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JJ311 MECHANICAL OF MACHINE

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You are on page 1of 38

PREPARED BY:

NAZIHAH BINTI MOHD NOOR

CONTENT

2.1.1

2.1.2

frequency, velocity,

maximum velocity,

acceleration and maximum

acceleration of the SHM

2.2 Linear motion of an elastic motion

2.2.1

TERMINOLOGIES OF SHM

Motion in which a body moves back

and forth over a fixed path, returning

to each position and velocity after a

definite interval of time.

Equilbrium

Position

FORMULA

SHM

a x

2

x A cos

v A2 x 2

Vmax A

amax A

2

Ar

Inertia mamax m( mass)

2f

f

2

1

T

f

2

T

FUNDAMENTAL

DEFINITIONS

Displacement that measured from the

equilibrium point

Time

Velocity or speed

Acceleration

Mass

Force

angular velocity

Maximum Velocity/Speed

Maximum acceleration

T

v

a

m

F

Vmax

amax

EXERCISE 1

Points moving with simple harmonic motion

have acceleration 9m/s2 and velocity 0.92m/s

when it was in 65mm from the centre position.

Find

i. Amplitude

i. the

Amplitude

ii. Periodic time

movement

SOLUTIONS

EXERCISE 2 (i)

A particle moving with simple harmonic motion has a

periodic time of 0.4s and it was back and forth

between two points is 1.22m. Determine

i. Frequency and amplitude of the oscillation

ii. Velocity and acceleration of the particle when it is

400mm from the center of oscillation

iii.

The maximum

velocityAmplitude

and acceleration of the

i. Frequency

SOLUTIONS

movement

EXERCISE 2 (ii)

ii. Velocity and acceleration of the particle when

it is 400mm from the center of oscillation

EXERCISE 2 (iii)

iii. The maximum velocity and acceleration of

the movement

EXERCISE 3 (i)

A body of mass 1.5kg moving with simple harmonic

motion is towards one end of the swing. At the time it

was in A, 760mm from the center of oscillation,

velocity and acceleration is 9m/s and 110m/s2

respectively.

Amplitude

i. Frequency and amplitude of the oscillation

of the body

ii.SOLUTIONS

Maximum acceleration

and

the

inertia

i. Frequency

when it to the edge of swing

EXERCISE 3 (ii)

ii. Maximum acceleration and the inertia of the

body when it to the edge of swing

harmonic motion. The crank rotates at 120r.p.m with a

stroke of 2 metres. Find the velocity and acceleration

of the piston when it is at a distance of 0.75metre from

i. Velocity of the piston

the centre.

SOLUTIONS

SHM DIAGRAM

Max. Displacement = A

EXERCISE 4

Figures (a) and (b) are the displacement-time graph

and acceleration-time graph respectively of a body in

simple harmonic motion. What is the frequency of the

motion?

SOLUTIONS

Frequency

EXERCISE 5

The following graphs show the variation of

displacement, x and velocity, v with time, t for a body

in simple harmonic motion. What is the value of T?

SOLUTIONS

EXERCISE 6

A particle moves in simple harmonic motion along a

straight line about point x=0.40cm and the velocity is

zero. The frequency of the motion is 2.5Hz. Calculate

the;

i. Period

ii. Angular velocity

iii. Amplitude

iv. Displacement at time t

v. Maximum velocity

vi.SOLUTIONS

Maximum acceleration

i.

Period

iii.

Amplitude

v.

Maximum velocity

Displacement at time t

vi.

Maximum acceleration

LINEAR MOTION OF AN

ELASTIC MOTION

A spring resists

being stretched or

compressed.

stretched

compressed

Hookes Law

When a spring is stretched, there is a

restoring force that is proportional to the

displacement.

x

m

F = -kx

HOOKE'S LAW

The restoring force of an ideal spring is given by,

displacement of the spring from its

unstrained length. The minus sign indicates

that the restoring force always points in a

direction opposite to the displacement of

the spring.

Law is the net force in Newtons

Second Law

FHooke FNewton

kx ma

k

a

x

m

= spring constant (N/m)

k

a

x

m

a x

2

k

m

k

m

2

SHM

2f

f

2

1

T

f

2

T

System

Simple Pendulum

k

& 2f

m

k

2f

m

g

& 2f

l

g

2f

l

k

f m

2

g

f l

2

1

T

f

1

T

f

T 2

m

k

T 2

l

g

'

T1 k (e x )

F ma

'

mg T1 ma

e

T1 mg & T1 ke

mg ke

ke ke kx ma

kx ma

k

a

x

m

mg ke

m

e

k

g

e=static deflection

g=gravity

T 2

m

k

T 2

e

g

DISPLACEMENT IN SHM

x

m

x = -A

x=0

x = +A

position is to the right of the equilibrium

position (x = 0) and negative when

located to the left.

The maximum displacement is called

the amplitude A.

VELOCITY IN SHM

v (-)

v (+)

m

x = -A

x=0

x = +A

the right and negative when moving

to the left.

It is zero at the end points and a

maximum at the midpoint in either

direction (+ or -).

AccelerationinSHM

+a

-x

+x

-a

m

x = -A

x=0

x = +A

restoring force. (a is positive when x

is negative, and negative when x is

positive.)

F ma kx

Acceleration is a maximum at the end

points and it is zero at the center of

oscillation.

Accelerationvs.Displacement

x

m

x = -A

x=0

x = +A

displacement, and the mass, the

acceleration can be found from:

F ma kx

or

kx

a

m

EXERCISE 7

A body of mass 14kg being hung with springs straight

from one end attached to a rigid support. The body

produced 25mm static deflection. It was pulled down

23mm and then released. Find

i.

ii.

iii.

iv.

Periodic time

The spring maximum force

Velocity and acceleration the body when it is 12mm

SOLUTIONS

from the equilibrium position

ii.

Periodic time

iv.

equilibrium position

In order to be in SHM, the restoring

force must be proportional to the

negative of the displacement. Here

we have:

which is proportional to sin and

not to itself.

However, if the angle is small,

sin .

where

The period and frequency are:

EXERCISE 7

A mass is suspended from a string 60mm long. It is

nudged so that it makes a small swinging oscillation.

Determine the frequency and periodic time.

SOLUTIONS

Thank you !

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