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Domestic

Water
Heating
Design
Published by

American
Society of
Plumbing
Engineers

Manual
Second Edition

ii

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

The Domestic Water Heating Design Manual, Second Edition, is designed to provide accurate
and authoritative information for the design and specification of domestic water heating
systems. The publisher makes no guarantees or warranties, expressed or implied, regarding
the data and information contained in this publication. All data and information are provided
with the understanding that the publisher is not engaged in rendering legal, consulting,
engineering, or other professional services. If legal, consulting, or engineering advice or other
expert assistance is required, the services of a competent professional should be engaged.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers


2980 S. River Rd
Des Plaines, IL 600018
(847) 296-0002
E-mail: aspehq@aol.com Internet: www.aspe.org

Copyright 2003 by American Society of Plumbing Engineers


First Edition published in 1998 by American Society of Plumbing Engineers.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
ISBN 978-1-891255-18-2
Printed in the United States of America
10

Contents

xiii

ILLUSTRATIONS
Figure 2.1 Weekday vs. Weekend Consumption . . . . . 20
Figure 2.2 Seasonal Variations, Weekend
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Figure 2.3 Seasonal Variations, Weekend
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Figure 2.4 Consumption curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Figure 2.5 Comparison of DHW Peak Consumption . . 29
Figure 2.6 Parts of 3-Hour DHW Peak Consumption . . 29
Figure 2.7 Parts of Peak 60 Minutes DHW
Consumption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Figure 2.8 Peak Demand Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Fixture 14.1 Upfeed Hot Water System with
Heater at Bottom of System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
Figure 14.2 Downfeed Hot Water System with
Heater at Top of System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Figure 14.3 Upfeed Hot Water System with
Heater at Bottom of System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240
Figure 14.4 Downfeed Hot Water System with
Heater at Top of System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Figure 14.5 Combination Upfeed and Downfeed
Hot Water System with Heater at
Bottom of System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Figure 14.6 Combination Downfeed and Upfeed
Hot Water System with Heater at Top of System. . 242
Figure 14.7 Instantaneous Point-of-Use Water
Heater Piping Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Figure 14.8 Fixed Orifices and Venturi Flow Meters. 246
Figure 14.9 Preset Self-Limiting Flow Control
Cartridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Figure 14.10 Adjustable Orifice Flow Control Valve. . 248
Figure 14.11 Adjustable Balancing Valve with
Memory Stop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Figure 15.1 Construction of a Typical Heating Cable
for Hot Water Temperature Maintenance. . . . . . . 268
Figure 15.2 Components of a Hot Water Temperature
Maintenance System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
Figure 15.3 Symbols Used to Indicate Components
of a Heat Traced Hot Water Supply System. . . . . . 273
Figure 15.4 Partial Simplified System Typical of
Hospitals, Correctional Facilities, and Hotels. . . . 276

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Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Figure 15.5 Typical Layout for 2 to 4-Story


Hospitals, Research Labs, Correctional Facilities,
and Dormitories. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 17.1 Indirect Water Heater Designs. . . . . . . .
Figure 17.2 Purdue Bulletin 74 Chart, Showing
the Relationship Between Lime Deposits and
Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 18.1 A Typical Electric Water Heater. . . . . . . .
Figure 18.2 Electric Water Heater Element Types. . .
Figure 18.3 Electric Water Heater Element
Construction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 18.4 Location of ControlsResidential and
Light-Duty, Commercial Electric Water Heaters . .
Figure 18.5 Location of ControlsCommercial
Electric Water Heaters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 18.6 Location of ControlsBooster Type,
Commercial Electric Water Heaters. . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.1 Location and Types of Flue. . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.2 Sacrificial Anode Installation in a
Residential Gas Water Heater Tank. . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.3 Example of Water Heater Fittings. . . . . .
Figure 20.4 The Principle of Operation of the
Dip Tube. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.5 Types of Gas Burner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.6 Commonly Used Draft Hoods. . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.7 Downdraft Conditions in a Vertical
Draft Hood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 20.8 Vent Connection to a Chimney . . . . . . . .
Figure 22.1 Recirculation System Piping and
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 23.1 A Closed Hot Water System Showing
the Effects as Water and Pressure Increase
from (a) P1 and T1 to (b) P2 and T2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Figure 23.2 Effects of an Expansion Tank in a
Closed System as Pressure and Temperature
Increase from (a) P1 and T1 to (b) P2 and T2. . . . . .
Figure 23.3 Sizing the Expansion Tank. . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents

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TABLES
Table 1.1 Hot Water Multiplier, P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 1.1(M) Hot Water Multiplier, P . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 1.2 Typical Delivered Hot Water Temperatures
for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment . . . . . . . . .
Table 1.2(M) Typical Delivered Hot Water
Temperatures for Plumbing Fixtures and
Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. 12

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Table 1.3 Time/Water Temperature Combinations


Producing Skin Damage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Table 2.1 Occupant Demographic Characteristics . . . . 24
Table 2.2 Low, Medium, and High Guidelines:
Hot Water Demands and Use for Multifamily
Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Table 4.1 School Grade Divisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Table 4.2 Potential Areas of Hot Water Usage . . . . . . . 46
Table 4.3 Hot Water Demand per Fixture for Schools . 49
Table 4.4 General Purpose Hot Water
Requirements of Kitchen Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . 50
Table 4.5 Rinse Water (180195F)
Requirements of Commercial Dishmachines . . . . . 50
Table 4.5(M) Rinse Water (8291C)
Requirements of Commercial Dishmachines . . . . . 51
Table 6.1 General Purpose Hot Water
Requirements for Various Kitchen Uses . . . . . . . . . 87
Table 6.2 Usage Factors for User Groups . . . . . . . . . . 88
Table 8.1 General Purpose Hot Water
Requirements for Various Kitchen Uses . . . . . . . . 151
Table 8.2 Usage Factors for User Groups . . . . . . . . . 152
Table 10.1 Tank Size Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Table 10.1(M) Tank Size Selection Chart . . . . . . . . . . 200
Table 10.2 Hot Water Requirements after
Initial Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Table 10.2(M) Hot Water Requirements after
Initial Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Table 11.1 Fixture/Equipment Table . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Table 14.1 Water Contents and Weight of Tube
or Piping per Linear Foot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Table 14.1(M) Water Contents and Weight of Tube
or Piping per Meter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Table 14.2 Approximate Fixture and Appliance
Water Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

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Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Table 14.3 Approximate Time Required to Get


Hot Water to a Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 14.3(M) Approximate Time Required to Get
Hot Water to a Fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 14.4 Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness . . .
Table 14.4(M) Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness .
Table 14.5 Approximate Insulated Piping Heat
Loss and Surface Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 14.5(M) Approximate Insulated Piping Heat
Loss and Surface Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 14.6 Heat Loss from Various Size Tanks
with Various Insulation Thicknesses . . . . . . . . .
Table 14.6(M) Heat Loss from Various Size Tanks
with Various Insulation Thicknesses . . . . . . . . .
Table 15.1 Time for Hot Water to Reach Fixture . . .
Table 15.1(M) Time for Hot Water
to Reach Fixture (sec) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 15.2 Water Wasted While Waiting for
Hot Water to Reach Fixture (oz) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 15.2(M) Water Wasted While Waiting for
Hot Water to Reach Fixture (mL) . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 15.3 Nominal Maintenance
Temperatures, F (C) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 18.1 Resistance of Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 23.1 Thermodynamic Properties of Water
at a Saturated Liquid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Table 23.2 Nominal Volume of Piping . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents

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ACRONYMS

ACEEE American Council for Energy Efficient Economy


ADA Americans with Disabilities Act
AGA American Gas Association
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and
Air-Conditioning Engineers
ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
ASPE American Society of Plumbing Engineers
CCU Critical care unit
DHW Domestic hot water
EPDM Ethylene propylene diene monomer
ER Emergency room
HBV Hepatitis B virus
HIV Human immunodeficiency virus
HVAC Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning
ICU Intensive care unit
LMH Low, medium, and high
LPG Liquid petroleum gas
NEC National Electric Code
NFPA National Fire Protection Association
NR Nitrile rubber
NSF National Sanitation Foundation
OB Obstetrics
OHRD Ontario Hydro Research Division
PSIG Pounds per square inch gauge
SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors
National Association
TEMA Tubular Exchange Manufacturers Association
UL Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.

Contents

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CONTENTS

FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
ACRONYMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi
SECTION I SYSTEM SIZING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.

FUNDAMENTALS OF DOMESTIC WATER


HEATING
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Basic Relationships and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Thermal Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Heat RecoveryElectric Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Mixed Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Delivered Hot Water Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Safety and Health Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Scalding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Legionella Pneumophila (Legionnaires Disease) . . . 14
Relief Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Storage and Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
System Alternative Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

2.

MULTIFAMILY BUILDINGS
Introduction
Background
Weekday
Seasonal

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Vs. Weekend Demand Patterns .
Demand Patterns . . . . . . . . . . .

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Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Demand Flow Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Identification of Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Demand Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Application of LMH Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peak Demand Vs. Average Demand . . . . . . . . . . .
Potential of Generating Storage . . . . . . . . . . .
Time of Day of Peak Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Peak Demand and Average Demand . . . . . . .
Retrofit to Existing Systems (Customized Sizing) .
Research on Generation Rate and Storage
Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2.1 Traditional Multifamily Building
Example 2.2 Special Use Housing Facility . . .
Possible Traps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY SCHOOLS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information Gathering . . . . . . . . . .
General Considerations . . . . . . . . . .
Kitchen and Food Service . . . . . . . .
Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
School Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating the Hot Water Demand .
General Purpose Demand . . . . .
Kitchen Demand . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shower Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 4.1 Elementary School
Example 4.2 High School . . . . .
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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DORMITORIES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Student Dormitories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 3.1 Student Dormitory . . . .
Institutional Dormitories . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 2.2 Institutional Dormitory .

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HOTELS AND MOTELS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Contents

Hotel and Motel Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Convention Hotel or Motel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Business Travelers Hotel or Motel . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resort Hotel or Motel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Occupancy Hotel or Motel . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guest Room Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Questions and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 5.1 Guest Room Demand . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food Service Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Questions and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Guide to Estimating Hourly Demand . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 5.2 Food Service Demand . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laundry Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Questions and Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 5.3 Laundry Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Criteria Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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HOSPITALS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety and Health Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Group Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheets and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheet 6.AUser Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheet 6.BUser Group Totals . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheet 6.AUser GroupExample 6.1 . . . . . .
Table 6.1General Purpose Hot Water
Requirements for Various Kitchen Uses . . . . . .
Table 6.2Usage Factors for User Groups . . . . . . .
Questions for Owner or Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patient Areas and Nurses Stations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hydrotherapy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dietary and Food Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surgical Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laundry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Central Sterile Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Obstetrics/Nursery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Areas (e.g., Lab, Administration,
Maintenance, Autopsy, the Morgue) . . . . . . . . .

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Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Example 6.232-Bed Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Example 6.3300-Bed Hospital . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111

7.

SPAS, POOLS, HEALTH CLUBS, AND


ATHLETIC CENTERS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Information Gathering . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Water Requirements . . . . . . . . .
Therapies/Special Needs . . . . . .
Shower Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Demands . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculating the Hot Water Demand .

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130

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety and Health Concerns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Group Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheets and Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheet 8.AUser Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheet 8.BUser Group Totals . . . . . . . . . .
Worksheet 8.AUser GroupExample . . . . . . .
Table 8.1General Purpose Hot Water
Requirements for Various Kitchen Uses . . . .
Table 8.2Usage Factors for User Groups . . . . .
Questions for Owner or Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nursing/Intermediate Care Facility . . . . . . . . . .
Retirement Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: 48-Bed Nursing/Intermediate Care and
Retirement Home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Description of User Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Questions for Owner or Client . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
User Group Worksheets, 48-Bed Nursing/
Intermediate Care and Retirement Home . . .
User Group Totals Worksheet, 48-Bed Nursing/
Intermediate Care and Retirement Home . . .

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156
156
157

NURSING/INTERMEDIATE CARE AND


RETIREMENT HOMES

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. 176

JAIL AND PRISON HOUSING UNITS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

Contents

vii

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Water Demand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Jail Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculations for Jail Housing Units . . .
Auxiliary Equipment Demand . . . . . . .
Recommendation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prison Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Criteria and Assumptions . . . .
Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Calculations for Inmate Housing Units
Storage Tank Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kitchen Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laundry Considerations . . . . . . . . . . .

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196
196
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197
197
197
198
198
198
198

10. INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Examples of Industrials . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Design Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Areas within Industrial Facilities . . . . . . .
Washrooms and Toilets . . . . . . . . . . .
Wash Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selection of Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Heater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Facility-Specific Design Issues . . . . . . . . .
Meat and Food Processing Facilities .
Manufacturing Facilities . . . . . . . . . .
Pharmaceutical Facilities . . . . . . . . . .
Food Product Facilities . . . . . . . . . . .
Chemical Processing Facilities . . . . . .
Facilities that Process Raw Materials .
Printing and Publishing Facilities . . .
Central Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Warehouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fluid Treatment Facilities . . . . . . . . .
Miscellaneous Uses of Hot Water . . . . . . .
Photo Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ready-Mix Concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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viii

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

11. SPORTS ARENAS AND STADIUMS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gathering Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Heating System Temperature . . . . . . . . .
Design Traps to Avoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Considerations: Commercial Laundries
Assumptions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 11.1 Football Stadium . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 11.2 Baseball Stadium . . . . . . . . . . .

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204
205
205
206
206
207
208
208
210
210
211
214

12. LAUNDRIES
Introduction . . . . . . . . . .
System Design Questions
Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 12.1 . . . . . . . . .

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227
228
228
229
229

13. MISCELLANEOUS FACILITIES


Religious Facilities . . . . . . . . . . .
Kitchen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Baptistries . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Toilet Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Considerations . . . . . .
Grocery and Convenience Stores .
Toilet Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Other Considerations . . . . . .
Retail Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fast Food Restaurants . . . . . . . .
Toilet Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Office Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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SECTION II EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231


14. RECIRCULATING DOMESTIC HOT WATER
SYSTEMS
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Length and Time Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

Contents

ix

Results of Delays in Delivering Hot Water


to Fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods of Delivering Reasonably Prompt Hot
Water Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Circulation Systems for Commercial, Industrial,
and Large Residential Projects . . . . . . . . . . .
Self-Regulating Heat Trace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Point-of-Use Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Potential Problems in Circulated Hot Water
Maintenance Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Water Velocities in Hot Water Piping Systems . .
Balancing Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Isolating Portions of Hot Water Systems . . . . . .
Maintaining the Balance of Hot Water Systems .
Providing Check Valves at the Ends of
Hot Water Loops . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Delay in Obtaining Hot Water at
Dead-End Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow Balancing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fixed Orifices and Venturis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Factory Preset Automatic Flow Control Valves . .
Flow Regulating Valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Balancing Valves with Memory Stops . . . . . . . . .
Sizing Hot Water Return Piping Systems and
Recirculating Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 14.1Calculation to Determine Required
Circulation Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recalculation of Hot Water System Losses . . . . .
Establishing the Head Capacity of the Hot Water
Circulating Pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hot Water Circulating Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Control for Hot Water Circulating Pumps . . . . . . . .
Air Elimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 238
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245

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. 254
. 255
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259
259
261
261

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265
266
267
269
270

15. SELF-REGULATING HEAT TRACE SYSTEMS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Product Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying the Piping Requiring Heat Tracing

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Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Temperature Systems . . . . . . . . . . .
Remodels and Additions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coordinating Design Information . . . . . . . . . . . .
Determining the Temperature to Maintain . . . . . .
Choosing the Right Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal Insulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Tracing Hot Water Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combining Horizontal Mains with Supply Risers .
Hot Water Heat Tracing Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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272
272
273
274
274
275
275
276
278

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Codes and Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plumbing Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heating Medium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Countercurrent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature Cross . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Shell and Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plate Type Heat Exchanger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Heat Exchangers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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279
280
280
280
280
280
281
281
281
282
284
288

16. HEAT EXCHANGERS

17. INDIRECT FIRED WATER HEATERS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Product Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storage Tank Type Indirect Water Heaters .
Instantaneous Indirect Water Heaters . . . .
Water Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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291
293
295

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298
298
298
300
300

18. ELECTRIC WATER HEATERSSTORAGE


AND BOOSTER
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Principal Types of Electric Water Heater
Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tank Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dip Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Contents

xi

Controls for Residential and Light-Duty,


Commercial Electric Water Heaters . . . . . . .
Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controls for Medium-Duty, Commercial Electric
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Surface-Mounted Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersion Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controls for Heavy-Duty, Commercial Electric
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersion Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersion High Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wiring Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controls for Booster Type, Commercial Electric
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersion Thermostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Immersion High Limit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wiring Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . 303
. . . . 303
. . . . 303
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308
308
308
308
308
308

19. GAS WATER HEATERSINSTANTANEOUS


WITH SEPARATE TANK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
20. GAS WATER HEATERSSTORAGE
Types of Gas Water Heaters
Flues and Heat Exchangers .
Tanks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tank Fittings . . . . . . . . . . .
Dip Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Burners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Venting Systems . . . . . . . . .
Draft Hoods. . . . . . . . . .
Vent Connections . . . . .

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313
313
314
314
315
319
321
321
323

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of Heat Pump Water Heater . . . . .
Integral Heat Pump Water Heaters .
Remote Heat Pump Water Heaters . .
Energy Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Benefits of the Heat Pump Water Heater

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325
326
326
327
327
328

21. HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

xii

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Drawbacks of the Heat Pump Water Heater .


Heat Recovery Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Criteria for Selecting Heat Pump
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Special Requirements for Heat Pump
Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Incoming Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Safety Controls and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . 328
. . . . . . . 329
. . . . . . . 330
. . . . . . . 331
. . . . . . . 331
. . . . . . . 332
. . . . . . . 332

22. STEAM WATER HEATERS


Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Instantaneous Water Heaters . . . . . . . .
Storage Water Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Feedback Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Feed-Forward Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Recirculation System Piping and Operation .
Design Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example 22.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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333
333
333
334
336
338
340
341

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343
346
348
348
349
351
353
354

23. EXPANSION TANKS


Introduction . . . . . . . .
Expansion of Water . . .
Example 23.1 . . . .
Expansion of Materials
Example 23.2 . . . .
Boyles Law . . . . . . . . .
Example 23.3 . . . .
Summary . . . . . . . . . .

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INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 355

Section

SYSTEM
SIZING
Every effort has been made to include all segments of the water
heating industrydesigners and manufacturersin the writing
and reviewing of this manual. The writers, coordinators and reviewers of this book made every attempt to include new
technologies when known and applicable. However, this manual
is designed to be a work in progress. As engineers and designers use and apply the material in this design manual, it will be
revised and updated so that future editions will represent an
ever expanding base of knowledge and experience.
Two important water heating system components, safety equipment and controls, have been intentionally omitted from this
manual. Because specific safety equipment and controls may vary
significantly according to water heater types and manufacturers
and applicable code requirements, this manual includes a general synopsis of the relevant data. This approach inherently limits
the scope of the information covered. Therefore, it is recommended
that information concerning safety equipment and controls be
closely coordinated with water heater manufacturers and checked
against local code requirements.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

FUNDAMENTALS
OF DOMESTIC
WATER HEATING

INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the information needed to size a domestic
hot water system. Some of the information presented here is
referred to throughout the Manual; other information will be
helpful at various stages of the design process, such as selecting
a type of water heater and calculating energy usage.

BASIC RELATIONSHIPS AND UNITS


The equations used throughout the Manual are based on the
principle of energy conservation. The fundamental formula for
this expresses a steady-state heat balance for the heat input and
output of the system:
(1.1)

q = rwcT

where
q =
r =
w =
c =
T1 =
i

time rate of heat transfer, Btu/h (kJ/h)


flow rate, gph (L/h)
weight of heated water, lb/gal (kg/m3)
specific heat of water, Btu/lb/F (kJ/kg/K)
change in heated water temperature (temperature
of leaving water minus temperature of incomn
g
water, represented in this manual as Th Tc, F [K])

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.
1 Be sure that the minimum supply water temperature in the equation represents the actual time of year that peak load occurs.

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

For the purposes of this manual, the specific heat of water


shall be considered a constant, c = 1 Btu/lb/F (c =
4.19 kJ/kg/K), and the weight of water shall be constant at
8.33 lb/gal (999.6 kg/m3). (The specific heat and the weight of
water will actually vary with temperature and altitude.)
(1.2)

[( )(

q = gph

1 Btu
lb/F

[(

m3
h

q=

)]

8.33 lb (T)
gal

)(

4.188 kJ
kg/K

) ]}

999.6 kg
m3

( T)

Example 1.1 Calculate the heat output rate required to heat


600 gph from 50 to 140F (2.27 m3/h from
283.15 to 333.15K).
Solution
From Equation 1.2,
q = (600 gph)(8.33 Btu/gal/F)(140 50F)
= 449,820 Btu/h
[q = (2.27 m3/h)(4188.32 kJ/m3/K)(333.15 283.15K)
= 475 374 kJ/h]
Note: The designer should be aware that water heaters installed in high elevations must be derated based on the elevation.
The water heaters manufacturers data should be consulted for
information on required modifications.

THERMAL EFFICIENCY
When inefficiencies of the water heating process are considered,
the actual input energy is higher than the usable, or output, energy. Direct fired water heaters (i.e., gas, oil, etc.) lose
part of their total energy capability to such things as heated flue
gases, inefficiencies of combustion, and radiation at heated surfaces. Their thermal efficiency, Et, is defined as the heat actually
transferred to the domestic water divided by the total heat input
to the water heater. Expressed as a percentage, this is:
(1.3)

Et =

q
100%
q+B

where
B

= heat loss of the water heater, Btu/h (kJ/h)

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

Refer to Equations 1.1 and 1.2 to determine q. Many water


heaters and boilers provide input and output energy information.
Example 1.2 Calculate the heat input rate required for the water
heater in Example 1.1 if this is a direct, gas fired
water heater with a thermal efficiency of 80%.
From Example 1.1, q = 449,820 Btu/h
(475 374 kJ/h). Heat input =

Solution

449,820 Btu/h
q
=
= 562,275 Btu/h
Et
0.80
q
475 374 kJ/h
=
Et
0.80

= 594 217.5 kJ/h

HEAT RECOVERYELECTRIC WATER HEATERS


Assume that 1 kilowatt-hour of electrical energy will raise 410
gal (1552.02 L) of water 1F (C). This can expressed in a series
of formulas, as follows:
410 gal
= gal of water per kWh at T
T
1552.02 L
= L of water per kWh at T
T

(1.4)

gph T
= kWh required
410 gal

(1.5)

L/h T
= kWh required
1552.02 L

(1.6)

gph
= kW required
gal of water per kWh at T

L/h
= kW required
L of water per kWh at T

where
T = temperature rise (temperature differential), F (C)
gph = gallons per hour of hot water required
L/h = liters per hour of hot water required
Equation 1.4 can be used to establish a simple table based
on the required temperature rise.

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Temperature Rise, T, F (C)


110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

Gal (L) of Water per kWh

(43)
(38)
(32)
(27)
(21)
(16)
(10)
(4)

3.73
4.10
4.55
5.13
5.86
6.83
8.20
10.25

(14.12)
(15.52)
(17.22)
(19.42)
(22.18)
(25.85)
(31.04)
(38.8)

This table can be used with Equation 1.6 to solve for the kW
electric element needed to heat the required recovery volume of
water.
Example 1.3 An electric water heater must be sized to provide a
continuous flow of 40 gph (151.42 L/h) of hot water at a temperature of 140F (43C). The incoming
water supply during winter is 40F (4C).
Solution

Using Equation 1.6 and the above table, we find


the following:
40 gph
= 9.8 kW required
4.1 gal/kWh (100F)

151.42 L/h
= 9.8 kW required
15.52 L/kWh (38C)

MIXED WATER TEMPERATURE


Mixing water at different temperatures to make a desired mixed
water temperature is the main purpose of domestic hot water
systems. The design of systems that effectively do that is
the purpose of this manual.
(1.7)

P =

(Tm Tc)
(Th Tc)

where
Th = supply hot water temperature
Tc = inlet cold water temperature
Tm = desired mixed water temperature

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

P is a hot water multiplier and can be used to determine the


percentage of supply hot water that will blend the hot and cold
water to produce a desired mixed water temperature. Values of P
for a range of hot and cold water temperatures are given in Table
1.1.
Example 1.4
A group of showers requires 25 gpm (1.58 L/sec) of 105F (41C)
mixed water temperature. Determine how much 140F (60C) hot
water must be supplied to the showers when the cold water temperature is 50F (10C).
Solution
P = (105 50F)/(140 50F) = 0.61. [P = (41 10C)/(60 10C)
= 0.61]. Therefore, 0.61 (25 gpm) = 15.25 gpm of 140F water
required. [0.61 (1.58 L/sec) = 0.96 L/sec of 60C water required.]
Table 1.1 may also be used to determine P.

Table 1.1 Hot Water Multiplier, P


Th =110F Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

50

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

55

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

60

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

65

1.00

0.89

0.78

0.67

Th = 120F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


120

115

110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

50

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

55

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

60

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

0.67

0.58

65

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

0.64

0.55

(Continued)

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

(Table 1.1 continued)


Th = 130F Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


130

125

120

115

110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

50

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

55

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

60

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

0.57

0.50

65

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

0.54

0.46

Th = 140F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


140

135

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

50

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

55

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

60

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

0.50

0.44

65

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

0.47

0.40

Th = 150F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


150

145

140

135

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

45

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

50

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

55

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

60

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

0.44

65

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

0.41

(Continued)

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

(Table 1.1 continued)


Th = 160F Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


160

155

150

145

140

135

130

125

120

115

110

45

1.00

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.83

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.65

0.61

0.57

50

1.00

0.95

0.91

0.86

0.82

0.77

0.73

0.68

0.64

0.59

0.55

55

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

60

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

65

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

Th = 180F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


180

175

170

165

160

155

150

145

140

135

130

45

1.00

0.96

0.93

0.89

0.85

0.81

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.67

0.63

50

1.00

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.85

0.81

0.77

0.73

0.69

0.65

0.62

55

1.00

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.84

0.80

0.76

0.72

0.68

0.64

0.60

60

1.00

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.83

0.79

0.75

0.71

0.67

0.63

0.58

65

1.00

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.83

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.65

0.61

0.57

110

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

0.57

0.50

0.43

0.36

0.29

120

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

0.67

0.58

0.50

0.42

0.33

0.25

0.17

130

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

140

1.00

0.88

0.75

0.63

0.50

0.38

0.25

0.13

150

1.00

0.83

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.17

160

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

10

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Table 1.1 (M) Hot Water Multiplier, P


Th = 43C Hot Water System Temperature
Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)

Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

10

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

13

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

16

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

18

1.00

0.89

0.78

0.67

Th = 49C Hot Water System Temperature


Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)

Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

49

46

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

10

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

13

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

16

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

0.67

0.58

18

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

0.64

0.55

Th = 54C Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


54

52

49

46

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

10

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

13

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

16

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

0.57

0.50

18

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

0.54

0.46

(Continued)

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

11

[Table 1.1 (M) continued]


Th = 60C Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


60

58

54

52

49

46

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

10

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

13

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

16

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

0.50

0.44

18

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

0.47

0.40

Th = 66C Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


66

63

60

58

54

52

49

46

43

41

38

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

10

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

13

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

16

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

0.44

18

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

0.41

Th = 71C Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


71

68

66

63

60

58

54

52

49

46

43

1.00

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.83

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.65

0.61

0.57

10

1.00

0.95

0.91

0.86

0.82

0.77

0.73

0.68

0.64

0.59

0.55

13

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

16

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

18

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

(Continued)

12

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

[Table 1.1 (M) continued]


Th = 82C Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (C)
7
10
13
16
18
43
49
54
60
66
71

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


82

79

77

74

71

68

66

63

60

58

54

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.93
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.83
0.75

0.93
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.91
0.86
0.83
0.80
0.75
0.67
0.50

0.89
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.87
0.79
0.75
0.70
0.63
0.50
0.25

0.85
0.85
0.84
0.83
0.83
0.71
0.67
0.60
0.50
0.33

0.81
0.81
0.80
0.79
0.78
0.64
0.58
0.50
0.38
0.17

0.78
0.77
0.76
0.75
0.74
0.57
0.50
0.40
0.25

0.74
0.73
0.72
0.71
0.70
0.50
0.42
0.30
0.13

0.70
0.69
0.68
0.67
0.65
0.43
0.33
0.20

0.67
0.65
0.64
0.63
0.61
0.36
0.25
0.10

0.63
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.57
0.29
0.17

DELIVERED HOT WATER TEMPERATURE


The generally accepted delivered hot water temperatures for various
plumbing fixtures and equipment are given in Table 1.2. Both
temperature and pressure should be verified with the client and
checked against local codes and the manuals of equipment used.

Table 1.2 Typical Delivered Hot Water Temperatures


for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
Use
Lavatory
Showers and tubs
Commercial and institutional laundry
Residential dishwashing and laundry
Commercial spray type dishwashing (as required by the NSF):
Single or multiple tank hood or rack type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank conveyor type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank rack or door type:
Single temperature wash and rinse
Chemical sanitizing glassware: Wash
Rinse

Temp. (F)
105
110
140180
140
150
180195
160
180195
165
140
75

Note: Be aware that temperatures, as dictated by codes, owners, equipment manufacturers, or regulatory agencies, will occasionally differ from those shown.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

13

Table 1.2 (M) Typical Delivered Hot Water


Temperatures for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
Use
Lavatory
Showers and tubs
Commercial and institutional laundry
Residential dishwashing and laundry
Commercial spray type dishwashing (as required by the NSF):
Single or multiple tank hood or rack type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank conveyor type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank rack or door type:
Single temperature wash and rinse
Chemical sanitizing glassware: Wash
Rinse

Temp. (C)
41
43
6082
60
66
8291
71
8291
74
60
24

Note: Be aware that temperatures, as dictated by codes, owners, equipment manufacturers, or regulatory agencies, will occasionally differ from those shown.

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS


Scalding2
A research project by Moritz and Henriques at Harvard Medical
College3 looked at the relationship between time and water temperature necessary to produce a first-degree burn. A first-degree
burn, the least serious type, results in no irreversible damage.
The results of the research show that it takes a 3-sec exposure to
140F (60C) water to produce a first-degree burn. At 130F (54C),
it takes approximately 20 sec, and at 120F (49C), it takes 8 min
to produce a first-degree burn.
The normal threshold of pain is approximately 118F (48C).
A person exposed to 120F (49C) water would immediately experience discomfort; it is unlikely then that the person would be
exposed for the 8 min required to produce a first-degree burn.
People in some occupancies (e. g., hospitals) as well as those over

2For more information regarding Scalding, refer to ASPE Research Foundation.


1989. Temperature limits in service hot water systems. Journal of Environmental
Health. (June): 3848.
3Moritz, A. R., and Henriques, F. C., Jr. 1947. The relative importance of time and
surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns. American Journal of
Pathology. 23: 695720.

14

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

the age of 65 and under the age of 1 may not sense pain or move
quickly enough to avoid a burn once pain is sensed. If such a
possibility exists, scalding protection should be considered. It is
often required by code. (For more information on skin damage
caused by exposure to hot water, see Table 1.3.)

Table 1.3 Time/Water Temperature Combinations


Producing Skin Damage
Water Temperature
F
Over 140
140
135
130
125
120

C
Over 60
60
58
54
52
49

Time (sec)
Less than 1
2.6
5.5
15
50
290

Source: Tom Byrley. 1979. 130 degrees F or 140 degrees F. Contractor Magazine.
(September). First published in American Journal of Pathology.
Note: The above data indicate conditions producing the first evidence of skin damage in adult males.

Legionella Pneumophila (Legionnaires Disease)


Legionnaires disease is a potentially fatal respiratory illness. The
disease gained notoriety when a number of American Legionnaires contracted it during a convention. That outbreak was
attributed to the water vapor from the buildings cooling tower(s).
The bacteria that cause Legionnaires disease are widespread in
natural sources of water, including rivers, lakes, streams, and
ponds. In warm water, the bacteria can grow and multiply to
high concentrations. Drinking water containing the Legionella
bacteria has no known effects. However, inhalation of the bacteria into the lungs, e.g., while showering, can cause Legionnaires
disease. Much has been published about this problem, and yet
there is still controversy over the exact temperatures that foster
the growth of the bacteria. Further research is required, for there
is still much to be learned. It is incumbent upon designers to
familiarize themselves with the latest information on the subject
and to take it into account when designing their systems. Designers also must be familiar with and abide by the rules of all
regulating agencies with jurisdiction.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

15

RELIEF VALVES
Water heating systems should be protected from excessive temperatures and pressures by relief valves. Temperature and
pressure relief valves are available either separately or combined.
Typically they are tested to comply with the standards of the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American Gas Association (AGA), or the National Board of Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBPVI) and are so labeled. The designer should verify which agencys standards are applicable to
the water heating system being designed and follow those standards for the sizes, types, and locations of required relief valves.

THERMAL EXPANSION
Water expands as it is heated, and some way to allow for this
expansion should be provided in a domestic hot water system.
Use of a thermal expansion tank in the cold water piping to the
water heater will do this. It is recommended that the designer
contact the manufacturer of the thermal expansion tank for information on installation and sizing. The plumbing code requires
some type of thermal expansion compensationexpecially when
there is either a backflow prevention device on the cold water
service to the building or a check valve in the system.

CONTROLS
The control components for water heaters differ depending on the
type of heater and the manufacturer. Generally, water heater controls should be checked with the equipment manufacturer. Also,
the various regulatory and testing agencies have requirements for
controls that depend on the size and type of equipment used.

STORAGE AND RECOVERY


The design of a domestic water heating system begins with estimating the facilitys load profile and identifying the peak demand
times. To accomplish these steps, the designer must conduct
discussions with the users of the space, determine the building
type, and learn of any owner requirements. The information thus
gathered will establish the required capacity of the water heating
equipment and the general type of system to be used. With fuel

16

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

fired equipment, to avoid condensation, the equipment and the


operating temperature should be selected to ensure that the
heaters operating temperature is not lower than the dewpoint
temperature of the flue gas.

Stratification
There is a natural tendency of warm water to rise to the top of a
storage tank. The result of this rising action, known as stratification, occurs in all unrecirculated tanks. It has been found
that the percent useable storage volume in stratified horizontal
and vertical tanks has a range of 6575% to 8090%, respectively. Not all tanks are created equal; the percent usable storage
volume can be affected by such items as the flow rates, the points
of connection, tank capacity and by tank recirculation systems.
Stratification during recovery periods can be reduced significantly by mechanical circulation of the water in the tank. During
periods of demand, however, it is useful to have good stratification since this increases the availability of water at a usable
temperature. If, for example, a tank were stratified with the top
half at 140F (60C) and the bottom half at 40F (4C), this tank,
in theory, could still deliver half its volume at 140F (60C). But,
if the two layers were completely mixed, the tank temperature
would drop to 90F (32C), which, in most cases, is an unusable
temperature.

CODES AND STANDARDS


The need to conform to various codes and standards determines
many aspects of the design of a domestic hot water system as
well as the selection of components and equipment.
Some of the most often used codes and standards are:
1. Regional, state, and local plumbing codes.
2. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/IES 90.1.
3. ASME code for fired and unfired pressure vessels.
4. ASME and AGA codes for relief valves.
5. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) listing for electrical components.
6. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) listing.
7. AGA approval for gas burning components.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

17

8. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards.


9. National Electrical Code (NEC).
In addition, the federal government, the agencies with jurisdiction over public schools and public housing, and many other
agencies have specific requirements that must be observed when
designing projects and selecting equipment for them.

SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE CONSIDERATIONS


The design and selection of water heating systems are part of a
process that involves assumptions, decisions, and trade-offs.
The general organization of this manual separates application
considerations and load determinations (Section I) from the selection of equipment (Section II). While this is possible for most
conventional water heating systems, it does not yield the optimum
solution for many advanced, high-efficiency water heating systems.
These systems include refrigerant-based systems like heat pump
water heaters; refrigeration heat reclaim systems; and multifunction, full-condensing equipment. These and other systems like solar
water heaters have a higher cost per unit of heating capacity than
most conventional systems. Often the most cost-effective configuration for these systems tends to use higher storage volumes and
lower heating rates than those recommended in the following chapters. These systems are frequently configured as hybrid systems,
combining both an advanced high-efficiency system as the primary,
base-loaded water heater and a conventional water heater for peaking or supplemental water heating.
Advanced, high-efficiency systems may offer significant benefits; however, their design and selection is necessarily more
detailed. The seasonal and instantaneous efficiency and output
of these systems vary greatly with operating conditions. Because
they are not selected to meet the peak water heating load, load
calculations must address not simply the peak but the water
heating load shape. Their higher cost per unit of heating capacity
as compared to most conventional systems places a higher premium on accurate load determination since oversizing has a more
marked effect on system cost. Other considerations such as a
buildings cooling load or waste heat availability may also come
into play. The capacities of these systems and any related supplemental water heating equipment should be selected to achieve
high average daily run time and the lowest combination of operating and equipment cost.

Section

SYSTEM
SIZING
Every effort has been made to include all segments of the water
heating industrydesigners and manufacturersin the writing
and reviewing of this manual. The writers, coordinators and reviewers of this book made every attempt to include new
technologies when known and applicable. However, this manual
is designed to be a work in progress. As engineers and designers use and apply the material in this design manual, it will be
revised and updated so that future editions will represent an
ever expanding base of knowledge and experience.
Two important water heating system components, safety equipment and controls, have been intentionally omitted from this
manual. Because specific safety equipment and controls may vary
significantly according to water heater types and manufacturers
and applicable code requirements, this manual includes a general synopsis of the relevant data. This approach inherently limits
the scope of the information covered. Therefore, it is recommended
that information concerning safety equipment and controls be
closely coordinated with water heater manufacturers and checked
against local code requirements.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

FUNDAMENTALS
OF DOMESTIC
WATER HEATING

INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides the information needed to size a domestic
hot water system. Some of the information presented here is
referred to throughout the Manual; other information will be
helpful at various stages of the design process, such as selecting
a type of water heater and calculating energy usage.

BASIC RELATIONSHIPS AND UNITS


The equations used throughout the Manual are based on the
principle of energy conservation. The fundamental formula for
this expresses a steady-state heat balance for the heat input and
output of the system:
(1.1)

q = rwcT

where
q =
r =
w =
c =
T1 =
i

time rate of heat transfer, Btu/h (kJ/h)


flow rate, gph (L/h)
weight of heated water, lb/gal (kg/m3)
specific heat of water, Btu/lb/F (kJ/kg/K)
change in heated water temperature (temperature
of leaving water minus temperature of incomn
g
water, represented in this manual as Th Tc, F [K])

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.
1 Be sure that the minimum supply water temperature in the equation represents the actual time of year that peak load occurs.

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

For the purposes of this manual, the specific heat of water


shall be considered a constant, c = 1 Btu/lb/F (c =
4.19 kJ/kg/K), and the weight of water shall be constant at
8.33 lb/gal (999.6 kg/m3). (The specific heat and the weight of
water will actually vary with temperature and altitude.)
(1.2)

[( )(

q = gph

1 Btu
lb/F

[(

m3
h

q=

)]

8.33 lb (T)
gal

)(

4.188 kJ
kg/K

) ]}

999.6 kg
m3

( T)

Example 1.1 Calculate the heat output rate required to heat


600 gph from 50 to 140F (2.27 m3/h from
283.15 to 333.15K).
Solution
From Equation 1.2,
q = (600 gph)(8.33 Btu/gal/F)(140 50F)
= 449,820 Btu/h
[q = (2.27 m3/h)(4188.32 kJ/m3/K)(333.15 283.15K)
= 475 374 kJ/h]
Note: The designer should be aware that water heaters installed in high elevations must be derated based on the elevation.
The water heaters manufacturers data should be consulted for
information on required modifications.

