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SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

PREPARED BY:
NAZIHAH BINTI MOHD NOOR

CONTENT

2.1 Concept of simple harmonic motion(SHM)


2.1.1

Define the terminologies in SHM

2.1.2

SHM by using a suitable diagram

2.1.3 Calculate time period, amplitude,


frequency, velocity,
maximum velocity,
acceleration and maximum
acceleration of the SHM
2.2 Linear motion of an elastic motion
2.2.1

Elastic system(spring and mass)

TERMINOLOGIES OF SHM
Motion in which a body moves back
and forth over a fixed path, returning
to each position and velocity after a
definite interval of time.

Equilbrium
Position

FORMULA
SHM

a x
2

x A cos

v A2 x 2
Vmax A
amax A
2

Ar
Inertia mamax m( mass)

2f

f
2
1
T
f
2
T

FUNDAMENTAL
DEFINITIONS
Displacement that measured from the
equilibrium point

Time
Velocity or speed
Acceleration
Mass
Force
angular velocity
Maximum Velocity/Speed
Maximum acceleration

T
v
a
m
F

Vmax
amax

EXERCISE 1
Points moving with simple harmonic motion
have acceleration 9m/s2 and velocity 0.92m/s
when it was in 65mm from the centre position.

Find
i. Amplitude
i. the
Amplitude
ii. Periodic time
movement
SOLUTIONS

ii. Periodic time the movemen

EXERCISE 2 (i)
A particle moving with simple harmonic motion has a
periodic time of 0.4s and it was back and forth
between two points is 1.22m. Determine
i. Frequency and amplitude of the oscillation
ii. Velocity and acceleration of the particle when it is
400mm from the center of oscillation
iii.
The maximum
velocityAmplitude
and acceleration of the
i. Frequency
SOLUTIONS
movement

EXERCISE 2 (ii)
ii. Velocity and acceleration of the particle when
it is 400mm from the center of oscillation

EXERCISE 2 (iii)
iii. The maximum velocity and acceleration of
the movement

EXERCISE 3 (i)
A body of mass 1.5kg moving with simple harmonic
motion is towards one end of the swing. At the time it
was in A, 760mm from the center of oscillation,
velocity and acceleration is 9m/s and 110m/s2
respectively.
Amplitude
i. Frequency and amplitude of the oscillation
of the body
ii.SOLUTIONS
Maximum acceleration
and
the
inertia
i. Frequency
when it to the edge of swing

EXERCISE 3 (ii)
ii. Maximum acceleration and the inertia of the
body when it to the edge of swing

The piston of a steam engine moves with simple


harmonic motion. The crank rotates at 120r.p.m with a
stroke of 2 metres. Find the velocity and acceleration
of the piston when it is at a distance of 0.75metre from
i. Velocity of the piston
the centre.
SOLUTIONS

ii. Acceleration of the piston

SHM DIAGRAM

Max. Displacement = A

Max. Velocity = Vmax = A

Max. Acceleration = amax =

EXERCISE 4
Figures (a) and (b) are the displacement-time graph
and acceleration-time graph respectively of a body in
simple harmonic motion. What is the frequency of the
motion?

SOLUTIONS
Frequency

EXERCISE 5
The following graphs show the variation of
displacement, x and velocity, v with time, t for a body
in simple harmonic motion. What is the value of T?

SOLUTIONS

EXERCISE 6
A particle moves in simple harmonic motion along a
straight line about point x=0.40cm and the velocity is
zero. The frequency of the motion is 2.5Hz. Calculate
the;
i. Period
ii. Angular velocity
iii. Amplitude
iv. Displacement at time t
v. Maximum velocity
vi.SOLUTIONS
Maximum acceleration

i.

Period

iii.

ii. Angular velocity iv.

Amplitude

v.

Maximum velocity

Displacement at time t

vi.

Maximum acceleration

LINEAR MOTION OF AN
ELASTIC MOTION
A spring resists
being stretched or
compressed.

stretched
compressed

Hookes Law
When a spring is stretched, there is a
restoring force that is proportional to the
displacement.

x
m
F = -kx

HOOKE'S LAW
The restoring force of an ideal spring is given by,

where k is the spring constant and x is the


displacement of the spring from its
unstrained length. The minus sign indicates
that the restoring force always points in a
direction opposite to the displacement of
the spring.

The force described by Hookes


Law is the net force in Newtons
Second Law
FHooke FNewton
kx ma
k
a
x
m

k = stiffness of the spring (N/m)


= spring constant (N/m)

k
a
x
m
a x
2

k

m
k

m
2

SHM

2f

f
2
1
T
f
2
T

Mass & Spring


System

Simple Pendulum

k
& 2f
m

k
2f
m

g
& 2f
l

g
2f
l

k
f m
2

g
f l
2

1
T
f

1
T
f

T 2

m
k

T 2

l
g

'

T1 k (e x )
F ma
'

mg T1 ma

e
T1 mg & T1 ke
mg ke

ke ke kx ma
kx ma
k
a
x
m
mg ke
m
e

k
g

e=static deflection
g=gravity

T 2

m
k

T 2

e
g

DISPLACEMENT IN SHM
x

m
x = -A

x=0

x = +A

Displacement is positive when the


position is to the right of the equilibrium
position (x = 0) and negative when
located to the left.
The maximum displacement is called
the amplitude A.

VELOCITY IN SHM
v (-)

v (+)

m
x = -A

x=0

x = +A

Velocity is positive when moving to


the right and negative when moving
to the left.
It is zero at the end points and a
maximum at the midpoint in either
direction (+ or -).

AccelerationinSHM
+a

-x

+x

-a

m
x = -A

x=0

x = +A

Acceleration is in the direction of the


restoring force. (a is positive when x
is negative, and negative when x is
positive.)

F ma kx
Acceleration is a maximum at the end
points and it is zero at the center of
oscillation.

Accelerationvs.Displacement
x

m
x = -A

x=0

x = +A

Given the spring constant, the


displacement, and the mass, the
acceleration can be found from:

F ma kx

or

kx
a
m

e: Acceleration is always opposite to displacement.

EXERCISE 7
A body of mass 14kg being hung with springs straight
from one end attached to a rigid support. The body
produced 25mm static deflection. It was pulled down
23mm and then released. Find
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

The acceleration began to the body


Periodic time
The spring maximum force
Velocity and acceleration the body when it is 12mm
SOLUTIONS
from the equilibrium position

The acceleration began to the body

ii.

Periodic time

The spring maximum force

iv.

Velocity and acceleration the body when it is 12mm from the


equilibrium position

THE SIMPLE PENDULUM


In order to be in SHM, the restoring
force must be proportional to the
negative of the displacement. Here
we have:
which is proportional to sin and
not to itself.
However, if the angle is small,
sin .

Therefore, for small angles, we have:

where
The period and frequency are:

EXERCISE 7
A mass is suspended from a string 60mm long. It is
nudged so that it makes a small swinging oscillation.
Determine the frequency and periodic time.
SOLUTIONS

Thank you !