1
p2
1 / 1.4
= V1 1.4
= 0.012 x
1.4
p1
p2
138
690
= 0.0348 m3
3.2
p1V1 p 2V2
n 1
p
V2 V1 1
p2
or
V2 = 0.014 x
2070
207
1 / 1.35
V2 = 0.077 m3
Work done =
= 37.3 x 103 Nm
= 37.3 x 103 J
= 37.3 kJ
3.3
a)
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JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
p1V1n p 2V2n
0.011
n = 1.302
p1V1 p 2V2
n 1
(1x10 5 x 0.06) (9 x10 5 x 0.0111)
=
1.302 1
= 13.2 kJ
W =
The negative sign indicates that work energy would flow into the
system during the process.
b) The nonflow energy equation gives
Q W = U2 U1
Q ( 13.2) = ( 370 x 0.07 ) ( 200 x 0.07 )
Q =  1.3 kJ
The negative sign indicates that heat energy will flow out of the fluid
during the process.
SELFASSESSMENT
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check your answers with those given in the Feedback to SelfAssessment on the next
page. If you face any problem, discuss it with your lecturer. Good luck.
1.
2.
126
JJ207THERMODYNAMICS 1
3.
4.
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1.
56.4 kJ
2.
9.31 kJ
3.
4.
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