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B3001/UNIT2/1

MEASURES OF
CENTRAL
TENDENCY

General Objective

Unit

am
Understanding differences between

mean, mode and median with formula

method and graphical method.

Specific Objectives
khusus
On completion of this unit, the students
should be able to :

1.

Solve mean, mode and median

for ungrouped data and grouped
data using formula method.

2.

Solve mean, mode and median

for ungrouped data and grouped
data using graphical method.

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2.0 INTRODUCTION

Measure of central tendency or measure of location is a value which is

representative of a set of data. The role of central tendency is to determine the central
value of a set of data. The various types of measures of location are mean, mode and
median.

INPUT
2.1 UNGROUPED DATA

2.1.1 Mean
Mean of a set of data is the sum of the values of all observations divided by the total
number of observation.
If the data represent a sample, the mean is defined as follows :
Mean, =

x
N
where,

x
N

= sum of values of all data

= total number of data

Example 2.1:

Find the mean of the following data :

5, 7, 7, 9, 4, 6, 5, 10, 12 and 8
Solution :

x
N
5 7 7 9 4 6 5 10 12 8
=
10

Mean, =

= 7.3
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Example 2.2

Data in Table 2.1 shows the test marks that scored by a student in Mathematics 3.
Table 2.1
Test

Marks

80

100

60

55

75

Solution :

Mean

sum of marks
total number of tests

370
5
= 74
=

So, the student gets 74 as the mean of

his mathematics 3 tests.

2.1.1.1 Frequency Table For Ungrouped Data

You must understand what a frequency table is. Raw data can be summarized in
a frequency distribution table. Frequency distribution table for ungrouped data shows the
number of observations or frequencies for each data. This method can apply if the raw
data is large.

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Example 2.3:

The following data shows the marks scored by 35 students in mid-term exam.
80

45

40

75

85

45

50

80

60

60

40

50

65

80

60

40

60

70

80

60

50

65

45

75

80

75

50

45

40

60

65

70

60

45

50

Calculate the mean of the marks.

Solution :
The marks can be summarized in frequency distribution table for ungrouped data as
follows:
Table 2.2 : Frequency distribution table for ungrouped data
Marks (x)

Total (fx)

80

400

45

225

40

160

60

420

50

250

65

195

70

140

75

225

85

85

Total

35

2100

fx
f
2100
=
35
= 60

Min, =

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2.1.2 Mode

Mode is the value that occurs with the highest frequency in a set data of
data.There are two or more values of mode if there are two or more data that have the
same highest frequency. A set of data also do not have a mode if a data given have the
same frequency.

Example 2.4:
Find the mode of the following data :

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

10, 20, 50, 30, 20, 10, 30 and 50

Solution:
a)

mode, M0 = 20

b)

M0 = 20 dan 50

c)

M0 = 20, 30 dan 50

d)

M0 = 20

e)

M0 = None

This is because all data have the same frequency

Example 2.5 :
Find the mode in table 2.2 above.

Solution :

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2.1.3 Median (M)

Median is the centre value of a set of data after the data is arranged in ascending
or decending order.

Example 2.6:
For a set of data: 3, 6, 11, 4, 8, 14, 21, find the median.

Solution :
3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 21

Arrange the numbers in

ascending order

3 numbers 3 numbers

So, median = 8

Example2.7:
For a set of data 61, 65, 68, 78, 79, 84, 90, 91, determine the median.

Solution :
Arrange the data in ascending order
61, 65, 68, 78, 79, 84, 90, 91
Because there are two numbers in the centre of a set of data,

median =

78 79
2

= 78.5

All sets of data have median but not

all of them have mode

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ACTIVITY 2a

2a.1

Calculate the mean for a set of data:

a) 40, 65, 75, 70, 75, 80
b) 400, 450, 350, 300, 380
c) 250, 350, 300, 200, 700

2a.2

Find the median for these samples of data:

a) 7, 3, 4, 2, 1, 5, 6, 8
b) 30, 35, 38, 37, 40, 45, 33
c) 355, 370, 365, 340, 360

2a.3

Determine the mode for these samples of data :

a) 30, 40, 50, 60, 30, 40, 30
b) 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 4
c) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17

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FEEDBACK 2a

2a.1

a) 67.5
b) 376
c) 360

2a.2

a) 4.5
b) 37
d) 360

2a.3

a) 30
b) 3
c) None

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INPUT
2.2

GROUPED DATA

2.2.1 Mean
Mean for grouped data can be calculated using the formula as follows :

Mean, =

fx
f
where, (sigma) = total
f = frequency
x = class midpoint = Lower lim it Upper lim it
2

Example 2.8:
Find the mean for grouped data in table 2.3below.
Table 2.3
Class

Frequency, f

- 4

30

- 9

51

10

- 14

10

15 - 19

10

Solution :
First, you must complete the frequency table as in table 2.4

Table 2.4
Class

Midpoint, x

Frequency, f

fx

- 4

30

60

- 9

51

357

10

- 14

12

10

120

15 - 19

17

10

170

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f 101
So,

fx 707

15 19 34

= 17
2
2

fx
Min, =
f
707

101
= 7
2.2.2 Median

Median is the center value of a set of data that is arranged in order. For grouped
data, the median class should be determined first before calculating the median by (N/2).
Median is given by the following formula :

