27 views

Uploaded by Ah Tiang

BA201 Engineering Mathematic

- Mean median mode range
- Mean Median Mode
- Statistics and Probability Hl Review Questions
- Probability and Statistics
- CJFS Social Statistics 3710 Study Guide Exam One
- Spot Speed Analysis
- Richards 2004
- Statistics 1 Tutorial - 2nd Session
- Uvar Samples
- Statistics Formula
- Statistics and Probability
- measure og central tencey
- Find the Means
- Statistical Formula
- Chapter 1 MC Take Home Quiz
- 2012 Mathematics Paper1 s
- Chapter 3 - Describing Data
- Mjini_mishe_tuu.docx
- Quantitative Technique.docx
- 2.3_-_Summary_Statistics.pdf

You are on page 1of 19

MEASURES OF

CENTRAL

TENDENCY

General Objective

Unit

am

Understanding differences between

method and graphical method.

Specific Objectives

khusus

On completion of this unit, the students

should be able to :

1.

for ungrouped data and grouped

data using formula method.

2.

for ungrouped data and grouped

data using graphical method.

Page 1

B3001/UNIT2/2

2.0 INTRODUCTION

representative of a set of data. The role of central tendency is to determine the central

value of a set of data. The various types of measures of location are mean, mode and

median.

INPUT

2.1 UNGROUPED DATA

2.1.1 Mean

Mean of a set of data is the sum of the values of all observations divided by the total

number of observation.

If the data represent a sample, the mean is defined as follows :

Mean, =

x

N

where,

x

N

= total number of data

Example 2.1:

5, 7, 7, 9, 4, 6, 5, 10, 12 and 8

Solution :

x

N

5 7 7 9 4 6 5 10 12 8

=

10

Mean, =

= 7.3

Prepared by : NURIZATY MUHAMAD NOR

Page 2

B3001/UNIT2/3

Example 2.2

Data in Table 2.1 shows the test marks that scored by a student in Mathematics 3.

Table 2.1

Test

Marks

80

100

60

55

75

Solution :

Mean

sum of marks

total number of tests

370

5

= 74

=

his mathematics 3 tests.

You must understand what a frequency table is. Raw data can be summarized in

a frequency distribution table. Frequency distribution table for ungrouped data shows the

number of observations or frequencies for each data. This method can apply if the raw

data is large.

Page 3

B3001/UNIT2/4

Example 2.3:

The following data shows the marks scored by 35 students in mid-term exam.

80

45

40

75

85

45

50

80

60

60

40

50

65

80

60

40

60

70

80

60

50

65

45

75

80

75

50

45

40

60

65

70

60

45

50

Solution :

The marks can be summarized in frequency distribution table for ungrouped data as

follows:

Table 2.2 : Frequency distribution table for ungrouped data

Marks (x)

Total (fx)

80

400

45

225

40

160

60

420

50

250

65

195

70

140

75

225

85

85

Total

35

2100

fx

f

2100

=

35

= 60

Min, =

Page 4

B3001/UNIT2/5

2.1.2 Mode

Mode is the value that occurs with the highest frequency in a set data of

data.There are two or more values of mode if there are two or more data that have the

same highest frequency. A set of data also do not have a mode if a data given have the

same frequency.

Example 2.4:

Find the mode of the following data :

a)

b)

c)

d)

e)

Solution:

a)

mode, M0 = 20

b)

M0 = 20 dan 50

c)

M0 = 20, 30 dan 50

d)

M0 = 20

e)

M0 = None

Example 2.5 :

Find the mode in table 2.2 above.

Solution :

Page 5

B3001/UNIT2/6

Median is the centre value of a set of data after the data is arranged in ascending

or decending order.

Example 2.6:

For a set of data: 3, 6, 11, 4, 8, 14, 21, find the median.

Solution :

3, 4, 6, 8, 11, 14, 21

ascending order

3 numbers 3 numbers

So, median = 8

Example2.7:

For a set of data 61, 65, 68, 78, 79, 84, 90, 91, determine the median.