THERMAL EFFICIENCY
When inefficiencies of the water heating process are considered,
the actual input energy is higher than the usable, or output, energy. Direct fired water heaters (i.e., gas, oil, etc.) lose
part of their total energy capability to such things as heated flue
gases, inefficiencies of combustion, and radiation at heated surfaces. Their thermal efficiency, Et, is defined as the heat actually
transferred to the domestic water divided by the total heat input
to the water heater. Expressed as a percentage, this is:
(1.3)

Et =

q
100%
q+B

where
B

= heat loss of the water heater, Btu/h (kJ/h)

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

Refer to Equations 1.1 and 1.2 to determine q. Many water


heaters and boilers provide input and output energy information.
Example 1.2 Calculate the heat input rate required for the water
heater in Example 1.1 if this is a direct, gas fired
water heater with a thermal efficiency of 80%.
From Example 1.1, q = 449,820 Btu/h
(475 374 kJ/h). Heat input =

Solution

449,820 Btu/h
q
=
= 562,275 Btu/h
Et
0.80
q
475 374 kJ/h
=
Et
0.80

= 594 217.5 kJ/h

HEAT RECOVERYELECTRIC WATER HEATERS


Assume that 1 kilowatt-hour of electrical energy will raise 410
gal (1552.02 L) of water 1F (C). This can expressed in a series
of formulas, as follows:
410 gal
= gal of water per kWh at T
T
1552.02 L
= L of water per kWh at T
T

(1.4)

gph T
= kWh required
410 gal

(1.5)

L/h T
= kWh required
1552.02 L

(1.6)

gph
= kW required
gal of water per kWh at T

L/h
= kW required
L of water per kWh at T

where
T = temperature rise (temperature differential), F (C)
gph = gallons per hour of hot water required
L/h = liters per hour of hot water required
Equation 1.4 can be used to establish a simple table based
on the required temperature rise.

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Temperature Rise, T, F (C)


110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40

Gal (L) of Water per kWh

(43)
(38)
(32)
(27)
(21)
(16)
(10)
(4)

3.73
4.10
4.55
5.13
5.86
6.83
8.20
10.25

(14.12)
(15.52)
(17.22)
(19.42)
(22.18)
(25.85)
(31.04)
(38.8)

This table can be used with Equation 1.6 to solve for the kW
electric element needed to heat the required recovery volume of
water.
Example 1.3 An electric water heater must be sized to provide a
continuous flow of 40 gph (151.42 L/h) of hot water at a temperature of 140F (43C). The incoming
water supply during winter is 40F (4C).
Solution

Using Equation 1.6 and the above table, we find


the following:
40 gph
= 9.8 kW required
4.1 gal/kWh (100F)

151.42 L/h
= 9.8 kW required
15.52 L/kWh (38C)

MIXED WATER TEMPERATURE


Mixing water at different temperatures to make a desired mixed
water temperature is the main purpose of domestic hot water
systems. The design of systems that effectively do that is
the purpose of this manual.
(1.7)

P =

(Tm Tc)
(Th Tc)

where
Th = supply hot water temperature
Tc = inlet cold water temperature
Tm = desired mixed water temperature

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

P is a hot water multiplier and can be used to determine the


percentage of supply hot water that will blend the hot and cold
water to produce a desired mixed water temperature. Values of P
for a range of hot and cold water temperatures are given in Table
1.1.
Example 1.4
A group of showers requires 25 gpm (1.58 L/sec) of 105F (41C)
mixed water temperature. Determine how much 140F (60C) hot
water must be supplied to the showers when the cold water temperature is 50F (10C).
Solution
P = (105 50F)/(140 50F) = 0.61. [P = (41 10C)/(60 10C)
= 0.61]. Therefore, 0.61 (25 gpm) = 15.25 gpm of 140F water
required. [0.61 (1.58 L/sec) = 0.96 L/sec of 60C water required.]
Table 1.1 may also be used to determine P.

Table 1.1 Hot Water Multiplier, P


Th =110F Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

50

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

55

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

60

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

65

1.00

0.89

0.78

0.67

Th = 120F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


120

115

110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

50

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

55

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

60

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

0.67

0.58

65

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

0.64

0.55

(Continued)

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

(Table 1.1 continued)


Th = 130F Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


130

125

120

115

110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

50

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

55

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

60

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

0.57

0.50

65

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

0.54

0.46

Th = 140F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


140

135

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

95

45

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

50

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

55

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

60

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

0.50

0.44

65

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

0.47

0.40

Th = 150F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


150

145

140

135

130

125

120

115

110

105

100

45

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

50

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

55

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

60

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

0.44

65

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

0.41

(Continued)

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

(Table 1.1 continued)


Th = 160F Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


160

155

150

145

140

135

130

125

120

115

110

45

1.00

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.83

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.65

0.61

0.57

50

1.00

0.95

0.91

0.86

0.82

0.77

0.73

0.68

0.64

0.59

0.55

55

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

60

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

65

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

Th = 180F Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (F)

T m, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (F)


180

175

170

165

160

155

150

145

140

135

130

45

1.00

0.96

0.93

0.89

0.85

0.81

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.67

0.63

50

1.00

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.85

0.81

0.77

0.73

0.69

0.65

0.62

55

1.00

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.84

0.80

0.76

0.72

0.68

0.64

0.60

60

1.00

0.96

0.92

0.88

0.83

0.79

0.75

0.71

0.67

0.63

0.58

65

1.00

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.83

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.65

0.61

0.57

110

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

0.57

0.50

0.43

0.36

0.29

120

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

0.67

0.58

0.50

0.42

0.33

0.25

0.17

130

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

0.60

0.50

0.40

0.30

0.20

0.10

140

1.00

0.88

0.75

0.63

0.50

0.38

0.25

0.13

150

1.00

0.83

0.67

0.50

0.33

0.17

160

1.00

0.75

0.50

0.25

10

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Table 1.1 (M) Hot Water Multiplier, P


Th = 43C Hot Water System Temperature
Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)

Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

10

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

13

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

16

1.00

0.90

0.80

0.70

18

1.00

0.89

0.78

0.67

Th = 49C Hot Water System Temperature


Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)

Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

49

46

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

10

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

13

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

16

1.00

0.92

0.83

0.75

0.67

0.58

18

1.00

0.91

0.82

0.73

0.64

0.55

Th = 54C Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


54

52

49

46

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

10

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

13

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

16

1.00

0.93

0.86

0.79

0.71

0.64

0.57

0.50

18

1.00

0.92

0.85

0.77

0.69

0.62

0.54

0.46

(Continued)

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

11

[Table 1.1 (M) continued]


Th = 60C Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


60

58

54

52

49

46

43

41

38

35

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

10

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

13

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

16

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.81

0.75

0.69

0.63

0.56

0.50

0.44

18

1.00

0.93

0.87

0.80

0.73

0.67

0.60

0.53

0.47

0.40

Th = 66C Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


66

63

60

58

54

52

49

46

43

41

38

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

10

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

13

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

16

1.00

0.94

0.89

0.83

0.78

0.72

0.67

0.61

0.56

0.50

0.44

18

1.00

0.94

0.88

0.82

0.76

0.71

0.65

0.59

0.53

0.47

0.41

Th = 71C Hot Water System Temperature


Tc, CW
Temp. (C)

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


71

68

66

63

60

58

54

52

49

46

43

1.00

0.96

0.91

0.87

0.83

0.78

0.74

0.70

0.65

0.61

0.57

10

1.00

0.95

0.91

0.86

0.82

0.77

0.73

0.68

0.64

0.59

0.55

13

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.86

0.81

0.76

0.71

0.67

0.62

0.57

0.52

16

1.00

0.95

0.90

0.85

0.80

0.75

0.70

0.65

0.60

0.55

0.50

18

1.00

0.95

0.89

0.84

0.79

0.74

0.68

0.63

0.58

0.53

0.47

(Continued)

12

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

[Table 1.1 (M) continued]


Th = 82C Hot Water System Temperature
Tc, CW
Temp. (C)
7
10
13
16
18
43
49
54
60
66
71

Tm, Water Temperature at Fixture Outlet (C)


82

79

77

74

71

68

66

63

60

58

54

1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.96
0.93
0.92
0.90
0.88
0.83
0.75

0.93
0.92
0.92
0.92
0.91
0.86
0.83
0.80
0.75
0.67
0.50

0.89
0.88
0.88
0.88
0.87
0.79
0.75
0.70
0.63
0.50
0.25

0.85
0.85
0.84
0.83
0.83
0.71
0.67
0.60
0.50
0.33

0.81
0.81
0.80
0.79
0.78
0.64
0.58
0.50
0.38
0.17

0.78
0.77
0.76
0.75
0.74
0.57
0.50
0.40
0.25

0.74
0.73
0.72
0.71
0.70
0.50
0.42
0.30
0.13

0.70
0.69
0.68
0.67
0.65
0.43
0.33
0.20

0.67
0.65
0.64
0.63
0.61
0.36
0.25
0.10

0.63
0.62
0.60
0.58
0.57
0.29
0.17

DELIVERED HOT WATER TEMPERATURE


The generally accepted delivered hot water temperatures for various
plumbing fixtures and equipment are given in Table 1.2. Both
temperature and pressure should be verified with the client and
checked against local codes and the manuals of equipment used.

Table 1.2 Typical Delivered Hot Water Temperatures


for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
Use
Lavatory
Showers and tubs
Commercial and institutional laundry
Residential dishwashing and laundry
Commercial spray type dishwashing (as required by the NSF):
Single or multiple tank hood or rack type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank conveyor type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank rack or door type:
Single temperature wash and rinse
Chemical sanitizing glassware: Wash
Rinse

Temp. (F)
105
110
140180
140
150
180195
160
180195
165
140
75

Note: Be aware that temperatures, as dictated by codes, owners, equipment manufacturers, or regulatory agencies, will occasionally differ from those shown.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

13

Table 1.2 (M) Typical Delivered Hot Water


Temperatures for Plumbing Fixtures and Equipment
Use
Lavatory
Showers and tubs
Commercial and institutional laundry
Residential dishwashing and laundry
Commercial spray type dishwashing (as required by the NSF):
Single or multiple tank hood or rack type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank conveyor type: Wash
Final rinse
Single tank rack or door type:
Single temperature wash and rinse
Chemical sanitizing glassware: Wash
Rinse

Temp. (C)
41
43
6082
60
66
8291
71
8291
74
60
24

Note: Be aware that temperatures, as dictated by codes, owners, equipment manufacturers, or regulatory agencies, will occasionally differ from those shown.

SAFETY AND HEALTH CONCERNS


Scalding2
A research project by Moritz and Henriques at Harvard Medical
College3 looked at the relationship between time and water temperature necessary to produce a first-degree burn. A first-degree
burn, the least serious type, results in no irreversible damage.
The results of the research show that it takes a 3-sec exposure to
140F (60C) water to produce a first-degree burn. At 130F (54C),
it takes approximately 20 sec, and at 120F (49C), it takes 8 min
to produce a first-degree burn.
The normal threshold of pain is approximately 118F (48C).
A person exposed to 120F (49C) water would immediately experience discomfort; it is unlikely then that the person would be
exposed for the 8 min required to produce a first-degree burn.
People in some occupancies (e. g., hospitals) as well as those over

2For more information regarding Scalding, refer to ASPE Research Foundation.


1989. Temperature limits in service hot water systems. Journal of Environmental
Health. (June): 3848.
3Moritz, A. R., and Henriques, F. C., Jr. 1947. The relative importance of time and
surface temperature in the causation of cutaneous burns. American Journal of
Pathology. 23: 695720.

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ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
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the age of 65 and under the age of 1 may not sense pain or move
quickly enough to avoid a burn once pain is sensed. If such a
possibility exists, scalding protection should be considered. It is
often required by code. (For more information on skin damage
caused by exposure to hot water, see Table 1.3.)

Table 1.3 Time/Water Temperature Combinations


Producing Skin Damage
Water Temperature
F
Over 140
140
135
130
125
120

C
Over 60
60
58
54
52
49

Time (sec)
Less than 1
2.6
5.5
15
50
290

Source: Tom Byrley. 1979. 130 degrees F or 140 degrees F. Contractor Magazine.
(September). First published in American Journal of Pathology.
Note: The above data indicate conditions producing the first evidence of skin damage in adult males.

Legionella Pneumophila (Legionnaires Disease)


Legionnaires disease is a potentially fatal respiratory illness. The
disease gained notoriety when a number of American Legionnaires contracted it during a convention. That outbreak was
attributed to the water vapor from the buildings cooling tower(s).
The bacteria that cause Legionnaires disease are widespread in
natural sources of water, including rivers, lakes, streams, and
ponds. In warm water, the bacteria can grow and multiply to
high concentrations. Drinking water containing the Legionella
bacteria has no known effects. However, inhalation of the bacteria into the lungs, e.g., while showering, can cause Legionnaires
disease. Much has been published about this problem, and yet
there is still controversy over the exact temperatures that foster
the growth of the bacteria. Further research is required, for there
is still much to be learned. It is incumbent upon designers to
familiarize themselves with the latest information on the subject
and to take it into account when designing their systems. Designers also must be familiar with and abide by the rules of all
regulating agencies with jurisdiction.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

15

RELIEF VALVES
Water heating systems should be protected from excessive temperatures and pressures by relief valves. Temperature and
pressure relief valves are available either separately or combined.
Typically they are tested to comply with the standards of the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), the American Gas Association (AGA), or the National Board of Boiler and
Pressure Vessel Inspectors (NBBPVI) and are so labeled. The designer should verify which agencys standards are applicable to
the water heating system being designed and follow those standards for the sizes, types, and locations of required relief valves.

THERMAL EXPANSION
Water expands as it is heated, and some way to allow for this
expansion should be provided in a domestic hot water system.
Use of a thermal expansion tank in the cold water piping to the
water heater will do this. It is recommended that the designer
contact the manufacturer of the thermal expansion tank for information on installation and sizing. The plumbing code requires
some type of thermal expansion compensationexpecially when
there is either a backflow prevention device on the cold water
service to the building or a check valve in the system.

CONTROLS
The control components for water heaters differ depending on the
type of heater and the manufacturer. Generally, water heater controls should be checked with the equipment manufacturer. Also,
the various regulatory and testing agencies have requirements for
controls that depend on the size and type of equipment used.

STORAGE AND RECOVERY


The design of a domestic water heating system begins with estimating the facilitys load profile and identifying the peak demand
times. To accomplish these steps, the designer must conduct
discussions with the users of the space, determine the building
type, and learn of any owner requirements. The information thus
gathered will establish the required capacity of the water heating
equipment and the general type of system to be used. With fuel

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Domestic W
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Water

fired equipment, to avoid condensation, the equipment and the


operating temperature should be selected to ensure that the
heaters operating temperature is not lower than the dewpoint
temperature of the flue gas.

Stratification
There is a natural tendency of warm water to rise to the top of a
storage tank. The result of this rising action, known as stratification, occurs in all unrecirculated tanks. It has been found
that the percent useable storage volume in stratified horizontal
and vertical tanks has a range of 6575% to 8090%, respectively. Not all tanks are created equal; the percent usable storage
volume can be affected by such items as the flow rates, the points
of connection, tank capacity and by tank recirculation systems.
Stratification during recovery periods can be reduced significantly by mechanical circulation of the water in the tank. During
periods of demand, however, it is useful to have good stratification since this increases the availability of water at a usable
temperature. If, for example, a tank were stratified with the top
half at 140F (60C) and the bottom half at 40F (4C), this tank,
in theory, could still deliver half its volume at 140F (60C). But,
if the two layers were completely mixed, the tank temperature
would drop to 90F (32C), which, in most cases, is an unusable
temperature.

CODES AND STANDARDS


The need to conform to various codes and standards determines
many aspects of the design of a domestic hot water system as
well as the selection of components and equipment.
Some of the most often used codes and standards are:
1. Regional, state, and local plumbing codes.
2. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE)/IES 90.1.
3. ASME code for fired and unfired pressure vessels.
4. ASME and AGA codes for relief valves.
5. Underwriters Laboratories (UL) listing for electrical components.
6. National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) listing.
7. AGA approval for gas burning components.

Fundamentals of Domestic W
ater Heating
Water

17

8. National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) standards.


9. National Electrical Code (NEC).
In addition, the federal government, the agencies with jurisdiction over public schools and public housing, and many other
agencies have specific requirements that must be observed when
designing projects and selecting equipment for them.

SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE CONSIDERATIONS


The design and selection of water heating systems are part of a
process that involves assumptions, decisions, and trade-offs.
The general organization of this manual separates application
considerations and load determinations (Section I) from the selection of equipment (Section II). While this is possible for most
conventional water heating systems, it does not yield the optimum
solution for many advanced, high-efficiency water heating systems.
These systems include refrigerant-based systems like heat pump
water heaters; refrigeration heat reclaim systems; and multifunction, full-condensing equipment. These and other systems like solar
water heaters have a higher cost per unit of heating capacity than
most conventional systems. Often the most cost-effective configuration for these systems tends to use higher storage volumes and
lower heating rates than those recommended in the following chapters. These systems are frequently configured as hybrid systems,
combining both an advanced high-efficiency system as the primary,
base-loaded water heater and a conventional water heater for peaking or supplemental water heating.
Advanced, high-efficiency systems may offer significant benefits; however, their design and selection is necessarily more
detailed. The seasonal and instantaneous efficiency and output
of these systems vary greatly with operating conditions. Because
they are not selected to meet the peak water heating load, load
calculations must address not simply the peak but the water
heating load shape. Their higher cost per unit of heating capacity
as compared to most conventional systems places a higher premium on accurate load determination since oversizing has a more
marked effect on system cost. Other considerations such as a
buildings cooling load or waste heat availability may also come
into play. The capacities of these systems and any related supplemental water heating equipment should be selected to achieve
high average daily run time and the lowest combination of operating and equipment cost.

Multifamily Buildings

19

MULTIFAMILY
BUILDINGS

INTRODUCTION
When selecting and sizing domestic water heaters for multifamily buildings, the designer must take into consideration the
variables affecting hot water demand that are unique to each
particular project. (Note: Certain government agencies have their
own design criteria, which must be strictly followed.)
Demand is a function of the anticipated hot water usage of
the occupants of a particular building during the period being
considered. It is affected by the population of a project as well as
the behavioral patterns of those occupants and the amenities
offered them.
Note that the design guidelines in this chapter are based on a
large amount of monitored data from occupied buildings, which
was collected during recent research efforts.

BACKGROUND
In order to design a domestic hot water (DHW) system for multifamily buildings properly it is useful to understand the
consumption and demand patterns of this type of occupancy.

Weekday Vs. Weekend Demand Patterns


The weekday vs. weekend comparison of DHW, in gallons (liters),
consumed in buildings reveals that there are generally a slightly
higher total consumption and a greater peak demand on weekNote: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

ends (Saturday and Sunday) than on weekdays (Monday through


Friday). This phenomenon is true in all seasons. The average
weekend day consumption is 7.5% greater than the average weekday level. (Refer to Figure 2.1.) Peak demand times are also found
to vary from weekdays to weekends. This is a function of the
standard nine-to-five workday. Therefore, the weekend will be
used as the highest demand period.

Weekday vs. Weekend Consumption


Gallons (Liters) per Capita, Composite

Figure 2.1
Source: Goldner 1994, Energy use and DHW consumption research project, pp. 46.

Seasonal Demand Patterns


Multifamily buildings have distinct seasonal variations in DHW
demand levels. Since demand must be calculated using a worstcase scenario, and weekend consumption is known to be greater
for multifamily buildings than weekday consumption, the effect
of the seasonal influence is best seen in terms of weekend consumption. Figure 2.2 indicates that DHW demand is greater in
winter than in any other season, the obvious explanations being
that people take warmer showers in the winter and cooler ones

Multifamily Buildings

21

Seasonal Variations, Weekend Consumption


Gallons (Liters) per Capita

Figure 2.2
Source: Goldner and Price 1994, p. 2.107.

in the summer and that (particularly in colder climates) the cold


water to be mixed down is considerably cooler in winter and requires greater volumes of DHW. The variance can account for as
much as a 45% reduction in demand from winter to summer.
Using summer as the base consumption, daily average consumption rises by 10% in the fall then goes up 13% more
(compounded) during the winter period. Consumption then falls
by 1% (compounded) in the spring and falls another 19% (compounded) during the summer period (e.g., 100 gal 1.10 1.13
0.99 0.81 = 99.7 gal). (The spring consumption is comparably higher than fall consumption, due in large part to considerably
colder inlet water temperatures in spring.)

Demand Flow Patterns


There is a distinct difference between weekday and weekend DHW
demand patterns. Weekdays have minimal overnight usage, then
a morning peak, followed by lower afternoon demand and then

22

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

an evening or nighttime peak. Weekend days have just one major


peak, which begins later in the morning and continues until
around 1:00 to 2:00 P.M. Usage then tapers off for the rest of the
day. Examination of the composite weekday and weekend graphs
illustrates that the weekend day peak is greater than any of the
weekday peaks.
In the composite weekday curve (Figure 2.1), two morning
peaks can be observed, the first between 6:00 and 8:00 A.M. and
the second between 9:30 A.M. and noon. It is possible to observe, by studying individual buildings, that particular sites fall
into one or the other of these two peaks. Some general knowledge of the tenant populations may serve to explain this difference.
Buildings occupied by large numbers of working tenants and
middle-income populations appear to have the early morning peak;
buildings with large percentages of children fall into the later
morning peak (especially so during the summer period). Figures
2.2 and 2.3 clearly illustrate the seasonal variation in both the

Seasonal Variations, Weekend Consumption


Gallons (Liters) per Capita

Figure 2.3
Source: Goldner and Price 1994.

Multifamily Buildings

23

usage patterns and consumption levels for summer, fall, winter,


and spring. Note that the highest-peaking level occurs during
winter weekends.

IDENTIFICATION OF DEMAND
The first step the designer must take in calculating demand is to
determine the demographic profile of the project and building
occupants. Different types of building occupants have been found
to have fairly predictable patterns of hot water consumption. Users can be divided into three categorieslow, medium, and
high-volume water consumers (LMH)as a function of the building and occupant demographics. Table 2.1 shows a variety of
occupant characteristics. One or some combination of these
should closely describe any particular multifamily building. For
example, a luxury condominium in an area inhabited predominantly by young couples will tend to fall into the all occupants
work category of low anticipated water consumption. By contrast, a low-income housing project will generally fall somewhere
between the low-income and no occupants work categories of
high-volume water consumption. Keep in mind that the presence
of an abundance of hot water consuming appliances, such as
washing machines or dishwashers, tends to increase hot water
consumption. Therefore, if the condominium in the above example intended or allowed for the future installation of a washing
machine in each unit, its demographic category should be raised
from low to medium. It is up to the designer to ask the necessary
questions of the developer, architect, or building manager in order to determine this category. Remember, in the face of
uncertainty, be conservative.
It is important to note that Table 2.1 represents a graduated
scale of residents use of DHW. Quite often a building is occupied
by people from more than one of the demographic categories given
in this table. In such a case, the designer should weight the
demographic breakdown to select a low, medium, or high factor.
After some experience with this methodology, the designer may
decide that some buildings fall between groupings and select a medium-high or low-medium category. In such instances, the
designer can extrapolate from the values in Table 2.2.
The characteristic high population density in Table 2.1 is
sometimes overlookedand it shouldnt be. This characteristic
is important in the selection of the LMH factor and, thus, in system sizing. Even though a buildings other demographic factors

24

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

might place it in a higher LMH factor category, the existence of a


high population density means a relatively lower factor (see Table
2.1). This factor must be weighted along with the other building
characteristics when choosing the sites other LMH factor. High
population density is a low factor because the number of end use
appliances (e.g., showers and faucets) are unaffected by the number of occupants in an apartment. A higher population density
will also result in a diversity effect.

Table 2.1 Occupant Demographic Characteristics


Demographic Characteristics
No occupants work (stay at home)
Public assistance and low income (mix)
Family and single-parent households (mix)
High percentage of children
Low income
Families
Public assistance
Singles
Single-parent households
Couples
High population density
Middle income
Seniors
One person works, 1 stays home
All occupants work

LMH Factor

High

Medium

Low

Source: Goldner 1994, Energy use and DHW consumption research project.

DEMAND DETERMINATION
Once the LMH factor has been determined, values for hot water
demand and consumption can be selected from Table 2.2. Thus,
anticipated consumption values can be determined using the
known building population for intervals of 5 min, 15 min, 30
min, 1 h, 2 h, and 3 h. These values will be used later in selecting
and sizing domestic hot water equipment.

Multifamily Buildings

25

Table 2.2 Low, Medium, and High Guidelines:


Hot Water Demands and Use for
Multifamily Buildings
Peak 5 Min,
gal (L)/person

Peak 15 Min,
gal (L)/person

Peak 30 Min,
gal (L)/person

Maximum H,
gal (L)/person

Low

0.4 (1.5 )

1.0 (4.0)

1.7 (6.5)

2.8 (10.5)

Medium

0.7 (2.6)

1.7 (6.4)

2.9 (11.0)

4.8 (18.0)

High

1.2 (4.5)

3.0 (11.5)

5.1(19.5)

8.5 (32.5)

Maximum 2 H,
gal (L)/person

Maximum 3 H,
gal (L)/person

Low

4.5 (17.0)

6.1 (23.0)

20.0 (76.0)

14.0 (54.0)

Medium

8.0 (31.0)

11.0 (41.0)

49.0 (185.0)

30.0 (113.6)

14.5 (55.0)

19.0 (72.0)

90.0 (340.0)

54.0 (205.0)

High

Maximum Day,
gal (L)/person

Average Day,
gal (L)/person

Source: Goldner and Price 1994.


Note: These volumes are for DHW delivered to the tap at 120F (49C).

Both research and practical experience in different areas of


North America indicate that there are geographical variances in
DHW use. There is, however, no distinct pattern that can be identified with the available data.
Note that the figures presented (in Table 2.2) are for central
systems. Individual apartment water heater systems are likely to
have lower levels of consumption. This is because individual apartment units generally are set up as pay-as-you-go systems (with
the occupant paying directly for the energy used by the heater).
While there are no hard data on DHW systems on this issue,
there are numerous well-documented studies of other energy uses
that demonstrate that, once an apartment occupant has to pay
for what he or she uses, consumption decreases. In fact, studies
of conversions from electrical master metering to submetering in
multifamily buildings have shown that consumption decreases
between 20 and 30% when people must pay for what they use.1
The practice of defensive oversizing applied to the guidelines
given in Table 2.2 will only exaggerate the capital and energy
inefficiencies experienced in the past. It is therefore important
for the designer to recognize the inherent safety nets in the LMH
approach. First, and most important, we are using a buildings
1Hirschfeld, H.E., et al. 1996. Facilitating submetering implementation. Report
No. 96-7. Prepared for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.

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maximum probable occupancy, which may never actually occur.


Second, we are designing a system with the capabilities to satisfy
the higher volume, short duration (near instantaneous) peaks
(as delineated in Table 2.2), which in reality only occur a limited
number of times during the year. Even if the system were not
able to satisfy those loads, the result would be occupants experiencing slightly lower-temperature hot water at their taps for some
short duration of time.

APPLICATION OF LMH VALUES


Once a portion of the range has been selected, the figures should
be converted into per apartment or per building gallonage (liter
usage) by multiplying them with maximum probable occupancy
levels, based on persons per apartment size/type. For example,
studios = 2 persons, 1-bedroom apartments = 3 persons, and 2bedroom apartments = 35 persons. These populations may be
dependent on local standards or regulations. Additionally, in order to calculate building energy consumption for DHW or to
prepare energy budgets, the average daily figures can be converted into per apartment or per building gallonage (liter usage)
by multiplying them with existing building occupancies.

PEAK DEMAND VS. AVERAGE DEMAND


Potential of Generating Storage
Figure 2.4 illustrates the actual consumption curve of a sample
building. The bottom line, 0.75 gal (2.84 L) represents average
consumption (for a 15-min period, the period for which all data
are taken). This is equivalent to leveling the buildings DHW consumption across the entire day. Under one possible scenario, the
buildings DHW needs would be met by generating storage during low-consumption periods (represented by the white areas
under the line), which would be used during peak times. The
other two lines illustrate levels of 10 and 25% excess capacity,
respectively.

Time of Day of Peak Flows


While flow curves show the general usage patterns of a building,
peak times and flows are used to identify demands on the boiler
or hot water heater more closely. Maximum 5, 15, 60, 120, and

Multifamily Buildings

27

Storage Potential Bldg 7 (Fall)


Gallons (Liters) per Occupied Apt. Weekday

Figure 2.4 Consumption curve.

180-min demand times occur essentially coincidentally during


both the weekend and weekday peaks. The concurrence of these
peaks justifies the use of the longer duration peak consumption
levels for storage models. The most frequent minimum 60-min
consumption periods occur at 4:00 A.M. on both weekdays and
weekend days. This demand period data should be used when
evaluating DHW system sizing and storage options.

Peak Demand and Average Demand


Five, 15, 60, 120, and 180-min maximum demand and hourly
average consumption figures may be used to examine peak demand needs in contrast to total volume (average) consumption.
This type of analysis is useful in setting new system design and
sizing parameters and evaluating a mix of instantaneous generation and storage options. Monitored studies have revealed that,
in comparison to use in a maximum 60-min period, average hourly

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consumption is only 42% of peak consumption. This suggests


the possibility of generating storage capacity to meet peak demand during the hours of the day with below average demand.
Comparison of the 5 and 15-min peak periods demonstrates that
the highest (5-min) peak requires 40% of the DHW consumed
within the peak 15 min. Review of the 15 and 60-min peak periods reveals that the highest (15-min) peak is equal to one third of
the DHW consumed in the peak hour. Finally, there is slightly
(27%) more DHW consumed in the average hour than in the highest 15-min period of the day; this again makes a case for some
type of off-peak generation and storage strategy.2
Figure 2.5 illustrates that consumption during the peak
60-min period is 61% of consumption during the maximum
120-min period and that the volume of DHW used to satisfy the
120-min maximum demand is 75% of what is needed during
the peak 180-min span. In Figures 2.6 and 2.7 we can see how
all of the peak volumes contribute to the 1-h and 3-h peak demand on the DHW generation and/or storage system. These
relationships can be used to model various configurations of hot
water supply system. As noted earlier, all these peak consumption demands occur concurrently and must be considered in the
context of overall consumption patterns to further evaluate generation and storage options.

RETROFIT TO EXISTING SYSTEMS


(CUSTOMIZED SIZING)
If customizing is desired for an existing building, to select the
most appropriate system sizing levels it would be ideal to monitor the current consumption for a short period. Research suggests
that the best time to conduct this monitoring in multifamily housing applications is during a series of anticipated winter weekend
peak periods. The design engineer should focus on and identify
the 2 to 3-h peak periods that generally occur between 10:00
A.M. and 2:00 P.M. A system designed to meet these demands
should satisfy all other year-round requirements. If this is not
possible or practical, use the guidelines in Table 2.2. The designer should consult with the owner to determine if there have
been problems with the current system.

2Goldner and Price 1994.

Multifamily Buildings

29

Comparison of DHW Peak Consumption


Gallons (Liters) per Capita, Winter

Figure 2.5
Source: Goldner 1994, DHW system sizing criteria for multifamily buildings.

Parts of 3-Hour DHW Peak Consumption


Gallons (Liters) per Capita, Winter

Figure 2.6
Source: Goldner 1994, Energy use and DHW consumption research project, pp. 420.

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Parts of Peak 60 Minutes DHW Consumption


Gallons (Liters) per Capita, Winter

Figure 2.7
Source: Goldner and Price 1994, p. 2.110.

Research on Generation Rate and Storage Capacity


Recent research3 reveals that the most cost-efficient designs for
conventional water heating equipment in multifamily buildings
are based on either the 30/3 guideline (systems with generators and storage tanks) or the 5-min peak demand (instantaneous
systems). (If other advanced technologies that were not included
in the investigation are utilized, the 30/3 or 5-min peak demand
guidelines may not be appropriate. For example, hybrid systems,
combining both a conventional peaking water heating capability with a baseload advanced high-efficency system, would tend
to use more storage and have lower heating rates.) According to
the 30/3 guideline, generator size is based on the peak 30-min
demand and storage tank volume is based on the maximum 3-h
demand. The research indicates that selection of either an instantaneous hot water heater or a separate DHW boiler and
unfired storage tank configuration will produce the optimum mix
of low life cycle costs and high energy efficiencies.
The optimum configurations were found to be as follows:
1. For small to midsized buildings (up to 80 apartments), either a
separate DHW boiler with tank system sized to the 30/3 guideline, or an instantaneous system (based on the peak 5-min
demand).
3Goldner and Price 1996.

Multifamily Buildings

31

2. For mid to large-sized buildings (>75 apartments) and large


buildings (100+ apartments), which fall toward the upper end
of the LMH classification scale (i.e., toward the high category), an instantaneous system.
3. For buildings with more than 125 apartments, a diversification factor that lowers the probability of coincident demand
should also be employed.

EXAMPLES
Example 2.1 Traditional Multifamily Building
Consider a 58-unit apartment building where occupants are a
mix of families, singles, and middle-income couples and most of
the adults work. There is a public laundry in the basement with
a few washers, and the leases prohibit both washing machines
and dishwashers in the apartments (although conversations with
the owner confirm that a moderate number of people have such
appliances).
Step 1
Compute the maximum probable occupancy based on local
standards/expectations and conversations with the building
owner, manager, or architect.
For example, multiply the number of 3-bedroom apartments (4) by the maximum number of persons in each
apartment (5) to determine the total number of persons (20).
This is then added to the resultant sum from all the other
apartment sizes, as follows.
Apt. Size

Maximum No.
Persons/Apt.

No. of Apts.

3-bedroom apts.
2-bedroom apts.
1-bedroom apts.
Studios
Building total (rounded)

4
14
25
15

5
4
3.5
2.25

=
=
=
=

20
56
87.5
33.75
198
persons

Note: The designer needs to determine the optimum usage and occupancy of
the facility. For example, in some facilities, the demographic profile may require using 3, 4, or 7 occupants per 3-bedroom apartment.

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Step 2
Determine the low, medium, or high usage factor (demographic
profile) of the project and building occupants from Table 2.1,
based on knowledge of the building, conversations with the
building owner, and observations. Consider the effect of either currently installed or possible future additions of
appliances (e.g., washers), which might move a building to a
higher usage category.
Based on the information above, the medium usage factor is selected.
Step 3
Estimate the DHW consumption. To estimate how much hot
water is used in a building for energy consumption or savings calculations, use the LMH factor and the average day
hot water value in Table 2.2 (LMH guidelines). If the building
is existing, substitute the maximum probable occupancy from
Step 1 with the actual current (or estimated) occupancy level.
Current
LMH
No. of
Demand
System
Factor
People
Category
Load
Medium

153

Average day:
30.0 gal/capita = 4590 gal/day
(113.55 L/capita)
(17 373.15
L/day)

Step 4
Size the equipment. Follow Steps A and B, below, for either
Instantaneous Systems or Generation and Storage Systems, depending on the equipment used.
Instantaneous systems
For either an instantaneous, DHW-only system or a tankless coil
in a combination heating DHW boiler, follow the two steps below.
First find the system load in gallons per hour (gph) (liters per
hour [L/h]) based on the peak 5-min demand. Next, convert this
to a Btu/h (kJ/h) rating. This can then be used to select equipment.

Multifamily Buildings

33

Step A
Compute the system load using the LMH factor and the 5-min
peak demand values in Table 2.2 (LMH guidelines).
LMH
Factor

Peak No.
of People

No.
Periods/
H

Demand
Category

Peak 5 min:
198 0.7 gal/capita
12 =
(2.65 L/capita)

Medium

System
Load
1663 gph
or 27 gpm
(6294.46 L/h
or 1.75 L/sec)

Step B
Convert the system load to a Btu/h (kJ/h) rating.
System Conversion
Load
1663
gph
(6.30
m3/h)

8.33
lb/gal
(4188.32
kJ/m3)

Temp.
Rise

1/Boiler
Efficiencya

90F
(50K)

1 =
0.8

Heater
Input
1,558,439
Btu/h
(1 649 151
kJ/h)

aThe efficiency can be represented as either a decimal (as shown) or a


percentage, e.g., 80%.

Instantaneous DHW-only heater


If sizing an instantaneous DHW-only heater, the 1,558,439
Btu/h (1 649 151 kJ/h) should be the size of the DHW heater.
(Note: A higher efficiency should be used for sizing an instantaneous heater; use 85% or the efficiency specified in the
equipment documentation.)
Combination heating/DHW boiler
When sizing the tankless coil of a combination heating/DHW
boiler, the calculated recovery rate is used to size the coil.
The additional load capacity for the DHW system must be
added to the space heating load to select the size of the combination space heating/domestic hot water boiler.

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Generation and storage systems


For a system with a mix of generation and storage, use the following two steps: Calculate the generator size based on twice the
peak 30-min period to get a Btu/h (kJ/h) rating, then calculate
the storage tank volume based on the maximum 3-h demand.
Step A
Compute the system load using the peak 30-min and maximum 3-h hot water values in Table 2.2.
LMH
Factor

No.
People

Medium 198

LMH
Factor
Medium

Peak 30 min:
2.9 gal/capita
(10.98 L/capita)

No.
People
198

No.
Periods/
H

Demand
Category

1148 gph
(4348.08 L/h)

Demand
Category
Maximum 3 h:
11.0 gal/capita =
(41.64 L/capita)

System
Load

Storage
Volume
2178 gal
(8244.73 L)

Step B
Convert the load into equipment ratings.
System
Load Conversion
1148 8.33
gph
lb/gal
(4.35
(4188.32
m3/h)
kJ/m3)

Temp.
Rise

90F
(50K)

1/Boiler
Efficiencya

1 =
0.80

Heater
Input
1,075,820
Btu/h
(1 017 362
kJ/h)

aThe efficiency can be represented as either a decimal (as shown) or a per-

centage, e.g., 80%.

The 1,075,820 Btu/h (1 017 362 kJ/h) is the size of the


hot water heater. This heater should then be used to supply
2100 gal (7948.50 L) in unfired storage tanks.

Multifamily Buildings

35

Example 2.2 Special Use Housing Facility


There is a residential building in New York City that houses the
families of children who have cancer and are receiving treatment
at area hospitals. There are 88 residential studios, each with a
single bath. There are 18 kitchen units, which are centrally located
for shared use by the families. Each unit has a sink and
dishwasher. There is a washing machine on each of the occupied
floors. The families who occupy this residence do so because they
cannot afford to stay in more expensive accommodations. Often,
a child is accompanied by a single parent and together they occupy
one studio for the duration of the treatment program.
Calculate the 5-min, 15-min, 30-min, 1-h, 2-h, and 3-h consumption. Plot the demand vs. time curve.
Solution
Since this demographic group includes occupants who presently
do not work (they are away from home) and has a high percentage
of children, it definitely falls into the high demand category
according to Table 2.1. There are 88 units with 2 occupants per
unit, so the total population is 176 people. According to Table
2.2 the 5-min peak, 15-min peak, 30-min peak, 1-h peak, 2-h
peak, and 3-h peak demand factors are 1.2, 3.0, 5.1, 8.5, 14.5,
and 19 gal (4.5, 11.4, 19.3, 32.2, 54.9, and 71.9 L), respectively.
Therefore, the anticipated demand is as follows:
Demand
Category
5-min peak
15-min peak
30-min peak
1-h peak
2-h peak
3-h peak

Demand
Category
5-min peak
15-min peak
30-min peak
1-h peak
2-h peak
3-h peak

No.
People
176
176
176
176
176
176

Demand
Factor (gal)

No.
People
176
176
176
176
176
176

1.2
3.0
5.1
8.5
14.5
19

Demand
(gal)
=
=
=
=
=
=

Demand
Factor (L)

4.5
11.4
19.3
32.2
54.9
71.9

211
528
898
1496
2552
3344

Demand
(L)
=
=
=
=
=
=

792
2 006.4
3 396.8
5 667.2
9 662.4
12 654.4

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The equipment selected must be capable of supplying this


peak load (see Figure 2.8) by means of either combined storage
(first draw) capacity and recovery or instantaneous generation.

