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College of Engineering

Civil Engineering Department

A report on Water Resources Engineering

Group 1 V31
Belleza, Jireh
Cabatian, Arnold
Tagarro, Lauranze Angelo
Teodoro, John Michael Vincent
Tiamzon, Mark Johanzon

Engr. Merlin Deblois Herrera

Water Resources Engineering professor


from French rservoir a "storehouse

a lake-like area where water is kept until it is needed

In Civil Engineering:

A reservoir is a natural or artificial lake or large tank used for collecting and storing
water, especially for community water supplies or irrigation

Two Provenience Categories:

1. Natural - part of the land and are not made by people. Lakes and ponds are natural
2. Man-made - made by people

Types of Reservoirs

1. Valley dammed reservoir - a dam constructed in a valley. The valley sides act as natural
walls with the dam located at the narrowest practical point to provide strength and the
lowest practical cost of construction. In many reservoir construction projects people have
to be moved and re-housed, historical artifacts moved or rare environments relocated.
2. Bank-side reservoir- constructed to store the water pumped or siphoned from the river.
Such reservoirs are usually built partly by excavation and partly by the construction of a
complete encircling bund or embankment which may exceed 6 km in circumference.
Both the floor of the reservoir and the bund must have an impermeable lining or core,

initially these were often made ofpuddled clay, but have generally been superseded by the
modern use of rolled clay. The water stored in such reservoirs may have a residence time
of several months during which time normal biological processes are able to substantially
reduce many contaminants and almost eliminate any turbidity. The use of bank-side
reservoirs also allows a water abstraction to be closed down for extended period at times
when the river is unacceptably polluted or when flow conditions are very low due to
3. Service reservoir - store fully treated potable water close to the point of distribution.
Many service reservoirs are constructed as water towers, often as elevated structures on
concrete pillars where the landscape is relatively flat. Other service reservoirs are entirely
underground, especially in more hilly or mountainous country. Service reservoirs perform
several functions including ensuring sufficient head of water in the water distribution
system and providing hydraulic capacitance in the system to even out peak demand from
consumers enabling the treatment plant to run at optimum efficiency. Large service
reservoirs can also be managed so that energy costs in pumping are reduced by
concentrating refilling activity at times of day when power costs are low.

Main Uses of Reservoirs:

Direct water supply - The reservoir does not simply hold water until it is needed; it can
also be the first part of the water treatment process. The time the water is held for before
it is released is known as the retention time. This is a design feature that allows particles
and silts to settle out, as well as time for natural biological treatment
using algae, bacteria and zooplankton that naturally live within the water.

Hydroelectricity - A reservoir generating hydroelectricity includes turbines connected to

the retained water body by large-diameter pipes. These generating sets may be at the base
of the dam or some distance away.
Controlling watercourses
Downstream water supply - water may be released from an upland reservoir so
that it can be abstracted for drinking water lower down the system, sometimes
hundred of miles further down downstream
Irrigation - water in an irrigation reservoir may be released into networks
of canals for use in farmlands or secondary water systems. Irrigation may also be
supported by reservoirs which maintain river flows allowing water to be
abstracted for irrigation lower down the river.
Flood control - also known as an "attenuation" or "balancing"
reservoir, flood control reservoirs collect water at times of very high rainfall, then
release it slowly over the course of the following weeks or months.
Canals - a reservoir may be built to guarantee the water level in the canal; for
example, where a canal climbs to cross a range of hills through locks.
Recreation - water may be released from a reservoir to artificially create or
supplement white-water conditions for kayaking and other white-water sports.
Flow balancing - taking in water during high flows and releasing it again during low
flows. In order for this to work without pumping requires careful control of water levels
using spillways. When a major storm approaches, the dam operators calculate the volume
of water that the storm will add to the reservoir. If forecast storm water will overfill the
reservoir, water is slowly let out of the reservoir prior to, and during, the storm. If done

with sufficient lead time, the major storm will not fill the reservoir and areas downstream
will not experience damaging flows. Accurate weather forecasts are essential so that dam
operators can correctly plan drawdowns prior to a high rainfall event.

Two Categories according to use:

Storage (conservation) [i.e., Atatrk dam]
Distribution (service)

[for emergencies & firefighting]

Total reservoir storage components:

a) Normal pool level
b) Minimum pool level
c) Active storage
d) Dead storage
e) Flood control storage
f) Surcharge storage

Normal pool level is the maximum elevation to which the reservoir surface will rise for
ordinary reservoir operations.

Minimum pool level is the lowest allowable elevation to which the reservoir surface
level can fall.

Dead storage is located below minimum pool level. The top elevation is dictated by
amount of sediment accumulation at the end of the life time of reservoir.

Therefore, the elevation of the lowest sluiceway must be located at least at minimum pool
level. Water stored below this level is not available for any use.

The storage between minimum and normal pool levels is named as useful or active

The flood control storage occupies between the retarding and normal pool levels.

The surcharge storage stays between retarding and maximum pool level.

The design period (also called the design life ) is not the same as the life expectancy. The
design period is the length of time it is estimated that the facility will be able to meet the
demand, that is, the design capacity.
The number of years selected for the design period is based on the following:

Regulatory constraints.
The rate of population growth.
The interest rate for bonds.
The useful life of the structures and equipment.
The ease or difficulty of expansion.
Performance in early years of life under minimum hydraulic load.

Water Treatment Process

1. Pretreatment
2. Aeration
3. Flash Mixing
4. Coagulation/Flocculation
5. Sedimentation
6. Filtration
7. Disinfection

Reservoir Sedimentation
Reservoir sedimentation is filling of the reservoir behind a dam with sediment carried into the
reservoir by streams. The flow of water from the catchment upstream of a reservoir is capable of
eroding the catchment area and of depositing material either upstream of the reservoir, or in the
still water of the reservoir. The nature of the material in the catchment area and the slope of the
catchment area and the inlet streams are a factor, as is the nature of the ground cover. Heavy
rainfall falling on erodible material on a steep slope with little ground cover resulting from
overgrazing or wildfire is a recipe for substantial sediment transport and significant reservoir
sedimentation. The formation of gullies can also be anticipated if streambed conditions are
Release of bed load and deposition of suspended materials carried by inflow in the reservoir
comprise the sedimentation process. Sedimentation is a phenomenon due to which capacity of
reservoir reduces with lapse of time. This Phenomena of sedimentation mainly depends upon
area, topography, rainfall, agriculture pattern and forest in catchments area. The sediment
deposition has adverse effect such as reduction in storage capacity, increase in back water level,
formation of shoals. For effective planning and use of stored water optimally it is necessary to
find the actual rate of sedimentation and revised capacity of reservoirs. Therefore hydrographic
survey (sedimentation survey) is to be carried out periodically for every reservoir.


eventually fill all reservoirs

determine the useful life of reservoirs
important factor in planning

River carry some suspended sediment and move bed load (larger solids along the bed).
Large suspended particles + bed loads deposited at the head of the reservoir & form delta.
Small particles suspend in the reservoir or flow over the dam.