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NED Robotics Group

NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

NED ROBOTICS
GROUP

Master the Mystery of Machines
Maarij Raheem

NED Robotics Group Strategy without tactics is the slowest route to victory. (Sun Tzu) (Book: The Art of War) . Tactics without strategy is the noise before defeat.

Always have a backup plan or an alternate solution in mind. Before designing a robot following things must be considered: Identifying the task Keeping in mind the dimensional constraints Planning and designing an appropriate structure which includes CAD drawings and use simulation if possible. 4. It look very attractive. Material selection should be of great importance. This is the first task in designing the structure of the robot. Adequate support for sagging members needs to be in place to eliminate chattering. It is highly recommended to have a test drive of the base before designing rest of the robot. This Test drive should ensure smooth movement in forward direction at maximum allowable speed. Rotating on 360 degrees at its geometrical center. density durability The materials cost and availability are also important factors. chattering MECHANICAL DESIGNING The base normally consists of a rectangular Metallic structure with four wheels. In Backward direction. toughness. . This would provide stability to the structure which would ultimately result in smooth turning. Base design 2. What materials are suitable for the design? 3. Consult an experience machinist in order to rectify the design problems because most of the things we consider in our design can’t actually be performed practically. hardness.NED Robotics Group Mechanical Structure A simple and stable mechanical structure is the most important thing while making a robot. The wheels are coupled with the base and the motors to give the drive to the robot. So that in case your design fails you can apply the alternate one. L Key bolts have good strength and must be given preference in fitting operations. Aluminum is considered to be the best for robot designing having the following properties. Acrylic Sheets can also be used in the base. Once your base hase gone through all of these tasks. Fastening elements 5. One thing that usually lacks in the mechanical structure is the centre of gravity being too high keep the centre of gravity of the robot as low as possible. strength. The detailed knowledge about various mechanical considerations during designing a robot is as under: 1. Consultation with the members of electronics is very important as mechanical structure is of no worth if one can’t control it electronically. Taking a 90 degree turn. Keep the center of gravity as low as possible. You can rock any arena.

Weight 8. This problem appears at the completion of the structure. Once you have completed the robot then you are bound to make the body of the robot as it has been by the end. Make use of minimum possible motors. Because of the infinite torque of power window motors you cannot manually move the shaft of the motor and as you need to position your arm in a default position before starting the robot.Motors 10. Selection of wheels should also be done carefully you can make your own wheels with nylon but don’t forget to use a rubber hovering for them otherwise they will skid on the arena. Pitman motors are the best motors for driving a robot. Driving Motors This is the most critical part usually leads to design failure. You can get an Omni Directional drives Using simple wheels by using a stirring motor on each wheel which is able to rotate the wheels along with their driving motors at 90o. if your driving motors are working on 48 volts you can not drive the power window with the same voltage supply). But Mecanum and Omni wheels are not available in Pakistan and are very expensive. The design should be as light as possible. But don’t use the mechanical brakes they will result in breakage of the shaft of the motor at higher speed. It has infinite stationary torque also which will be very use full in holding the mechanism at a particular position.NED Robotics Group 6. Electronic Circuitry: 15. Proper slots for placing batteries and circuit boards and sensor boards should be made to avoid miss handling of the electronic circuitry. 12.e. Geared motors provide necessary braking for stopping the robot. I mean you can only give the desired looks in initial phases. 11. Keep the Mechanism as simple as possible that will be easy to control electronically. if weight is not balanced the structure will bend towards one of the wheel making the other rotate in air. They work good up to 48V and have a good speed and torque. 13. Wheels Diameter of wheels should not be greater than 10cm to get the maximum efficiency from your Pitman motors. It can lift heavy objects because of its high torque. Also Power window motors works on 12 V. Batteries have got most of the weight which you can adjust as per your requirements so one way is to adjust the weight using batteries. Mechanism 9. Weight distribution 7. To simplify the controlling. You need to place contact switches in the mechanism (which are pressed only when the arm is in default position). Therefore proper home work is required to avoid it. Omni Drives 14. so you need some separate motor driver of 12 V for this motor (i. Looks .Mechanism motors You can use Power Window motor for mechanism at it is comparatively slow in speed. You can achieve the Omni drives using Mecanum wheels or Omni Directional Wheels. This is probably the least important thing to be done earlier but can only be done at initial phases. and verify if the mechanism is in its default position before running the actual program.

Below is the picture of the force vectors of the omni wheels when the robot is moving in the forward direction. here we will explain the phenomenon on which the mechanum wheels work. rota caster wheels. Hence we can obtain movements in various directions by acctuating motors of each wheel in the following sequence. Meccanum wheels. . etc. Also in this cas all the x components are cancelling each other and results in the movement in only y-direction. Following are some of the pictures of Meccanum wheels. x and y components of the force.NED Robotics Group OMNI WHEELS: Omni wheels are of various types for eg.e. As you can see the wheels are manufactured so the they are exerting force in two directions i. The rest of the wheels are left as an exercise.

Choosing appropriate Mechanism for the robot is the most important task in making a mechanical design.youtube.com/watch?v=CGZBtZbZ714 And here is my favourite NERC robot ever. You can witness these movies clicking here. turn right. The winner of NERC 2010. reverse. Differential http://www. forward.com/watch?v=jQhZlsrFN6M Mechanisms: There are various kinds of mechanism can be used for various purposes.youtube.youtube.e. right side left side rotate colock wise. GENEVA MECHANISM: http://www.com/watch?v=iBLE0_Sjqw4&feature=related 3.com/watch?v=7-JvQ4pMB_0&feature=related 5.NED Robotics Group Hence using omni wheels you can drive your wheel in All directions i.com/watch?v=KnASJHtbGB0&feature=related 2. Crank Slider Mechanism: http://www.youtube. turn left. 2) http://www. Use it for precise angular movements: http://www.youtube. 3D Joint -Simple Mechanism Autodesk Inventor 2010: . rotate counter clockwise.com/watch?v=2atiOFA-qnQ&feature=player_embedded 4. Following are the videos and descriptions of some robotic mechanisms: 1.youtube. 1) http://www.

NED Robotics Group http://www.youtube. Gear system that changes speed: http://www. Hexapodator: http://www.com/watch?v=qgiiGFp0MKY&feature=related 7.youtube. Gear system that changes direction: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-0VBO13XTGM&NR=1 6.youtube.com/watch?v=3aobPgGzB-U&feature=related 8.com/watch?v=BgSSFjCD050&NR=1 .