POSSIBLE TRAPS
In order to avoid falling into a trap that leads to miscalculating
water demand, the designer must try to learn all of the unique
facets of a multifamily building. This is generally accomplished
by compiling a list of questions for the owner/manager/architect
during a project brainstorming session. Does the building have a
central laundry? If so, the designer should select the next higher
LMH value than otherwise would have been selected. Does the
building have retail spaces that might be used in the future for a
restaurant or other large water consuming application? If so, will
the building be obligated by lease to provide hot water for the
tenant? Would such a provision be a desirable selling point for
the retail space to the owner? The demand will then have to be
increased accordingly. For large restaurants or laundries, the

Peak Demand Curve

Figure 2.8
Source: Goldner and Price 1996, p. 8.

Multifamily Buildings

37

resulting flow should be added to the buildings demand. Do tenants pay for the utilities used to generate hot water? If so, hot
water consumption might decrease. Do water conserving laws
that restrict water flow exist in the area (as they do in New York)?
Or is there an abundance of water in the area (such as there is in
Chicago) with showers allowed to flow more water? (The designer
should review local codes concerning water conservation requirements that may impact the hot water demand.) Is this a building
with European occupants who tend to bathe rather than shower?
(Bathing is believed to consume considerably more water than
showering.) This is the sort of creative thinking required to accurately gauge water demand. Remember one thing especially: People
never complain about having too much hot water, but we do not
want to oversize the equipment as this saddles the owner/operator with both increased initial equipment costs (resulting from
larger-than-necessary equipment) and higher annual energy/operating costs (resulting from lower, seasonal efficiencies due to
increased cycling of equipment operating farther from full load).

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Carpenter, S. C., and J. P. Kokko. 1988. Estimating hot water use in
existing commercial buildings. ASHRAE Transactions. 94(2): 312.
Ciz, J. B. 1986. Performance of domestic hot water systems in five apartment buildings (Part IInstallation and commissioning). OHRD Rpt.
8677K.
Decioco, J., and G. Dutt. 1986. Domestic hot water service in Lumley
Homes: A comparison of energy audit diagnosis with instrumented
analysis. Proceedings of the 1986 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy
Efficiency in Buildings.
Goldner, F. S. 1994. DHW system sizing criteria for multifamily buildings. ASHRAE Transactions. 100(1): 147165.
Goldner, F. S. 1994. Energy use and DHW consumption research project:
Final reportPhase 1. Report no. 9419. Prepared for New York State
Energy Research and Development Authority.
Goldner, F. S., and D. C. Price. 1994. Domestic hot water loads, system sizing and selection for multifamily buildings. Proceedings of
the 1994 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.
Goldner, F. S., and D. C. Price. 1996. DHW modeling: System sizing
and selection criteria, Phase 2Interim project report no. 1. Prepared
for New York State Energy Research and Development Authority.
Milligan, N. H. 1987. Performance of domestic hot water systems in five

38

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

apartment buildings, Part IIAnalysis and results. OHRD report


8753K.
Pearlman, M., and N. H. Milligan. 1988. Hot water and energy use in
apartment buildings. ASHRAE Transactions. Vol. 94, Pt. 1.
Taylor, H., and F. Force. 1986. Patterns of domestic hot water
consumption for a multifamily building. Proceedings of the 1986
ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings.
Thrasher, W. H., and D. W. DeWerth. 1993. Comparison of collected
and compiled existing data on service hot water use patterns in
residential and commercial establishmentsPhase II final report.
American Gas Association Laboratories, ASHRAE research project
600RP.
Vine, E., R. Diamond, and R. Szydlowski. 1987. Domestic hot water
consumption in four low income apartment buildings. Energy. Vol.
12, No. 6.
Werden, R. G., and L. G. Spielvogel. 1969. Sizing of service water heating
equipment in commercial and institutional buildings. Report No. 2,
Project RP61. New York: Edison Electric Institute.

Dor
mitories
Dormitories

39

DORMITORIES

INTRODUCTION
This chapter covers two types of buildings classified as dormitories. The first type is a student dormitory or similar housing that
has a nonstructured use of hot water. The second type is an
institutional type dormitory, similar to that at a military school,
that has a structured hot water use.

STUDENT DORMITORIES
The peak demand for hot water for this type of building is more
spread out. Students tend to create schedules based upon when
their classes are held. Additional hot water demand that could
be anticipated is laundromat type clothes washers and possibly
a residential type kitchen. This type of building tends to have
multistory units.

Example 3.1 Student Dormitory


The dormitory consists of two buildings four stories high joined
by a high-ceiling commons, which encloses a basketball court
and a tennis court. The major sleeping areas are arranged around
156 three-bedroom suites with 60 double rooms and 12 single
bedrooms for resident advisers. Each room and suite has a bathroom and each suite has a kitchen alcove. There are kitchen
alcoves and coin-operated laundry facilities located on each floor.
On the ground floor there are food kiosks and a computer lab.
The buildings have a mirror configuration with half of the suites
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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and rooms in each building. The laundry facility on each floor


consists of two washers and two dryers for a total of eight washers in each building.
Assumptions
1. The food kiosks provide their own water heating when the
spaces are leased out. These food venders are similar to those
found in airports and mall food courts.
2. There is a central mechanical space that serves both buildings where the water heaters and storage tanks are located.
3. A separate circulated hot water system is required for each
building.
4. A minimum of two water heaters are required, with each having 65% of both buildings required capacity. This allows the
building to operate with minimum disruptions if one heater
is down for repairs.
5. As the coin-operated laundry facilities are an integral part of
the building, the hot water required is calculated as part of
the central system.
6. The water distribution temperature used is 120F (49C). Pressure balance or thermostatic shower valves are used at each
bathroom group.
7. The suites have shower/bathtub combinations and the double
and single rooms have only showers. We will use the demand
for showers in our calculation.
8. Each building houses 300 students and advisors.
9. The flow from fixtures is as follows:
Showers = 2.5 gpm (0.158 L/s)
Kitchen sinks = 2.5 gpm (0.158 L/s)
Lavatories = 1.5 gpm (0.095 L/s)
10. An outside laundry service is available to students, and some
students will bring their laundry home. This will reduce the
demand on the coin-operated clothes washers. Laundry detergents today are designed to get clothes clean using only cold
water and many items are recommended to be washed in cold
water. This reduces the demand for hot water for clothes washing. For this application we calculate that each wash cycle will
use no more than 10 gal (37.9 L) for washing and 10 gal (37.9 L)
for rinsing for a total of 20 gal (75.7 L). Each machine is calculated to go through two cycles during the peak design hour.

Dor
mitories
Dormitories

41

11. Students tend to wash dirty dishes on an infrequent basis.


Therefore, the dishwasher load is lumped in with the kitchen
sink by increasing the demand from 10 gph (37.9 L/h) to 15
gph (56.8 L/h).
Fixtures each building
Showers
Suites = 78
Double rooms = 30
Single rooms = 6
Public restrooms
Floor kitchen areas = 4

78
30
6

114

Lavatories
78
30
6
4

118

Kitchen
Sinks

Dishwashers

78

82

78

82

Coin-operated
clothes washers = 8
Mop sinks = 4

Calculations1
Showers
Lavatories
Kitchen sinks
Mop sinks

114 30 gph = 3420 gph


118 2 gph =
236 gph
82 15 gph =
1230 gph
4 20 gph =
80 gph
Gross demand 4966 gph
Demand factor
0.30
1490 gph

Clothes washer: 8 20 gal 2 cycles/h = 320 gph


Heater sizing: 320 gph + 1490 gph = 1810 gph demand
Tank storage: Using a percent useable storage capacity of 80%,
the demand is, thus, 1810 gph 0.80 = 2263 gal.
(Showers
Lavatories
Kitchen sinks
Mop sinks

114 114 L/h = 12 996 L/h


118 7.6 L/h = 896.8 L/h
82 56.8 L/h = 4657.6 L/h
4 75.7 L/h =
302.8 L/h
Gross demand 18 853.2 L/h
Demand factor
0.30
5656 L/h

1 Calculations for showers, lavatories, and mop sinks are based on ASPE Data
Book, looseleaf Chap. 4, Service Hot Water Systems, Table 7.

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Clothes washer: 8 75.7 L 2 cycles/h = 1211.2 L/h


Heater sizing: 1211.2 L/h + 5656 L/h = 6867.2 L/h demand
Tank storage: Using a percent useable storage capacity of 80%,
the demand is, thus, 6867.2 L/h 0.80 = 8584 L.)
Student dormitory conclusions
1. Remember the calculated demand of 2130 gph is for only
half the building. The total building recovery demand is 4260
gph and 5330 gal storage.
2. The amount of the storage required indicates a separate
water heater and storage tank arrangement.
3. The water heaters should each have a 4260 gph 0.65 =
2970 gph (16 126 L/h 0.65 = 10 482 L/h) recovery.
4. The circulation system shall be arranged in a way that eliminates stratification in the storage tanks.
5. Piping arrangement and valving should be set up to isolate
water heaters for maintenance purposes.
6. The path of access to water heaters should be reviewed to
ensure that it allows replacement in the future.

INSTITUTIONAL DORMITORIES
The hot water requirements for this type of building are based
upon the shower and lavatory use occurring during a very short
period of time because of schedules. Any additional hot water
demand will be from kitchens, dining facilities, and possibly a
laundry. These specialized areas should have a separate water
heating system. (Refer to the chapter Laundries in this manual.)
Note that there will be a short time in the morning (2 h) and that
evening will be longer but less intense (4 to 5 h).

Example 2.2 Institutional Dormitory


The building selected is a two-story coeducational unit with housing for 272 students and advisors. The arrangement is for 68
four-person bedroom groups, each of which will have 1 shower
and 2 lavatories requiring hot water. There will be 30 one-person
advisor bedrooms, each with a shower and lavatory. A parlor
area is provided with a connected residential kitchen area with
separate public toilets. A central kitchen, dining area, and laun-

Dor
mitories
Dormitories

43

dry are provided in a separate building with a separate domestic


water heating system.
Assumptions
1. Shower use will tend to be quick, in and out, with large numbers of people using hot water at the same time.
2. The peak hour usage will be early in the morning and after
5:00 P.M. This allows a long recovery time. The time selected
for this example is 4 h (see note above).
3. The kitchen sink/dishwasher and mop sinks will not be used
during the peak hour.
4. Recovery capacity and 80% of storage will have to meet total
demand.
5. Recommend two water heaters with a capacity of 65% of the
demand calculation.
Calculations
Student showers:
Advisor showers:
Lavatories:

68 heads 7 min
4 persons 2.5 gpm =

4760 gph

30 heads 7 min
2.5 gpm =

525 gph

170 fixtures 2 gph


0.30 usage factor =

102 gph

Total peak hour demand

5285 gph

5285 gph
= 1321 gph minimum recovery
4h
Water heater sizing: 1321 gph 0.65 = 858 gph each heater
Storage tank sizing: 5285 gal 1321 gph = 3964 gal storage
required
(Student showers: 68 heads 7 min
4 persons 0.158 L/sec
60 =
18 050 L/h
Advisor showers:
Lavatories:

30 heads 7 min
0.158 L/sec 60 =
170 fixtures 7.57 L/h
0.30 usage factor =
Total peak hour demand

1991 L/h
386 L/h
20 427 L/h

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20 427 L/h
= 5107 L/h minimum recovery
4h
Water heater sizing: 5107 L/h 0.65 = 3320 L/h each heater
Storage tank sizing: 20 427 L 3320 L/h = 17 107 L storage
required)
Institutional dormitory conclusions
1. The amount of storage required indicates a separate water
heater and storage tank arrangement.
2. The circulation system shall be arranged in a way that eliminates stratification in the storage tanks.
3. The piping arrangement and valving should be set up to isolate water heaters for maintenance purposes.
4. The path of access to the water heaters should be reviewed to
ensure that it allows replacement in the future.

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Secondary

45

ELEMENTARY
AND SECONDARY
SCHOOLS

INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides guidelines for determining the hot water
requirements for elementary and secondary schools.

TYPES OF SCHOOL
The terms elementary and secondary schools cover grades K
through 12. School districts have different ways of grouping
students, especially in the middle years. This middle group may
be known as either junior high school or middle school (see
Table 4.1).

Table 4.1 School Grade Divisions


Grade Level
K

Elementary
Elementary
Elementary
Elementary

Junior high
Middle school
Junior high

10

11

12

Senior high
Senior high
Senior high
Senior high

The name is not important in itself but may be an initial


guide to the types of activity that affect hot water requirements.

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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For example, elementary schools generally do not have showers.


Middle, junior, and senior high schools generally have showers
for gym classes as well as sports teams that use the showers
before and after regular school hours. High schools and middle
schools may also have swimming pools.
The designation of the school may also be a first indication of
the areas of the facility in which to expect hot water requirements. Rooms that usually get hot water, beside the kitchen and
laundry, are the health clinic, teachers workrooms, art room,
teachers lounge, principals toilet, janitors closets, and special
education rooms, which often have showers and washing machines. Science rooms, classrooms, and student toilets are areas
that may have hot water but often do not. Always check with the
user. (See Table 4.2.)

Table 4.2 Potential Areas of Hot Water Usage


Type of School
Area

Elementary

Jr./Middle

High

Classroom toilets

Kitchen

Laundry

Art room

Science room

Health clinic

Teachers lounge

Teachers workroom

Principals toilet

Student toilet rooms

Special ed. room

Showers
Car wash

Shop room

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47

INFORMATION GATHERING
The accuracy of the calculated hot water requirements will only
be as good as the accuracy of the information used to determine
the requirements. Therefore, a significant portion of the design
time should be allotted to information gathering and validation.
Sources of information include the following:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

The architects design documents.


The architect.
School staff.
School district construction personnel.
School district design criteria and manuals.
School district maintenance personnel.
Survey of existing and similar facilities.

Information will be needed to determine:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Which fixtures require hot water.


Kitchen/food service requirements.
Shower requirements.
School population.
After hours requirements.
Hot water temperature requirements.

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The criteria for determining the hot water demand are presented
as if one central system were being designed. In fact, the best
choice may be to use multiple systems. This may be necessitated
by criteria calling for a dedicated kitchen water heater or by isolated small loads.
It is not the intent of this chapter to go into detail about the
selection of water heating equipment or the hot water delivery
system. An initial concept must be established for the purposes
of grouping the load and planning for the location of equipment.

KITCHEN AND FOOD SERVICE


Kitchen requirements, including dishwashers, generally are determined by the owner, the architect, and the kitchen design

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consultant. A basic consideration is whether the kitchen is a


full-service kitchen or merely a warming or holding kitchen. School
criteria may call for the kitchen to have a separate water heater.
The following should be determined for a full-service kitchen operation:
1. Dishwashing requirements. (Model number and hot water
requirement for the dishwasher.)
2. Rinse and sterilization requirements. If done with 180F (60C)
water, is the booster heater provided at the dishwasher or at
a remote location?
3. Sinks and other kitchen hot water users, such as a can wash,
steamers, and rinse sprays.
4. Hours of operation. Are breakfast and lunch both served?
Does the kitchen operate during evenings or weekends?
5. Is any disposable table service used? This will affect the duration of dishwashing. The dishwasher may be used only for
silverware and trays.

SHOWERS
The shower load is often the most significant hot water requirement in secondary schools and should be carefully evaluated.
The quantity of showers is usually determined by the schools
criteria, the architects design, and code requirements.
Beyond the number of showers, the hot water requirement
can be affected by such things as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Gym class size and schedule.


Whether students are required to take showers.
Time period available for showers.
What temperature(s) are required.
Maximum flow of shower heads.
Special fixtures in the space (e.g., those for hydrotherapy).
Types of extracurricular activity (sports, etc.).

SCHOOL POPULATION
For new schools, the populationthe total number of students and
staffis usually given in the design criteria for the school. Otherwise, it can be obtained from the school district or the architect or

Elementar
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49

by totaling the number of students allotted to each classroom. If the


water heating system is also to serve the future expansion of the
school, then the future population should be estimated.

CALCULATING THE HOT WATER DEMAND


Hot water demand for schools can be divided into three categories: general purpose, kitchen, and shower. It is important to
determine which, if any, of these loads occur at the same time
and what the duration of the overlap is. As a general rule, if there
is a kitchen, a system sized for the kitchen demand may also
handle the general purpose demand. If there are also showers,
the system must be sized for any concurrent shower and kitchen
load. If there is no concurrent use, the system should be sized to
handle the larger of the two, in which case it will also take care of
the general purpose load.

General Purpose Demand


Tabulate the quantities of each type of fixture. Using Table 4.3,
multiply the number of fixtures by the gallons (liters) per hour
for each and total the loads. This total will be the demand in
gallons (liters) per hour.

Table 4.3 Hot Water Demand per Fixture for Schools


Demanda (at 140F [60C] Final Temp.)
Fixture

(gph/fixture)

Lavatory (private)
Lavatory (public)
Dishwasher (residential type)
Sink (classroom, workroom, science room)
Clothes washer (residential type)
Service sink/mop basinb

2
4
20
8
30
20

(L/h/fixture)
7.57
15.14
75.70
30.28
113.55
75.70

Source: Reprinted with permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers from the 1987 ASHRAE Handbook.
Modifications by the Washington, D.C., ASPE chapter.
a Demands shown represent the quantity of 140F (60C) water required to
produce the desired usable water temperature at the fixture.
bHot water demand for general purpose service sinks and mop basins in schools
is not included when supplied from the general purpose water heaters. This demand does not usually occur simultaneously with peak demands from toilets and
kitchens.

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Kitchen Demand
Using the data in Table 4.4, calculate the kitchen demand in the
same manner used for the general purpose demand. The dominant factor influencing the kitchen load will be the dishwasher
rinse requirement. If this is not available, the hot water requirement for the dishwasher can be estimated from Table 4.5.

Table 4.4 General Purpose Hot Water


Requirements of Kitchen Equipment
Demand, 140F (60C)
Type of Equipment
Vegetable sink
Single compartment
Double compartment
Triple-pot sink
Prescrapper (open type)
Prerinse (hand operated)
Prerinse (closed type)
Recirculating prerinse
Lavatory or hand sink

(gph)
45
30
60
90
180
45
240
40
5

(L/h)
170.33
113.55
227.10
340.65
681.30
170.33
908.40
151.40
18.93

Source: Dunn et al. 1959. American Gas Association.

Table 4.5 Rinse Water (180195F)


Requirements of Commercial Dishmachines
Dishmachine
Type

Dishmachine
Size

Flow Rate
(gpm)

Door type

16 x 16 in.

6.94

Inches rack

18 x 18 in. rack

8.67

20 x 20 in. rack
Conveyor type

10.4

Undercounter type

Single tank

6.94

Multiple tank

Consumption
(gph)
69
87
104
70
416

Dishes flat

5.78

347

Dishes inclined

4.62

277

Silverware washers

45

Utensil washers

75

Make-up water
requirements
180F on certain
conveyor types

2.31

139

Note: Based on water pressure of 20 psig at equipment. Based on operation at 100%


mechanical capacity. Seventy percent is normal operating capacity except for rackless
conveyor machines. Designer should contact equipment manufacturer for actual demand. Designer also should check local codes and regulations. Some agencies require
that domestic water heating systems be sized to provide 100% capacity for dishwashers.

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51

Table 4.5(M) Rinse Water (8291C)


Requirements of Commercial Dishmachines
Dishmachine
Type
Door type

Dishmachine
Size
406 406 mm

Millimeters rack

457 457 mm rack

0.55

329.3

508 508 mm rack

0.66

393.64

Conveyor type

Flow Rate Consumption


(L/sec)
(L/h)
0.44
261.17

Undercounter type

0.32

264.95

Single tank

0.44

1574.56

Dishes flat

0.36

1313.4

Dishes inclined

0.29

1048.45

Multiple tank
Silverware washers

0.44

170.33

Utensil washers

0.50

283.88

Make-up water
requirements
82C on certain
conveyor types

0.15

526.12

Note: Based on water pressure of 140 kPa at equipment. Based on operation at 100%
mechanical capacity. Seventy percent is normal operating capacity except for rackless
conveyor machines. Designer should contact equipment manufacturer for actual demand. Designer also should check local codes and regulations. Some agencies require
that domestic water heating systems be sized to provide 100% capacity for dishwashers.

Shower Load
The shower load is derived by multiplying the number of showerheads by the flow rate per shower by the amount of time the
showerheads are used per hour. The load is expressed in gallons
(liters) per hour. Generally, the water to showers is tempered by
mixing the hot water with cold water; therefore, the actual requirement for hot water will be only a portion of the total shower
flow. See Chapter 1, Equation 1.7, for the mixed water temperature formula.

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EXAMPLES
Example 4.1 Elementary School
This school is not equipped with showers but does have a small
(lunch only) cafeteria with a food preparation area. The general
purpose demand is created by the following fixtures:
Fixture
Lavatory (private)

No. of
Fixtures

Demanda
(gph/fixture)

10

Total
(gph)
20

Lavatory (public)

50

200

Sink (classroom)

20

160
380b

aFrom Table 4.3.


bMop sinks not included.

Fixture
Lavatory (private)

No. of
Fixtures

Demanda
(L/h/fixture)

10

7.57

Total
(L/h)
75.7

Lavatory (public)

50

15.14

757

Sink (classroom)

20

30.28

605.6
1438.3b

aFrom Table 4.3.


bMop sinks not included.

The kitchen demand is created by the following equipment:


Equipment
Vegetable sink

No. of
Pieces

Demanda
(gph)

45

Total
(gph)
45

Triple-compartment sink

90

90

Prerinse

45

45

Hand sink

10

Dishwasher (door type)

69

69
259

aFrom Table 4.4.

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53

No. of
Pieces

Demanda
(L/h)

Total
(L/h)

Vegetable sink
Triple-compartment sink

1
1

170.33
340.65

170.33
340.65

Prerinse
Hand sink

1
2

170.33
18.93

170.33
37.86

Dishwasher (door type)

261.17

Equipment

261.17
980.34

aFrom Table 4.4.

The designer has decided with this type of system to use one
or more water heater(s) to provide domestic hot water for the
school. Since the kitchen requires 140F (60C) water, the heater(s)
will raise the temperature of the water to this level and reduce it
to 110F (43C) for general usage. Using the mixed water temperature formula found in Chapter 1 (Equation 1.7), we calculate
the amount of 140F (60C) water needed to meet the general
usage demand:
(110 40)
= 0.70
(140 40)
4)
= 0.70]
[ (43
(60 4)
0.70 380 gph = 266 gph of 140F water
(0.70 1483.3 L/h = 1038.31 L/h of 60C water)
Although the general demand is slightly higher than the
kitchen demand, the diversity of the general demand is such that
the kitchen demand should be the factor governing the sizing of
the water heater(s). For this example, the designer has selected a
heater that has a storage capacity of approximately half of the
kitchen demand with a recovery rate approximately equal to the
kitchen demand.

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Example 4.2 High School


This school is a fully equipped high school with locker rooms,
science rooms, lounges, shops, and a major kitchen. With all the
activities that occur at this school, concurrent loads can be expected and must be taken into consideration when designing a
system. The first step is to determine the domestic hot water
demands that are generated in each category.
General purpose demand
Fixture
Lavatory (private)

No. of
Fixtures

Demanda
(gph/fixture)

Total
(gph)

12

24

Lavatory (public)

60

240

Sink

25

200

Dishwasher (residential)

20

40

Clothes washer (residential)

30b

90
594c
60b
534

aFrom Table 4.3.


bOnly one of the clothes washers will be used during school hours; therefore, the
total demand can be reduced by 60 gph.
cMop sinks not included.

Fixture

No. of
Fixtures

Demanda
(L/h/fixture)

Total
(L/h)

Lavatory (private)

12

7.57

Lavatory (public)

60

15.14

908.4

Sink

25

Dishwasher (residential)
Clothes washer (residential)

90.84

30.28

757.00

75.7

151.4

113.55b

340.65
2248.29c
227.00b
2021.29

aFrom Table 4.3.


bOnly one of the clothes washers will be used during school hours; therefore, the
total demand can be reduced by 227.00 L/h.
cMop sinks not included.

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55

Kitchen demand
Normal operating hours, not serving hours, are from 10:00 A.M.
until 3:00 P.M.
Equipment

No. of
Pieces

Demanda
(gph)

Total
(gph)

Vegetable sink

45

90

Double-compartment sink

60

60

Triple-compartment sink

90

90

Prerinse

45

90

Hand sink

10

Bar sink

30

30

Dishwasher (conveyor type)

416

416
786

aFrom Tables 4.4 and 4.5.

Equipment

No. of
Pieces

Demanda
(L/h)

Total
(L/h)

Vegetable sink

170.33

340.66

Double compartment sink

227.1

227.1

Triple compartment sink

340.65

340.65

Prerinse

170.33

340.66

Hand sink

18.93

37.86

Bar sink

113.55

113.55

Dishwasher (conveyor type)

1574.56

1574.56
2975.04

aFrom Tables 4.4 and 4.5.

Shower demand
Showers are taken after gym classes and after athletic team practices.
The total number of showers is 23. Each shower head has a
flow rate of 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec). A worst-case scenario for usage
is estimated to be 5 showers per hour per head for 6 min each.
23 heads 2.5 gpm 6 min 5 showers/h = 1725 gph
(23 heads 0.16 L/sec 60 sec 6 min 5 showers/h

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= 6624 L/h)
(This scenario would happen only after school when the athletic
teams have completed their practices.)
Possibly a better and more normal scenario to look at is the
usage after gym classes. Since time is very limited, only a few
quick showers will be taken.
23 heads 2.5 gpm 3 min 2 showers/h = 345 gph
(23 heads 0.16 L/sec 60 sec 3 min 2 showers/h
= 1324.8 L/h)
System selection factors
At this point in the design, it must be determined how the domestic hot water is to be distributed. For this example, the designer
has decided to provide two separate systems, one for the kitchen
at 140F (60) and one for the general and shower demands at
110F (43C). Since 110F (43C) water will be supplied to the
showers and a normal shower is taken at an average of 102F
(39C), the designer can compute the actual hot water usage for
the showers using the mixed water temperature formula found
in Chapter 1 (Equation 1.7).
(102 40)
= 0.89
(110 40)
1725 gph 0.89 = 1535 gph
345 gph 0.89 = 307 gph
4)
= 0.89
[ (39
(43 4)
6624 L/h 0.89 = 5895.36 L/h

1324.8 L/h 0.89 = 1179.07 L/h


As previously noted, the water heater(s) for the kitchen demand will serve only that demand. Therefore, there are no loads
concurrent with other demands. If the heater(s) served all demands, the kitchen demand and the normal shower demand
would have to be combined. The following shows how the equipment would be sized in this case:

Elementar
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Secondary

57

Kitchen demand
Size the storage capacity of the water heater(s) for approximately half of the demand and the recovery rate for
approximately 100% of the demand.
General and shower demand
There are a few factors that must be taken into account when
sizing the equipment for this demand. One is the concurrence of the general demand and the normal shower demand.
Another is the large shower demand after athletic teams practice plus the use of two clothes washers concurrent with this
demand. (The length of time for heater recovery can be longer
in this case, since there is all night to recover the tank.) For
this example, the designer has decided to provide storage capacity of approximately 50% of the total of the general demand,
534 gph (2021.29 L/h), and normal shower demand, 307
gph (1179.07 L/h), and have recovery capacity of approximately 100% of this total demand.

REFERENCES
American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Service hot water systems. Chapter 4 in ASPE Data Book.
Thrasher, W. H., and D. W. DeWerth. 1993. Comparison of collected
and compiled existing data on service hot water use patterns in
residential and commercial establishments. ASHRAE Research
Project No. RP-600.

Hotels and Motels

59

HOTELS AND
MOTELS

INTRODUCTION
The hot water demand for a hotel/motel depends on the facilitys
type of occupancy and the guest room, food service, and laundry
demands. Occasionally, there also will be a health club involved.
These variables are discussed below. It is the responsibility of
the designer to determine these variables through the application of engineering principles and by asking the appropriate
questions of the owners/operators of the hotel or motel.

HOTEL AND MOTEL CLASSIFICATION


A hotel or motel is classified according to its construction, its
location, and the intent of the owners. The designer must do the
required research to determine the appropriate classification.
The following classifications are given for clarification and
reference.

Convention Hotel or Motel


This type of facility has an adequate number of guest rooms,
meeting rooms, ballrooms, food service, etc., to support large
groups with common schedules making high shower demands
within a short period of time a real possibility.
This classification also applies to any hotel or motel in close
proximity to such a facility. If such is the case, the hotel or motel

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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owners should be contacted and asked if they wish to have a


domestic water heating system capable of meeting convention
demand.

Business Travelers Hotel or Motel


It has been estimated that 45 to 50% of all hotel and motel business fits into this category, and the percentage increases each
year. Owners catering to this group select locations favorable to
business travelers, and the better ones select room furnishings
to meet their needs. The presence of desk phones and phones by
the bed is one indication of the hotel/motels intended primary
use. The owners should be asked to verify their intended occupancy.

Resort Hotel or Motel


This type of facility is found in or adjacent to locations that attract large numbers of people for the purposes of enjoyment. Some
typical attractions are theme parks, mountains, beaches, and
racetracks. Although most resort facilities have in common a reasonably long period of peak demand because their guests lack
common time tables, you have to be careful. Facilities near race
tracks and theme parks, for instance, are subject to short demand periods. If there is any doubt about this, the designer should
ask the owners.

General Occupancy Hotel or Motel


This type of facility is usually a mix of the other three
classifications, the effect of which is the lengthening of the peak
demand. An example of this type of facility is a hotel or motel in a
reasonably large town that draws people for many reasons. It
does not, however, have the number of meeting rooms necessary
to support a full convention occupancy, and it has no ballrooms.

GUEST ROOM DEMAND


Questions and Assumptions
1. How many guest rooms are there?
2. What type of occupancy does the facility serve?

Hotels and Motels

61

3. What is the average occupancy per room expected during peak


occupancy?
The owners can provide the best answer to this question. If
they are unable to provide the information, the following assumptions may be used.
Convention hotel or motel: 1.5 to 2.0 persons per room.
Business travelers hotel or motel (urban): 1.5 to 2.0 persons per room.
Business travelers hotel or motel (nonurban): 1.25 to 1.75
persons per room.
Resort hotel or motel: 2.5 persons per room.
Resort suite/condo hotel: 2.5 to 4.0 persons per suite.
General occupancy hotel or motel: 1.5 to 2.0 persons per
room.
4. What will the peak demand period be?
Lacking other information, the following assumptions may
be considered applicable:
Convention hotel or motel: 1-h peak.
Business travelers hotel or motel: 1-h peak.
Resort hotel or motel: 3-h peak.
General occupancy hotel or motel: 2-h peak.
5. What will be the greatest contributor to the guest room demand?
The shower demand is almost always the greatest contributor to guest room demand. Some small factor can be assumed for
lavatory demand. One significant additional load is the hot tub
or whirlpool bath. If the facility under consideration has hot tubs
or whirlpool baths, it is essential to ask the owners:
What is the fill capacity?
What temperature must be maintained?
Will the tubs have built-in heaters to maintain the desired
temperature, or will the temperature have to be maintained
by the occasional introduction of hot water?
The designer also will have to make an assumption about the
percentage of tubs that will be in use during the peak demand period. The owners should evaluate this assumption.
6. What percentage of guests will shower during any given peak
demand period?

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One number that may be considered is 70%. In situations


where the peak demand period is 2 h, consider 70% for the
entire period, then use 70% of that number for the peak hour.
The 70% estimate is an assumption based on various premises. For example, in a convention hotel there will be
scheduled events; for business travelers there are normal
business hours. Apply the same logic for 3-h peak demand
periods.
7. What is the maximum flow potential of the shower heads?
8. What is the average duration of a guest shower?
In a hotel or motel, 5 min should be a reasonable assumption.
9. How much hot water should be stored?
This is a value judgment based on the recovery chosen by the
designer and the estimate of simultaneous shower useboth
of which are affected by the classification and location of the
facility. If its decided to provide recovery equal to the full
peak demand, then it seems reasonable to accommodate those
times when an inordinate number of people shower at the
same time. Think of the stored water as showers in the bank.
A general guide is to provide 15% of the hourly demand for
facilities of 100 or more persons and 20% for smaller facilities.

Example 5.1 Guest Room Demand


The following information is known or assumed about a convention facility. It has 300 guest rooms. We find that the minimum
supply water temperature will be 40F (4C) and that 2.5 gpm
(0.16 L/sec) maximum flow shower heads are to be used. We
assume 1.5 persons per room at peak occupancy and an average
shower time of 5 min per guest. We assume 70% of the guests
will shower during the peak hour demand period. The temperature of hot water desired at the shower head is 105F (41C). Hot
water will be stored at 140F (60C) and delivered to guest rooms
after being tempered to 105F (41C).
300 rooms 1.5 guests/room = 450 guests
450 guests 70% = 315 guests showering in peak hour
315 guests 5 min/guest 2.5 gpm = 3938 gal of
105F water required during peak hour
(315 guests 5 min/guest 0.16 L/sec 60 sec/min =

Hotels and Motels

63

15 120 L of 41C water required during peak hour)


The heat required to raise 3938 gph (15 120 L/h) of 40F (4C)
water to 105F (41C) is
3938 gph 8.33 lb/gal/F (105 40F) = 2,132,230
Btu/h output required
[15.12 m3/h 4188.32 kJ/m3/K (41 4C) =
2 343 113.74 kJ/h output required]
If it is decided to provide full recovery to reduce the storage
requirements (and probably the system cost), note the efficiency
of the water heaters that will be used. (It is never advisable to use
only one heater for an establishment where hot water is essential
to its operation.) For the purposes of this example, assume 80%.
The total input required by heaters then is
2,132,230 Btu/h
= 2,665,288 Btu/h
0.80

2 343 113.74 kJ/h


0.80

= 2 928 892.18 kJ/h

Storage
The designer has decided to provide storage to accommodate the
showering of 15% of the guests simultaneously.
3938 gph 15% = 591 gal of 105F water
(15 120 L/h 15% = 2268 L of 41C water)
Since 140F (60C) water is going to be stored, the equivalent
quantity of 140F (60C) water is as follows (see Chapter 1, Equation 1.7, for the mixed temperature formula):
105 40F
= 0.65 591 gal = 384 gal
140 40F

41 4C
60 4C

= 0.65 2268 L = 1474.2 L

If we use a storage tank with a tank efficiency of 80% and we


desire to draw 384 gal (1453.59 L) from the tank during the peak
hour, the quantity that must be stored is:
384 gal

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0.80

= 480 gal minimum

1474.2 L
0.80

= 1842.75 L minimum

Select the next larger size standard tank.


Another way to select the recovery capacity when using larger
storage tanks is to divide the useable storage by the number of
hours the peak demand lasts. Subtract the result from the peak
hour demand to determine the minimum required recovery.
To provide owners with the most cost-effective system, evaluate the cost of several combinations of storage, recovery, and
efficiency.

FOOD SERVICE DEMAND


Questions and Assumptions
1. What type of food service is being offered (full restaurant, fast
food, etc.)?
2. What hours will food service be offered?
3. Are there multiple kitchens? Will there be a time when they
operate simultaneously?
Hot water demand
Since hot water demand is driven by the kitchen equipment, the
following questions need to be asked:
1. What will be the time period (total hours) of the kitchens
longest cleanup mode?
2. What fixtures that utilize hot water will be in the kitchen?
3. What temperature water is required by each?
4. What are the manufacturer and model number of the dishwasher? You will need to obtain information about the hot
water characteristics of this equipment.
5. Is a booster heater being used to furnish 180F (82C) water
to the dishwasher?

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65

Guide to Estimating Hourly Demand


The following can be used to estimate the hourly demand of 140F
(60C) water to several types of fixture. (Lavatories can basically
be ignored.)
1-compartment sink: 30 gph (113.55 L/h)
2-compartment sink: 60 gph (227.1 L/h)
3-compartment sink: 90 gph (340.65 L/h)
4-compartment sink: 120 gph (454.2 L/h)
Prerinse: 45 gph (170.33 L/h)
Can wash: 45 gph (170.33 L/h)
These figures include initial fill and occasional refill or makeup.
Sometimes, if a 4-compartment sink is furnished, sanitizing
is done with chemicals and 180F (82C) water is not required.

Example 5.2 Food Service Demand


Assume you have a convention hotel that serves all three meals
each day. The kitchen has the following equipment:
Equipment
Conveyor type dishwasher
3-compartment sink

Assumed
140F (gph)

Assumed
180F (gph)a

320
90

320

2-compartment sink
1-compartment sink

60
30

Dishwasher prerinse
Can wash

45
45
590

320

aWater is raised from 140 to 180F by booster heater.

Assumed

Assumed

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Equipment
Conveyor type dishwasher
3-compartment sink
2-compartment sink
1-compartment sink
Dishwasher prerinse
Can wash

60C (L/h)

82C (L/h)a

1211.2
340.65
227.1
113.35
170.33
170.33

1211.2

2232.95

1211.2

aWater is raised from 60 to 82C by booster heater.

Assume the kitchen will be in the cleanup mode for a maximum of 3 h after every meal. (Discussions with kitchen operators
suggest that 3 h is a reasonable number that incorporates the
necessary time for an extremely busy cleanup period.) Total hot
water required per hour will be 590 gph (2232.95 L/h) of 140F
(60C) water, 320 gph (1211.2 L/h) of which must be raised to
180F (82C) by a booster heater.
To evaluate the storage required, consider the equipment to be
served. You may assume that a large demand will occur when the
cleanup effort is initiated. All the sinks will be filled, perhaps requiring 140F (60C) water. The dishwasher tanks will need to be
filled initially; assume 30 gal (113.55 L), though you should check
with the manufacturer. Therefore, you will need at least 210 gal
(794.85 L) of 140F (60C) water for the initial fill of 3 sinks and a
dishwasher tank. The normal draw down after initial fill should be
no greater than the initial fill. The major running demand will be
the dishwasher and prerinse, which operate continuously. If you
wish to calculate initial fill with a water temperature lower than
140F (60C), then do so. Hands cannot be immersed in very hot
water, but it may be the practice to fill the sinks initially with very
hot water for hot soak purposes.
Selection of water heating equipment
To select a storage tank, first multiply the expected initial fill
requirement by 1.1 to provide a 10% safety factor:
210 gal 1.1 = 231 gal
(794.85 L 1.1 = 874.34 L)

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67

Then select the nominal tank size by dividing 231 gal (874.34 L)
by the manufacturers published tank efficiency. (Assume 75%.)
231 gal
= 308 gal nominal storage required
0.75

874.34 L
0.75

= 1165.79 L nominal storage required

Select the next larger size standard tank. If heaters with full demand recovery capacity are specified, the water drawn from
storage during high demand periods will be quickly replaced and
no greater storage capacity should be required. Selecting the storage tank size requires the engineers judgment.
Required recovery
For a kitchen, you may want to calculate full recovery, not taking
into consideration storage since it is normally an insignificant
percentage of the demand, particularly when a conveyor type dishwasher is used. Assume a minimum inlet temperature of 40F
(4C). Also assume that an electric booster heater is furnished to
raise the dishwasher hot water from 140 to 180F (60 to 82C).
Using the heat transfer formula from Chapter 1 (Equation 1.2),
we calculate the 140F (60C) water recovery as follows:
590 gph 8.33 Btu/gal/F (140 40F) = 491,470
Btu/h output required
[(2.23 m3/h)(4188.32 kJ/m3/K)(333.15 277.59K) =
518 927.82 kJ/h output required]
Divide the output by the efficiency of the heater to determine the
input required.

LAUNDRY DEMAND
Questions and Assumptions
This demand is driven by the equipment used and the peak operation times. For large facilities, it can be a significant demand. For
small facilities, small residential or light commercial equipment is
often used. You must check the maximum operating water temperature and the gallons (liters) per hour required by each machine.