F
C
m L 2
fm

Where,

F = cumulative frequency before median class

fm = frequency of median class
C = size of median class

Example 2.9:
Table 2.5 shows the weight of 100 polytechnic students. Calculate the median using
formula.
Table 2.5 : Weight of 100 polytechnic students.
Weight (kg)

Frequency

25 - 49

15

50 - 74

25

75 - 99

30

100 - 129

20

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125 - 149

10

Solution :
Table 2.6 : Frequency distribution table of 100 polytechnic students
Weight

frequency, f

(kg)

Cumulative
frequency

25 - 49

15

15

50 - 74

25

40

75 - 99

30

70

100 - 124

20

90

125 - 149

10

100

Step 1 : Determine median class

Total number of frequency, N = 100
Median class is given by Tn/2 = T 100/2 = T50
Therefore median class is the class 75 -99 kg

L = lower boundary of the median class = 74.5

N = total number of frequency = 100

F = cumulative frequency before median class = 40

fm = frequency of median class = 30
C = size of median class= 99.5 - 74.5 = 25

F
C
med L 2
fm

50 40
med 74.5
25
30
= 82.8 kg

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An ogive is also known as a cumulative frequency graph.

Step 1 : Construct a table with the values of upper boundaries and cumulative
frequencies.
Step 2 : Plot an ogive graph of cumulative frequency against upper boundaries.
The median can be determined from the ogive based on the Tn/2

Example 2.10:
Table 2.7 shows the weight of a group of students.
Berat (kg)

41 - 45

46 - 50

51 - 55

56 - 60

61 - 65

66 - 70

71 - 75

Kekerapan

12

Table 2.7 : Weight of a group of student

Draw an ogive for the given data and from the ogive estimate the median of the weight
of the students.

Solution :
Table 2.8 : Frequency distribution table

Weight

Frequency

(kg)

Cumulative

Upper

Frequency

boundaries

41 - 45

45.5

46 - 50

50.5

51 - 55

14

55.5

56 - 60

12

26

60.5

61 - 65

35

65.5

66 - 70

38

70.5

71 - 75

40

75.5

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Figure 2.1: A less than ogive of weight of a group of student.

Median,m = Tn/2 = T 40/2 = T20
= 58.5 kg ( From the graph)

2.2.3 Mode

2.2.3.1 Formula Method

Mode for grouped data can be determined by the following method :
d1
M 0 LM 0
d1 d 2

dimana,
LM 0 = Lower boundary of the mode class
d1

d2

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Example 2.10
Determine the mode in table 2.9:
Table 2.9

Mode
class

Class

Frequency

118 - 126

127 - 135

136 - 144

145 - 153

12

154 - 162

163 - 171

172 - 180

f M 0 1 9
f M 0 12

f M 0 1 5

Solution :
Mode class : 145 - 153
LM 0 = 144.5
f M 0 12 , f M 0 1 9 , f M 0 1 5

So,

d1 f M 0 f M 0 1 12 9 3
d 2 f M 0 f M 0 1 12 5 7
c9

d1
M 0 LM 0
d1 d 2

3
Mod, M 0 144.5
9
37
= 147.2

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A histogram is constructed based on the frequency distribution. The values of

data (lower boundaries) are plotted on the horizontal axis while the frequencies are
plotted on the vertical axis.

Example 2.11:
Construct a histogram and determine the mode from table 2.10.

Mode
class

Markah

Kekerapan

31 40

41 50

51 60

14

61 70

10

71 80

Solution
Frequency
mode class

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Mode = 56.8

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marks

ACTIVITY 2b
2b.1

The monthly school expenses is shown in the following data. Find the mean,
mode and median using formula and graphical method.
Expenses (RM)
11 21
22 32
33 43
44 54
55 65
66 76
77 - 87

2b.2

Frequency
3
7
10
14
9
6
1
n = 50

The weight of 50 students in kilograms are given in the following table.

Determine the mean, mode and median using formula and graphical method.
Weight (kg)
45 49
50 54
55 59
60 64

Frequency
9
6
16
10
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65 69
70 74
75 - 79

7
2
0

2b.1

Mean = 47.02
Median = 47.4
Mode = 48.38

2b.2

Mean = 57.5
Median= 57.6
Mode = 57.6

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PRACTICES

2-a. The following table shows the height of 50 students in a class. Determine the mean,
mode and median.

Height
(cm)

146 150

151 155

156 160

161 - 165

166 - 170

171 - 175

10

14

11

No. of
Students

2-b. The following table shows the marks scored by 54 students in a Geography Test.
Determine the mean, mode and median for the data.
Marks

0 -19

20 - 39

40 - 59

60 -79

80 -99

No. of Students

16

10

2-c. A sample of wire produced by a factory in 1 week is shown in the table below..
Determine the mean, mode and median.
Diameter(mm)

0.95 0.97

0.98 1.00

1.01 1.03

1.04 1.06

1.07 1.09

Frequency

12

15

11

2-d. i) Find the mean of data :

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4, 5, 78, 75, 70.

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ii) Find the median of data :

2-a.

2-b.

2-c.

2-d

i)

46.8

ii)

90

iii)

None

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