Solution :

Arrange the data in ascending order

61, 65, 68, 78, 79, 84, 90, 91

Because there are two numbers in the centre of a set of data,

median =

78 79

2

= 78.5

all of them have mode

Page 6

B3001/UNIT2/7

ACTIVITY 2a

2a.1

a) 40, 65, 75, 70, 75, 80

b) 400, 450, 350, 300, 380

c) 250, 350, 300, 200, 700

2a.2

a) 7, 3, 4, 2, 1, 5, 6, 8

b) 30, 35, 38, 37, 40, 45, 33

c) 355, 370, 365, 340, 360

2a.3

a) 30, 40, 50, 60, 30, 40, 30

b) 3, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5, 6, 7, 3, 4

c) 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17

Page 7

B3001/UNIT2/8

FEEDBACK 2a

2a.1

a) 67.5

b) 376

c) 360

2a.2

a) 4.5

b) 37

d) 360

2a.3

a) 30

b) 3

c) None

Page 8

B3001/UNIT2/9

INPUT

2.2

GROUPED DATA

2.2.1 Mean

Mean for grouped data can be calculated using the formula as follows :

Mean, =

fx

f

where, (sigma) = total

f = frequency

x = class midpoint = Lower lim it Upper lim it

2

Example 2.8:

Find the mean for grouped data in table 2.3below.

Table 2.3

Class

Frequency, f

- 4

30

- 9

51

10

- 14

10

15 - 19

10

Solution :

First, you must complete the frequency table as in table 2.4

Table 2.4

Class

Midpoint, x

Frequency, f

fx

- 4

30

60

- 9

51

357

10

- 14

12

10

120

15 - 19

17

10

170

Page 9

B3001/UNIT2/10

f 101

So,

fx 707

15 19 34

= 17

2

2

fx

Min, =

f

707

101

= 7

2.2.2 Median

Median is the center value of a set of data that is arranged in order. For grouped

data, the median class should be determined first before calculating the median by (N/2).

Median is given by the following formula :

F

C

m L 2

fm

Where,

fm = frequency of median class

C = size of median class

Example 2.9:

Table 2.5 shows the weight of 100 polytechnic students. Calculate the median using

formula.

Table 2.5 : Weight of 100 polytechnic students.

Weight (kg)

Frequency

25 - 49

15

50 - 74

25

75 - 99

30

100 - 129

20

Page 10

B3001/UNIT2/11

125 - 149

10

Solution :

Table 2.6 : Frequency distribution table of 100 polytechnic students

Weight

frequency, f

(kg)

Cumulative

frequency

25 - 49

15

15

50 - 74

25

40

75 - 99

30

70

100 - 124

20

90

125 - 149

10

100

Total number of frequency, N = 100

Median class is given by Tn/2 = T 100/2 = T50

Therefore median class is the class 75 -99 kg

N = total number of frequency = 100

fm = frequency of median class = 30

C = size of median class= 99.5 - 74.5 = 25

F

C

med L 2

fm

50 40

med 74.5

25

30

= 82.8 kg

Page 11

B3001/UNIT2/12

Step 1 : Construct a table with the values of upper boundaries and cumulative

frequencies.

Step 2 : Plot an ogive graph of cumulative frequency against upper boundaries.

The median can be determined from the ogive based on the Tn/2

Example 2.10:

Table 2.7 shows the weight of a group of students.

Berat (kg)

41 - 45

46 - 50

51 - 55

56 - 60

61 - 65

66 - 70

71 - 75

Kekerapan

12

Draw an ogive for the given data and from the ogive estimate the median of the weight

of the students.

Solution :

Table 2.8 : Frequency distribution table

Weight

Frequency

(kg)

Cumulative

Upper

Frequency

boundaries

41 - 45

45.5

46 - 50

50.5

51 - 55

14

55.5

56 - 60

12

26

60.5

61 - 65

35

65.5

66 - 70

38

70.5

71 - 75

40

75.5

Page 12

B3001/UNIT2/13

Median,m = Tn/2 = T 40/2 = T20

= 58.5 kg ( From the graph)

2.2.3 Mode

Mode for grouped data can be determined by the following method :

d1

M 0 LM 0

d1 d 2

dimana,

LM 0 = Lower boundary of the mode class

d1

d2

Page 13

B3001/UNIT2/14

Example 2.10

Determine the mode in table 2.9:

Table 2.9

Mode

class

Class

Frequency

118 - 126

127 - 135

136 - 144

145 - 153

12

154 - 162

163 - 171

172 - 180

f M 0 1 9

f M 0 12

f M 0 1 5

Solution :

Mode class : 145 - 153

LM 0 = 144.5

f M 0 12 , f M 0 1 9 , f M 0 1 5

So,

d1 f M 0 f M 0 1 12 9 3

d 2 f M 0 f M 0 1 12 5 7

c9

d1

M 0 LM 0

d1 d 2

3

Mod, M 0 144.5

9

37

= 147.2

Page 14

B3001/UNIT2/15

data (lower boundaries) are plotted on the horizontal axis while the frequencies are

plotted on the vertical axis.