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The manufacturer of the laundry equipment can tell you how


much hot water is required for each machine. Generally, if you
tell them the capacity of each machine in pounds per hour (kg/
h), they can tell you the gallons per hour (L/h) of hot water required per pound (kg). For large machines, the draw down
rate can be high, so adequate storage is necessary. A number of
laundry equipment manufacturers have suggested that the minimum requirement is to store 5075% of the hourly demand, and
provide a recovery equal to the hourly demand. This will provide
stored water to meet the high draw down demand, and the recovery will provide for the continuous demand. Fifty percent is usually
adequate, but check with the manufacturer if possible. You dont
want temperature degradation due to the addition of cold water
during periods of high demand.
If you have small machines, again it is helpful to check with
the manufacturer for the maximum demand in gallons per hour
(L/h).
The temperature required by the user can be critical.

Example 5.3 Laundry Demand


Consider a full-service convention hotel that has two 135-lb (61.24
kg) and one 75-lb (34.02 kg) washer extractor. The manufacturer
has indicated that the machines require 2 gph of hot water for
each pound (16.65 L/h of hot water for each kg) of capacity. The
hotel owners have stated that they wash with 160F (71C) water
and the laundry operates 16 h each day. Minimum supply water
temperature will be 40F (4C).
It is obvious that storage will be of little value in meeting hot
water demand because of the long hours of operation. Adequate
storage must be provided, however, to meet short-term, high draw
down rates. Using the heat transfer formula from Chapter
1 (Equation 1.2), select the storage tank using 60% of peak hour
demand. The total machine capacity is 345 lb (156.49 kg).
345 lb 2 gph/lb = 690 gph of 160F water
(156.49 kg 16.65 L/h/kg = 2 605.56 L/h of 71C water)
690 8.33 (160 40) = 689,724 Btu/h output required
[2.61 m3/h 4 188.32 kJ/m3 K (344.26 277.59 K) =
727 687.18 kJ/h output required]

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69

Divide by the heater efficiency to obtain the input required.


689,724 Btu/h output
0.80 (heater efficiency)

727 687.18 kJ/h output


0.80 (heater efficiency)

= 862,155 Btu/h input

= 909 608.98 kJ/h input

Use 60% of peak hour demand to select the minimum storage


capacity.
690 gph 0.6 = 414 gal minimum
(2605.56 L/h 0.6 = 1563.34 minimum)
Select the next larger size standard unit or use multiple tanks.

GENERAL NOTES
System Considerations
The choice of a system(s) to meet the hotel/motels hot water
demand is up to the designer. There are several factors and ideas
that should be considered:
1. Should the hotel/motel be served by a single system? Should
it be served by two systems, one serving the guest rooms and
the other serving the laundry/kitchen? Does the hotel/motel
need three separate systems?
2. What type(s) of tempering device should be installed to ensure safe delivery of the proper temperature water to the
various areas?
3. If systems are combined, what size should the combined storage tank be?
4. Is it desirable to install a crossover bypass system so that, if
one system is down, water from another system can be diverted to temporarily provide service to the down system? If
this is done, it is important to remember that a tempering
valve must be placed in a bypass for the lower temperature
system so that, when this system is temporarily used for a
higher temperature, water can be routed through the tempering valve bypass.

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Design Criteria Considerations


When classifying the occupancy of a facility, be careful! In a resort facility there may be a convention hall. This means that any
of the small hotels normally considered resort facilities could be
(and often are!) used by people attending a convention. The key
thing to look for is the convention facility. This is a good time for
the designer to contact the owners or managers of the facility.
If the hotel guest room system is occasionally overloaded by
an unusually high occupancy rate, the result should not be an
immediate and drastic drop in temperature if the system was
sized reasonably. Some safety should be built into the minimum
supply water temperature. If the temperature is above the minimum at the time of the large demand, then there is that spare
capacity in the bank. There is some rationale to not sizing the
system for the greatest possible demand, which may occur, say,
once every 10 years. Sizing a system that way would cost the
owners a lot of money. Be aware, however, that some facilities
are very high end and their owners may direct you to size the
system so they never run short.

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71

HOSPITALS

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this chapter is to guide the designer step by step
through the procedure of designing a domestic water heating
distribution system for a hospital. It is important for the designer
to realize that there is a vast difference between designing a
domestic water heating system for a hospital and designing such
a system for any other type of building. A hospital encompasses
almost all types of hot water use, plus there are areas of operation that are unique to a hospital.
The first section of this chapter addresses design considerations and areas of concern. The second gives user group
requirements and offers an analysis to appraise. The final section
presents some design examples.
The designer is charged with identifying the variables, calculating the demand, and assuming the responsibility for laying
out an economical and efficient system to provide hot water to a
facilitys plumbing fixtures and other terminal points. The procedure presented here will help predict the minimum amount
of hot water needed by the facility.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Safety and Health Concerns
See Chapter 1 for a discussion of Legionella pneumophila
(Legionnaires disease) and scalding.

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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USER GROUP ANALYSIS


The specific areas of a facility, called user groups, should each
be considered when determining hot water usage. The user groups
identified below are typical of either a large or a small hospital
facility. (Each facility must be reviewed to determine its layout.)
The general outline that follows may be used for each user group.

General Outline
Identify the following for each user group:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Fixtures requiring hot water.


Whether the fixtures are public or private.
Water temperature and pressure requirements for each fixture.
Flow rates for each fixture.
The usage pattern of each fixture.
The acceptable time delay between the opening of a hot water
tap and the delivery of hot water.

Review the plans to determine:


1. The location of each fixture.
2. The locations of fixtures with specific temperature requirements.

User Groups
Patient areas
General patient areas in a hospital are typically used by people
admitted for surgical or medical procedures. Surgical patients
are people who enter the facility to have a surgical procedure
done and then remain in the facility to recover. A medical patient
is a person who enters a facility with a health ailment not requiring surgery but who requires constant and/or specialized care.
Surgical patients, early in their stay in the facility, are sponge
bathed and, per doctors orders, may use the shower facilities.
Medical patients typically have the use of the shower/bathing
facilities at all times.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. Are patient rooms private or semiprivateor are wards used?

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73

2. Does each patient room have a shower/tub, or is there a central bathing area?
3. Check whether patient bathing is assisted and, if so, how
many staff are available to provide assistance.
4. Determine the flow from each type of fixture.
Areas of concern:
1. Many codes require 110F (43C) water to be used in the patient area to prevent scalding (refer to the discussion of
scalding in Chapter 1).
2. Due to the number of showers/bathtubs in this area, a high
use of hot water is possible.
3. In an intensive care area or isolation room, the hand washing
sink/lavatory is used more frequently than in a typical patient area.
Nurses station
A nurses station is the area where the nursing staff work is
centralized for the area it serves. Staff members prepare medicine and simple food or drink items for patients and do their
required paperwork and general cleanup.
Typically a staff toilet with a hand washing lavatory is located
nearby. Nourishment and medication rooms typically have sinks
in them. The clean and soiled utility rooms are in the vicinity of
the station. The clean utility room typically has a single bowl
sink while the soiled utility room typically has a double bowl
sink, a hand washing lavatory, and a flushing rim sink (also known
as a clinic sink) with a bedpan washer.
The nurses station is not a heavy hot water use area and is
typically part of another specific user group (i.e., patient areas
have their own nurses stations). In many of the newer facilities,
the nurses station is shared between departments to lower the
number of staff required. This is done commonly in smaller facilities.
Hydrotherapy
The hydrotherapy area is a location where therapy that utilizes
water occurs. The therapies may involve many different temperatures of water, but all include some hot water usage. The therapy
tubs in the area may come in many sizes, from 50 to 500-gal
(189.27 to 1892.71-L) capacity or larger.
Items that should be determined include:

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1. The number and sizes of all the tubs/baths in the area.


2. For each type of tub, the planned number of therapies per
hour.
3. The hours the department is in use.
4. Desired fill time for each tub. (Staff will fill tub as rapidly as
possible.) Also determine whether the tubs are fully or partially filled for cleaning between therapies.
5. Water temperatures used for the therapies.
6. Is there a shower for bathing purposes in the area?
Areas of concern:
1. Tub filling is desired to be as fast as possible.
2. Temperature is critical. (The staff will not accept an inadequate hot water supply.)
3. Before running tempered water to a thermostatic mixing valve,
check with the valves manufacturer to make sure it will function properly under expected conditions.
Dietary and food service
A hospital dietary department typically is in operation 24 h a
day, but that depends on the size of the facility. The department
feeds not only the patients and their visitors but also the staff
and sometimes the public. Normally three full meals a day are
provided, but a late-night meal also is served in some facilities.
Most dietary departments are designed by a food service consultant, who should be contacted and consulted.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. The number of meals provided for each meal or day. Consult
the food service consultant.
2. The number of dishwashers and, for each, its type, size, gallons (liters) per cycle, cycles per hour, and required
temperature.
3. Number of sinks in the area and the type of each (prerinse,
etc.). Obtain water usages from the food service consultant
or use Table 6.1.
4. Are cart washers used? If so, during what hours are they
used, and what temperatures are desired for them?
5. Are the elevated water temperatures, e.g., 180F (82C), to be
boosted at the equipment or is a separate water heating system desired?

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75

Areas of concern:
1. Water temperature in the area. Typically, three temperatures
are needed, 110F (43C) for hand washing, 140F (60C) for
dietary use, and 180F (82C) for sanitizing purposes.
2. The department usually has early operating hours and runs
simultaneously with other departments.
3. The department has a high water consumption.
Surgical suite
The surgical suite is where the facilitys surgical procedures are
performed.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. Hours of scheduled surgery and typical starting time.
2. Number of scrub sinks in the suite and the length of time
required for the staff to wash.
3. Equipment used in the area and the water temperature it
requires (e.g., an electric flash sterilizer may use hot water to
shorten the warm-up time).
4. Number of showers in the suites locker rooms.
Areas of concern:
1. The time of the suites startup. Note that the suite typically
begins operation in the A.M., sometimes early A.M. (e.g., 6:00
A.M.), which is the same time other areas of the facility are
beginning startup, i.e., during hot water peak demand.
2. The average number of emergency operations from the trauma
unit or emergency room at night.
Laundry
A hospital produces a large amount of laundry, which needs to
be cleaned. The size of the facility determines the size of the laundry department. Not all facilities have their own laundry
departments; some opt to send the laundry to outside services.
Items that should be determined include:
1. The number and size of each washing machine in the area
(pound capacity and gallons [liters] of hot water per hour per
pound [kilogram] or per cycle).
2. The planned number of laundry operations (loads) per hour
per machine.

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3. The departments start time and hours of operation.


4. The temperatures of the water used.
Areas of concern:
1. The laundry departments schedule of operation. The department commonly begins operating in the early A.M., which is
the same time other areas of the facility are starting up (i.e.,
during hot water peak demand). The filling of the washers is
typically the first thing done at startup. The probability that
the washing machines will fill simultaneously is high during
startup.
2. Some of the laundry may be considered contaminated and
require special treatment. Verification of this possibility is
required.
Refer to Laundries, Chapter 12, for the sizing of hot water systems for this area. Due to the elevated water temperatures
required, separate water heating systems may have to be used.
Central sterile supply
This is where surgical and other equipment/tools used in the
facility are sent for cleaning or sterilization prior to disposal or
reuse. The central sterile supply department is typically in operation during and after the surgical suites scheduled hours of
operation. The department has many pieces of equipment that
use hot water; it could be considered a specialized dishwashing
area.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. Hours that central sterile supply is in operation and when
startup begins.
2. Number of times each piece of equipment is used per hour.
3. Equipment requirements with regard to water temperature,
flow, water quality, and pressure.
Areas of concern:
1. The departments scheduled hours of operation. The department commonly begins operating in the A.M., which is the
same time other areas of the facility start up (i.e., during hot
water peak demand).
2. Water pressures, quality, and temperatures are critical in this
area.
Obstetrics/Nursery

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77

This department is where the birth process occurs. Due to the


unpredictability of the birth process, it is in use 24 h a day. Many
of the newer facilities provide showers or tub/shower combinations in the individual birthing rooms and post-birthing rooms.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. Layout of the obstetrics department. Does each room have a
tub/shower or are there central bathing facilities or both?
Are there birthing rooms? After the birth, are the mother and
infant transported to another room?
2. Determine the shower head flow and/or the tub flow/capacity.
Areas of concern:
1. The birth process can be a long ordeal, and taking showers
during the process relaxes and soothes the mother. Many
facilities and health organizations recommend this. After the
birth, baths and showers are taken not only to relax the mother
but to flush the perineal area, which may be done in a sitz
bath.
2. Hot water supply temperature is 110F (43C) (the same as in
the patient area).
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., lab, administration, maintenance,
autopsy, the morgue)
A hospital facility has many other areas with fixtures requiring
hot water beside those noted above. Most of these areas have
sinks, hand washing lavatories, and staff shower rooms.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. In areas where showers are located, determine the flow rates
of the shower heads.
2. Determine the water temperatures needed in those areas
(maintenance may desire 140F [60C] temperatures for
cleanup or washdown areas).
Areas of concern:
1. The times that these areas are in use overlap the usage times
of many of the other specific user groups. Though the fixtures may be few, they still are used and should be considered
when doing calculations.

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WORKSHEETS AND TABLES


Worksheet 6.AUser Group
This worksheet may be copied by the designer for use in calculating the hot water requirements for an individual user group. A
different sheet should be used for each user group. All water
quantity usage figuresgallons per minute (gpm), (liters per
second [L/sec]), gallons per hour (gph), (liters per hour [L/h]),
and minutes of use per hour (min use/h)are suggested.
The designer must ascertain the correct quantities through
actual fixture/device/equipment literature (e.g., shop drawings) and/or discussions with the owner and/or user.
The fixture column lists the fixtures in a facility that use
hot water. The designer may add to this list if necessary. The
quantity column indicates the number of those fixtures located
in the user group area. Gpm (L/sec) is the flow rate from the
fixture used in the calculation. Min use/h is the estimated use
of the fixture in 1 h. (Note: In the case of dietary demands, and
perhaps other occasional demands, gph [L/h] will be substituted for min use/h.)
The next section of the worksheet, Temperature at Outlet,
is for the water temperature at the faucet outlet, not the system
temperature. This is important since cold water will be added to
the system hot water to obtain the desired outlet temperature.
Because of this, the flow from the faucet is not all hot water.
Table 1.1 is used to determine the actual amount of hot water
needed at the faucet outlet. The temperature at outlet section
is split into four subsections, each having a different faucet outlet water temperature. For the last subsection, labeled other,
any temperature may be used, but the temperature must be the
same for all fixtures used in that column. Each temperature subsection is split into two more subsections, gpm (L/sec) and gph
(L/h). The equation for each is noted on the worksheet.
When the fixtures in the user group are tabulated, each column is added and the totals are placed at the bottom of the sheet
under totals. The user group usage factors for gpm (L/sec) and
gph (L/h) are found in Table 6.2. Each total is multiplied by the
appropriate usage factor to get the user group totals, which are
used on Worksheet 6.BUser Group Totals. The user group totals are the amount of hot water predicted to be used in a particular
user group during the peak hour(s). Designers should use their
best judgment when working with these figures.

Hospitals

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Worksheet 6.AUser Group


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Bathroom group

C
105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)
110
___________
GPM GPH

Tub/shower & lavatory

2.5

10

Public lavatory

0.5

10

Private lavatory

Single bowl sink

2.5

Double bowl sink

2.5

Bathtub

10

Shower

2.5

10

Flushing rim sink

4.5

Floor receptor

4.5

Scrub sink, per faucet

2.5

10

Small hydro-tub
(less than 100 gal)

15

Large hydro-tub
(more than 100 gal)

15

Laundry tub

4.5

Residential washing
machine

4.5

Residential dishwasher

4.5

Commercial dishwasher

Triple compartment sink,


per faucet,

Commercial kitchen,
single sink

Commercial kitchen,
double sink

Commercial kitchen,
prerinse

2.5

Hose station or
cart/can wash

10

Sonic cleaner

4.5

Washer/disenfector

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals (UF x Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

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Worksheet 6.A (M) User Group


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

Bathroom group

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

Tub/shower & lavatory

0.16

10

Public lavatory

0.03

10

Private lavatory

0.13

Single bowl sink

0.16

Double bowl sink

0.16

Bathtub

0.44

10

Shower

0.16

10

Flushing rim sink

0.28

Floor receptor

0.28

Scrub sink, per faucet

0.16

10

Small hydro-tub
Less than 378.5 L

0.95

Large hydro-tub
More than 378.5 L

0.95

Laundry tub

0.28

Residential washing
machine

0.28

Residential dishwasher

0.28

Commercial dishwasher

0.44

Triple compartment sink


per faucet

0.57

Commercial kitchen
single sink

0.57

Commercial kitchen
double sink

0.57

Commercial kitchen
prerinse

0.16

Hose station or
cart/can wash

0.57

10

Sonic cleaner

0.28

Washer/disenfector

0.57

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals (UF x Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

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Worksheet 6.BUser Group Totals


This worksheet may be copied by the designer for use in calculating a facilitys hot water requirements. The totals found at
the bottom of the sheet indicate the predicted amount of hot
water the facility will use during the peak usage hour. Designers
should use their best judgment when working with these numbers to determine the amount of hot water supplied to the facility.
The items in the first, or user group, column are obtained
from Worksheet 6.A. As seen, the user group totals from
Worksheet 6.A are placed in the columns under the appropriate
temperature at outlet, gpm (L/sec), and gph (L/h) headings.
All of the user group totals for gpm (L/sec) are added together
and the resulting number is placed in the Subtotals section
near the bottom of the worksheet. This also is done for gph (L/h)
figures.
Designers need to determine when more than one water heater
supply temperature (e.g., 105F, 110F, 140F [41C, 43C, 60C])
will be required in the facility. When more than one water heater
is required to supply different temperatures, separate Worksheets
6.A and 6.B should be used for each water heater system. Subtotal each temperature at outlet column, use Table 1.1 to look up
the hot water multiplier for the system water temperature supplied to the facility, then multiply each subtotal by its appropriate
multiplier. When this is done, total the actual gpm (L/sec) and
gph (L/h) demands for the system water temperature supplied to
the facility (the bottom row of the worksheet) and put the resulting numbers under totals at the bottom right of the worksheet.
These totals are the gpm (L/sec) and gph (L/h) the water heater(s)
must supply to the facility. Designers should use their best judgment when working with these figures.

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Worksheet 6.BUser Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (F)
User Group

105
110
___________
___________
GPM Use/H GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

Patient area
Nurses station
Obstetrics/Nursery
Hydrotherapy
Dietary & food service
Surgical suite
Central sterile supply
Miscellaneous areas
SUBTOTALS:
Hot Water Multiplier, P
(Water Heater Temp.
_____ F)b
TOTALSc
(Refer to Table 1.1):
Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:
Note: User group totals are taken from Worksheet 6.A.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

GPM

GPH

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Worksheet 6.B (M) User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (C)
User Group

41
___________
L/Sec L/H

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Patient area
Nurses station
Obstetrics/Nursery
Hydrotherapy
Dietary & food service
Surgical suite
Central sterile supply
Miscellaneous areas
SUBTOTALS:
Hot Water Multiplier, P
(Water Heater Temp.
_____ C)b
TOTALSc
(Refer to Table 1.1):
Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:
Note: User group totals are taken from Worksheet 6.A.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

L/Sec

L/H

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Worksheet 6.AUser GroupExample 6.1


This is a copy of Worksheet 6.A with recommendations on temperatures at outlet and other comments. (See worksheet
footnotes.) Designers should use their best judgment and take
into account national, state, and local codes when considering
these recommendations.

Worksheet 6.A User GroupExample


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Bathroom group
tub/shower & lavatoryb,c 2.5
Public lavatoryb
0.5
2
Private lavatoryb
2.5
Single bowl sinkb
2.5
Double bowl sinkb
7
Bathtube
2.5
Showerb
Flushing rim sinkf
4.5
4.5
Floor receptorf
2.5
Scrub sink, per faucetg
Small hydro-tub
15
(less than 100 gal)d
Large hydro-tub
15
(more than 100 gal)d
Laundry tubf
4&5
Residential washing
4.5
machinef
4.5
Residential dishwasherf
Commercial dishwasherj
Triple compartment sink,
per fauceth,i
9
Commercial kitchen,
9
single sinkh,i
Commercial kitchen,
9
double sinkh,i
Commercial kitchen,
prerinseg
2.5
Hose station or
9
cart/ can washh
4.5
Sonic cleanerj
9
Washer/disenfectorj

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Min ___________
105
Use/H GPM GPH
10
10
4
1
1
10
10
1
1
10

*l
*
*
*
*
*
*

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*

6
3
7

*
*

*
*

90

30

60

45

10

*
*

*
*
*

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals (UF x Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:
Note: GPM calculation is for a semi-instantaneous water heating system. GPH calculation
is for a storage type water heating system.

(Continued)

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85

(Worksheet 6.A Example continued)


aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bBased on ANSI standards of 2.5 gpm for showerheads, 2.5 gpm for sinks, 2.0
gpm for lavatories, and 0.5 gpm for public lavatories.
cBased on the shower as the dominant fixture.
dBased on the valve size used. Designer must base design on the type of valve

that is specified or present in an existing facility.


eSame as d except two baths per hour.
fBased on 4.5 gpm and in. hot water supply running full open at 6 ft/sec

maximum velocity.
gConsidered same as shower.
hNine gpm based on in. hot water supply running full open at 6 ft/sec

maximum velocity.
iBased on Table 6.1, General Purpose Hot Water Requirements for Various Kitchen

Uses ( gph).
jBased on the equipment used. Designer must determine which model is used.
kWhere a dash () appears, please refer to Table 6.1 for the recommended hourly

use figure.
lAn asterisk (*) indicates the recommended outlet temperature.

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Worksheet 6.A(M) User GroupExample


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

Bathroom group
tub/shower
1,2
& lavatoryb,c
1
Public lavatoryb
Private lavatoryb
1
1
Single bowl sinkb
Double bowl sinkb
1
4
Bathtube
Showerb
1
5
Flushing rim sinkf
Floor receptorf
5
Scrub sink,
6
per faucetg
Small hydro-tub
(less than 378.5 L)d 3
Large hydro-tub
(more than
378.5 L)d
3
5
Laundry tubf
Residential washing
machinef
5
Residential
5
dishwasherf
Commercial
9
dishwasherj
Triple compartment
sink per fauceth,i 7,8
Commercial kitchen
7,8
single sinkh,i
Commercial kitchen
7,8
double sinkh,i
Commercial kitchen
prerinseg
6
Hose station or
7
cart/can washh
9
Sonic cleanerj
Washer/disinfectorj
9

(L/Sec = A B

Min ___________
41
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

0.16
0.03
0.13
0.16
0.16
0.44
0.16
0.28
0.28

10
10
4
1
1
10
10
1
1

*l
*
*
*
*
*
*

0.16

10

0.95

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

*
*

0.95
0.28

0.28

0.28

0.44

0.57 k

340.65

0.57

113.55

0.57

227.10

0.16

170.33

0.57
0.28
0.57

10

*
*
*

*
*
*

TOTALS:

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals (UF x Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 6.B
Note: L/sec calculation is for a semi-instantaneous water heating system. L/h calculation
is for a storage type water heating system.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

(Continued)

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87

(Worksheet 6.A[M] Example continued)


bBased on ANSI standards of 0.16 L/sec for showerheads, 0.16 L/sec for sinks,

0.13 L/sec for lavatories, and 0.03 L/sec for public lavatories.
cBased on the shower as the dominant fixture.
dBased on the valve size used. Designer must base design on the type of valve

that is specified or present in an existing facility.


eSame as d except two baths per hour.
fBased on 0.28 L/sec and DN15 hot water supply running full open at 1.83 m/sec

maximum velocity.
gConsidered same as shower.
h0.57 L/sec based on DN20 hot water supply running full open at 1.83 m/

sec maximum velocity.


iBased on Table 6.1, General Purpose Hot Water Requirements for Various Kitchen

Uses (L/h).
jBased on the equipment used. Designer must determine which model is used.
kWhere a dash () appears, please refer to Table 6.1 for the recommended hourly

use figure.
lAn asterisk (*) indicates the recommended outlet temperature.

Table 6.1 General Purpose Hot Water Requirements


for Various Kitchen Uses
This table, which supplies information on the hot water requirements for various kitchen uses, should be used for the dietary
and food service user group.

Table 6.1 General Purpose Hot Water


Requirements for Various Kitchen Uses
Equipment

GPH

L/H

Vegetable sink
Single compartment sink
Double compartment sink
Triple compartment sink
Prescrapper (open type)
Prerinse (hand operated)
Prerinse (closed type)
Recirculating prerinse
Bar sink
Lavatories

45
30
60
90
180
45
240
40
30
5

170.33
113.55
227.10
340.65
681.30
170.33
908.40
151.40
113.55
18.93

Source: Values are extracted from Dunn et al. [1959] 1989. Chapter 4. ASPE Data
Book. Table 9.
Note: Requirements are for water at 140F (60C).

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Table 6.2 Usage Factors for User Groups


This table provides the recommended usage factors for use with
Worksheet 6.A. The following discussion gives the background of
how these numbers were determined. (They represent a consensus of opinion of experienced designers; however, designers should
use their best judgment when working with these figures):
General
The gpm (L/sec) figure is based on the possibility that every hot
water using fixture will be operated in any 1 min (sec). The gph
(L/h) figure is based on the possibility that every hot water using fixture will be operated during a 1-h period. These figures are
based on a peak usage hour with a 3-h peak period.

Table 6.2 Usage Factors for User Groups


User Groups
Patient Nurses HydroArea
Station therapy

GPM (L/Sec) 0.10


GPH (L/H)
0.40

0.05
0.50

0.25
0.90

Dietary &
Food
Surgical
Service Suite

0.40
0.90

0.50
0.50

Central
Sterile Obstetrics/ Misc.
Supply Nursery Areas

0.20
0.90

0.10
0.40

0.05
0.10

Note: Based on a peak usage hour with a 3-h peak period.

Patient area
This user group is split into two areas, surgical and medical patient areas. Many patients in these areas are not ambulatory and
require assistance from the staff to use the toilet or the bathing
facilities. Many surgical patients are not allowed to use the shower
or bathing facilities until approximately the second day after surgery. Medical patients are often not allowed to use the facilities
until after their conditions improve. Because of this, many are
sponge bathed. The lavatory is a fixture that is heavily used by
the staff.
The 0.10 (10%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based on
only the shower being in use (i.e., the lavatory is not in use during the same minute). Also, it is assumed that not all the patients
are using the fixtures during the same minute.
The 0.40 (40%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
either the shower or the lavatory being used in an hour during

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89

peak usage time. Because the lavatory uses less water than the
shower, the factor is less than 0.50 (50%).
Nurses station
This user group is in use 24 h a day but typically is used most
heavily during shift changes. This is because of the preparation
necessary before patients can be aided.
The 0.05 (5%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based on
the relationship between the staff and patients. During a peak 3h period of hot water use, the patient area is used more heavily
than the nurses station. Since many patients need assistance
using the bathing or shower facilities, staff members are in the
patient areas aiding patients and not at the nurses station using
the fixtures there.
The 0.5 (50%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on these
same issues, but because of the time staff members spend at the
nurses station organizing or distributing medicines and doing
other work, the hand washing fixtures there are heavily used.
Hydrotherapy
When in operation, this area is a large water user. The staff can
be split between the physical and hydrotherapy areas.
The 0.25 (25%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based on
the cyclical use of the therapy tubs and on the assumption that
staff members also are doing physical therapy.
The 0.90 (90%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on the
assumption that during peak usage times almost all the fixtures
in this area are used. That assumes that the staff schedules water therapies during one time and physical therapies during
another.
Dietary and food service
This area is a large water user. Depending on the size of the
facility, the usage of water for food preparation and for cleaning
may overlap.
The 0.40 (40%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based on
the assumption that cleaning (the washing of dishes, etc.) does
not occur in the same minute as food preparation. Also, it assumes that the sinks are filled and then work is done using an
intermittent, not a steady, water supply.

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The 0.90 (90%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on the
assumption that most of the area fixtures are used during one of
the hours of the facilitys peak usage time.
Surgical suite
Surgical procedures account for the majority of the time this area
is in use. Though the scrub sinks are used intermittently during
a procedure (e.g., staff leaving the room and returning will scrub
again), the showers and scrub sinks are typically not used concurrently.
The 0.50 (50%) usage factor for both the gpm (L/sec) and gph
(L/h) are based on the above scenario. During any 1 min or h of
the facilitys peak usage period, either the scrub sinks or the
showers are in use.
Central sterile supply
This area, which houses washing equipment, is in use during
the facilitys peak usage time.
The 0.20 (20%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based on
the assumption that some of the equipment is in a fill cycle during any 1 min. Due to the nature of equipment cycles, all the
equipment does not use water during the same minute.
The 0.90 (90%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
most of the equipment being used in the facilitys peak usage
hour.
Obstetrics/Nursery
This user group is in use 24 h a day. The birth process and
resting afterward typically account for the majority of
a patients time in this area. Showers are sometimes taken during labor to relax the mother, and the hand washing lavatory is
used extensively during labor by the staff.
The 0.10 (10%) gpm (L/sec) usage factor is based on usage in
the patient area. Though a patient in the obstetrics (OB)/nursery area bathes after a birth, there is no set schedule for this
because of the unpredictable nature of the birth process. Thus,
at any 1 min, only 10% of the fixtures in this area are operated.
(This is part of the reasoning for the 5% factor used for the nurses
station. Fixtures in the OB/nursery user group typically are used
by staff members, implying that those workers are not concurrently at the nurses station using fixtures there.)

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91

The 0.40 (40%) gph (L/h) usage factor also is based on the
patient wing area. Also, many patients remain in the birthing
rooms after delivery. (Theyre not transferred to separate postpartum rooms.) Because of this, lavatories are used during labor
by the staff and bathing or shower facilities are used by patients
during the peak usage period. Both fixtures are not used extensively during the same hour.
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., lab, administration, maintenance,
autopsy, the morgue)
The rest of the facility uses water but not during the facilitys peak
usage time and not as much as those areas already
discussed. This is because most of the staff are not in the miscellaneous areas. These areas must be taken into account, however,
because water using fixtures are available and used there.
The 0.05 (5%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based on
the assumption that only a minor number of the fixtures are
used during any 1 min of the facilitys peak usage time.
The 0.10 (10%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on the
assumption that most of the fixtures in these areas are used
outside of the facilitys peak usage hour.
The designer must determine the usage pattern for each miscellaneous area.

QUESTIONS FOR OWNER OR CLIENT


Patient Areas and Nurses Stations
1. Are patient rooms private or semiprivate?
2. Does each patient room have a shower/tub or is there a central bathing area?
3. Determine the flow from shower heads or tub flow/capacities.

Hydrotherapy
1. What are the number and size of each tub in the area?
2. What is the number of planned therapies per hour?
3. What hours is the department in use?
4. What is the required fill time for each tub? Are the tubs to be

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fully filled for cleaning between patients?


5. What water temperatures are used for the therapies?
6. Is there a shower for bathing purposes in the area?

Dietary and Food Service


1. What is the number of meals provided each day?
2. What is the type of dishwasher used (number, size, gallons
[liters] per cycle, cycles per hour, and temperature required)?
3. What are the type and number of sinks, prerinses, etc., in
the area?
4. Are cart/can washers used and, if so, during what hours are
they operational and what temperatures are required?

Surgical Suite
1. What are the hours of scheduled surgery and what is the
typical starting time?
2. How many scrub sinks are in the suite?
3. What other equipment is used in the area and what temperatures are required (e.g., does the electric flash sterilizer require
hot water to shorten warm-up time)?
4. How many showers are in the different locker rooms?

Laundry
1. What are the number and size of each washing machine in
the area (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons per hour per
pound [liters per hour per kilogram])?
2. What is the number of planned laundry operations (loads)
per hour?
3. What are the start time and the hours the department is in
operation?
4. What are the temperatures of water to be used?

Central Sterile Supply


1. What are the operating hours of central sterile supply and
when does startup begin?

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93

2. How many times is each piece of equipment used per hour?


3. What equipment is in the area and what are the required
water temperature, flow rate, water quality, and pressure for
each piece?

Obstetrics/Nursery
1. Does each room have a tub/shower in it, or are there central
bathing facilities? Is there a birthing room and after the birth
are the mother and infant transported to another room?
2. Verify the shower head flow and/or tub flow/capacity.
3. What is the number of scrub sinks in the area?
4. How many flushing rim sinks are in the areas departments?

Miscellaneous Areas (e.g., Lab, Administration,


Maintenance, Autopsy, the Morgue)
1. What are the flow rates of the shower heads in a given area?
2. Check the water temperatures required in these areas.
3. Determine the acceptable time delay between the hot tap opening and the delivery of hot water. (Keep the length of branch
piping as short as possible. Discuss this issue with all users.)

EXAMPLES
Example 6.232-Bed Hospital
The facility in question is a 32-patient-bed hospital (having 24
patient-care, 6 obstetrics, and 2 intensive care, or ICU, beds). A
facility of this size typically is located outside of a metropolitan
area. The facility is a complete care, 24 h/day hospital without a
laundry (a facility of this size typically does not produce enough
laundry to warrant its own laundry facility).
Description of user groups
Patient area
The facility has 24 patient-care beds (12 for medical patients
and 12 for surgical patients). The facility has a wing arrangement with medical patients in one wing and surgical patients

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in the other. The rooms are single patient rooms with a shower
(2.5 gpm [0.16 L/sec] typical) and lavatory (2.0 gpm [0.13 L/
sec] typical) in each. There is a tub room with a single bathtub. Each wing has a clean utility room (single bowl sink, 2.5
gpm [0.16 L/sec] typical) and a soiled utility room (double
bowl sink, hand washing lavatory, and flushing rim sink with
bedpan washer). Each wing has a janitors closet with a receptor.
Nurses station
Because of the size of the facility, one nurses station provides service to the medical, surgical, and ICU patient beds.
This station has a medical drug dispensing room (single sink),
a staff toilet room (hand washing lavatory), and a sink at the
station for general water use. A second nurses station, for
obstetrics, has a general use sink. This station shares the
use of the drug dispensing and toilet rooms with the other
station.
An on-call room for staff members, which has a shower
and lavatory, is also provided in this area.
Hydrotherapy
The hydrotherapy area has a hip/leg tub (100 gal [378.50 L]),
arms/hips/leg/back tub (110 gal [416.35 L]), and a hands/
elbows/arms tub (25 gal [94.63 L]) with a hand washing lavatory in the area. The 25-gal (94.63-L) arm tank is filled using
the hip/leg tub valve. In this example, a mixing valve will be
used at a maximum flow of 15 gpm (0.95 L/sec). There is also
a shower with lavatory provided for outpatient services.
Dietary and food service
Because of the size of the facility, the dietary department provides three hot meals a day and a cold meal at night. It is a
full-service department with the following equipment: triple
compartment sink with prerinse, scrapping sink with prerinse,
dishwasher, double sink for food thawing, sink for vegetable
preparations, and a hand washing lavatory. The department
starts operation at 6:00 A.M. The department requires 140F
(60C) water at all fixtures except the hand washing lavatory,
where 110F (43C) supply water is required. A 105F (41C)
faucet outlet temperature is assumed. The dishwasher requires 180F (82C) water and the 140F (60C) water will be

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95

boosted at the dishwasher with an electric booster heater.


Surgical suite
The facility has two operating rooms with two double scrub
sinks in the suite, and the department runs from 6:00 A.M.
to 12:00 P.M. Monday through Friday. The department also
has two general purpose sinks, a flash sterilizer (steam is
provided from a central system), janitors receptor, two flushing rim sinks (one in recovery), and two showers with lavatories
in the locker areas.
Central sterile supply
The central sterile supply operates between 6:00 A.M. (when
surgery starts at 6:00 A.M.; otherwise 8:00 A.M.) and 4:00
P.M. The department has two gravity sterilizers, a sonic
cleaner, washer disinfector, hand washing lavatory, double
sink, and flushing rim sink with bedpan washer. The sonic
cleaner and washer disinfector are typically used once an hour.
Obstetrics/Nursery
This department has six labor and delivery rooms set up so
that the mother and infant may remain in one room for the
duration of their stay. If an overflow occurs, the surgical patient wing is adjacent to the OB and the mother is transferred
to an open room. Each room has a tub/shower with two hand
washing lavatories. The OB department shares the soiled and
clean utility rooms with the surgical patient wing.
Miscellaneous areas
Same-day surgery is a place where minor surgeries can be
performed as outpatient services (patients need not stay in
the facility overnight). The area has a general use sink and is
adjacent to the emergency room (ER), thus sharing many of
ERs fixtures. Hours are between 6:00 A.M. and 5:00 P.M.
The ER has a scrub sink, flushing rim sink with bedpan
washer, two general use sinks, a double sink, and a toilet
room with lavatory. This department is considered to be in
use 24 h a day.
Radiology is the department where X-rays are taken. The
department typically has a general use sink in each procedure room. In this example, the department has two general
radiology rooms and a CT scan room, each with a sink. The

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area also has a janitors closet with receptor, a toilet room


with lavatory, and a dark room with a sink and processor.
(You need to determine if the processor requires hot water.)
In this case, the processor is a cold water unit.
The maintenance area has a cart wash area and service
sink, both using 140F (60C) water. Also the area has male
and female staff locker rooms, each with one shower and two
lavatories.
Questions for owner or client
(This is a sample application of the questions from the previously
defined user group analysis. Answers to questions appear in boldface type.)
Patient areas and nurses stations
1. Are patient rooms private or semiprivate?
Private
2. Does each patient room have a shower/tub or is there a
central bathing area?
Shower with one central tub per wing
3. Determine the flow from shower heads or tub flow/capacities.
2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) for shower head, lavatory at
2.0 gpm (0.13 L/sec)
Hydrotherapy
1. What are the number and size of each tub in the area?
1 at 100 gal (378.50 L), 1 at 110 gal (416.35 L),
and 1 at 25 gal (94.63 L)
2. What is the number of planned therapies per hour?
Two
3. What hours is the department in use?
8:00 A.M. 5:00 P.M.
4. What is the required fill time for each tub? Are the tubs to
be fully filled for cleaning between patients?
15 gpm (0.95 L/sec) valve is to be used.
Yes
5. What water temperatures are used for the therapies?

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97

103F (39C)
6. Is there a shower for bathing purposes in the area?
Yes, with a 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) shower head and
a 2.0 gpm (0.13 L/sec) lavatory
Dietary and food service
1. What is the number of meals provided each day?
200
2. How many dishwashers are there and what are the type,
size, gallons (liters) per cycle, cycles per hour, and temperature required for each?
One
Hobart AM14
1.2 gal/rack at 53 racks = 64 gal/cycle (4.54 L/
rack at 53 racks = 240.62 L/cycle)
One cycle/h
140F (60C)
3. What is the number of sinks, prerinse, etc. in the area
and what is the type of each?
Triple compartment sink with prerinse
Scrapping sink with prerinse
Double sink for food thawing
Single sink for vegetable prep
A hand washing lavatory
4. Are cart/can washers used and, if so, during what hours
are they operational and what temperatures are required?
Yes
Washed after meals are served
140F (60C)
Surgical suite
1. What are the hours of scheduled surgery and what is the
typical starting time?
6:00 A.M. 12:00 P.M. typical
2. How many scrub sinks are in the suite?
Two double scrub sinks at 2.5 gpm/faucet (0.16 L/
sec/faucet)
3. What other equipment is used in the area and what tem-

98

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

peratures are required (e.g., does the electric flash sterilizer require hot water to shorten warm-up time)?
Two sinks
Janitors receptors
Two flushing rim sinks
Steam flash sterilizer
4. How many showers are in the different locker rooms?
Two showers (1 in the locker room for each sex)
and 2 lavatories
Laundry
1. What is the number and what are the sizes of the washing machines in the area (pound [kilogram] capacity and
gallons per hour per pound [liters per hour per kilogram])?
Nonefacility sends laundry out.
2. What is the number of planned laundry operations (loads)
per hour?
3. What are the start time and the hours the department is
in operation?
4. What are the temperatures of water to be used?
Central sterile supply
1. What are the operating hours of central sterile supply
and when does startup begin?
6:00 A.M. 4:00 P.M.
2. How many times is each piece of equipment used per hour?
Sonic cleaner (5 gph [18.93 L/h]) and washer (27
gph [102.20 L/h])
3. What equipment is in the area and what is the required
water temperature, flow rate, water quality, and pressure
for each piece?
140F (60C) is needed at the equipment.
35 psig (241.32 kPa)
120F (49C) supplied at the sink and lavatory
110F (43C) and 105F (41C) outlet temperatures,
respectively
The equipment in the area is electric.