Example 2.11:

Construct a histogram and determine the mode from table 2.10.

Mode

class

Markah

Kekerapan

31 40

41 50

51 60

14

61 70

10

71 80

Solution

Frequency

mode class

Mode = 56.8

Page 15

B3001/UNIT2/16

marks

ACTIVITY 2b

2b.1

The monthly school expenses is shown in the following data. Find the mean,

mode and median using formula and graphical method.

Expenses (RM)

11 21

22 32

33 43

44 54

55 65

66 76

77 - 87

2b.2

Frequency

3

7

10

14

9

6

1

n = 50

Determine the mean, mode and median using formula and graphical method.

Weight (kg)

45 49

50 54

55 59

60 64

Frequency

9

6

16

10

Page 16

B3001/UNIT2/17

65 69

70 74

75 - 79

7

2

0

ANSWERS 2b

2b.1

Mean = 47.02

Median = 47.4

Mode = 48.38

2b.2

Mean = 57.5

Median= 57.6

Mode = 57.6

Page 17

B3001/UNIT2/18

PRACTICES

2-a. The following table shows the height of 50 students in a class. Determine the mean,

mode and median.

Height

(cm)

146 150

151 155

156 160

161 - 165

166 - 170

171 - 175

10

14

11

No. of

Students

2-b. The following table shows the marks scored by 54 students in a Geography Test.

Determine the mean, mode and median for the data.

Marks

0 -19

20 - 39

40 - 59

60 -79

80 -99

No. of Students

16

10

2-c. A sample of wire produced by a factory in 1 week is shown in the table below..

Determine the mean, mode and median.

Diameter(mm)

0.95 0.97

0.98 1.00

1.01 1.03

1.04 1.06

1.07 1.09

Frequency

12

15

11

Prepared by : NURIZATY MUHAMAD NOR

Page 18

B3001/UNIT2/19

ii) Find the median of data :

ANSWERS

2-a.

2-b.

2-c.

2-d

i)

46.8

ii)

90

iii)

None

Page 19

- Mean median mode rangeUploaded byIvy Gel Constantino
- Mean Median ModeUploaded byDanish Uzzama Khan
- Statistics and Probability Hl Review QuestionsUploaded byLam Khoa
- Probability and StatisticsUploaded bySaiVenkat
- CJFS Social Statistics 3710 Study Guide Exam OneUploaded byK Fink
- Spot Speed AnalysisUploaded byAmit Garg
- Richards 2004Uploaded byJanos Kovacs
- Statistics 1 Tutorial - 2nd SessionUploaded byAudria M Basyadi
- Uvar SamplesUploaded by13sandip
- Statistics FormulaUploaded byNayan Kanth
- Statistics and ProbabilityUploaded byKarl Angelo Cuellar
- measure og central tenceyUploaded byFaheem Wassan
- Find the MeansUploaded byKong Mike
- Statistical FormulaUploaded byPradip Kulkarni
- Chapter 1 MC Take Home QuizUploaded byStanley Yun
- 2012 Mathematics Paper1 sUploaded byGeorge Chiu
- Chapter 3 - Describing DataUploaded byzanibab
- Mjini_mishe_tuu.docxUploaded byTaimoor Butt
- Quantitative Technique.docxUploaded byKomal
- 2.3_-_Summary_Statistics.pdfUploaded byKyle N Samaroo
- Measure of Central TendencyUploaded bydemondida
- Arens14e_ch17_pptUploaded bySekar Ayu Kartika Sari
- Arens14e_ch17_ppt.pptUploaded byAsem Shaban
- Parte I_final.docUploaded byivoneregina
- SAJC 2010 CTUploaded bychsi94
- Lesson No1 CopyUploaded bySETH
- Mechanical_Report Sergio Ortega ChenoUploaded bySergio Ortega
- Lecture 2 1013Uploaded byzillxs
- Mkt Tutorial EnUploaded byYoustina Phillipe
- Baker Lin (2013) CS Terminology ProposalUploaded byCepi Herdiyan

- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 5(b) Beam DeflectionUploaded byAh Tiang
- CADCAM OverviewUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ308 REPORT Layout and Piping of the Steam Power Plant SystemUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ303 Safety of Welding ReportUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ303 Report TigUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 6 TorsionUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 5(a) Beam DeflectionUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 4(b)Bending StressUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 4(a) Bending StressUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 3(b)Shear Force & Bending Moment bUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 3(a) Shear Force & Bending Moment AUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 2 Thermal Stresses and Composite BarsUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 1(b)Forces on MaterialUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ310 STRENGTH OF MATERIAL Chapter 1(a)Forces on MaterialUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE CH 6 BELT DRIVEUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE Ch 5 BalancingUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE Ch 4 FrictionUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE Ch 3 Velocity and Acceleration DiagramUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE Ch 2 Simple Harmonic MotionUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE CH 1 HOISTUploaded byAh Tiang
- Week 6 - Project 3 - Assembly Drawings.pdfUploaded byPaco Jones
- Week 6 - Project 2 - Dimensions and Annotations.pdfUploaded byPaco Jones
- Week 6 - Project 1 - Drawing View Creation.pdfUploaded byPaco Jones
- JJ306 Autodesk Inventor Week 4 - Project 2 - Assemblies and ConstraintsUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ306 Autodesk Inventor Week 2 - Project 3 - Air Cover PartUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ306 Autodesk Inventor Week 2 - Project 2 - Flange Manifold PartUploaded byAh Tiang
- JJ306 Autodesk Inventor Week 2 - Project 1 - Clevis Mount PartUploaded byAh Tiang
- JF302 Material Technology Topic 6 PlasticUploaded byAh Tiang
- JF302 Material Technology Topic 5 Corrosion and Non-ferrous MetalUploaded byAh Tiang
- JF302 Material Technology Topic 4 Mechanical TestUploaded byAh Tiang

- BOP- FDIUploaded byFbi Phan
- FDA_Guidance_Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Use in Medical Product Development to Support Labeling ClaimsUploaded byAwais Khan
- Homes Can Be Seized for Credit Card DebtUploaded bySimply Debt Solutions
- Chap11 Global Marketing ManagementUploaded byHafeez Malik
- The Role of Entrepreneurial Environments in University Students Entrepreneurial IntentionUploaded byTI Journals Publishing
- program of studyUploaded byapi-319062443
- Beverly Squadron - Sep 2007Uploaded byCAP Unit Newsletters
- Government is Different Paul Appleby SummaryUploaded byDaniel
- Barralastic AseanUploaded byDonny Ari Kusuma
- SE_Catalog_2015_eng_sm.pdfUploaded byedsonlevi
- 4. Dr Hermann PenggUploaded bycrocobaur
- THERMOACOUSTIC REFRIGERATIONUploaded byAnand Krishnan
- Door Hardware SpecUploaded byKhoa Minh Nguyen
- hooverville safety handbook 1-2016Uploaded byapi-307642825
- ch08Uploaded byDivyanshu Yadav
- 7bit ADC design REPORTUploaded byc355289
- LS RF Catalogue-2016Uploaded bynikhom_dk1565
- Indian Weekender #64Uploaded byIndian Weekender
- Python AstmUploaded byxeon1976
- Ccn2001 Quiz2 SolutionsUploaded byuflilla
- UaeUploaded byNamanKhanna
- MrpUploaded byPaul Tello Rojas
- 2960.Configuration.guideUploaded byAbebawu Eshetu
- Surveillance Training (Revised)Uploaded byPriya Mewada
- John Maxwell and His Team Deliver Strategic Leadership Development Tools for Costa Rican Transformation at Request of Costa Rican PresidentUploaded byPR.com
- Rapidshare Download LinksUploaded byyayayal
- 33A Syllabus and ScheduleUploaded bythatscribdacnt
- Emerging Markets SlidesUploaded byFaizan Nasir
- 107_114.pdfUploaded byNipul Bafna
- Extrapolation of Learning Curves of Deep Neural NetworksUploaded byTobiasDomhan