Hospitals

99

Obstetrics/Nursery
1. Does each room have a tub/shower in it, or are there
central bathing facilities?
Individual room tub/showers and two lavatories
2. Is there a birthing room and after the birth are the mother
and infant transported to another room?
Typically, no to both questions
3. Determine the shower head flow and/or tub flow/
capacity.
2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) showers and 2.0 gpm (0.13 L/
sec) lavatories
4. What is the number of scrub sinks in the area?
None (If surgical procedure is required, patient is
transported to surgical suite.)
5. How many flushing rim sinks are in the areas departments?
It shares with the surgical patient wing.
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., lab, administration,
maintenance, autopsy, the morgue)
(Refer to the description of the facility for information.)
1. What are the flow rates of the shower heads in a given
area?
2. Check the water temperatures required in the areas.
3. Determine the acceptable time delay between the hot tap
opening and the delivery of hot water. (Keep the length of
branch piping as short as possible. Discuss this issue
with all users.)

100

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

User group worksheets, 32-bed hospital

Worksheet 6.A User Group: Patient Area


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Fixture

Qty. GPM

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory
Private Lavatory
Single Bowl Sink
Double Bowl Sink
Bathtub
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor

24
2
1
1
1
1
1

10
4
1
1
10
1
1

2.5
2
2.5
2.5
7
4.5
4.5

TOTALS:

60
4
2.5
2.5
7

76

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals UF Totals;
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

0.1
7.6

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

600
16
2.5
2.5
70

691
0.4
276

4.5
4.5

4.5
4.5

0.1

0.4

0.9

3.6

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A (M)User Group: Patient Area


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture
Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory
Private Lavatory
Single Bowl Sink
Double Bowl Sink
Bathtub
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor

Qty.

24
2
1
1
1
1
1

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

0.16
0.13
0.16
0.16
0.44
0.28
0.28

10
4
1
1
10
1
1

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

3.84 2304.0
0.26
62.4
0.16
9.6
0.16
9.6
0.44 264
0.28
0.28

16.8
16.8

TOTALS:

4.86 2649.6

0.56

33.6

Usage Factor UF Refer to Table 6.2:


Group Totals UF Totals;
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B

0.1

0.1

0.4

0.06

13.44

0.4

0.49 1059.84

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

101

Worksheet 6.A User Group: Nurses Station


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Fixture

Qty. GPM

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

2.5

10

Private Lavatory

Single Bowl Sink

2.5

2.5

TOTALS:

9.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.05

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 6.B:

0.5

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

25

38
0.5
19

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A (M) User Group: Nurses Station


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

0.16

10

0.16

96

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.13

31.2

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.32

19.2

TOTALS:

0.61 146.4

Usage Factor UF Refer to Table 6.2:

0.1

0.5

Group Totals UF Totals;


Transfer to Worksheet 6.B

0.03

73.2

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

102

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Hydrotherapy


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

2.5

10

2.5

25

Public Lavatory

0.5

10

0.5

Small Hydro-Tub
Less Than
100 Gal

2
(4 fills) 15

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

12

TOTALS:

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.25

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 5B:

0.75

30
0.9

103
___________
GPM GPH

30

360

30

360

0.25

27

7.5

0.9
324

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Hydrotherapy


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

0.16

10

0.16

96

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

0.50

18

Small Hydro-Tub
Less Than
378.5 Liters

2
(4 fills) 0.95

12

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

39
___________
L/Sec L/H

1.89 1368

TOTALS:

0.66 114

1.89 1368

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.25

0.25

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 5B:

0.17 102.6

0.9

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

0.9

0.47 1231.2

Hospitals

103

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Dietary & Food Service


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH
0.5

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Public Lavatory

0.5

10

Commercial
Dishwasher

64 gphb

64

Triple Compartment
Sink

90 gphb

18

180

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

30 gphb

30

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

60 gphb

60

Commercial Kitchen
Prerinse

2.5

45 gphb

2.5

45

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

10

90

54.5

469

TOTALS:

0.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.4

0.9

0.4

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 6.B:

0.2

4.5

21.8

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total gph and do not reflect min use/h.

0.9
422

Other
___________
GPM GPH

104

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Dietary & Food Service


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

Commercial
Dishwasher

0.44

64

Triple Compartment
Sink

0.57

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

0.03

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

18
0.44

242.24

340.65 L/hb

1.14

681.30

0.57

113.55 L/hb

0.57

113.55

0.57

227.1 L/hb

0.57

227.1

Commercial Kitchen
Prerinse

0.16

170.33 L/hb

0.16

170.33

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

0.57

37.85 L/hb

0.57

37.85

TOTALS:

0.03

18

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.4

0.9

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 6.B:

0.01

16.2

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total L/h and do not reflect min use/h.

3.45 1472.37
0.4

0.9

1.38 1325.13

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

105

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Surgical Suite


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Private Lavatory
Single Bowl Sink
Shower
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor
Scrub Sink, Per Faucet

2
2
2
2
1
4

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

2
2.5
2.5
4.5
4.5
2.5

4
1
10
1
1
10

TOTALS:

4
5
5

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

16
5
50

10

100

24

171

9
4.5

9
4.5

13.5

13.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
User Group Totals (UF x Totals); Transfer
to Worksheet 6.B:
12
85.5
6.8
6.8
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Surgical Suite


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.26

62.4

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.32

19.2

Shower

0.16

10

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

0.32 192

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

0.56

33.6

Floor Receptor

0.28

0.28

16.8

Scrub Sink, Per Faucet 4

0.16

10

0.64 384

TOTALS:

1.54 657.6

0.84

50.4

Usage Factor s (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.5

0.5

0.5

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 6.B:

0.77 328.8

0.42

25.2

0.5

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

106

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Central Sterile Supply


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Private Lavatory

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

2.5

2.5

Flushing Rim Sink

4.5

1
5 gphb

Sonic Cleaner

4.5

Washer/Disenfector

110
___________
GPM GPH

4.5

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

4.5
4.5

27 gphb

27
32

TOTALS:

4.5

10.5

4.5

4.5

13.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.2

0.9

0.2

0.9

0.2

0.9

User Group Totals ( UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 5B:

0.9

9.5

0.9

4.1

2.7

28.8

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total gph and do not reflect min use/h.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Central Sterile Supply


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.13

31.2

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

0.16

9.6

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

Sonic Cleaner

Washer/Disenfector 1

0.28

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

0.28

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

16.8

18.93 L/hb

0.28

0.57 102.2 L/hb

18.93

0.57 102.2

TOTALS:

0.29

40.8

0.28

16.8

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.2

0.9

0.2

0.9

User Group Totals ( UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 5B:

0.06

36.72

0.06

15.12

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total L/h and do not reflect min use/h.

0.85 121.13
0.2

0.9

0.17 109.02

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

107

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Obstetrics/Nursery


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

2.5

Private Lavatory

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

10

15

150

12

48

27

198

TOTALS:
Usage Factor (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.1

0.4

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 6.B:

2.7

79.2

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT System Temperature.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Obstetrics/Nursery


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A

(L/Sec = A B

Fixture

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

0.16

10

Private Lavatory

0.13

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

0.96 576
0.78 187.2

TOTALS:

1.74 763.2

Usage Factor (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.1

User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer


to Worksheet 6.B:

0.17 305.28

0.4

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT System Temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

108

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Private Lavatory
6
Single Bowl Sink
7
Double Bowl Sink
1
Shower
2
Flushing Rim Sink
1
Floor Receptor
2
Scrub Sink, Per Faucet 1
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash
1

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

2
2.5
2.5
2.5
4.5
4.5
2.5

4
1
1
10
1
1
10

10

TOTALS:

12
17.5
2.5
5

2.5

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

48
17.5
2.5
50
4.5
9

39.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals ( UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

110
___________
GPM GPH

4.5
9

2.5

143

13.5

13.5

90

90

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

2.0

14.3

0.7

1.4

0.5

aNote: Temperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture
Private Lavatory
Single Bowl Sink
Double Bowl Sink
Shower
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor
Scrub Sink, Per Faucet
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H
6
7
1
2
1
2
1

0.13
0.16
0.16
0.16
0.28
0.28
0.16

4
1
1
10
1
1
10

0.57

10

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

0.78 187.2
1.12 67.2
0.16
9.6
0.32 192
0.28
0.56
0.16

16.8
33.6

9.6
0.57 342

TOTALS:

2.54 552

0.84

50.4

0.57 342

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals (UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

0.05

0.1

0.5

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.13

55.2

0.42

5.04

0.03

34.2

aNote: Temperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

109

User group totals worksheet, 32-bed hospital

Worksheet 6.BUser Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (F)
User Group

105
110
___________
___________
GPM Use/H GPM GPH

PATIENT AREA

7.6

276

NURSES STATION

0.5

19

HYDROTHERAPY

0.75

27

DIETARY & FOOD


SERVICE
SURGICAL SUITE

0.2
12

4.5

0.9

4.1

2.7

28.8

0.7

1.4

0.5

9.3

15.9

9.5

2.7

79.2

MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS

14.3
515

7.5

324

7.5

324

422

6.8

0.9

26.7

21.8
6.8

OBSTETRICS &
NURSERY

Other (103)
___________
GPM GPH

3.6

85.5

CENTRAL STERILE
SUPPLY

SUBTOTALS:

0.9

140
___________
GPM GPH

25

459

HOT WATER
MULTIPLIER, P
(Water Heater Temp.
140F)b

0.61

0.61

0.67

0.67

0.59

0.59
TOTALSc

(Refer to Table 1.1):


Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:

16.2

314

6.2

10.7

25

459

4.4

191

Note: User group totals are taken from Worksheet 6.A.


aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

GPM

GPH

52

976

110

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.B(M) User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (C)
User Group

41
___________
L/Sec L/H

PATIENT AREA

0.49 1059.84

43
___________
L/Sec L/H
0.06

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other (39)
___________
L/Sec L/H

13.44

NURSES STATION

0.03

73.2

HYDROTHERAPY

0.17

102.6

DIETARY & FOOD


SERVICE

0.01

16.2

SURGICAL SUITE

0.77

328.8

0.42

25.2

CENTRAL STERILE
SUPPLY

0.06

40.8

0.06

15.12 0.17

109.02

OBSTETRICS &
NURSERY

0.17

325.28

MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS

0.13

55.2

0.42

5.04 0.03

34.2

SUBTOTALS:

1.83 2001.91

0.96

0.61

0.67

0.47 1231.2
1.38 1325.13

58.8

1.58 1468.35 0.47 1231.2

HOT WATER
MULTIPLIER, P
(Water Heater Temp.
60C)b

0.61

0.67 1

0.59

0.59

TOTALSc
(Refer to Table 1.1):
Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:

L/Sec
1.12 1221.17

0.64

39.4

1.58 1468.35 0.28

L/H

726.41 3.62 3455.83

Note: User group totals are taken from Worksheet 6.A.


aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

Hospitals

111

Example 6.3300-Bed Hospital


This is an example of a 300-patient-bed hospital. A facility of this
size typically is located around a metropolitan area. This is a
complete-care, 24 h/day hospital with a full-service kitchen and
a laundry (this size hospital typically produces enough laundry
to warrant its own laundry facility). Refer to the attached
worksheets for specific fixture quantities.
Description of user groups
Patient area
The hospital has 300 patient-care beds, including those in
intensive care suites, critical care suites, postsurgery rooms,
emergency suites, and patient-care rooms. The facility is divided by floor, with medical patients and surgical patients
housed on different floors. Patient rooms are private or semiprivate rooms with a shower (2.5 gpm [0.16 L/sec] typical)
and a lavatory (2.0 gpm [0.13 L/sec] typical) in each. In the
emergency care, intensive care and critical care suites, each
bed has a lavatory, and each suite has a flushing rim sink
with a bedpan washer. There are tub rooms on each floor
with a single bathtub for those who desire to take a bath.
Each floor has a clean utility room (single bowl sink, 2.5 gpm
[0.16 L/sec] typical) and a soiled utility room (double bowl
sink, hand washing lavatory, and flushing rim sink with bedpan washer). Each floor has a janitors closet with receptor.
Nurses station
Because of the size of the facility, each suite has a nurses
station, which provides service to the medical, surgical, intensive care unit, and critical care unit (CCU) patient
beds. Each station has a medical drug dispensing room (single
sink), a staff toilet room (hand washing lavatory), and a sink
for general use. There are also nurses stations at the emergency services area and the same-day surgery suites. These
nurses stations each have a general use sink at the station
and a toilet room with lavatory. An on-call room, which has a
shower and lavatory for staff members, is located in each of
these areas.

112

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Hydrotherapy
The hydrotherapy area has a large hydrotherapy tub (500 gal
[1892.5 L]), 3 hip/leg tubs (100 gal [378.5 L]), arms/hips/
leg/back tubs (110 gal [416.35 L]) and a hands/elbows/
arms tub (25 gal [94.6]), and there is a hand washing
lavatory in the area. Mens and womens locker rooms with
showers and lavatories are provided for outpatient services.
Dietary and food service
The dietary department provides three hot meals a day and a
cold meal at night for all the patient rooms and the staff dining room. It is a full-service department with the following
equipment: triple compartment sink with prerinse, scraping
sink with prerinse, dishwasher, double sinks for food prep/
thawing, single sinks for vegetable preparation, and hand
washing sinks. The department starts operation at 6:00 A.M.
and could make up to 1200 meals a day. All fixtures require
140F (60C) water except the hand washing lavatory, which
requires 110F (43C) water. The dishwasher requires 180F
(82C) water, and the 140F (60C) supply water temperature
will be raised at the dishwater with an electric booster heater.
This facility also has a guest cafeteria, which serves three
meals a day and has the following equipment: triple compartment sink with prerinse, scraping sink with prerinse,
dishwasher, double sink for food thawing, single sink for vegetable preparation, and a hand washing sink.
Surgical/recovery suite
The facility has 24 operating rooms, each with two double
scrub sinks. The surgery department runs from 6:00 A.M. to
12:00 P.M. Monday through Friday with on-call services the
remainder of the time. The department also has general purpose sinks, flash sterilizers (steam is provided from a boiler
in the boiler room), two janitors receptors, flushing rim sinks
(one in recovery), and showers with lavatories in the mens
and womens staff locker areas. The area also has four toilet
rooms with lavatories and two dark rooms. Each dark room
has a sink and a processor, which requires tempered water.
Thermostatic mixing valves should be used to provide the
tempered 110F (43C) water.

Hospitals

113

Laundry
Refer to the Laundries chapter for the sizing of hot water
systems for this area.
Central sterile supply
The central sterile supply starts at 6:00 A.M. if there is scheduled surgery at that time; if not, it starts at 8:00 A.M. The
department stops at 4:00 P.M. The area has four gravity steam
sterilizers (steam is supplied from the boiler room), a sonic
cleaner, washer disinfector, cart washer, hand washing lavatories, double compartment sink with prerinse hose, and
flushing rim sink with bedpan washer. The sonic cleaner and
washer disinfector are typically used 2 cycles per hour.
Obstetrics/Nursery
The department has two delivery rooms and four separate labor rooms. Each delivery room has two scrub-up
sinks, a steam sterilizer (steam is supplied from the boiler
room), and a single wash-up sink. There is a soiled utility
room with a flushing rim sink and a single wash-up sink.
Each labor room has a toilet with lavatory.
There are three levels of nursery in this facility: one (level
I) is for the newborns requiring standard care; one (level II) is
for newborns requiring extra observation; and one (the
neonatal intensive care unit, or NICU) is for newborns requiring critical care. An isolation room is used for newborns who
need to be isolated. Each nursery has a lavatory, a single
wash-up sink, and a larger sink used to wash and bathe the
newborns. There is one shared soiled utility room with a washup sink and a flushing rim sink.
Miscellaneous areas
Same-day (outpatient) surgery is where minor surgeries are
performed as outpatient services (i.e., the patients need not
stay overnight in the facility). The area has a general use sink,
a flushing rim sink, and scrub sinks adjacent to the two operating rooms. Hours of operation are between 6:00 A.M. and
8:00 P.M.
The emergency room is in use 24 h a day. It has a scrub
sink, a flushing rim sink with bedpan washer, and a general
use sink in each of the four trauma rooms (areas used for

114

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

severely injured or critical patients). Each of the 12 examination pods is equipped with a lavatory. The pelvic exam room
has a toilet with lavatory. There are two cast rooms, each
with a lavatory.
Radiology is where X-rays are taken. The department has
two general radiology rooms, three CT scan rooms, and two
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines , each with a
flushing rim sink and a lavatory. Each procedure room is
provided with a general use sink. The area also has a janitors closet with receptor, a toilet room with lavatory, and
three dark rooms, each with a sink and a cold water film
processor.
The maintenance area has a cart wash and service sink,
both using 140F (60C) water. Also the area has male and
female staff locker rooms, each with two showers and two
lavatories.

Hospitals

115

User group worksheets, 300-bed hospital

Worksheet 6.AUser Group:


Patient Area/OB/Nursery
Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture
Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

Qty. GPM

300

2.5

10

Public Lavatory

20

0.5

Private Lavatory

Single Bowl Sink

20

750

7500

10

10

100

10

40

2.5

50

50

12.5

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

Bathtub

Flushing Rim Sink

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

10

21

110
___________
GPM GPH

12.5
210

10

4.5

45

45

Floor Receptor

4.5

22.5

22.5

Scrub Sink,
Per Faucet

2.5

10

Residential Washing
Machine

4.5

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals ( UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 5 B:

50
9

54

76.5

121.5

0.4

0.1

0.4

85.9 3184.8

7.7

48.8

859
0.1

7962

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

116

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group:


Patient Area/OB/Nursery
Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture
Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

300

0.16

10

20

0.03

10

0.60

360

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.65

156

Single Bowl Sink

20

0.16

3.20

192

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

0.80

48

Bathtub

0.44

10

1.32

792

10

0.28

2.8

168

Floor Receptor

0.28

1.4

84

Scrub Sink,
Per Faucet

0.16

10

Residential Washing
Machine

0.28

0.56

201.6

4.76

453.6

Public Lavatory

Flushing Rim Sink

TOTALS:

48.00 28 800

0.32

192

54.89 30 540

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.1

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 6. B:

0.4 0.1

5.49 12 216

0.48

0.4
181.44

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

117

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Hydrotherapy


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Public Lavatory

0.5

Private Lavatory

20

Single Bowl Sink

2.5

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

Bathtub

Shower

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH
10

30

40

160

12.5

12.5

10

42

420

2.5

10

15

150

110
___________
GPM GPH

Flushing Rim Sink

4.5

Floor Receptor

4.5

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

Small Hydro-Tub
Less Than
100 Gal

3
fills/h

15

18

45

810

Large Hydro-Tub
More Than
100 Gal

2
fills/h

15

30

30

900

75

1710

Residential Washing
Machine

4.5

54

Residential
Dishwasher

4.5

27

36

99

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals (UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6. B:

117.5
0.25
29.5

777.5
0.9
700

0.25
9

0.9
89.1

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

0.25
18.8

0.9
153

118

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Hydrotherapy


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

Private Lavatory

20

0.13

0.18 108
2.6

624

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.80

48

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

0.32

19.2

Bathtub

0.44

10

2.64 1584

Shower

0.16

10

0.96 576

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

0.56

33.6

Floor Receptor

0.28

0.56

33.6

Small Hydro-Tub
Less Than
100 Gal

3
fills/h

0.95

18

2.85 3078

Large Hydro-Tub
More Than
100 Gal

2
fills/h

0.95

30

1.90 3420

Machine

0.28

0.56 201.6

Residential
Dishwasher

0.28

0.56 100.8

TOTALS:

7.5 2959.2

2.24 369.6

4.75 6498

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.25

0.25

0.25

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 6. B:

1.88 2663.28

0.9

0.9

0.56 332.64

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

0.9

1.19 5848.2

Hospitals

119

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Dietary & Food Service


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Public Lavatory

0.5

10

Single Bowl Sink

2.5

7.5

7.5

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

7.5

7.5

Floor Receptor

4.5

Commercial
Dishwasher

64 gphb

21

192

Triple Compartment
Sink

90 gphb

27

270

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

30 gphb

27

90

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

60 gphb

27

180

Commercial Kitchen
Prerinse

2.5

45 gphb

7.5

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

10

90

119

957

TOTALS:

110
___________
GPM GPH

20

17

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.4

User Group Totals ( UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

6.8

35
0.9
31

0.4

0.9

3.6

8.1

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total gph and do not reflect min use/h.

0.4
47

135

0.9
861

Other
___________
GPM GPH

120

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Dietary & Food Service


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

0.12

72

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.48

28.8

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

0.48

28.8

Floor Receptor

0.28

Commercial
Dishwasher

0.44

242.24 L/hb

1.32

Triple Compartment
Sink
Per Faucet

0.57

340.65 L/hb

1.71 1021.95

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

0.57

113.55 L/hb

1.71

340.65

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

0.57

227.10 L/hb

1.71

681.30

Commercial Kitchen
Prerinse

0.16

170.33 L/hb

0.48

510.98

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

0.57

0.57

342

0.56

33.6

10

TOTALS:

1.08 129.6

0.56

33.6

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.4

0.4

0.9

User Group Totals ( UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

0.43 116.64

0.9

0.22

726.72

7.50 3623.6
0.4

0.9

30.24 3.00 3261.24

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total L/h and do not reflect min use/h.

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

121

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Surgical Suite


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Fixture

Qty. GPM

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Public Lavatory

10

0.5

10

50

Single Bowl Sink

10

2.5

25

25

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

30

300

Shower

110
___________
GPM GPH

12

2.5

10

Flushing Rim Sink

4.5

18

18

Floor Receptor

4.5

Scrub Sink,
Per Faucet

30

2.5

10

27

27

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals (UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

75

750

140

113

0.5
70

0.5
565

0.5
13

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

0.5
13

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Surgical Suite


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Public Lavatory

10

0.03

10

0.30

Single Bowl Sink

10

0.16

1.60

96

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

0.32

19.2

1.92

Shower

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

180

12

0.16

10

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

1152
1.12

67.2

Floor Receptor

0.28

0.56

33.6

Scrub Sink,
Per Faucet

30

0.16

10

4.80 2880

TOTALS:

8.94 4327.2

1.68 100.8

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):

0.5

0.5

0.5

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 6. B:

4.47 2163.6

0.84

50.4

0.5

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

122

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 6.A User Group: Central Sterile Supply


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture
Public Lavatory
Double Bowl Sink
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor
Commercial Kitchen
Prerinse
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash
Sonic Cleaner
Washer/Disenfector

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

4
4
2
1

0.5
2.5
4.5
4.5

10
1
1
1

2.5

45 gphb

90

1
1
1

9
4.5
9

10
5 gphb
27 gphb

9
4.5
9

90
5
27

TOTALS:

2
20

110
___________
GPM GPH

20
10
9
4.5

12

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals ( UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

0.2
2.4

Other
___________
GPM GPH

30
0.9
27

14
0.2
2.7

9
4.5

14
0.9
12

28
0.2
5.5

212
0.9
191

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total gph and do not reflect min use/h.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Central Sterile Supply


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture
Public Lavatory
Double Bowl Sink
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor
Commercial Kitchen
Prerinse
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash
Sonic Cleaner
Washer/Disenfector

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H
10
1
1
1

0.12
0.64

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

4
4
2
1

0.03
0.16
0.28
0.28

72
38.4

0.16 170.33 L/hb

0.32 340.66

1
1
1

0.57 10
0.28 18.93 L/hb
0.57 102.20 L/hb

0.57 342
0.28 18.93
0.57 102.20

0.56
0.28

33.6
16.8

TOTALS:

0.76 110.4

0.84

50.4

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals ( UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

0.2

0.9

0.2

0.9

0.15

99.36

0.17

45.36

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total L/h and do not reflect min use/h.

1.74 803.79
0.2

0.9

0.35 723.41

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Hospitals

123

Worksheet 6.AUser Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Fixture

Qty. GPM

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Public Lavatory
Private Lavatory
Single Bowl Sink
Double Bowl Sink
Shower
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor
Scrub Sink,
Per Faucet
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

20
30
36
8
7
18
4

0.5
2
2.5
2.5
2.5
4.5
4.5

10
4
1
1
10
1
1

10
60
90
20
17

2.5

10

10

10

TOTALS:

208

Usage Factor (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):


User Group Totals ( UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

0.05
10

110
___________
GPM GPH

81
18

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

100
240
90
20
175
81
18

100

725
0.1
72

99

99

90

90

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

9.9

0.5

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 6.A(M)User Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture
Public Lavatory
Private Lavatory
Single Bowl Sink
Double Bowl Sink
Shower
Flushing Rim Sink
Floor Receptor
Scrub Sink,
Per Faucet
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H
20
30
36
8
7
18
4

0.03
0.13
0.16
0.16
0.16
0.28
0.28

10
4
1
1
10
1
1

0.60
3.9
5.76
1.28
1.12

0.16

10

0.64 384

0.57

10

TOTALS:
Usage Factor (UF) (Refer to Table 6.2):
User Group Totals ( UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 6.B:

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

360
936
345.6
76.8
672
5.04 302.4
1.12 67.2

0.57 342
13.3 2774.4
0.05

0.1

0.67 277.44

6.16 369.6

0.57 342

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.31

36.96

0.02

34.2

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

124

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

User group totals worksheet, 300-bed hospital

Worksheet 6.B User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (F)
User Group

105
110
___________
___________
GPM Use/H GPM GPH

PATIENT AREA

85.9 3,184.8

7.7

48.8

29.5

89.1

140
___________
GPM GPH

103
___________
GPM GPH

NURSES STATION
HYDROTHERAPY
DIETARY & FOOD
SERVICE
SURGICAL SUITE
CENTRAL STERILE
SUPPLY

6.8
70
2.4

700

3.6

8.1

565

31.5

13.5

13.5

47.6

861

27

2.7

12.2

5.5

191

72.5

4.95

9.9

0.45

18.8

153

18.8

153

OBSTETRICS &
NURSERY
MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS
SUBTOTALS:

10.4

204.9 4,581

41.5

181.6

53.6 1061

HOT WATER
MULTIPLIER, P
(Water Heater Temp.
140F)b

0.61

0.61

0.67

0.67

0.59

0.59
TOTALSc
140F

(Refer to Table 1.1):


Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:

124.9 2,794.4

27.8

121

53.6 1061

11.1

90

Note: Totals are taken from Worksheet 6.A.


aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

GPM

GPH

217

3,111

Hospitals

125

Worksheet 6.B(M)User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (C)
User Group

41
43
60
Other (39)
______________
_____________
_____________
_____________
L/Sec
L/H
L/Sec L/H L/Sec
L/H L/Sec L/H

PATIENT AREA

5.49

12 216

0.48

181.44

2 663.28

0.56

332.64

116.64

0.22

30.24

0.84

50.4

NURSES STATION
HYDROTHERAPY

1.88

DIETARY & FOOD


SERVICE

0.43

SURGICAL SUITE

4.47

CENTRAL STERILE
SUPPLY

0.15

99.36

0.17

45.36

0.35

723.41

0.67

277.44

0.31

36.96

0.02

34.2

13.09

17 536.32

2.58

677.04

0.61

0.61

0.67

0.67

2 163.6

1.19 5848.2
3.00 3261.24

OBSTETRICS &
NURSERY
MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS
SUBTOTALS:

3.37 4018.85 1.19 5848.2

HOT WATER
MULTIPLIER, P
(Water Heater Temp.
60C)b

0.59

0.59
TOTALSc

(Refer to Table 1.1):


Subtotals Hot
Water Multiplier:

L/Sec
7.98

10 697.16

1.73

453.62

L/H

3.37 4018.85 0.70 3450.44 13.78 18 620.07

Note: Totals are taken from Worksheet 6.A


aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

Spas, Pools, Health Clubs, and Athletic Centers

127

SPAS, POOLS,
HEALTH CLUBS,
AND ATHLETIC
CENTERS

INTRODUCTION
This chapter provides guidelines for determining the hot water
requirements for spas, pools, health clubs, and athletic centers.

INFORMATION GATHERING
The accuracy of the calculated hot water requirements will only
be as good as the accuracy of the information used to determine
the requirements. Therefore, a significant portion of the design
time should be allotted to information gathering and validation.
This is especially true if unique therapies or special treatments
will be performed at the facility.
Sources of information include the following:
1. The architects design documents,
2. The interior design documents,
3. The architect,
4. The interior designer,
5. The owner,
6. The spa manager or coordinator,
7. The therapist,
8. Maintenance personnel,
9. Comparisons with similar facilities, and
10. Cut sheets on each piece of equipment.
Information will be used to determine:
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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1. Which fixtures require hot water,


2. The number and types of fixture required,
3. Shower room requirements,
4. Peak usage times,
5. The types of therapy specific to each room, such as:
Manicure,
Pedicure,
Vichy showers,
Hydro showers,
Body showers,
Massages.
6. Hot water requirements, such as:
Water temperature (for each type of therapy),
Demand required,
Recovery required.
7. Any special requirements that may be typical to this facility.

HOT WATER REQUIREMENTS


Therapies/Special Needs
The therapy load can oftentimes be a significant load. This needs
to be carefully evaluated. Coordinating with the health club/spa
staff, including the therapist, managers, and maintenance staff,
is very important. The owner, architect, or interior designer usually determines the quantities of fixtures.
The hot water requirements of therapies and special needs
can be affected by such things as:
1. The schedule of each type of therapy per room per hour and
the number of therapy rooms.
2. Whether cleaning/maintenance is required between therapies.
3. What temperature is required for different therapies.
4. What other activities are happening concurrently with the
therapies.
5. The maximum flows for the equipment used.

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129

6. The actual time of operation per therapy for each fixture.


The different therapies are listed below with their typical associated water temperature(s). These temperatures can vary
according to therapist and client. Manufacturers should be contacted for the flow rates of the equipment.
1. Vichy shower (requires two temperatures):
Hot water temperature 101F (38C),
Cold water temperature 80F (27C).
2. Swiss showers
Range in temperature from 80 to 101F (27 to 38C).
3. Mineral salt bath
Constant temperature of 101F (38C).
4. Water path (lower leg/ankle therapies typically consisting of
two water paths)
Cold water path 55F (13C),
Hot water path 105F (41C).
5. Hydrotherapy tub
Temperature will change based on type of hydrotherapy procedure.
6. Manicures/pedicures
Constant temperature of 95F (35C).

Shower Rooms
The locker room shower load must also be considered. Typically
showers will operate concurrently with the therapies. The quantity of showers is usually determined by the owners requirements,
the architects design, and/or code requirements. Facilities often
include areas with showers designed for specific functions, such
as family changing areas and childrens locker rooms. These areas
need to be evaluated for their use during the peak hours of operation.
The hot water requirements of the showers can be affected by
such things as:
1. Hours of operation.
2. Occupancy at different hours. It should be noted that the
occupancy will vary throughout the day. This list is only a
guide; the occupancy may vary with location and owners re-

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quirements.
Early morning, 5:00 to 8:00 A.M.workforce, young professionals.
Late morning, 8:00 to 11:00 A.M.parents with/without
children, older or retired people.
Noon, 11:30 A.M. to 1:30 P.M.workforce, young professionals.
Afternoon, 1:30 TO 4:00 P.M.parents with children, older
or retired people.
Early evening, 4:00 to 6:00 P.M.the after work crowd,
young professionals.
Late evening, 7:00 to 9:00 P.M.families and single people.
3. Maximum flow rate of shower heads.
4. Special fixtures required.
5. Duration of showers.
6. Type of clients using the facility.
Note: It is not unusual for 25 to 50% of the showers in health
club facilities to be operating throughout the day. It is anticipated that during the peak hour 100% of the showers will operate
simultaneously.

Other Demands
There may be other demands associated with these facilities, depending on owner preferences. If any of these other services are
specified, they too must be considered in the overall hot water
calculation. These demands are usually not large and need to be
added to the overall system capacity.
1. Laundry demand,
2. Food service demand.

CALCULATING THE HOT WATER DEMAND


Hot water demand for spas can be divided into several categories: general purpose, therapies, showers, laundries, and/or food
service. It is important to determine which, if any, of these loads
will occur at the same time and what the duration of the overlap
will be. As a general rule, if the facility is a full-service spa, including therapies, weight training, aerobics, etc., a system

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131

designed for both the therapies and the shower area should be
considered. If food service is also included, then this must be
considered in the calculations. If there will not be concurrent
usage, then the system can be designed according to the maximum demand during the peak hour. Consideration needs to be
given to providing two water heaters, each sized for 60% of the
total demand required.

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

133

NURSING/
INTERMEDIATE CARE
AND
RETIREMENT HOMES

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this chapter is to guide the designer step by step
through the procedure of designing a domestic water heating system for a nursing/intermediate care and retirement home. It is
important for the designer to realize that there is a difference between designing a domestic water heating system for this type of
facility and designing one for any other type of building.
The first section of this chapter addresses design considerations and areas of concern. The second gives user group
requirements and offers an analysis to appraise. A third section
contains worksheets, and the final section presents a design
example.
The designer is charged with identifying the variables, calculating the demand, and assuming the responsibility for laying
out an economical and efficient system to provide hot water to a
facilitys plumbing fixtures and other terminal points. The procedure presented here will help predict the minimum amount of
hot water needed by the facility.
Nursing care facilities typically have residents who require
nursing supervision in an inpatient setting. These residents generally have health issues or are frail from age, both of
which may adversely affect their mobility and ability to care for
themselves. These facilities offer 24 h per day care and typically
are regulated by the state department of health.
Intermediate care facilities typically have residents who either desire or need nursing supervision. These residents are
healthier and more mobile than the residents of nursing care
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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facilities and may still be able to care for themselves. The nursing supervision is provided for general assistance and emergency
care.
Retirement homes, as discussed in this chapter, are understood to be facilities that are either adjacent or attached to
nursing/intermediate care units. The facilities are so arranged
to enable the spouse/friend of a person in the nursing care unit
to be close by and aid in care. Residents of these facilities are
fully mobile and capable of taking care of themselves. Medical
assistance is available, however, if it is needed. Retirement homes
are similar to apartment complexes for the elderly.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Safety and Health Concerns
See Chapter 1 for a discussion of Legionella pneumophila
(Legionnaires disease) and scalding.

USER GROUP ANALYSIS


The specific areas of a facility, called user groups, should each
be considered when determining hot water usage. The user groups
identified below are typical of either a large or a small nursing/
intermediate care and retirement home. (Each facility must be
reviewed to determine its layout.) The general outline that follows may be used for each user group.

General Outline
Identify the following for each user group:
1. Fixtures requiring hot water,
2. Whether the fixtures are public or private,
3. Water temperature and pressure requirements for each fixture,
4. Flow rates for each fixture,
5. The usage pattern of each fixture.

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mediate Care and Retirement Homes
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135

User Groups
Nursing/Intermediate care facility
Resident areas
General resident areas in a nursing/intermediate care
facility typically are sleeping quarters, which may be shared
(double rooms are usual) and each of which has its own toilet
room. People living in this type of facility typically require
constant, specialized care.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. Are resident rooms private or semiprivate?
2. Does each resident room have a shower/tub or is there a
central bathing area?
3. Does each room have a lavatory?
4. The flow from each type of fixture.
Areas of concern:
1. Many codes require 110F (43C) water in the resident
area to prevent scalding (refer to the discussion of scalding in Chapter 1).
2. If the resident rooms each have a tub/shower, high hot
water usage is possible.
Nurses station
A nurses station is the area where the nursing staff work is
centralized for the area it serves. Staff members prepare medicine and simple food and drink items for residents and do
their required paperwork and general cleanup.
Typically a staff toilet with a hand washing lavatory is
located nearby. Nourishment and medication rooms typically have sinks in them. The clean and soiled utility rooms
are in the vicinity of the station. The clean utility room typically has a single bowl sink while the soiled utility room
typically has a double bowl sink, hand washing lavatory,
and a flushing rim sink (also known as a clinic sink) with a
bedpan washer. There may also be a bedpan sanitizer, and if
so, the hot water requirements of this unit will need to be
addressed.

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Hydrotherapy
The hydrotherapy area is where therapy using water
occurs. The therapies may involve many different temperatures of water, but all include some hot water usage. The
therapy tubs in the area may come in many sizes, from 50gal to 500-gal (189.25-L to 1892.50-L) capacity or larger.
Items that should be determined include:
1. The number and size of each tub in the area.
2. For each type of tub, the number of planned therapies
per hour.
3. The hours the department is in use.
4. Desired fill time for each tub. (Staff will fill tub as rapidly
as possible.) Also determine whether the tubs are fully or
partially filled for cleaning between therapies.
5. Water temperatures used for the therapies.
6. Whether there is a shower for bathing purposes in the
area. (It could be in use at the same time the tub is being
cleaned or refilled.)
Areas of concern:
1. Tub filling is desired to be as fast as possible.
2. Temperature is critical. (The staff will not accept an inadequate hot water supply.)
Dietary and food service
The dietary department provides three meals a day.
Most dietary departments are designed by food service consultants, who should be contacted and consulted.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. The number of meals provided for each meal or day. Consult the food service consultant.
2. The number of dishwashers and, for each, its type, size,
gallons (liters) per cycle, cycles per hour, and required
temperature.
3. Number of sinks in the area and the type of each (prerinse,
etc.). Obtain water usages from the food service consultant or use Table 8.1.

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137

4. Are cart washers used? If so, during what hours are they
used and what temperatures are desired for them?
5. Are the elevated water temperatures, e.g., 180F (82C),
to be boosted at the equipment or is a separate water
heating system desired?
Areas of concern:
1. Water temperatures and pressures in the area. Typically
two and sometimes three temperatures are needed: 110F
(43C) for hand washing, 140F (60C) for dietary use,
and 180F (82C) for dishwashing. Some of the equipment may have higher or lower than water line pressure
requirements.
2. The department usually has early operating hours and
runs simultaneously with other departments.
3. The department has a high water consumption.
Central bathing
Central bathing is where staff members aid residents who
cannot bathe themselves and where, if individual rooms do
not have their own tubs/showers, all the residents shower/
bathe. The area typically has a shower, a residential style
tub, and a specialized bathing tub for nonambulatory residents.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. The hours of scheduled bathing and the typical starting
time.
2. The type of specialized tub and the amount of water it
requires.
3. The layout of the fixtures. (Does it match the room layout
noted above?)
Areas of concern:
1. The suites scheduled operating hours and the number of
planned baths per hour.
2. Determine the maximum number of baths that may be
performed per hour in the tub. Assume that when staff
members aid residents in bathing, the maximum number
possible will be done.

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Laundry
A nursing care facility produces a large amount of laundry.
The size of the facility determines the size of the laundry department. Not all facilities have their own laundry department;
some opt to send the laundry to an outside service.
Items that should be determined include:
1. The number and size of each washing machine in the
area (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons of hot water
per hour per pound or per cycle [liters of hot water per
hour per kilogram or per cycle]).
2. The planned number of laundry operations (loads) per
hour per machine.
3. The departments start time and hours of operation.
4. The temperatures of the water used.
Areas of concern:
1. The laundry departments schedule of operation. The department commonly begins operating in the early A.M.,
which is the same time other areas of the facility begin
startup (i.e., during hot water peak demand). The filling
of the washers is typically the first thing done at startup.
The probability that the washing machines will fill simultaneously is high during startup.
Refer to the Laundries chapter for the sizing of hot water systems for this area. Due to the elevated water
temperatures required, separate water heating systems may
have to be used.
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., administration and
maintenance)
The facility has many other areas with fixtures requiring hot
water beside those noted above. Most of these areas have
sinks, hand washing lavatories, and staff shower rooms.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. In areas where showers are located, the flow rates of the
shower heads.
2. The water temperatures needed in those areas (maintenance may desire 140F [60C] temperatures for cleanup
or washdown areas).

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mediate Care and Retirement Homes
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139

Areas of concern:
1. The times that these areas are in use overlap the usage
times of many of the other specific user groups. Though
the fixtures may be few, they still are used and should be
considered when doing calculations.
Retirement home
Resident areas
General resident areas in a retirement home are typically private apartments.
Items that need to be determined include:
1. Number of bedrooms in each apartment and thus the
number of occupants to be considered.
2. The number and types of fixture in each apartment.
3. Does each apartment have a dishwasher and/or separate
laundry area?
4. The flow from each type of fixture.
Areas of concern:
1. Though codes may not require 110F (43C) water for this
type of facility (because of the generally adequate health
of its occupants) that water temperature might be considered to prevent scalding (see the discussion of scalding
in Chapter 1).
Laundry
Since a retirement home is similar to an apartment complex,
the facility may have a laundry room with a number of residential type washing machines.
Items that should be determined include:
1. The number of washing machines in the area and the size
of each (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons of hot water per hour per pound or per cycle [liters of hot water per
hour per kilogram or per cycle]).
2. The planned number of laundry operations (loads) per
hour per machine.
3. The rooms start time and the hours it is open for use.

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4. The temperatures of the water used.


Areas of concern:
1. The laundry rooms scheduled hours of operation. Since
residents use this area, its hours of use are not regulatedthus, it could be used at any time. There is a
possibility that the washing machines will fill simultaneously.
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., administration and
maintenance)
The facility has many other areas with fixtures requiring hot
water beside those noted above. Most of these areas have
sinks, hand washing lavatories, and public toilet rooms. If
the facility adjoins a nursing care facility, these areas may be
shared with the nursing care facility. The items that need to
be determined and areas of concern are the same as those
noted above for a nursing care facility.

WORKSHEETS AND TABLES


Worksheet 8.AUser Group
This worksheet may be copied by the designer for use in calculating the hot water requirements for an individual user group. A
different sheet should be used for each user group. All water
quantity usage figuresgallons per hour (gph), liters per hour
(L/h), gallons per minute (gpm), liters per second (L/sec), and
minutes of use per hour (min use/h)are suggested. The designer must ascertain the correct quantities through actual
fixture/device/equipment literature (e.g., shop drawings) and/
or discussions with the owner and/or user.
The fixture column lists fixtures in a facility that use hot
water. The designer may add other fixtures to this list if necessary. The quantity column indicates the number of those fixtures
located in the user group area. Gpm (L/sec) is the flow rate
from the fixture used in the calculation. Min use/h is
the estimated use of the fixture in 1 h.
The next section, temperature at outlet, is for the water
temperature at the faucet outlet not the system temperature. This
is important, since cold water will be added to the system hot
water to obtain the desired outlet temperature. Because of this,

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141

the flow from the faucet is not all hot water. Table 1.1 is used to
determine the actual amount of hot water needed at the faucet
outlet. The temperature at outlet section is split into four subsections, each having a different faucet outlet water temperature.
For the last subsection, labeled other, any temperature may be
used, but the temperature must be the same for all fixtures used
in that column. Each temperature subsection is split into two
more subsections, gpm (L/sec) and gph (L/h). The equation
for each is noted on the worksheet.
When the fixtures in the user group are tabulated,
each column is added and the totals are placed at the bottom of
the sheet under totals. The user group usage factors for gpm
(L/sec) and gph (L/h) are found in Table 8.2. Each total is multiplied by the appropriate usage factor to get the user group totals,
which are used on Worksheet 8.B User Group Totals. The
user group totals are the amount of hot water predicted to be
used in a particular user group during the peak hour(s). Designers should use their best judgment when working with these
figures.

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Worksheet 8.AUser Group


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

C
105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Bathroom group
tub/shower & lavatory

2.5

10

Public lavatory

0.5

10

Private lavatory

Single bowl sink

2.5

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

Bathtub

10

Shower

2.5

10

4.5

Floor receptor

4.5

Scrub sink, per faucet

2.5

10

15

Large hydro-tub
(more than 100 gal)

15

110
___________
GPM GPH

Flushing rim sink

Small hydro-tub
(less than 100 gal)

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Laundry tub

4.5

Residential washing
machine

4.5

Residential dishwasher

4.5

Commercial dishwasher

Triple compartment sink,


per faucet

Commercial kitchen,
single sink

Commercial kitchen,
double sink

Commercial kitchen,
prerinse

2.5

Hose station or
cart/can wash

10

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):
User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 8. B:
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

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mediate Care and Retirement Homes
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143

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower & Lavatory

0.16

10

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

Private Lavatory

0.13

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

Bathtub

0.44

10

Shower

0.16

10

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

Floor Receptor

0.28

Scrub Sink, Per Faucet

0.16

10

Small Hydro-Tub
Less Than 378.5 L

0.95

Large Hydro-Tub
More Than 378.5 L

0.95

Laundry Tub

0.28

Residential Washing
Machine

0.28

Residential Dishwasher

0.28

Commercial Dishwasher

0.44

Triple Compartment Sink


Per Faucet

0.57

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

0.57

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

0.57

Commercial Kitchen
Pre-rinse

0.16

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

0.57

10

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

TOTALS:
Usage Factors ( UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):
User Group Totals ( UF Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

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Water

Worksheet 8.BUser Group Totals


This worksheet may be copied by the designer for use in calculating a facilitys hot water requirements. The totals found at the
bottom of the sheet indicate the predicted amount of hot water
the facility will use during the peak usage hour. Designers should
use their best judgment when working with these numbers to
determine the amount of hot water supplied to the facility.
The items in the first, or user group, column are obtained
from Worksheet 8.A. As seen, the user group totals from
Worksheet 8.A are placed in the columns under the appropriate
temperature at outlet, gpm (L/sec), and gph (L/h) headings.
All of the user group totals for gpm (L/sec) are added together
and the resulting number is placed in the Subtotals section
near the bottom of the worksheet. This also is done for the gph
(L/h) figures.
Designers need to determine when more than one hot water
heater supply temperature (e.g., 105F, 110F, 140F [41C, 43C,
60C]) will be required in the facility. When more than one water
heater is required to supply different temperatures, separate
Worksheets 8.A and 8.B should be used for each water heater
system. Subtotal each temperature at outlet column, use Table
1.1 to look up the hot water multiplier for the system water temperature supplied to the facility, then multiply each
subtotal by its appropriate multiplier. When this is done, total
the actual gpm (L/sec) and gph (L/h) demands for the system
water temperature supplied to the facility (the bottom row of the
worksheet), and put the resulting numbers under totals at the
bottom right of the worksheet. These totals are the gpm (L/sec)
and gph (L/h) the water heater(s) are required to supply to the
facility. Designers should use their best judgment when working
with these figures.

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Worksheet 8.B User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (F)
User Group

105
110
___________
___________
GPM Use/H GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

Nursing care facility


Resident area
Nurses station
Hydrotherapy
Dietary &
food service
Central bathing
Miscellaneous areas
Retirement home
Resident rooms
Miscellaneous areas
SUBTOTALS:
Hot Water Multiplier, P
(Water Heater Temp.
_____ F)b
TOTALSc
(Refer to Table 1.1):
Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:
Note: User group totals are taken from Worksheet 8.A.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

GPM

GPH

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Worksheet 8.B(M)User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (C)
User Group

41
___________
L/Sec L/H

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Nursing care facility


Resident area
Nurses station
Hydrotherapy
Dietary &
food service
Central bathing
Miscellaneous areas
Retirement home
Resident rooms
Miscellaneous areas
SUBTOTALS:
Hot Water Multiplier, P
(Water Heater Temp.
_____ C)b
TOTALSc
(Refer to Table 1.1):
Subtotals Hot Water
Multiplier:
Note: User group totals are taken from Worksheet 8.A.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

L/Sec

L/H

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147

Worksheet 8.AUser GroupExample


This is a copy of Worksheet 8.A with recommendations on temperature at outlet and other comments. (See worksheet footnotes.)
Designers should use their best judgment and take into account
national, state, and local codes when considering these recommendations.

Worksheet 8.AUser Group Example


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatoryb,c
Public Lavatoryb
Private Lavatoryb
Single Bowl Sinkb
Double Bowl Sinkb
Bathtube
Showerb
Flushing Rim Sinkf
Floor Receptorf
Small Hydro-Tub
Less Than 100 Gald
Large Hydro-Tub
More Than 100 Gald
Laundry Tubf
Residential Washing
Machinef
Residential Dishwasherf
Commercial Dishwasherj
Triple Compartment Sink
Per Fauceth,i
Commercial Kitchen
Single Sinkh,i
Commercial Kitchen
Double Sinkh,i
Commercial Kitchen
Prerinseg
Hose Station or
Cart/Can Washh

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

2.5
0.5
2
2.5
2.5
7
2.5
4.5
4.5

10
10
4
1
1
10
10
1
1
Based on
15
tub size
Based on
15
tub size
4.5
1

*l
*
*
*
*
*
*

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

4.5
6
4.5
3
7 Equip. used

*
*

*
*
*

90

30

60

2.5

45

10

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):
User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

(Continued)

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(Worksheet 8.A Example continued)


Note: GPM calculation is for a semi-instantaneous water heating system. GPH
calculation is for a storage type water heating system.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bBased on ANSI standard of 2.5 gpm for showerheads, 2.5 gpm for sinks, 2.0 gpm
for lavatories, and 0.5 gpm for public lavatories.
cBased on the shower as the dominant fixture.
dBased on the valve size used. Designer must base design on the type of valve
that is specified or present in an existing facility.
eSame as d except 2 baths per hour.
fBased on 4.5 gpm and in. hot water supply running full open at 6 ft/sec
maximum velocity.
gConsidered same as shower.
hNine gpm based on in. hot water supply running full open at 6 ft/sec maximum velocity.
iBased on Table 8.1, General Purpose Hot Water Requirements for Various Kitches
Uses (gph).
jBased on the equipment used. Designer must determine which model is used.
kWhere a dash () appears, please refer to Table 8.1 for the recommended hourly
use figure.
lAn asterisk (*) indicates the recommended outlet temperature.

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Worksheet 8.A(M)User GroupExample


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

Qty.

Bathroom group
tub/shower &
1,2
lavatoryb,c
Public lavatoryb
1
b
Private lavatory
1
Single bowl sinkb
1
Double bowl sinkb
1
Bathtube
4
Showerb
1
Flushing rim sinkf
5
Floor receptorf
5
Small hydro-tubd
(less than 378.5 L) 3
Large hydro-tubd
(more than 378.5 L) 3
Laundry tubf
5
Residential washing
machinef
5
Residential
dishwasherf
5
Commercial
dishwasherj
9
Triple compartment
sink per fauceth,i 7,8
Commercial kitchen
single sinkh,i
7,8
Commercial kitchen
double sinkh,i
7,8
Commercial kitchen
prerinseg
6
Hose station or
cart/can washh
7

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

0.16
0.03
0.13
0.16
0.16
0.44
0.16
0.28
0.28

10
10
4
1
1
10
10
1
1
Based on
0.95 Tub Size
Based on
0.95 Tub Size
0.28
1
0.28

*l
*
*
*
*
*
*

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

*
*
*
*
*
*
*

0.28

3
Equip.
0.44 used

*
*

0.57 k

340.65

0.57

113.55

0.57

227.10

0.16

170.33

0.57

10

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):
User Group Totals (UF Totals); Transfer to Worksheet 8.B

(Continued)

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(Worksheet 8.A[M] Example continued)


Note: L/sec calculation is for a semi-instantaneous water heating system. L/h
calculation is for a storage type water heating system.
aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.
bBased on ANSI Standard of 0.16 L/sec for showerheads, 0.16 L/sec for sinks,
0.13 L/sec for lavatories, and 0.03 L/sec for public lavatories.
cBased on the shower as the dominant fixture.
dBased on the valve size used. Designer must base design on the type of valve
that is specified or present in an existing facility.
eSame as d except 2 baths per hour.
fBased on 0.28 L/sec and DN15 hot water supply running full open at 1.83 m/sec
maximum velocity.
gConsidered same as shower.
h0.57 L/sec based on DN20 hot water supply running full open at 1.83 m/sec
maximum velocity.
iBased on Table 8.1, General Purpose Hot Water Requirements for Various Kitchen
Uses (L/h).
jBased on the equipment used. Designer must determine which model is used.
kWhere a dash () appears, please refer to Table 8.1 for the recommended hourly
use figure.
lAn asterisk (*) indicates the recommended outlet temperature.

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Table 8.1General Purpose Hot Water Requirements


for Various Kitchen Uses
This table, which supplies information on water usage for various kitchen uses, should be used for the dietary and food service
user group.

Table 8.1 General Purpose Hot Water


Requirements for Various Kitchen Uses
Equipment

GPH

L/H

Vegetable sink

45

170.33

Single compartment sink

30

113.55

Double compartment sink

60

227.10

Triple compartment sink

90

340.65

Prescrapper (open type)

180

681.30

Prerinse (hand operated)

45

170.33

Prerinse (closed type)

240

908.40

Recirculating prerinse

40

151.40

Bar sink

30

113.55

18.93

Lavatories (each)

Source: Values are extracted from Dunn et al. [1959] 1989. Chapter 4. ASPE Data
Book. Table 9.
Note: Requirements are for water at 140F (60C).

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Table 8.2Usage Factors for User Groups


This table provides the recommended usage factors for use with
Worksheet 8.A. The following discussion gives the background of
how these numbers were determined. (They represent a consensus of opinion of a group of experienced designers; however,
designers should use their best judgment when working with
these figures).

Table 8.2 Usage Factors for User Groups


Nursing/Intermediate Care Facility User Groups
Resident
Area

GPM (L/Sec)
GPH (L/H)

0.10
0.30

Nurses
Station

0.05
0.50

Hydrotherapy

Dietary
& Food
Service

Central
Bathing

Misc.
Areas

0.25
0.90

0.40
0.90

0.25
0.90

0.05
0.10

Retirement Home User Groups


GPM (L/Sec)
GPH (L/H)

Resident Rooms

Laundry

Misc. Areas

0.10
0.40

0.50
0.75

0.05
0.10

Note: Based on a peak usage hour with a 3-h peak period.

General
The gpm (L/sec) figure is based on the possibility that every hot
water using fixture will be operated in any 1 min (sec). The gph
(L/h) figure is based on the possibility that every hot water using fixture will be operated during a 1-h period.
These figures are based on a peak usage hour with a 3-h
peak period.
Nursing/Intermediate care facility
Resident area
Many residents in nursing care areas are not ambulatory and
require staff assistance to use the toilet/bathing facilities.
Residents of intermediate care areas generally are ambulatory and thus can use the shower facilities without assistance.
The lavatory is a fixture that is heavily used by the staff.
The 0.10 (10%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based

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on the fact that not all residents use their fixtures during the
same minute. Also, fixtures in this user group flow less water
per minute than fixtures elsewhere and are used for short
periods of time.
The 0.30 (30%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the fact that fixtures in this user group use less water than
fixtures elsewhere and are used for short periods of time.
Nurses station
This user group is in use 24 h a day but typically is used
most heavily during shift changes. This is because of the
preparation necessary before residents can be aided.
The 0.05 (5%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the relationship between the staff and residents. During a
peak 3-h period of hot water use, the resident area is used
more heavily than the nurses station. Since many residents
need assistance using the bathing/shower facilities, staff
members are in the resident area aiding residents and not at
the nurses station using the fixtures there.
The 0.5 (50%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is also based
on these same issues, but because of the time staff members
spend at the nurses station organizing/distributing medicines and doing other work, the hand washing fixtures there
are used extensively.
Hydrotherapy
When in operation, this area is a large water user. The therapy
staff can be split between the physical therapy and the hydrotherapy areas.
The 0.25 (25%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the cyclical use of the hydrotherapy tubs and on the assumption that staff members are also doing physical therapy.
The 0.90 (90%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the assumption that during the peak usage time, almost all of
the fixtures in this area are in use. This assumes that the
staff schedules the water therapies during one time and the
physical therapies during another.
Dietary and food service
This area is a large water user. Depending on the size of the
facility, the usage of water for cooking and for cleaning may over-

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lap.
The 0.40 (40%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is
based on the assumption that cleaning (washing of dishes,
etc.) does not occur in the same minute as food preparation. Also, it assumes that the sinks are filled and then
work is done using an intermittent, not a steady, water supply.
The 0.90 (90%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the assumption that most of the area fixtures are used during one of the hours of the facilitys peak usage time.
Central bathing
When in operation, this area is a large water user. Staff members set a schedule for bathing nonambulatory residents, and
during that time only one bathing fixture is used. The worst
case scenario is when the residents are assisted by staff. This
is because the staff are on a schedule and bathe the residents based on that schedule.
The 0.25 (25%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the use of one tub at a time in each room (assuming each
room has a shower, a residential tub, and a non-ambulatory
residents bathing tub). Also taken into consideration was
the time needed for the staff to get the residents and to dry
them off.
The 0.90 (90%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the fact that during peak usage time almost all of the fixtures
in this area are used.
Miscellaneous areas
The rest of the facility uses water, but not during the facilitys
peak usage time and not as much as those areas already
discussed. This is because most of the staff are not in the
miscellaneous areas. These areas should be taken into account, though, because water using fixtures are available and
used there.
The 0.05 (5%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the fact that a very small number of the fixtures are used
during 1 min of the facilitys peak usage time.
The 0.10 (10%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the fact that most of the fixtures in these areas are not used
during the facilitys peak usage hour.

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Retirement home
Resident rooms
The residents of a retirement home are ambulatory and do not
require staff assistance to use the toilet/bathing facilities. As
noted earlier, this type of facility is similar to an apartment
building, but its residents are of a uniform age group.
The 0.10 (10%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the fact that when the shower is in use, the rooms
lavatory and kitchen sink are not in use during the same
minute, and not all residents are using the fixtures.
The 0.40 (40%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the fact that the kitchen sink and either the shower or the
lavatory are used during an hour of peak usage time.
Laundry
The laundry area of a retirement home is smaller than one
for a typical apartment building. This is because the usage
time for a retirement home laundry is more spread out over
the course of the day since residents typically do not work.
The 0.50 (50%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the assumption that when one washer starts its filling
cycle another is being filled with clothes, and the second
machines cycle begins when the first washer is still filling.
Though the two washers fill at the same time, it is assumed
that only half of the other washers are in use in the peak
moment. Also, when a resident is using the washers, the fixtures in his/her apartment are not in use.
The 0.75 (75%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
most of the washers being used during a peak usage period.
Also, there is the possibility that a resident may leave the
laundry room and go back to his/her room and use the fixtures there.
Miscellaneous areas
Though the rest of the facilitys fixtures use water, they are
not heavily used fixtures. That is because, if the facility is
separate from the nursing care facility, the staff is small. If it
is attached to the nursing care facility, staff members are
generally in the other areas. Miscellaneous areas should be
taken into account, though, because water using fixtures are
available and used there.

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The 0.05 (5%) usage factor for the gpm (L/sec) is based
on the assumption that only a very small number of the fixtures are used during any 1 min of the facilitys peak usage
time.
The 0.10 (10%) usage factor for the gph (L/h) is based on
the assumption that most of the fixtures in these areas are not
used during the facilitys peak usage hour.

QUESTIONS FOR OWNER OR CLIENT


Nursing/Intermediate Care Facility
Resident areas/Nurses stations
1. Are resident rooms private or semiprivate?
2. Does each resident room have a shower/tub or is there a
central bathing area?
3. Determine the flow from shower heads or tub flow/capacities.
Hydrotherapy
1. What are the number and sizes of the tubs in the area?
2. What is the number of planned therapies per hour?
3. What hours is the department in use?
4. What is the desired fill time for each tub?
5. Are the tubs fully filled for cleaning between therapies?
6. What water temperatures are used for the therapies?
7. Is there a shower for bathing purposes in the area?
Dietary and food service
1. What is the number of meals provided for each mealtime/
day?
2. How many dishwashers are there and what are the type, size,
gallons (liters) per cycle, cycles per hour, and temperature
required for each?
3. What are the type and number of sinks, prerinses, etc., in
the area?

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4. Are cart washers used? If so, during what hours are they
used and what temperatures are desired?
Central bathing
1. What are the hours of scheduled bathing and the typical starting time?
2. What is the number of tubs/showers?
3. What is the number of nonambulatory resident bathing tubs,
and what are their types and water demands?
4. Is there a desired temperature of the water the staff uses to
bathe residents?
Laundry
1. What are the number and sizes of the washing machines in
the area (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons per hour per
pound [liters per hour per kilogram])?
2. What is the number of planned laundry operations (loads)
per hour?
3. What are the start time and the hours the department is in
use?
4. What are the temperatures of water to be used?
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., administration and maintenance)
1. If there are areas with showers, determine the flow rates of
the shower heads.
2. What are the water temperatures needed in these areas?
3. What is the acceptable time delay between the hot tap opening and the delivery of acceptable water (due to the length of
the branch piping)?

Retirement Home
Resident areas/apartments
1. Are resident rooms single or double bedroom units?
2. Is the facility set up so that the spouse of a person in nursing
or intermediate care has priority use?

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3. What is the flow from shower heads or the tub flow/


capacities?
4. Do the apartments have dishwashers/ washing machines or
the possibility of the addition of such in the future?
Laundry
1. What are the number and sizes of the washing machines in
the area (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons per hour per
pound [liters per hour per kilogram])?
2. What are the start time and the hours the room is available
for use?
3. What water temperatures are used/needed?
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., maintenance)
1. If there are areas with showers, determine the flow rate of the
shower heads.
2. What water temperatures are used/needed in these areas?

EXAMPLE: 48-BED NURSING/INTERMEDIATE


CARE AND RETIREMENT HOME
The facility in question has a 48-resident-bed nursing/intermediate care unit with an attached 24-single-bedroom retirement
home. It is a complete care, 24 h/day facility with a laundry. The
laundry facility has its own water heater due to the elevated temperature and load entailed.

Description of User Groups


Nursing/intermediate care facility
Resident area
The facility has 32 nursing care beds and 16 intermediate
care beds. It has a three-wing layout with nursing care residents in one wing and intermediate care beds in the other
two. (The second intermediate care wing is considered a swing
care wing; it also could be used for nursing care.) The rooms
are double resident rooms with a water closet and lavatory

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(2.0 gpm [0.13 L/sec] typical) in each. Each wing has a clean
utility room (single bowl sink, 2.5 gpm [0.16 L/sec] typical), a
soiled utility room (double bowl sink, hand washing lavatory,
and flushing rim sink with bedpan washer), and a janitors
closet with receptor. (There are a total of 27 lavatories, 3 single
sinks, 3 double bowl sinks, 3 flushing rim sinks, and 3 floor
receptors in the resident area.)
Nurses station
A single nurses station provides service to the three wings.
The station has a medical drug dispensing room (single sink),
a staff toilet room (hand washing lavatory), and a sink for
general use.
Hydrotherapy
The hydrotherapy area has a hip/leg tub (100 gal [378.50 L]),
arms/hip/leg/back tub (110 gal [416.35 L]), a hands/elbows/
arms tub (25 gal [94.63 L]), and a hand washing lavatory.
The 25-gal (94.63-L) arms tank is filled using the hip/leg tub
valve.
Dietary and food service
The dietary department provides three hot meals a day and a
cold meal at night. It is a full-service department with the
following equipment: a triple compartment sink with prerinse,
a scrapping sink with prerinse, a dishwasher, a double sink
for food thawing, a sink for vegetable preparation, and a hand
washing lavatory. The department starts operation at 6:00
A.M. Through a discussion with the food service consultant,
the designer learned that the department makes 200 meals a
day. A water temperature of 140F (60C) is required at all
fixtures except the hand washing lavatory, where 110F (43C)
water is needed. The dishwasher requires 180F (82C) rinse
water and the 140F (60C) water will be boosted at the dishwasher with an electric booster heater.
Central bathing
One of the intermediate care wings has a tub room with one
bathtub and one shower for residents private or assisted use.
The tub rooms for the nursing care wing and the second intermediate care wing each have one bathtub and shower for

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private or assisted use and a specialized tub for


nonambulatory residents. (The second intermediate care wing
is considered a swing care wing; it also could be used for
nursing care.) Each tub room has a water closet and lavatory
for staff and resident use.
Laundry
The facility sends the bulk of its laundry out to an off-site
location. There are three residential type washers and dryers
for the residents personal use.
Miscellaneous areas
The administration area has two public restrooms each with
two lavatories (0.5 gpm [0.03 L/sec]). There also is a small
kitchenette with a sink (2.5 gpm [0.16 L/sec]).
The maintenance area has a cart wash and a service sink,
both of which use 140F (60C) water. The area also has male
and female staff locker rooms, each with one shower and two
lavatories.
Retirement home
The retirement home is a 24-unit complex attached to the nursing/intermediate care facility. It is designed for the spouses of
residents in the nursing care facility. Its hot water is supplied by
the nursing care facilitys system.
Resident rooms
Each unit has a kitchen area with a double bowl sink and the
capability for a dishwasher, and a bathroom with a tub/
shower and a lavatory.
Laundry
The complex has a laundry room with four residential type
washing machines and a laundry tub. The room is scheduled
to be open 24 h/day.
Miscellaneous areas
The complex has a lounge and social gathering area. There
are two toilet rooms in the area, each with a lavatory, and

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there is a single bowl sink in the lounge. A floor receptor is


located in a small room off the corridor.

Questions for Owner or Client


(This is a sample application of the questions from the previously
defined user group analysis. Answers to questions appear in boldface type.)
Nursing/intermediate care facility
Resident areas/nurses stations
1. Are resident rooms private or semiprivate?
Semiprivate (double)
2. Does each resident room have a shower/tub or is there a
central bathing area?
Central bathing
3. Determine the flow from the shower head or the tub flow/
capacity.
This is a new facility, thus, none exist.
Hydrotherapy
1. What is the number and what are the sizes of the tubs in
the area?
1 at 100 gal (378.50 L), 1 at 110 gal
(416.35 L), and 1 at 25 gal (94.63 L)
2. What is the number of planned therapies per hour?
Two total
3. What hours is the department in use?
8:00 A.M. 5:00 P.M.
4. What is the desired fill time for each tub?
15 gpm (0.95 L/sec) valve is used, thus, fill time is
7 min.
5. Are the tubs fully filled for cleaning between
therapies?
Yes
6. What water temperatures are used for the therapies?
103F (39C)

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7. Is there a shower for bathing purposes in the area?


No, but a 2.0 gpm (0.13 L/sec) lavatory is present.
Dietary and food service
1. What is the number of meals provided each mealtime/
day?
200 per day
2. How many dishwashers are there and what are the type,
size, gallons per cycle, cycles per hour, and temperature
required for each?
One, Hobart AM14, 1.2 gal per rack at 53 racks =
64 gal per cycle (56.78 L per rack at 53 racks =
3009.34 L per cycle), 1 cycle per h, 140F (60C).
3. What is the number of sinks, prerinses, etc. in the area
and what is the type of each?
Triple compartment sink w/prerinse, scrapping
sink w/prerinse, double sink for food thawing,
sink for vegetable prep, and a hand washing sink.
4. Are cart washers used? If so, during what hours are they
used and what temperatures are desired?
Yes, used after meals are served, 1400F (60C).
Central bathing
1. What are the hours of scheduled bathing and what is the
typical starting time?
Staff-assisted baths are from 8:00 to 11:00 A.M.
3 days/week.
Ambulatory residents may use the bathing facilities during these times if they are scheduled and
at other times if that is acceptable to staff.
2. What is the number of tubs/showers?
There are three bathing rooms, each with one tub
and shower.
Each bathing room also has a hand washing lavatory, which could be used when the bath/shower is
in use.
3. What is the number of nonambulatory resident bathing
tubs, and what are the type and water demand of each?
Two total, 50 gal (189.25 L) each, to fill for bath
use.

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When the special bath is used, the other tub and


shower are not used.
The baths should be designed for 4 fills/h.
4. Is there a desired temperature for the water the staff uses
for bathing residents?
140F (60C) maximum for the baths
Laundry
Note: Since the fixtures in this area are for residents use and
will be monitored, their use is covered under Miscellaneous
Areas.
1. What is the number of the washing machines in the area
and what is the size of each (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons per hour per pound [liters per hour
per kilogram])?
Three residential style
Only intermediate care residents may use, with
limited supervision
2. What is the number of planned laundry operations (loads)
per hour?
Nothing organized
3. What are the start time and the hours the room is in use?
The laundry room is open between 7:00 A.M. and
4:00 P.M.
Staff members desire some supervision and typically aid the residents in the use of the washers.
4. What are the temperatures of water used?
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., administration and maintenance)
1. If there are areas with showers, determine the flow rate of
the shower heads.
Two showers at 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) each, 4
lavatories at 2.0 gpm (0.13 L/sec) each
Four public lavatories at 0.5 gpm (0.03 L/sec) each
Kitchen sink at 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec)
Service sink and cart wash in maintenance
2. What are the water temperatures needed in these areas?
110F (43C) in administration and shower rooms

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140F (60C) in maintenance


Retirement home
Resident areas/Apartments
1. Are resident rooms single or double bedroom units?
Single
2. Is the facility set up such that the spouse of a person in
nursing or intermediate care has priority use?
Yes
3. What is the flow from the shower head or the tub flow/
capacity?
2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) shower head
4. Do the apartments have dishwashers/washing machines
or the capability of the addition of such in the future?
Dishwashers supplied by renters
Consider 24 in calculations
Laundry
1. What are the number and sizes of the washing machines
in the area (pound [kilogram] capacity and gallons per
hour per pound [liters per hour per kilogram])?
4 residential type
2. What are the start time and the hours the room is available for use?
Open 24 h/day
3. What are the water temperatures used/needed?
140F (60C)
Miscellaneous areas (e.g., maintenance)
1. If there are areas with showers, determine the flow rate of
the shower heads.
None
2. What are the water temperatures used/needed in these
areas?
No special temperatures

User Group Worksheets, 48-Bed Nursing/Intermediate

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Care and Retirement Home


Nursing/intermediate care facility

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Patient Area


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

Fixture

Qty. GPM

Private Lavatory

27

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH
4

54

110
___________
GPM GPH

2.5

7.5

7.5

Double Bowl Sink

2.5

7.5

7.5

Flushing Rim Sink

4.5

13.5

13.5

Floor Receptor

4.5

13.5

13.5

27

27

69

Other
___________
GPM GPH

216

Single Bowl Sink

TOTALS:

140
___________
GPM GPH

231

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.1

0.3

0.1

0.3

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

6.9

69.3

2.7

8.1

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Patient Area


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A

(L/Sec = A B

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

Fixture

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

Private Lavatory

27

0.13

3.51 842.4

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.48

28.8

Double Bowl Sink

0.16

0.48

28.8

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

0.84

50.4

Floor Receptor

0.28

0.84

50.4

TOTALS:

4.47 900

1.68 100.8

Usage Factor UF Refer to Table 8.2:

0.1

0.1

0.3

Group Totals UF Totals;


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B

0.45 270

0.17

30.24

0.3

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Nurses Station


Temperature at Outleta (F)

166

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Private Lavatory

Single Bowl Sink

2.5

TOTALS:

13

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.05

0.5

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.4

6.5

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT System Temperature.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Nurses Station


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.13

31.2

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.32

19.2

TOTALS:

0.64

50.4

Usage Factor UF Refer to Table 8.2:

0.05

Group Totals UF Totals;


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B

0.03

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

0.50
25.2

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

167

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Hydrotherapy


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Private Lavatory
Large Hydro-Tub
More Than
100 Gal

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

2
(4 fills) 15

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

30

420

30

420

TOTALS:

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.25

0.9

0.25

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.5

7.2

7.5

0.9
378

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Hydrotherapy


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture
Private Lavatory

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H
1

0.13

Large Hydro-Tub
2
More Than 378.5 L (4 fills) 0.95

0.13

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

39
___________
L/Sec L/H

30.28

TOTALS:

0.13

30.28

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.25

0.90

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.03

27.25

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

1.9

798

1.9

798

0.25

0.90

0.48 718.2

168

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Dietary & Food Service


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Fixture

Qty. GPM

Private Lavatory

Commercial
Dishwasher

64

Triple Compartment
Sink Per Faucet

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

8
7

64

90 GPHb

18

180

30 GPHb

30

60 GPHb

60

Commercial Kitchen
Pre-rinse

2.5

45 GPHb

90

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

10

90

57

514

TOTALS:

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.4

0.9

0.4

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.8

7.2

22.8

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total gph and do not reflect min use/h.

0.9
463

Other
___________
GPM GPH

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

169

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Dietary & Food Service


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A

(L/Sec = A B

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

Fixture

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Private Lavatory

0.13

Commercial
Dishwasher

0.44

64

Triple Compartment
Sink Per Faucet

0.57

340.65 L/hb

1.14

681.30

Commercial Kitchen
Single Sink

0.57

113.55 L/hb

0.57

113.55

Commercial Kitchen
Double Sink

0.57

227.10 L/hb

0.57

227.10

Commercial Kitchen
Pre-rinse

0.16

170.33 L/hb

0.32

340.66

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

0.57

0.57

342

0.13

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

31.2
0.44 1689.6

10

TOTALS:

0.13

31.2

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.40

0.90

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.05

28.08

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThese values are in total L/h and do not reflect min use/h.

3.6
0.40

3394.21
0.90

1.44 3054.79

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

170

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Central Bathing


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Private Lavatory

24

Bathtub

10

21

210

Shower

Specialized Bathtub

2.5
15

10

7.5

200gphb 30

TOTALS:

64.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):


User Group Totals (UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.25
16.1

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

75
400
709
0.9
638

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThis value is in total gph and does not reflect min use/h.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Central Bathing


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.39

Bathtub

0.44

10

1.32

Shower

0.16

10

0.48

Specialized Bathtub

0.95

757 L/hb 1.9

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

93.6
792
288
1514.00

TOTALS:

4.09 2687.6

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.25

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

1.02 2418.84

0.90

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bThis value is in total L/h and does not reflect min use/h.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

171

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Public Lavatory

0.5

Private Lavatory

Single Bowl Sink


Shower

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH
10

20

10

40

2.5

2.5

10

2.5

25

50

110
___________
GPM GPH

Flushing Rim Sink

4.5

4.5

4.5

Floor Receptor

4.5

4.5

4.5

Laundry Tub

4.5

4.5

4.5

Residential
Washing Machine

4.5

13.5

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

81

10

TOTALS:

19.5

113

22.5

140
___________
GPM GPH

90

90

90

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

1.0

11.3

1.1

0.5

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Other
___________
GPM GPH

172

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H
0.12

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

Private Lavatory

0.13

0.65 156

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.16

Shower

0.16

10

Flushing Rim Sink

0.28

0.28

16.8

Floor Receptor

0.28

0.28

16.8

Laundry Tub

0.28

0.28

16.8

Residential
Washing Machine

0.28

0.84 302.4

Hose Station or
Cart/Can Wash

0.57

10

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

72

9.6

0.32 192

0.57 342

TOTALS:

1.25 429.6

1.70 352.8

0.57 342

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.05

0.10

0.05

0.10

0.05

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.06

42.96

0.09

35.28

0.03

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

0.10
34.2

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

173

Retirement home

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Resident Rooms


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

Fixture

Qty. GPM

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

24

2.5

10

60

600

Double Bowl Sink

24

2.5

60

60

Residential
Dishwasher

24

4.5

TOTALS:

120

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):


User Group Totals (UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.1
12

660
0.4
264

110
___________
GPM GPH

108

324

108

324

0.1
10.8

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

0.4
130

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Resident Rooms


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Bathroom Group
Tub/Shower &
Lavatory

24

0.16

10

3.84 230.4

Double Bowl Sink

24

0.16

3.84 230.4

Residential
Dishwasher

24

0.28

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

6.72 1209.6

TOTALS:

7.68 460.8

6.72 1209.6

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.10

0.40 0.10

0.40

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.77 184.32 0.67

483.84

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

174

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Laundry


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

Laundry Tub

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

4.5

4.5

110
___________
GPM GPH
4.5

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

4.5

Residential Washing
Machine
TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):

0.5

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

18

108

22.5

113

0.75
11.3

84.4

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Laundry


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A

(L/Sec = A B

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

Fixture

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Laundry Tub

0.28

0.28

Residential Washing
Machine

0.28

1.12 403.2

TOTALS:
Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):
User Group Totals (UF Totals);
Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

43
___________
L/Sec L/H
16.8

1.40 420
0.50

0.75
0.7

315

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

175

Worksheet 8.AUser Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (F)
A
Fixture

Qty. GPM

(GPM = A B GPH = A B C)

105
Min ___________
Use/H GPM GPH

Public Lavatory

0.5

10

Single Bowl Sink

2.5

Floor Receptor

4.5

1
2.5

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

10
2.5

12.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

4.5

TOTALS:

3.5

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):0.05

0.1

0.05

0.1

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.2

1.3

0.2

0.5

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

Worksheet 8.A(M)User Group: Miscellaneous Areas


Temperature at Outleta (C)
A
Fixture

(L/Sec = A B

41
Min ___________
Qty. L/Sec Use/H L/Sec L/H

Public Lavatory

0.03

10

0.06

Single Bowl Sink

0.16

0.16

Floor Receptor

0.28

L/H = A B C 60 Sec/Min)

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

36
9.6

45.6

0.28

16.8

0.28

16.8

TOTALS:

0.22

Usage Factors (UF) (Refer to Table 8.2):0.05

0.10

0.05

0.10

User Group Totals (UF Totals);


Transfer to Worksheet 8.B:

0.01

4.56

0.01

1.68

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other
___________
L/Sec L/H

176

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

User Group Totals Worksheet, 48-Bed Nursing/


Intermediate Care and Retirement Home

Worksheet 8.BUser Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (F)
User Group

105
___________
GPM GPH

110
___________
GPM GPH

140
___________
GPM GPH

Other
___________
GPM GPH

Nursing care facility


PATIENT AREAS

6.9

69.3

NURSES STATION

0.4

6.5

HYDROTHERAPY

0.5

7.2

DIETARY &
FOOD SERVICE

0.8

CENTRAL BATHING

16.1

MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS

1.0

2.7

8.1

7.2

22.8

341

0.5

23.3

350

7.5

378

7.5

378

638
11.3

1.1

9.0

Retirement home
RESIDENT ROOMS

12

264

LAUNDRY
MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS
SUBTOTALS:

0.2

1.3

37.9 1005

10.8

130

11.3

84.4

0.2

0.5

26.1

232

HOT WATER
MULTIPLIER, P
(Water Heater Temp.
140F)b

0.61

0.61

0.67

0.67

0.59

0.59
TOTALSc

(Refer to Table 1.1):


Subtotals
Hot Water Multiplier

GPM
23.1

613

17.5

155.4

23.3

350

4.4

223

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

GPH

68.3 1341

Nursing/Inter
mediate Care and Retirement Homes
Nursing/Intermediate

177

Worksheet 8.B(M)User Group Totals


Temperature at Outleta (C)
User Group

41
___________
L/Sec L/H

43
___________
L/Sec L/H

60
___________
L/Sec L/H

Other (39)
___________
L/Sec L/H

Nursing care facility


PATIENT AREAS

0.45

NURSES STATION

0.03

270
25.2

HYDROTHERAPY

0.03

27.25

DIETARY &
FOOD SERVICE

0.05

28.08

CENTRAL BATHING

1.02 2418.84

MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS

0.06

42.96

0.77

184.32

0.17

30.24
0.48 718.2
1.44 3054.79

0.09

35.28 0.03

34.2

Retirement home
RESIDENT ROOMS
LAUNDRY

0.67 483.84
0.7

315

MISCELLANEOUS
AREAS

0.01

SUBTOTALS:

2.42 3001.21

1.64 866.04 1.47 3088.99

0.48 718.2

0.61

0.67

0.59

4.56

0.01

1.68

HOT WATER
MULTIPLIER, P
(Water Heater Temp.
60C)b

0.61

0.67 1

0.59
TOTALSc

(Refer to Table 1.1):


Subtotals
Hot Water Multiplier

L/Sec
1.48 1830.74

1.10 580.25 1.47 3088.99

L/H

0.28 423.74 4.33 5923.72

aTemperatures are at faucet outlet NOT system temperature.


bTemperature of water leaving the water heater supplying the facility.
cTotal hot water required. Temperature based on water heater temperature.

Jail and Prison Housing Units

179

JAIL AND PRISON


HOUSING UNITS

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this chapter is to help the designer understand
and deal with the problems of designing water heating systems
for jail and prison housing units. It is important that the designer recognize that each building is unique and work closely
with the owner, architect, and government authorities to determine how a building will operate. A buildings operation will affect
when and for how long the peak hot water demand will occur.
The first part of this chapter discusses generally some of the
design criteria and areas of special concern involved in designing
for jail and prison housing units. The second part gives two practical examples of sizing methodology, one for jails and one for
prisons.

GENERAL
The design criteria used to design hot water systems for
jail housing units differ from those used for prison housing units.
This difference is due to the fact that the facilities are used for
different purposes. Jails are used primarily to house people
awaiting trial or serving short sentences. Prisons are used to house
convicted criminals serving long prison terms. This difference
affects the prisoners daily routines, which, in turn, determine
when the facilities peak hot water demands occur.
It is required that hot water temperature for the showers and
lavatories in jails and prisons be limited to between 100 and

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

180

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

110F (38 and 43C). This temperature range has been established to prevent inmates from using hot water as a weapon.1
The generally used standard temperature is 105F (41C). Pushbutton type self-closing or timed-control valves are used to deliver
hot water of this temperature to the showers and lavatories. Occasionally an owner will require that a shower control valve that
allows some inmate control of shower water temperature be provided. New security type valves provide this feature. Hot water at
the design temperature must be furnished at the fixture because
of the lower-than-usual water temperature and the self-closing
features of inmate control valves.
The designer should take into consideration that the typical
life of a jail or prison is 50 to 100 years and that any system
installed must be accessible for replacement or repair.
Large jail facilities and all prisons have central laundry facilities and central kitchens. The hot water systems for the laundry
and kitchen areas should be separate from those for housing because these areas have very different hot water demands. For
instance, the temperature of the hot water delivered will be higher,
between 140 and 180F (60 and 82C). If a centralized water heating system is used for the general purpose and kitchen/laundry
water, then a fail-safe water tempering system must be installed
for the general purpose water.

Hot Water Demand


The usual fixtures requiring hot water found in housing units
are showers and lavatories. Some units also have small kitchens
or serving areas, which may have additional sinks and small dishwashers. Such serving areas are project specific. In jails, very
often one or two residential type washing machines are required
for each housing unit pod (a group of 10 to 20 cells). The typical
housing unit is composed of multiple pods, with each cell opening onto a day room. Currently it is recommended that there be
one shower for every eight inmates and a lavatory in each
cell. 2 The number and location of the showers are decided by
the architect in coordination with the owner and according to
specific code requirements. The shower operation is the factor
that determines the required sizes of the water heater and storage tank.
1American Corrections Association, Adult Corrections Institutions, 3d ed.
2 Ibid.

Jail and Prison Housing Units

181

Primary considerations
1. The standard recommendation of eight inmates per shower
was made so that all inmates could shower during a 1-h period. This arrangement allows an average of 7 min for each
inmate to shower. About half that time is taken up by drying
and switching inmates, leaving only about 3.5 min of actual
water usage per inmate.
2. Showers are the main factor affecting water heater size. Allowance should be made for the many lavatories in housing
units when sizing the storage tank.
3. The efficiency of storage systems varies from manufacturer to
manufacturer, but 65 to 80% is a good efficiency range to use
until you have actual data on the tank and system specified.

JAIL EXAMPLE
This is an example of a jail housing unit with six pods of 24 cells
each (one inmate per cell) and three showers per pod. Assume
that the hot water generated is 140F (60C) and the incoming
water temperature is 50F (10C).

Questions
1. Will the inmates be required to shower at a specific time?
No
2. Will all the cell pods release their inmates for showering within
the same hour?
Yes. (This means that the design must accommodate a
1-h recovery period.)
3. Will the shower duration per inmate be limited?
Yes, to 7 min per inmate, with 3.5 min of water usage
4. Does the facility anticipate double bunking inmates, either
now or in the future?
No

Calculations for Jail Housing Units


The ratio of 140 to 50F (60 to 10C) water flowing at the shower
can be calculated using the mixed-water formula, Equation 1.7,
from Chapter 1:

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P =

(Tm Tc)
(Th Tc)

where
P = Percentage of mixture that is hot water
Tm= Temperature of mixed water = 105F (41C)
Th = Temperature of hot water = 140F (60C)
Tc = Temperature of cold water = 50F (10C)
P =

105 50
55
=
= 0.61
140 50
90

( P = 4160 1010 = 5031 = 0.61)


With each shower flowing 2.5 gpm (0.13 L/sec),
2.5 gpm 0.61 = 1.53 gpm will be 140F hot water
(0.13 L/sec 0.61 = 0.08 L/sec will be 60C hot water)
8 inmates 3.5 min = 28 min of water flowing per
shower during the peak hour
6 pods 3 showers per pod = 18 showers total
18 showers 28 min = 504 min
504 min 1.53 gpm = 771.12 gal 140F hot water per
peak hour demand
(504 min 0.10 L/sec 60 sec/min = 3024 L 60C hot
water per peak hour demand)
At this time a judgment will have to be made by the designer as
to whether or not the auxiliary equipment will be operating
during the peak hour. For this example, we will assume it will
not.

Auxiliary Equipment Demand


Door type dishwasher with internal heater = 69 gph
(261.17 L/h)

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183

Single compartment sink = 30 gph (113.55 L/h)


Clothes washing machines, 1 per pod 6 pods = 6
6 2 loads @ 20 gal/load = 240 gph
(6 2 loads @ 75.7 L/load = 908.40 L/h)
Auxiliary equipment demand for 140F water = 339 gph
(Auxiliary equipment demand for 60C water =
1283.12 L/h)
Assuming that operation of the auxiliary equipment does not
coincide with the peak hour demand, sizing the heater and storage tank to handle the additional load will not be necessary. The
heater size required for inmate showering is more than twice the
size needed for the auxiliary equipment demand.

Recommendation
Heater sizing
Two heaters should be selected, each sized to serve between 60
and 100% of the total demand. In prison housing units some
redundancy in the water heating system is necessary. The level
of redundancy should be discussed with the facilitys owners.
Storage tank sizing
If the water heater is sized to meet the recovery required to handle
the peak shower demand, the storage tank may be sized to handle
approximately 50% of the shower demand during the period of
peak use. The storage tank should be large enough to prevent
the heater from cycling on and off more than four times per hour
during off-peak hours. This requirement necessitates finding a
balance between excessive tank size and short cycling.
Calculation
771.12 gph 0.50 = 385.6 gal
(2.93 m3/h 0.50 = 1.47 m3/h)
385.6
= 481.6 gal storage tank size
0.80

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1470 L
= 1837.5 L storage tank size
0.80

The auxiliary equipment demand of 339 gph (1283.12 L/


h) will have the greatest influence on the amount of cycling
done by the heater during off-peak hours.
339 gph
= 5.56 gpm average flow of 140F water
60
1283.12 L/h
= 0.36 L/sec average flow of 60C water
60 60

5.56 gpm 15 min = 83.4 gal


(0.36 L/sec 60 sec/min 15 min = 324 L)
83.4
0.80 = 104.25 gal storage

324 L = 405 L storage


0.80

The selected size of a 481.6-gal (1837.5-L) storage tank is


more than adequate to meet this demand.

PRISON EXAMPLE
This is an example of a housing facility for 384 inmates. It has
four wings (96 inmates per wing) and each wing has four stories
(24 inmates per wing per story). A central kitchen and laundry
are located in a separate building. Shower areas are provided on
every floor of every wing, and each of these areas has three shower
heads.

Design Criteria and Assumptions


1. Inmate lavatories and showers will be supplied with 105F
(41C) circulated hot water. Showers are to have 2.5 gpm
(0.16 L/sec) flow restrictors and lavatories 2.0 gpm (0.13 L/
sec) flow restrictors.
2. There will be separate systems for the kitchen and laundry
areas.
3. The water temperature for the laundry area will be 180F
(82C) and for the kitchen area 140F (60C), plus there will
be a separate loop of 105F (41C) water for the hand washing lavatories and toilets located in the kitchen area .

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185

4. Water at 140F (60C) will be supplied to the dishwasher.


The dishwasher will have a separate booster heater to raise
water temperature to the 180F (82C) required for the final
rinse cycle.
5. The storage tank capacity varies considerablyfrom 0% for
instantaneous heaters to more than100%. Check to determine if the owner has a preference. Remember, most owners
already operate existing jails or prisons; they may have established design parameters. The initial cost of equipment,
the unit performance, and operating costs are also factors to
be considered when sizing the storage tank.
6. Look for additional support facilities, such as the barber shop,
pantries, or an emergency medical clinic.
7. Although operating hours for the laundry area are generally
from 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M., review operational times and
schedules with the owner.
8. Sources of heat: The selection of steam, natural gas, or electricity will have an enormous impact on the type of heater
and on energy consumption.
Note: A central steam generation plant may favor an instantaneous type steam-to-hot-water converter with minimum hot
water storage for surges. Remember, redundancy in heaters
is always required for jails and prisons to allow for problems
created by inmates. The cost of generating and distributing
steam is also a factor to be considered.
9. The method to use for sizing the water heater and storage
tank may be determined by the owner/operator of the facility.
10. One inmate per cell equals 384 inmates. A question that
should be asked is whether the owner plans to expand in the
future by putting more than one inmate in each cell.

Questions
1. Will the inmates be required to shower at a specific time?
No
2. Will the shower duration per inmate be limited or do inmates
have control over when they shower?
Showers are limited to 7 min per inmate, with 3.5 min
of water usage per shower.
3. Will all of the cell pods release their inmates for show-

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ering within the same hour?


Yes. (This means that the design must accommodate a
1-h recovery period.)
4. Does the facility anticipate double bunking the inmates now
or in the future?
No
5. Does the facility have a work-release program?
Yes
6. What is the time allocated for the work-release inmates to
shower prior to leaving for their duties in the workrelease
program?
One hour, at the same approximate time as the other
inmates.

Calculations for Inmate Housing Units


Refer to the calculations done for the jail example (page 170) for
the methodology for determining the 1.53 gpm (0.1 L/sec) flow
per shower head and the operation time of 28 min per shower.
48 showers 28 min = 1344 min
1344 min 1.53 gpm = 2056 gal of 140F hot water for
peak hour demand
(1344 min 0.096 L/sec 60 sec/min = 7741.44 L/h of
60C hot water for peak hour demand)

Storage Tank Sizing


In this example, inmate lavatories will have the only impact on
tank sizing because the kitchen and laundry will have separate
systems.
If the water heater is sized to meet the recovery required to
handle the peak shower demand, the storage tank may be sized
to handle approximately 50% of the shower demand during the
period of peak use. The storage tank should be large enough to
prevent the heater from cycling on and off more than four times
per hour during off-peak hours. This requirement necessitates
finding a balance between excessive tank size and short cycling.

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187

Calculation
2056 gph 0.50 = 1028 gal 140F hot water
(7.74 m3/h 0.50 = 3.87 m3 60C hot water)
1028 gal
= 1285 gal storage tank size
0.80 eff.

3870 L
= 4837.5 L storage tank size
0.80 eff.

Kitchen Considerations
1. The item that has the greatest effect on hot water demand is
the dishwasher. Some central kitchens do not have dining
areas, in which case all meals are shipped to the housing
units in bulk for distribution and the dishwashers are in the
housing units.
2. The temperature of the hot water going to kitchen lavatories
should not exceed 110F (43C) for safety reasons.
3. Check to see if the dishwasher has a booster heater
and determine the type of energy used (steam or electricity).
This information will help you decide whether or not to generate 180F (82C) water.
Note: Some dishwashers on the market use chemicals for
disinfecting, thus the higher water temperature is not required.
4. After dishwashers, compartment sinks are the next largest
user of 140F (60C) hot water. The higher temperature is
required to cut through grease on pots and pans. Some threecompartment sinks have booster heaters in the rinse tank to
maintain the higher temperature.
5. Other kitchen items that use hot water are the prerinse for
the dishwasher, the vegetable sinks, and the cart washdown
hose bibs.
6. Always check the kitchen consultants plans for hot water
requirements.
7. Refer to the Hospitals chapter for additional information on
kitchens.

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Laundry Considerations
1. Review the laundry consultants plans and determine the type
of washing machine/extractor used. Prison laundries are similar to hospital laundries in that they process sheets, pillow
cases, and uniforms. The size and number of machines are
normally decided by the owner or the consultant.
2. Inmates each generate about 30 lb (13.61 kg) of laundry a
week. This consists of 1 pillowcase, 2 sheets, 1 towel, and
uniforms.
3. Additionally, prison laundries usually handle the uniforms
of the correctional officers.
4. Sometimes prison laundries do laundry for outside hospitals
as a prison industry.
5. Consider the feasibility of a heat recovery system that uses
the wash-water discharge. The laundry consultant can probably advise you about this.
6. Laundry equipment suppliers are the only reliable source of
information on the hot water demands and required
temperaures of their washers. They can tell you how many
gallons (liters) of water the machines require and the maximum number of cycles per hour they will operate.
7. Washers demand their hot water fast. It is not unusual for a
2-in. (DN50) hot water line to be connected to the larger washers. Therefore, larger than normal storage capacity is needed
to handle the surges in hot water demand. One rule of thumb
is to provide 75% of the maximum hourly demand in storage;
dont provide less than 50% of that amount.
8. In 1992 a new federal law (Bloodborne Pathogen) was passed
to protect workers against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). All detention facilities
are now under this new federal regulation. A major/critical
new standard was created by the law: When an officers uniform becomes contaminated with blood products, the officer
cannot leave his workplace with the uniform on. The facility
must clean that uniform and reissue it to the officer. The
law states further that inmate labor cannot be used when
handling blood contaminated items.
A washer and dryer for the aforementioned are required to
achieve compliance with the law. They should be located in a
space that is under the direct supervision of an officer so the
security of the officers uniforms will not be jeopardized.

Industrial Facilities

10

189

INDUSTRIAL
FACILITIES

INTRODUCTION
Industrial facility is such a general term that it would be impossible to describe each specific type. For the purposes of this
manual, the term will mean a location where any or all of the
general activities described below take place and where domestic
hot water is used for personnel washing as required by code and
for other purposes considered unrelated to process or product
that are described in this chapter. The use of hot water for process or product preparation is outside the scope of this work.

EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRIALS
1. Manufacturing facilities are places where products are created, repaired, or assembled from parts or materials received
at or produced within the same facility. The products are
then finished, tested, packaged, and stored or distributed.
2. Pharmaceutical facilities are locations where products concerning medicine or drugs are created or produced from
materials or ingredients that are purified, combined, or produced in the same facility. The products are then tested,
packaged, and stored.
3. Pilot plants are facilities where experimental manufacturing
and production techniques for new products are tested on a
small scale. These plants can be either located separately or
included within larger facilities.

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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4. Food product facilities are places where edible food products


are received or created from ingredients that are received,
purified, prepared, or produced in the same facilities. The
products are then tested, packaged, and stored. Such facilities include dairies, slaughter houses, and food preparation
facilities.
5. Chemical processing plants are facilities where products are
purified or created from ingredients received, manufactured,
or produced within the facilities. The products are then chemically combined, mixed together, or processed at these same
facilities; tested, packaged, and stored.
6. Steel mills, foundries, and mining, ore processing, and petroleum refinery facilities are places where naturally occurring
or refined raw materials are received or recovered, then
shaped, altered, processed, or refined, and finally packaged
and stored or distributed.
7. Printing and publishing facilities are places where all types of
reading material, photographs, etc., are received, created, assembled, and produced; then bound, packaged, and stored.
8. Central utility generating facilities are places where power is
generated and include such facilities as fossil fuel, nuclear
power, hydroelectric, steam-producing, and co-generation facilities.
9. Laboratories, including biology, chemistry, and physics research
and development, experimental, and testing laboratories. Excluded are laboratories used exclusively for educational
purposes and those within educational facilities.
10. Warehouses are facilities where products, equipment, or components are stored while awaiting either shipment or use by
the facility.
11. Fluid treatment facilities are places where fluids are received
and then treated or purified prior to distribution or disposal.
Such facilities include sewage, industrial, and potable water
treatment plants.

GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA


The work done in industrial facilities is separated into workday
hours or shifts of varying lengths, depending on the nature of
the workplace. A majority of the hot water usage by workers directly engaged in production within a given facility occurs at the
beginning and end of their shifts or workdays and during lunch

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periods and breaks. The use of hot water for other general purposes is spread throughout the workday and is occasionally
needed for emergency purposes such as spill cleanup.

AREAS WITHIN INDUSTRIAL FACILITIES


Washrooms and Toilets
Routinely, washrooms and toilet rooms are provided in separate
areas for a facilitys general production staff, its production staff
supervisors, and its administrative/office staff.
Hot water use in the toilet areas provided for the administrative/office staff is the same as that in the toilet areas of an office
building. The two toilet areas have the same characteristics of
use. The number and types of fixture required are governed by
the applicable plumbing code.
The washrooms and toilet areas for production personnel and
supervisors require different design criteria because their use is
affected by work shifts. The production personnel toilet areas
usually consist of locker rooms, toilet rooms, wash-up facilities,
and showers. The number of the various types of fixture usually
is not covered in the applicable code, therefore, judgment and
prior experience are required to make this decision. Consideration must be given to the number of people using the areas
when shifts change and to whether their work is clean or dirty.
(Dirty work makes the clothes and person of the average production worker dirty and occurs in such facilities as foundries and
steel mills.) Another consideration is whether code or client policy
requires that production personnel shower prior to leaving the
facility.

Wash Fixtures
The wash fixtures for production personnel are often single, large
fixtures with multiple wash stations. These fixtures are manufactured in various standard configurations, such as circle,
semicircle, and quarter circle, and in various sizes.
Spray heads ranging from 0.5 to 0.75 gpm/station (0.03 to
0.05 L/sec/station) are available for light and heavy industrial
facilities. Some individual wash stations are not capable of independent operation, which means that the entire fixture would
have to be turned on if just one person were washing.

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Where no client preference exists, the following general design


criteria should be used to select fixtures:
1. Twenty min should be allowed at the end of a shift for wash
up and showers.
2. Wash fixtures must be provided for all shift personnel. These
fixtures can be either individual lavatories or group wash fountains. A generally accepted ratio of one wash station or lavatory
for every six people can be used as a starting point to decide
the number of fixtures, with any fraction increasing the number of fixtures by one. Where no guidance is given, one station
should be provided for every 5 to 12 people, the figure chosen
depending on the number of people there are.
3. Where individual wash up is anticipated, individual lavatories
are preferable to group wash fountains because when just one
person is washing up at a time, wash fountain spray heads
provide much more water than is necessary.

Showers
If not governed by local code, shower heads should each be limited to a flow rate of 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec). Generally, males are
provided with group showers, while females are given the privacy
of individual shower stalls. All new and renovated installations
should be Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) compliant.
The number of shower heads is based on the number of people
expected to use the washroom at each change of shift. If no code
requirements are provided, use the clients preference. Allow for
a total of about 20 min for a shift to complete showering. In
laboratories, offices, and other similar facilities, when showers
are provided adjacent to toilet rooms (as compared to toilets adjacent to lockers and washrooms), they usually are used by
personnel finishing some form of exercise (such as jogging or
training on facility-provided equipment) during lunch time prior
to returning to work.

SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT
Water Heater
When an instantaneous system is used, the most critical factor
to consider when selecting a water heater capable of meeting the
expected load is the minimum flow rate. No diversity factor should

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193

be used for dirty facilities.


The shower room is considered a dump load, which means
that almost the entire storage and recovery volume is used during the shower period. Experience has shown that 20 min is
usually enough time to allow for an entire shift to shower. Each
shower is assumed to last 5 min.
Example 10.1
A foundry with 100 shift workers assigned to an area will be
used to select a storage tank and an instantaneous heater.
First we select the storage type heater: One hundred people
require the use of a wash fountain. Figuring 8 people per station,
12.5 or 13 stations are needed. If we provide 12 stations (two 6station units) and allow a 20-min time frame, that gives each
person 1.6 min of wash timenot quite enough to wash hands.
Because of the dirty working conditions in a foundry, use two 8station units, which will allow 3.2 min per person washing time.
For the showers, assume that 20% of the workers will take showers and that 5 heads are required. To calculate the necessary
heater capacity, add the two requirements:
For a 20-min period of time, two 8-wash station units require 5
gpm (0.32 L/sec) each.
5 gpm 20 min = 100 gal for each station
(0.32 L/sec 60 sec/min 20 min = 384 L for each station)
100 gal 2 stations = 200 gal
(384 L 2 stations = 768 L)
For a 5-min period of time, 5 showers flow at 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec).
2.5 gpm 5 min = 12.5 gal per shower
(0.16 L/sec 60 sec/min 5 min = 48 L)
12.5 gal 5 showers = 62.5 gal
(48 L 5 showers = 240 L)
The storage type water heater selected should have a recovery and storage capacity of delivering 262.5 gal (994 L) in 20
min. If this is the only purpose of the heater, the safest (but not
necessarily the most economical) selection would be to store the
entire required amount of water (plus 30% additional gal) in,
say, a 341-gal (1291-L) storage tank and recover the amount of
water slowly over a 6-h period.
Next, we select the instantaneous heater. Wash station use is

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10 gpm (0.63 L/sec) and shower use is 12.5 gpm (0.79 L/sec).
The instantaneous heater should be sized to handle a demand of
22.5 gpm (1.42 L/sec).

Storage Tank
Systems that require close temperature control and flow a large
amount of hot water at a steady rate over an extended period of
time do not require large storage tanks. If a large storage tank is
provided, there is a good probability that the water temperature
will be lowered, which may be unacceptable. It would be better to
select a relatively small storage tank to act as a stabilizer against
demand surges, have a water heater recovery rate approximately
equal to demand, and use a blending valve. This arrangement
will ensure a steady supply of hot water at a constant temperature, which will allow for good modulation.

FACILITY-SPECIFIC DESIGN ISSUES


Meat and Food Processing Facilities
Meat, food, and other such processing facilities are required by
the FDA to have their work areas and equipment sanitized each
day with 180F (82C) hot water. The amount of water used to do
this depends on the amount of time allotted for cleanup, the
number of people simultaneously cleaning up, and the number
and flow rates of the wash-down stations. The extended period of
time usually required for cleanup is too long to be considered a
dump load. In addition, there should not be a significant drop in
the temperature of the wash water during this period. This type
of hot water use usually requires a high recovery rate to provide
enough water at the accepted temperature. A storage tank will
help to lower the instantaneous flow rate of the heater and balance the swing loads caused by the cleanup operation. If
temperature is critical, the designer may want to store hotter
water and supply the system through a tempering valve.

Manufacturing Facilities
Manufacturing work is divided into two types, dirty work and
clean work. (See explanation under Washrooms and Toilets
above.) Workers engaged in clean activities generally do not take
showers at the end of a shift, whereas many workers emerging

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from a dirty workplace do shower prior to going home.

Pharmaceutical Facilities
Pharmaceutical facilities include many different areas, such as
production areas, clean rooms, sterile areas, and often laboratories and animal facilities associated with the testing and quality
control of products. In general, there is little use of potable hot
water in the production areas. Because spills may contain biological matter or chemicals not permitted to be treated as regular
waste, spills are cleaned up with mops or rags, which are then
placed in receptacles for proper disposal. Where sterility is required, special antibacterial cleaners are used. These are sprayed
on exposed piping, walls, floors, and ceilings and wiped up by
hand. Large accidental spills of liquid product are often cleaned
up with dedicated wet vacuum equipment, which is carried on
carts that do not leave the areas where they are stored. In noncritical areas, hose stations often are provided for room wash
down. These are usually supplied with cold water and steam, or
hot and cold water. Potentially harmful bacteria are isolated in
special areas of the facility where bacteria kill drainage systems
are in place. The equipment and piping for clean in place and
steam in place systems do not use domestic hot water.
Laboratory sinks generally do not use much hot water. When
only laboratory sinks are considered, the use of standard code
obtained water fixture units leads to oversized systems. Glass
and small equipment washers and sterilizers often do use hot
water. Where sterility is required, a final rinse of purified water,
which does not use potable water as feedwater, will be used.
Small wash sinks or lavatories are provided at the entrances to
clean and sterile rooms for personnel to use for washing prior to
putting on sterile or clean clothing. These sinks are used primarily by production personnel at the beginning and end of shifts,
but visitors and inspectors also must wash up.
Animal facilities often use a large amount of hot water for
cage washing and room wash down. Another potential hot water
use is for a slurry system, which disposes of shredded bedding.
Animal facilities usually have routines with set times for the cages
and rooms to be cleaned. Animal areas with integral cage washing machines should be provided with dedicated hot water
generators.
It is common to wash and sterilize vials, stoppers, and bottles

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prior to use or reuse. When the washing of relatively large quantities of glassware is required, it is common practice to have a
prewash area to remove most of the gross contaminants prior to
placement in a sterile washing machine. Another arrangement is
to use potable hot water for prewashing and distilled or purified
water for the final sterile wash.

Food Product Facilities


Food product facilities use hot water for the washing of rooms
and exposed piping and the cleaning of equipment. Cleaning is
done during preplanned and scheduled downtime. The amount
of hot water used depends on the number of operators engaged
in the cleaning and the type of cleaning apparatus used. The hot
water temperature is generally 180F (82C).

Chemical Processing Facilities


Chemical processing facilities often require that personnel wear
protective clothing to guard against contamination by the chemicals present during a normal workday. Experience suggests that
many of these facilities are involved in dirty work and that most
of the personnel take showers at the end of a shift prior to leaving for home. Often potable hot water is used for the rinsing of
protective suits and the decontamination of small parts and equipment.

Facilities that Process Raw Materials


This category includes facilities involved in such diverse processes
as oil refinery, mineral separation and enrichment, coal processing, and paper milling. Experience suggests that many of these
facilities are dirty workplaces and that personnel take showers
at the end of a shift prior to leaving for home.

Printing and Publishing Facilities


Printing facilities usually are divided into printers of newspapers, of magazines, of books, and of miscellaneous other materials.
They provide showers for plant personnel. Often photo labs, which
can use large quantities of hot water, are included.

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197

Central Utilities
In fossil fuel power plants, toilet rooms typically are located adjacent to areas where workers normally are required to be present
for extended periods of time. These areas can be far apart, and
each location may require an individual water heater. Central
locker rooms with wash-up fixtures and toilets are provided.
Nuclear power plants must be separated from all other facilities primarily for safety reasons. The control room of a nuclear
power plant must have the fixtures and piping secured and designed to withstand the movement and oscillation of an
earthquake that is twice the magnitude of the largest earthquake
recorded in the area. Decontamination to remove low levels of
radiation from both personnel and equipment will be provided.
This often involves personnel taking cold showers first to close
the pores of the skin to prevent radioactive particles from entering the body. After readings of acceptable levels of radiation are
achieved, hot showers may be taken. In equipment decontamination areas sinks and scrub brushes with detergent are used to
remove low levels of radioactive deposits from equipment. Water
is used in these areasand could be used in significant volumes
and at significant flow rates during planned shutdowns and emergency situations. A complete list of potential problems should be
given in a facilitys safety analysis report, which describes all
normal operating and potential emergency operating conditions.

Laboratories
General laboratory rooms almost always have sinks. Hot water
use at these sinks is usually light. Washers and sterilizers for
glassware and small equipment are located in different parts of
the laboratory complex and use hot water at random intervals.
To ensure an ample supply of hot water, a worst case scenario
(based on discussions with the owner) should be used to calculate storage and recovery capacity. Animal facilities are discussed
above, under pharmaceutical facilities.

Warehouses
Warehouses require hot water use only in toilet rooms. Separate
toilet rooms usually are provided for staff and drivers (who are
nonstaff). The toilet rooms for drivers often are used heavily for
short periods of time.

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Fluid Treatment Facilities


Most general areas of fluid treatment facilities have no special
requirements for the use of potable hot water. These facilities
usually include testing laboratories. Refer to the discussion of
such in the laboratories section, above. Generally no hot water
use is necessary in the production areas where water and waste
are treated, although shower facilities are required in sewage treatment plants.

MISCELLANEOUS USES OF HOT WATER


Photo Processing
There are two types of photo processing in general use. One involves the use of self-contained automatic machines, which develop
film and produce prints from negatives. These machines require a
minimum amount of water and produce a minimum amount of
waste. The other type is conventional manual processing.
The film and print development systems of conventional processing use relatively large amounts of hot water for the final
rinsing of film and prints. Since such a wide variety of equipment
exists, exact requirements must be obtained from the equipment
manufacturer and/or the client.
Black and white photo processing involves the use of warm
water ranging in temperature from 68 to 78F (20 to 26C) and
has a tolerance of 2. Color photo processing involves the use of
water ranging in temperature from 68 to 94F (20 to 34C), depending on the film and the processing technique, and has a
tolerance of only 0.5. Developing and printing equipment is usually provided with sensitive and accurate integral mixing valves.

Ready-Mix Concrete
Hot water is used to make concrete when the air temperature falls
below 30F (1C). When the ambient temperature is between 0
and 30F (18 and 1C), hot water is used to bring the mixture to
a temperature of about 65F (18C). When the ambient temperature is below 0F (18C), it is used to bring the mixture to 70F
(21C). The higher temperatures are necessary to prevent the concrete from freezing before it sets and to allow proper hydration of
the mixture. The added heat also gives the concrete a greater early
strength. Hot water also serves to warm aggregate in cold weather

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199

to prevent it from freezing into chunks. Along with air temperature, the size of the aggregate used affects the desired temperature.
Be aware, though, that water that is too hot may produce flash
setting of the concrete.
The amount of water used to mix concrete is determined by
weight. A generally accepted rule is that half the weight of the
cement (not including sand or aggregate) should be water. That
is approximately 11 gal (41.64 L) of water per 90 lb (40.82 kg) of
cement or 30 gal (113.56 L) of water to make 1 yd3 (0.765 m3) of
cement. Aggregate also has some moisture in it, and accepted
practice allows 5 gal (18.93 L) for this moisture. This means that
an actual figure of 25 gal (94.64 L) of water is required to make 1
yd3 (0.765 m3) of concrete. Be aware that concrete trucks are
provided with water tanks with capacities of 150 gal (567.81 L)
to add water to the mix when required.
It is recommended practice to load trucks with about q of
the proper amount of water at the batch plant and to add the
rest of the water during the trip to the site. Once the water is
added, a maximum delivery time of 1 h is allowed. It is common practice to store hot water at 180F (82C), with individual
plants using their own methods for correctly proportioning the
hot and cold water for each batch to meet specific requirements.
As a guide, Table 10.1 gives storage tank sizes in relation to the
successive fast filling of trucks of various sizes. Table 10.2 gives
suggested recovery capacities for the water heating equipment of
trucks of different sizes at various filling intervals.

Table 10.1 Tank Size Selection Chart


Capacity of Trucks
No. of
Trucks
Filling in
Succession

1
2
3
4
5
6

6 yd3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(gal)
(gal)

300
600
900
1200
1500
1800

350
(2)350
1000
1500
2000
2000

8 yd3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(gal)
(gal)

350
700
1050
1400
1750
2100

400
750
1000
1500
2000
2000

l0 yd3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(gal)
(gal)

400
800
1200
1600
2000
2400

500
1000
1500
2000
2000
2000a

l2 yd3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(gal)
(gal)

450
900
1350
1800
2250
2700

500
1000
1500
2000
(2)1500
(2)1500

Source: Courtesy of A. O. Smith Water Products.


aWhere generating equipment is based on a 5-min truck load interval, use two 1,500-gal
storage tanks installed in parallel.

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Table 10.1(M) Tank Size Selection Chart


Capacity of Trucks
4.4 m3
________________
No. of
Vol. of
Sugg.
Trucks
Water
Tank
Filling in Required
Size
Succession
(L)
(L)

6.3 m3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(L)
(L)

7.3 m3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(L)
(L)

8.8 m3
________________
Vol. of
Sugg.
Water
Tank
Required
Size
(L)
(L)

1200

1350

1350

1500

1500

2000

1 700

2000

2300

(2)1350

2700

3000

3000

4000

3 400

4000

3400

4000

4000

4000

4600

6000

5 100

6000

4500

6000

5300

6000

6100

8000

6 800

8000

5700

8000

6600

8000

8000

8000

8 500

(2)6000

9000

8000a

10 200

(2)6000

6800

8000

8000

8000

Source: Courtesy of A. O. Smith Water Products.


aWhere generating equipment is based on a 5min truck load interval, use two 6000L
storage tanks installed in parallel.

Table 10.2 Hot Water Requirements after Initial Loading


Truck Capacities
6 yd3
____________________

8 yd3

10 yd3

12 yd3

____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Time
GPH ____________
Min. Input
GPH ____________
Min. Input
GPH
Min. Input
GPH ____________
Min. Input
____________
Between
Fills
Hot
Gas
Oil
Hot
Gas
Oil
Hot
Gas
Oil
Hot
Gas
Oil
(min) Watera (Btu/h) (GPH) Watera (Btu/h) (GPH) Watera (Btu/h) (GPH) Watera (Btu/h) (GPH)
10

1800 2,630,000 18.9

2100 3,060,000

22.0

2400 3,510,000

25.2

2700 3,940,000

28.4

1050 1,530,000

11.0

1200 1,750,000

12.6

1350 1,970,000

14.2

20

900 1,315,000

9.4

35

515

752,000

5.4

600

875,000

9.2

685 1,000,000

7.2

762 1,112,000

8.0

50

360

525,000

3.8

420

612,000

6.4

480

5.0

540

5.7

700,000

788,000

Source: Courtesy of A. O. Smith Water Products.


Note: If uninsulated storage tanks are in cold rooms, allowance in recovery capacity should
be made for standby loss.
a180F final temperature; cold water temperature assumed to be 40F with a 140F temperature rise.

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201

Table 10.2(M) Hot Water Requirements after Initial Loading


Truck Capacities
4.4 m3
____________________
Time
L/H ____________
Min. Input
Between
Fills
Hot
Gas
Oil
(min) Watera (W)
(L/h)

6.3 m3
7.3 m3
8.8 m3
____________________ ____________________ ____________________
L/H

Min. Input
____________
Hot
Gas
Oil
Watera (W)
(L/h)

L/H
Hot
Watera

Min. Input
L/H ____________
Min. Input
____________
Gas
Oil
Hot
Gas
Oil
(W)
(L/h) Watera (W)
(L/h)

10

6813

770 590 71.5

7949

896 580

83.3

9084 1 028 430

95.4 10 220 1 154 420 107.5

20

3407

385 295 35.6

3974

448 290

41.6

4542

47.7

512 750

5 110

577 210

53.8

35

1949

220 336 20.4

2271

256 375

34.8

2593

293 000

27.3

2 884

325 816

30.3

50

1363

153 825 14.4

1590

179 316

24.2

1817

205 100

18.9

2 044

230 884

21.6

Source: Courtesy of A. O. Smith Water Products.


Note: If uninsulated storage tanks are in cold rooms, allowance in recovery capacity should
be made for standby loss.
a82C final temperature; cold water temperature assumed to be 4C with a 78C temperature rise.

11

SPORTS ARENAS
AND STADIUMS

INTRODUCTION
This chapter is meant to guide the designer through the procedures and methodology needed to perform the design of domestic
hot water systems and the decisionmaking for water heater selections for sports arenas and stadiums. There are many functions
performed in sports arenas and stadiums that must be accounted
for in the design and selection process. Remember that no two
facilities will be alike.
Areas that may be encountered in sports arenas and stadiums that require domestic hot water include the following:
Home team showers (may need multiple team/different
sports facilities),
Visitor team showers (may need multiple team/different
sports facilities),
Club house commercial laundries,
Home team laundry room,
Visitor team laundry room,
Concessionaires laundry room,
Concessions,
Grounds service area,
Janitors closets,
Private suites,
Kitchens,

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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Public toilets,
Private toilets,
Administration areas,
Training rooms,
Stadium club bar,
First aid rooms,
Staff toilets for ticket booths,
Photo labs,
Emergency eyewash, and
Emergency showers.

GATHERING INFORMATION
Before proceeding with any design, the designer must go on a
fact finding mission to gather the information needed to perform
the design. Following are some sample questions that may need
to be asked. The designer needs to develop a list of questions for
each particular project.
1. What are the system demands for the restrooms, concession
areas, locker rooms, training areas, kitchen, dinning areas,
and laundry areas?
2. What water temperatures are desired or required for this
project120, 140, 160 or 180F (49, 60, 71, or 82C)?
3. What are the duration of peak demands and the length of
time between each peak for all fixtures requiring domestic
hot water?
4. How many showers are available? How many people will use
them? What are the estimated peak period of area operation,
the average shower time, the next peak hour demand after
the initial peak demand, the maximum gpm, and the delivered temperature at shower heads. It is important to remember
the potential of dump loads in some areas, such as the team
showers, where the players can be expected to shower as
quickly as possible after the game. Consideration must also
be given for multi-game play and events on the same day.
This presents the designer with a challenge to provide the
most cost-effective recovery-to-storage ratio.
5. In the training room areas, what kind of hot water using equipment/fixtures will be used? How often will they be used and

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what will be the peak operational time? Determine the number of fills per hour per equipment and the quantity of hot
water required for each piece of equipment.
6. In the kitchen and concession areas, what kinds of equipment/fixtures will be used and what will be the total peak
operational period? Is normal operational time prior to, during, and/or after game activities?
7. What are the local codes that apply on this project?
8. Are utilities, such as water and electricity, and fuels available for this project? What are their relative costs? Can they
be obtained on an uninterruptible basis?
9. Will the owner have a residence in the facility?
10. Will this facility have a building management system?
11. What is the projected facility usageyear-round, summer, or
months usedand what is the projected downtime between
events?
12. What is the temperature of the domestic water service into
the facility?
13. What are the special equipment needs, such as for ice resurfacing (e.g., Zambonis)?

SYSTEM DESIGN
Design Considerations
Once the designer has gathered all the information and answered
all the necessary questions, and the owner has approved the floor
plans, the next step is to calculate the hot water demand and
evaluate the types of systems that would be appropriate for the
project. Following are other design considerations the designer
should consider:
1. It is very important to establish the entire pipe routing with
the approved floor plans.
2. Some energy codes restrict the use of hot water in certain
areas.
3. Consider using security type showerheads in the players home
and visitors shower rooms.
4. Mount shower heads at a minimum of 6 ft 6 in. in home and
visitors shower rooms.
5. Consider using metering or infrared faucets in public areas.

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6. If the local health department requires hot water in public


areas, consider using tempered water.
7. Remember the shower and therapy loads are nearly always
the main criteria for sizing the hot water system.
8. Usually concession areas are located on the upper levels of
the facility and many times cannot be served economically
from the central system. The designer should consider that
the concession loads be designed as a separate system or
that an individual system be designed for each concession.
The characteristics of some systems are noted below.

Water Heating System Temperature

On a central hot water distribution system, the temperature


may be designed for 120 to 140F (49 to 60C).

For point-of-use applications, the temperature is set for 110


to 120F (43 to 49C).

Kitchens use 140F (60C) [use of a booster heater for the


dishwasher for 180F (82C) may be required].

Commercial laundries normally use 140 or 160F (60 or 71C).


Check with the owner or operator. Booster heaters may be
required to accomplish higher water temperatures.

Food service areas normally use 140F (60C). Booster heaters maybe be required to accomplish higher water
temperatures. Check with the owner or operator.

Showers normally require 120F (49C) to the fixture (minimum) if a pressure balancing or thermostatic mixing valve is
installed to provide an operating differential.

Note: When supplying lower temperature water, be sure


that the temperature is above the dew point of the flue gas
for fossil fuel systems to avoid condensation. This is a growing problem because of the higher equipment efficiencies
available.

Design Traps to Avoid


1. In the design of a hot water system, especially a central system
where there may be long runs of piping, the designer should
look for areas in the facility that will have expansion joints
connecting segments of the building structure. At these points

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consider using some type of expansion joint in the piping system to prevent the pipe from breaking due to building
movement. There may also be a need for intermediate expansion joints for long runs of piping at other areas of the building.
2. Care should be taken to make sure that the hot water pipes
and water heaters are in areas that are accessible for service.
Too often, limited space is provided for equipment.
3. Do not run hot water piping in areas subject to freezing. If it
is absolutely necessary to do so, provide heat tape or some
other method of eliminating the freezing problem and slope
all affected piping to drain.
4. Consider that the usable storage capacity of a vertical storage tank may be 75 to 80%. Check with the tank
manufacturer. For large tanks, installing a tank-circulating
pump to circulate the water continually can increase the percentage of usable storage capacity. Horizontal tank usable
storage capacity may be up to 10% less than that of a vertical
tank.
5. Insulate all the hot water piping supply and circulating pipes
in the system in accordance to local, state, and federal codes.
6. Make sure to coordinate with the appropriate discipline on
voltage and phase for electric water heaters and combustion
air requirements and flue routing for fossil-fuel fired water
heaters.
7. Check for seismic requirements.

Types of System
To meet diverse heating requirements, one or more of the following system configurations may be considered.
Central hot water system
In the central hot water system, the designer can establish a
primary hot water piping loop of a 120 to 140F (49 to 60C)
throughout the facility. Through the use of mixing stations, the
temperature can be reduced to accommodate specific equipment
or fixtures to satisfy their hot water requirements. The central
system can serve the showers, concessions, kitchen, public
restrooms, training rooms, laundry rooms, and first aid rooms.

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Distributed hot water system


It may be advantageous in the design to provide several small hot
water systems throughout the facility, each with its own hot water piping system and heater. This type of system may offer
flexibility and redundancy if one system goes down. It may be
desirable to connect these systems with valved crossover lines
that can be opened in the event that one system is down and it is
necessary to backfeed temporarily an inoperable system with an
operable system.
Point of use
In isolated areas, such as private bathrooms, ticket booths, and
private suites, the point-of-use electric type water heater could
be used. This installation may save on piping and insulation.

Special Considerations: Commercial Laundries


The laundry areas will have a significant amount of hot water
demand. They should be designed so that each has a separate
hot water system with its own water heater and storage tank.
Having the laundry on a separate hot water system allows flexibility in the operation of the laundry and will not rob large
quantities of hot water from the central system, as it would if the
laundries were tied into that system.
Some central systems can include the laundry areas on the
system because the laundry rooms will not operate at the same
time as the showers and training rooms operate.
Note: With all systems, make sure there is a place to take
the discharge from the relief valve(s) that conforms to the
local codes.

Assumptions
On most projects, the designer will not get all the questions answered and, therefore, will have to make some assumptions in
the design and piping layout. It is good practice to note all these
assumptions in a letter to the owner and architect for their review and comments. Look for opportunities to find a central
location for the hot water heaters, keeping in mind accessibility
and simple piping layouts.
Design the showers for a 2.5 or 3.0 gpm (0.16 or 0.19 L/sec)
demand. Be aware of regulations affecting the selection of the
flow rate.

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Table 11.1 represents most of the plumbing fixtures and equipment for these types of facility that require hot water.

Table 11.1 Fixture/Equipment Table


Location

Type of
Fixture

Hot Water Temp.


at the Fixture
F

Private suites

Lavatory
Bar sink

105
120

41
49

First aid rooms

Lavatory

105

41

Sink

120

49

Staff ticket booth

Lavatory

105

41

Training room

Sink

120

49

Lavatory

105

41

Whirlpool

110

43

Hydrotherapy

110

43

140160

6071

Sink

120

49

Column showers/
showers

110

43

Lavatory

105

41

Fertilizers/pesticides Emergency
storage rooms
eyewash

80

27

Public toilets

Lavatory

105

41

Break rooms

Sink

120

49

Concessions

Sink

120

49

Kitchens

Sinks /lavatories
Dishwasher

120/105
140180

49/41
6082

Laundry

Shower

Washing
machines
roomsa

Private toilets

Remarks

Check with
operator

Check with
local health
dept. for
requirements

Check with
local health
dept. for
requirements

a Showers with pressure-balanced and/or thermostatic shower valves having


both hot and cold water connections should have a hot water temperature supplying the valve that is hot enough to ensure proper operation of the valve.
Pressure-balanced/thermostatic valves offer a level of safety. It is recommended
that combination check stops be installed.

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SYSTEM SIZING
Sizing Parameters
Before proceeding with examples, we must set some parameters
for domestic hot water loads (showers):
1. Determine the number of shower heads.
2. Determine the number of people showering.
3. Allow a minimum of 5 min/shower.
4. Determine the expected length of time for showers to operate, as follows:
(11.1) no. of people
min/shower = total expected time
no. of shower heads
of shower operation if
all people shower
during peak period.
5. Determine total gpm (L/sec) flow rate for showers, as follows:
(11.2) no. of shower heads gpm flow rate = total gpm flow rate
for showers
6. Determine the temperature of water, F (C), to be used at the
shower head.
7. Determine the gallons (liters) of hot water demand for showers at the required temperature and time of operation, as
follows:
(11.3) total shower total shower = gal (L) required at desired
time
gpm (L/sec)
temperature, F (C), for
showering peak demand of
determined minutes
8. Estimate turnaround time. Be sure to add turnaround time
when determining the total time during which hot water is
used.
Note: Add a little time in for turnaround. Use a diversity factor
where applicable. Evaluate the system to determine if there
will be a dump load, with most of the demand being utilized in
a fraction of an hour. If this is the case, be sure to calculate
recovery on the basis of gallons per hour (liters/hour). For
example, if the system requires 200 gal (757 L) in 30 min, the
recovery rate will be 400 gph (1514 L/h).

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Example 11.1 Football Stadium


The facility is a professional football stadium, and the following
information is given to the designer:
1. 150 lavatories.
2. 40 shower heads. (Assume 2.50 gpm [0.16 L/sec] per shower
head, 5 min/shower, 100 people to shower, 110F [43C] water
at shower head, 40F [4.4C] incoming water temperature,
and 140F [60C] stored water.)
3. 6 service sinks.
4. 2 kitchen sinks.
5. 6 sinks.
6. 2 laundry tubs.
7. 4 hydrotherapy tubs.
8. 2 whirlpools.
9. 4 commercial washing machines.
10. 1 commercial dishwasher.
The first step is to determine the demand for the information
given, in gph.
A table showing all the fixtures that require hot water with
their demands, in gph, should be developed. Some of the gph for
the fixtures shown in the table below are taken from Chapters 1,
4, 6, and 8, and from equipment manufacturers.

Hot Water Demand Table (Example 11.1)


Quantity Fixture Type
150
40
6
1
6
2
4
2
4
1
10

Lavatories
Showers heads
Service sinks
Kitchen sinks
(double comp.)
Bar sinks
Laundry tubs
Hydrotherapy tubs
Whirlpools
Commercial washing
machines
Commercial dishwasher
Bradley wash fountains

GPH

L/H

Total GPH (L/H)

4
150b

15
681

20
60

76
227

600 (2,271)
6000 or 1250
gals for 12.5 min.c
120 (454)
60 (227)

30
20
100a
100a
80a

113.6
76
378.5
378.5
303

180 (681)
40 (151)
400 (1514)
200 (757)
320 (1211)

50a
10

189
38

50 (189)
100 (378.5)

a Information obtained from manufacturer of equipment.


b 2.5 gpm (167 L/sec) 60 min.
c 40 heads 2.5 gpm = 100 gpm; 12.5 min peak load 100 gpm = 1250 gal at
110F required in 12.5 min peak load (40 heads 0.19 L/sec = 7.6 L/sec; 12.5
min 7.6 L/sec 60 sec/min = 5678 L at 43C required in 12.5 min peak load)

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The system is designed to be a central system with a primary


loop set for a temperature of 140F (60C), and the following requirements are needed.
Calculations (for water heater to serve showers, hydrotherapy tubs, and whirlpools)
100 people
= 2.5 people/head
40 shower heads
2.5 people/head 5 min/person = 12.5 min minimum for
shower peak demand
40 shower heads 2.5 gpm = 100 gpm
12.5 min 100 gpm = 1250 gal of 110F water required to
be available in 12.5 min at the
shower heads. Shower demand to
be hour after hour.
(40 shower heads 0.19 L/sec = 7.6 L/sec
12.5 min 7.6 L/sec = 5678 L of 43C water required to be
available in 12.5 min at the shower
heads. Shower demand to be hour
after hour.)
Total gph (L/h) for hydrotherapy tubs and whirlpools
equals 600 gph (2271 L/h) (from hot water demand table).
Notes:
1. Shower time could vary; the 12.5 min in this example is
the bare minimum, based on a 5-min average shower. The
designer needs to find out as much as possible about
expected use.
2. Allow 1 fill/h for hydrotherapy tubs and whirlpools. For
this example, the demands will be met by storage. Should
2 fills/h be required, the designer must have the total
gph (L/h) recovery of hydrotherapy tubs and whirlpools
2 to meet the second fill within 30 min.
How is the shower load to be met? We will use a combination of storage and recovery, keeping in mind that we must
allow for storage tank draw efficiency. For example, if we decide to meet the total demand with storage: 1250 gal (5678 L)
at 110F (43C) at the shower head, 600 gal (2271 L) at 110F
(43C) for hydrotherapy tubs and whirlpools, stored water
temperature at 140F (60C). Using the mixed water temperature formula in Chapter 1 (Equation 1.7):

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213

110 40F
70F
=
= 0.7
140 40F
100F
43 4.4C = 38.6C
( 60
4.4C
55.6C

= 0.7

Therefore,
1850 gal 0.7 = 1295 gal of 140F water
(7949 L 0.7 = 5564.5 L of 60C water)
This is the amount that must be supplied to the tempering
stations for the showers and hydrotherapy tubs and whirlpools.
Storage tank size (for showers, hydrotherapy tubs, and
whirlpools)
To determine the tank size required, divide 1295 gal (5564.5 L)
of 140F (60C) water by the percent of usable storage. If we
assume 80% usable storage, then we should select a tank
with a capacity of approximately 1619 gal (6954 L).
Note: The percent usable storage capacities of tanks vary.
Contact your local tank manufacturer for specific information.
Recovery requirements (for showers, hydrotherapy tubs,
and whirlpools)
This is to be determined based on the frequency and duration
of the shower plus additional equipment load requirements.
energy output = 1295 gph 8.33 lb/gal (140 40F)
= 970,862 Btu/h
[energy output = 5564.5 L/h 1 kg/L (60 4.4C)
= 309 386 kJ/h output]
If a heater has a thermal efficiency of 80%, then input
must be 1,213,577 Btu/h (386 733 kJ/h) if 1295 gph
(5564.5 L) are used each hour.
Water heater requirements (based on hour after hour for
shower operation):
recovery = 1295 gph (5564.5 L/h) at
40 to 140F (4.4 to 60C)

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storage = 1619 gal (6954 L)


Notes:
1. Storage requirement capacity remains the same even
though peak demand time may vary. The designer may
choose to increase or decrease storage or recovery, balancing the two as necessary to arrive at a cost-effective
system that will fit into the space available.
2. If showers are required hour after hour, then the minimum recovery must be the shower load demand recovered
over a period of 1 h. If the second hour is not required but
the third hour is, the recovery can be reduced by 50%. If
neither the second nor the third hour is required, then
the recovery can be 33% of shower and additional equipment load requirements.

Example 11.2 Baseball Stadium


The following information is given to the designer. The facility is a
baseball stadium that is to be designed to have separate domestic
hot water systems for the home team and the visiting team.
Loop no. 1 (home team)
1. 9 showers heads. (Assume 2.5 gpm/shower head, 5 min/
shower, 45 people to shower, 110F [43C] water at shower
head, 40F [4.4C] incoming water temperature and 140F
[60C] stored water.)
2. 7 lavatories.
3. 1 whirlpool.
4. 1 arm tub.
5. 2 washers.
6. 1 laundry sink.
7. 1 pantry sink.
8. 3 service sinks
9. 10 wash fountains.

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Hot Water Demand Table (Example 11.2)


Quantity Fixture Type
9
9

Lavatories
Showers heads

3
1

Service sinks
Kitchen sinks
(double comp.)
Pantry sinks
Laundry sinks
Arm tubs
Whirlpools
Commercial washing
machines
Wash fountains

1
1
1
1
2
6

GPH

L/H

Total GPH (L/H)

4
150b

15
681

10
60

38
227

36 (136)
1350 or 500 gals (5110
or 1893 L)
for 25 minc
30 (113.6)
60 (227)

6
8
35a
100a
120a

23
30
132.5
378.5
454

10

38

6 (23)
8 (30)
35 (132.5)
100 (378.5)
240 (908.5)
60 (227)

a Information obtained from manufacture of equipment.


b 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) 60 min
c 9 heads 2.5 gpm = 22.5 gpm; 25 min peak load 22.5 gpm = 562.5 gal at
110F required in a 25 min peak load (9 heads 0.16 L/sec = 1.42 L/sec; 25 min
peak load 1.42 L/sec 60 sec/min = 2129 L at 43C required in a 25 min peak
load)

The system is designed to be a central system with a primary


loop set for a temperature of 140F (60C), and the following requirements are needed.
Calculations (for water heater to serve showers, arm tub,
and whirlpool)
45 people
= 5 people/head
9 shower heads
5 people/head 5 min/person = 25 min minimum for
shower peak demand
9 shower heads 2.5 gpm = 22.5 gpm
25 min 22.5 gpm = 562.5 gal of 110F water required
to be available in 25 min at the
shower heads. Shower demand to
be hour after hour.
(9 shower heads 0.16 L/sec = 1.4 L/sec
25 min 1.4 L/sec 60 sec/min = 2129 L of 43C
water required to be available in 25 min at the
shower heads. Shower demand to be hour after
hour.)

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total gph (L/h) for arm tub and whirlpool = 135 gph
(511 L/h) (from the hot water demand table)
Notes:
1. Shower time could vary; the 25 min in this example is the
bare minimum.
2. Allow 1 fill/h for arm tubs and whirlpools for this example. The demand will be met by storage. Should 2 fills/
h be required, the designer must have the total gph (L/h)
recovery of arm tubs and whirlpools 2 to meet the second fill within 30 min.
How is the shower load to be met? We will use a combination of storage and recovery, keeping in mind that we must
allow for storage tank draw efficiency. If we decide to meet
total demand with storage: 562.5 gal (2129 L) at 110F (43C)
at the shower head and 135 gal (511 L) at 110F (43C) for
arm tubs and whirlpool, stored water temperature at 140F
(60C). Using the mixed water temperature formula in Chapter 1 (Equation 1.7):
110 40F = 70F = 0.7
140 40F
100F
43 4.4C
38.6C
=
( 60
4.4C
55.6C

= 0.7

Therefore,
697.5 gal 0.7 = 488.25 gal of 140F water
(2640 L 0.7 = 1848 L of 60C water)
This is the amount that must be supplied to the tempering stations for the showers, arm tub, and whirlpool.
To determine the tank size required, divide 488.25 gal
(1848 L) of 140F (60C) water by the percent usable storage
capacity. If we assume 80% usable storage capacity, then we
should select a tank with a capacity of approximately 610 gal
(2309 L).
Note: Percent usable storage capacities vary. Contact your
tank manufacturer for specific information.
Recovery requirements
This is to be determined based on the frequency and duration
of the shower plus additional equipment load requirements. If

Spor
ts Arenas and Stadiums
Sports

217

showers are required hour after hour, then minimum recovery


must be the shower load demand recovered over a period of 1
h. If the second hour is not required but the third hour is, the
recovery can be reduced by 50%. If neither the second nor the
third hour is required, then the recovery can be 33% of shower
and additional equipment load requirements.
energy output = 488.25 gph 8.33 lb/gal
(140 40F)
= 406,712.25 Btu/h
[energy output = 1848 L/h 1 kg/L (60 4.4C)
= 102 749 kJ/h output]
If a heater has a thermal efficiency of 80%, then the input
must be 508,390.3 Btu/h (128 436 kJ/h) if 488.25 gph (1848
L/h) are used each hour.
Water heater requirements (based on hour after hour for
shower operation)
recovery = 488.25 gph at 40 to 140F
(1848 L/h at 4.4 to 60C)
storage = 610 gal (2309 L)
Note: Storage requirement capacity remains the same even
though peak demand time may vary. The designer may choose
to increase or decrease storage or recovery, balancing the two
as necessary to arrive at a cost-effective system that will fit
into the space available.
Loop no. 2 (visiting team)
1. 10 showers heads. (Assume 2.5 gpm/shower head, 5 min/
shower, 40 people to shower, 110F [43C] water at shower
head, 40F [4.4C] incoming water temperature, and 140F
[60C] stored water.)
2. 12 lavatories.
3. 1 whirlpool.
4. 1 arm tub.
5. 1 washer.
6. 1 laundry sink.

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7. 1 pantry sink.
8. 2 service sinks.
9. 6 wash fountains.

Hot Water Demand Table (Example 11.2)


Quantity Fixture Type
12
10
2
1
1
1
6
1

GPH

L/H

Total GPH (L/H)

Lavatories
Showers heads

5
150b

19
568

Service sinks
Laundry sinks
Commercial washing
machines
Whirlpool
Wash fountains
Arm tub

10
8
120a

38
30
454

60 (227)
1500 or 500 gal (5678
or 1893 L) for 20 minc
20 (76)
8 (30)
240 (454)

100a
10
35a

378.5
38
132.5

100 (378.5)
60 (227)
35 (132.5)

a Information obtained from manufacture of equipment.


b 2.5 gpm (0.16 L/sec) 60 min
c 10 heads 2.5 gpm = 25 gpm; 20 min peak load 25 gpm = 500 gal at 110F
required in a 25 min peak load (10 heads 0.16 L/sec = 1.6 L/sec ; 20 min peak
load 1.6 L/sec 60 sec/min = 1893 L at 43C required in a 25 min peak load)

The system is designed to be a central system with a primary


loop set for a temperature of 140F (60C), and the following requirements are needed.
Calculations (for water heater to serve showers, arm tub,
and whirlpool)
40 people
= 4 people/head
10 shower heads
4 people/head 5 min/person = 20 min minimum for
shower peak demand
10 shower heads 2.5 gpm = 25 gpm
(10 shower heads 0.16 L/sec = 1.6 L/sec)
20 min 25 gpm = 500 gal of 110F water required to
be available in 20 min at the
shower heads
(20 min 1.6 L/sec = 1893 L of 43C water required to
be available in 20 min at the
shower heads)

Spor
ts Arenas and Stadiums
Sports

219

total gph for arm tub and whirlpool = 135 gph


(total L/h for arm tub and whirlpool = 511 L/h)
Notes:
1. Shower time could vary; the 20 min in this example is the
bare minimum.
2. Allow 1 fill/h for the arm tub and whirlpool in this example. Meet the demands by storage. Should 2 fills/h be
required, the designer must have the total gph (L/h) recovery of the arm tub and whirlpool 2 to meet the second
fill within 30 min.
How is the shower load to be met? We will use a combination of storage and recovery, keeping in mind that we must
allow for the percent usable storage capacity of the tank.
If we decide to meet the total demand with storage: 500
gal (1893 L) at 110F (43C) at the shower head and 135 gal
(511 L) at 110F (43C) for arm tub and whirlpool stored water temperature at 140F (60C). Using the mixed water
temperature formula in Chapter 1 (Equation 1.7):
110 40F
70F
=
= 0.7
140 40F
100F
43 4.4C
38.6C
=
(60
4.4C
55.6C

= 0.7

Therefore,
635 gal 0.7 = 444.5 gal of 140F water
(2404 L 0.7 = 1683 L of 60C water)
This is the amount that must be supplied to the tempering stations for the showers, arm tub, and whirlpool.
Storage tank size
To determine the tank size required, divide 435 gal (1647 L)
of 140F (60C) water by the percent usable storage capacity.
If we assume 80% usable storage capacity, then we should
select a tank with approximately 543.75 gal (2058 L).
Note: Percent usable storage capacities vary. Contact your
tank manufacturer for specific information.

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Recovery requirements
This is determined based on the frequency and duration of
the showers plus additional equipment load requirements. If
showers are required hour after hour, then minimum recovery must be the shower load demand recovered over a period
of 1 h. If the second hour is not required but the third hour
is, the recovery can be reduced by 50%. If neither the second
nor the third hour is required, then the recovery can be 33%
of shower and additional equipment load requirements.
energy output = 435 gph 8.33 lb/gal (140 40F)
= 362,355 Btu/h output
[energy output = 1647 L/h 1 kg/L (60 4.4C)
= 91 573 kJ/h output]
If a heater has a thermal efficiency of 80%, then the input
must be 452,944 Btu/h (114 467 kJ/h) if 488.25 gph (1848
L/h) are used each hour.
Water heater requirements (based on hour after hour for
shower operation)
recovery = 435 gph (1647 L/h) at
40 to 140F (4.4 to 60C)
storage = 544 gal (2059 L)
Note: Storage requirement capacity remains the same even
though peak demand time may vary. The designer may choose
to increase or decrease storage or recovery, balancing the two
as necessary to arrive at a cost-effective system that will fit
into the space available.

Laundries

12

221

LAUNDRIES

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this chapter is to guide the designer through
the procedure of designing a domestic water heating system
for a commercial/institutional/industrial laundry.
The designer is charged with identifying the variables and
calculating the demand affecting such a system. The procedure
presented here will help predict the amount of hot water required
to meet both the hourly demand and momentary peak demands
of a laundry. Before completing the final design, the designer
should verify the laundry equipment requirements with the equipment manufacturers.

SYSTEM DESIGN QUESTIONS


1. Will the laundry hot water system be separate from or
combined with other systems?
2. Will the laundry demand occur at the same time as other
demands for hot water?
3. What will the laundrys hot water usage be (gallons per hour
[liters per hour] and gallons per pound [liters per kilogram] of
laundry)?
4. How many washers will there be and what is the pound (kilogram) capacity of each?
5. What is the maximum flow rate per machine (gallons per
minute [liters per second])?

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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6. What is the average cycle time of each washer?


7. How many cycles will there be per hour?
8. What hot water temperature is required?
9. What hours does the owner expect to operate the laundry?
10. What fuels are available?
11. What is the minimum temperature of the supply water?
12. Is there a heat recovery system available to preheat the water
for the laundry?

STORAGE
Unless otherwise directed by the owner, assume that all the washers will operate simultaneously. Provide an amount of hot water
storage equivalent to 50 to 75% of the hourly demand. Evaluate
the operating characteristics of the washers before deciding on
the amount of storage.

RECOVERY
The water heating system should be designed for full recovery of
the hourly demand.

EXAMPLE 12.1
A hospital laundry has three 135-lb (61-kg) and two 75-lb (34kg) washers which use 160F (71C) water for sanitation and blood
removal. The washer manufacturers data indicate that all washers require 2 gal (7.57 L) of hot water per hour per pound (kilogram).
(3 135 lb) + (2 75 lb) = 555 lb total capacity
[(3 61 kg) + (2 34 kg) = 251 kg total capacity]
555 lb 2 gph/lb = 1110 gph of 160F water
(251 kg 7.6 L/h = 1907.6 L/h of 71C water)
The laundry equipment manufacturer suggests usable storage of
between 50 and 75% of hourly demand. For this example, well
choose 60%.
60% 1110 gal = 666 gal

Laundries

223

(60% 1907.6 L = 1145 L)


A tank with a percent usable storage volume of 75% is selected.
666 gal
= 888 gal
75%
L
= 1527 L)
(1145
75%
Select the nearest standard size tank, giving consideration to the
space allotted for the tank.

Miscellaneous Facilities

13

225

MISCELLANEOUS
FACILITIES

RELIGIOUS FACILITIES
Kitchen
Many religious facilities have assembly areas, usually with adjacent kitchens. These kitchens range from full, commercial type
facilities to minimal rooms where general food warming and preparation will occur.
If there will be a dishwasher in the kitchen, it may be a major
determinant of the size of the water heater. If there will be a
commercial dishwasher and it has a hot water rinse cycle (in lieu
of a chemical rinse), a booster heater may be required to provide
the sanitizing temperature (180F [82C]) required (residential
and some institutional type dishwashers have a built-in heater).
If the capacity of the dishwasher is not available, the hot water
requirements for the dishwasher can be estimated from Chapter
4, Table 4.5.
If the kitchen will have a utensil cleaning sink (sometimes
called a pots and pan sink) and a hand washing sink, Table 4.4
in Chapter 4 can be used to determine the kitchen demand.

Baptistries
Baptismal fonts that range in size from 400 to 1200 gal (1514 to
4543 L) are required to be maintained at near skin temperature,
between 94 and 105F (34 and 41C); use 100F (38C) for design
purposes. Depending on the use of the font, the water will either
be maintained in the font or filled and drained for each use.
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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When the water is maintained in the font, the application is


similar to a small swimming pool. The water is circulated between the font and the heater by a small pump. The size of the
water heater is dependent on the time required to raise the water
to the desired temperature; due to heat loss, the water heater
will also have to maintain the temperature.
When the font is drained and filled for each use, the application is similar to the filling of a large tub. The hot water can be
provided by the buildings domestic water heating system or a
dedicated water heating system. A dedicated system can have a
variety of designs, such as an instantaneous heater, a storage
tank combination or a dedicated tank. The critical element is the
recovery capacity required to meet temperature requirements and
fill rate.
When one water heater is used for kitchen use and the baptismal font, the recovery rate for these functions may not be
concurrent. These functions normally happen at different times;
therefore, the higher of the two recovery rates can be used to
select the water heater.

Toilet Rooms
The toilet room usage can be sporadic but will produce intermittent heavy loads. Depending on the size and location of the toilet
room, hot water can be supplied by the buildings domestic water heating system or from a point-of-use heater.

Other Considerations
The designer needs to evaluate additional hot water usage, such
as gymnasiums, pools, activity rooms, meeting rooms, classrooms,
day-care facilities, residences, and administrative offices.

GROCERY AND CONVENIENCE STORES


There are many sizes and types of grocery and convenience store.
Grocery stores are defined to include a selection of the following
departments: bakery; deli; meat; produce; and specialty areas,
such as floral or food service.
The designer, working with the owner or architect, must identify all the potential uses of hot water. Grocery and convenience

Miscellaneous Facilities

227

stores have the usual facilities, such as kitchens, toilets, and


cleaning areas. Some special areas the designer should be aware
of include:
Food preparation,
Utensil cleaning,
Thawing of food,
Tray cleaning,
Can wash,
Cleanup,
Hand washing,
Wash down, and
Sanitizing of food preparation areas.
The cleaning process is usually done in the late afternoon or
evening and must be able to remove the fat, grease, flour, etc.
Each food preparation department will usually have at least one
hot water hose bibb or mixing faucet to use for wash down. Because the wash down hot water load is significant, it is important
to obtain the specifications for the wash down equipment (e. g.,
water hose, mixing faucet, flow rate, and pressure) and the wash
down procedures. The hot water demand load for wash down
and cleanup is generally not concurrent with the other hot water
demand loads in the building. Based on the location and layout
of the different departments, consideration should be given to
using smaller water heaters for each department.

Toilet Rooms
Many times toilet rooms are located in remote areas of the grocery story, away from the food preparation areas. Consideration
should be given to providing a point-of-use water heater.

Other Considerations
Due to the quantity of refrigeration equipment in this type of
facility, the designer should consider the opportunity for heat
reclamation. This is a common method of preheating water in a
grocery store and can be a substantial energy saving factor.

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RETAIL CENTERS
There are two primary considerations for retail centers or shopping malls: the large anchor or department store and the smaller
general retail establishments. For determining hot water demand
in large anchor stores, the designer needs to consider the inclusion of a restaurant, administrative offices, and general facilities.
Concepts for many of these areas can be found throughout this
manual.
For the general retail establishment, hot water is primarily
for use in toilet rooms and demand is driven by hand washing.
The number and type of plumbing fixtures, including those using hot water, are governed by local building codes. Each tenant
will usually have, and be responsible for, his/her own domestic
hot water system. For general public use toilet rooms, a point-ofuse water heater may be appropriate.

FAST FOOD RESTAURANTS


The designer is encouraged to consult the owner to determine
the exact hot water requirements.
There are usually one or two 3-compartment stainless steel
sinks for either food preparation or utensil cleaning. Many times
the 3-compartment stainless steel sinks are used for both food
preparation and utensil cleaning. Often the utensil cleaning sink
has special size bowls to allow cleaning of the large trays. The
size of the bowl and the size of each stainless steel sink vary
greatly. Most health departments require one or two hand washing sinks, one in the customer service area and one in the food
preparation area.
There are many sizes and types of fast food establishment.
These establishments have the usual requirements, such as kitchens, toilets, and cleaning areas. Areas the designer should be
aware of include:
Food preparation,
Utensil cleaning,
Thawing of food,
Cleanup, and
Hand washing.
The cleaning process is conducted after business hours and

Miscellaneous Facilities

229

must be able to remove the fat, grease, flour, etc. The food preparation area usually has at least one hot water hose bibb or mixing
faucet to use for wash down and cleanup. The hot water demand
load for wash down and cleanup is generally not concurrent with
the other hot water demands.

Toilet Rooms
Typically all hot water demands are met by a single heater. However, a point-of-use water heater should be considered for the
public toilet rooms in fast food establishments.

OFFICE BUILDINGS
The number and type of plumbing fixtures required for an office
building are governed by local building codes. Hot water demand
is usually determined by the quantity of hand washing fixtures.
Based on the location and size of loads in a building, a single
water heater can serve an individual fixture, a toilet room, multiple toilet rooms, or the entire building.
Special tenant requirements (e.g., mini health clubs, food service, day care, cleaning, retail shops, medical and/or dental offices)
should be considered individually. In many instances, the tenant
is responsible for his or her own domestic hot water system.

Section

II

EQUIPMENT
The material presented in the majority of chapters in this section
is drawn from information and documents received from numerous manufacturers. In order to provide balanced, unbiased, and
complete coverage, ASPE made every effort possible to solicit information from all applicable equipment manufacturers. The
chapters reflect that effort to the extent that manufacturers responded. For some chapters, such as Chapter 17, there was only
limited manufacturer input, and the limitations of the material
in these chapters are obvious.
Manufacturers may submit additional information, data, documents, and new innovations for this section at any time. All
submitted materials will be considered and incorporated as appropriate. As new editions of this work in progress are issued
in future years, this equipment section will develop into a complete compendium of domestic water heating equipment
possibilities to assist the design engineer.

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


ater Systems
Water

14

233

RECIRCULATING
DOMESTIC HOT
WATER SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION
It has been determined through field studies that the correct
sizing and operation of water heaters depend on the appropriateness of the hot water maintenance system. If the hot water
maintenance system is inadequate, the water heater sizing criteria
are wrong and the temperature of the hot water distributed to
the users of the plumbing fixtures is below acceptable standards.
Additionally, a poorly designed hot water maintenance system
wastes large amounts of energy and potable water and creates
time delays for those using the plumbing fixtures. This chapter
addresses the criteria for establishing an acceptable time delay
in delivering hot water to fixtures and the limitations of the length
between a hot water recirculation system and plumbing fixtures.
It also discusses the temperature drop across a hot water supply
system, types of hot water recirculation system, and pump selection criteria, and gives extensive information on the insulation of
hot water supply and return piping.

BACKGROUND
In the past, the plumbing engineering community considered the
prompt delivery of hot water to fixtures either a requirement for a
project or a matter of no concern. The plumbing engineers decision was based primarily on the type of facility under consideration
and the developed length from the water heater to the farthest
fixture. Previous reference material and professional common
practices have indicated that, when the distance from the water
heater to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 ft (30.48 m) water should
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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Water

be circulated. However, this recommendation is subjective, and,


unfortunately, some engineers and contractors use the 100-ft
(30.48-m) criterion as the maximum length for all uncirculated,
uninsulated, dead-end hot water branches to fixtures in order to
cut the cost of hot water distribution piping. These long,
uninsulated, dead-end branches to fixtures create considerable
problems, such as a lack of hot water at fixtures, inadequately
sized water heater assemblies, and thermal temperature escalation in showers.
The 100-ft (30.48-m) length criterion was developed in 1973
after the Middle East oil embargo, when energy costs were the
paramount concern and water conservation was given little consideration. Since the circulation of hot water causes a loss of energy
due to radiation and convection in the circulated system and such
energy losses have to be continually replaced by water heaters,
the engineering community compromised between energy loss and
construction costs and developed the 100-ft (30.48-m) maximum
length criterion.

LENGTH AND TIME CRITERIA


Recently, due to concern about not only energy conservation but
also the extreme water shortages in parts of the country, the 100ft (30.48-m) length criteria has changed. Water wastage caused by
the long delay in obtaining hot water at fixtures has become as
critical an issue as the energy losses caused by hot water temperature maintenance systems. To reduce the wasting of cooled
hot water significantly, the engineering community has reevaluated the permissible distances for uncirculated, dead-end branches
to periodically used plumbing fixtures. The new allowable distances
for uncirculated, dead-end branches represent a trade-off between
the energy utilized by the hot water maintenance system and the
cost of the insulation, on the one hand, and the cost of energy to
heat the excess cold water makeup, the cost of wasted potable
water, and extra sewer surcharges, on the other hand. Furthermore, engineers should be aware that various codes now limit the
length between the hot water maintenance system and plumbing
fixtures. They also should be aware of the potential for liability if
an owner questions the adequacy of their hot water system design.
What are reasonable delays in obtaining hot water at a fixture? For anything beside very infrequently used fixtures (such as
those in industrial facilities or certain fixtures in office buildings),
a delay of 0 to 10 sec is normally considered acceptable for most

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


ater Systems
Water

235

residential occupancies and public fixtures in office buildings. A


delay of 11 to 30 sec is marginal but possibly acceptable, and a
time delay longer than 31 sec is normally considered unacceptable and a significant waste of water and energy. Therefore, when
designing hot water systems, it is prudent for the designer to
provide some means of getting hot water to the fixtures within
these acceptable time limits. Normally this means that there
should be a maximum distance of approximately 25 ft (7.6 m)
between the hot water maintenance system and each of the plumbing fixtures requiring hot water, the distance depending on the
water flow rate of the plumbing fixture at the end of the line and
the size of the line. (See Tables 14.1, 14.2, and 14.3.) The plumbing designer may want to stay under this length limitation because
the actual installation in the field may differ slightly from the
engineer's design, and additional delays may be caused by either
the routing of the pipe or other problems. Furthermore, with the
low fixture discharge rates now mandated by national and local
laws, it takes considerably longer to obtain hot water from nontemperature maintained hot water lines than it did in the past,
when fixtures had greater flow rates. For example, a public lavatory with a 0.50 or 0.25 gpm (0.03 or 0.02 L/sec) maximum
discharge rate would take an excessive amount of time to obtain
hot water from 100 ft (30.48 m) of uncirculated, uninsulated hot
water piping. (See Table 14.3.) This table gives conservative approximations of the amount of time it takes to obtain hot water
at a fixture. The times are based on the size of the line, the fixture flow rate, and the times required to replace the cooled off
hot water, to heat the pipe, and to offset the convection energy
lost by the insulated hot water line.

Table 14.1 Water Contents and Weight of Tube or


Piping per Linear Foot
Nominal
Diameter
(in.)a

1
1
1

Copper
Pipe
Type L

Copper
Pipe
Type M

Steel Pipe
Schedule
40

CPVC Pipe
Schedule
40

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

0.012
0.025
0.043
0.065
0.093

0.285
0.445
0.655
0.884
1.14

0.013
0.027
0.045
0.068
0.100

0.204
0.328
0.465
0.682
0.940

0.016
0.028
0.045
0.077
0.106

0.860
1.140
1.680
2.280
2.720

0.016
0.028
0.045
0.078
0.106

0.210
0.290
0.420
0.590
0.710

aPipe sizes are indicated for mild steel pipe sizing.

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Table 14.1(M) Water Contents and Weight of Tube or


Piping per Meter
Copper
Pipe
Type L

Nominal
Diameter
(mm)a

Water
(L)

Wgt.
(kg)

Copper
Pipe
Type M
Water
(L)

Steel Pipe
Schedule
40
Wgt.
(kg)

Water
(L)

CPVC Pipe
Schedule
40
Wgt.
(kg)

Water
(L)

Wgt.
(kg)

DN15

0.045

0.129

0.049

0.204

0.061

0.390

0.061

0.099

DN20
DN25
DN32
DN40

0.095
0.163
0.246
0.352

0.202
0.297
0.401
0.517

0.102
0.170
0.257
0.379

0.328
0.465
0.682
0.940

0.106
0.170
0.291
0.401

0.517
0.762
1.034
1.233

0.106
0.170
0.295
0.401

0.132
0.191
0.268
0.322

aPipe sizes are indicated for mild steel pipe sizing.

Table 14.2 Approximate Fixture and Appliance


Water Flow Rates
Maximum Flow Ratesa
Fittings
Lavatory faucet
Public non-metering
Public metering
Sink faucet
Shower head
Bathtub faucets
Single-handle
Two-handle
Service sink faucet
Laundry tray faucet
Residential dishwasher
Residential washing machine
aUnless otherwise noted.

GPM

L/Sec

2.0
0.5
0.25 gal/cycle
2.5
2.5

1.3
0.03
0.946 L/cycle
0.16
0.16

2.4 minimum
4.0 minimum
4.0 minimum
4.0 minimum
1.87 aver
7.5 aver

0.15 minimum
0.25 minimum
0.25 minimum
0.25 minimum
0.12 aver
0.47 aver

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Table 14.3 Approximate Time Required to Get


Hot Water to a Fixture
Delivery Time (sec)
Fixture Flow
Rate (gpm)
Piping
Length (ft)

0.5

1.5

2.5

4.0

10

25

10

25

10

25

10

25

Copper
Pipe

in.
in.

25
48a

63a
119a

8
16

21
40a

5
10

13
24

3
6

8
15

Steel Pipe
Sched. 40

in.
in.

63a
91a

157a
228a

21
30

52a
76a

13
18

31a
46a

8
11

20
28

CPVC Pipe
Sched. 40

in.
in.

64a
95a

159a
238a

21
32

53a
79a

13
19

32a
48a

8
12

20
30

Note: Table based on various fixture flow rates, piping materials, and dead-end
branch lengths. Calculations are based on the amount of heat required to heat
the piping, the water in the piping, and the heat loss from the piping. Based on
water temperature of 140F and an air temperture of 70F.
aDelays longer than 30 sec are not acceptable.

Table 14.3(M) Approximate Time Required to Get


Hot Water to a Fixture
Delivery Time (sec)
Fixture Flow
Rate (L/sec)
Piping
Length (m)

0.03

0.10

0.16

3.1

7.6

3.1

7.6

3.1

7.6

0.25
3.1

7.6

Copper
Pipe

DN15
DN22

25
48a

63a
119a

8
16

21
40a

5
10

13
24

3
6

8
15

Steel Pipe
Sched. 40

DN15
DN20

63a
91a

157a
228a

21
30

52a
76a

13
18

31a
46a

8
11

20
28

CPVC Pipe
Sched. 40

DN15
DN20

64a
95a

159a
238a

21
32

53a
79a

13
19

32a
48a

8
12

20
30

Note: Table based on various fixture flow rates, piping materials, and dead-end
branch lengths. Calculations are based on the amount of heat required to heat
the piping, the water in the piping, and the heat loss from the piping. Based on
water temperature of 60C and an air temperture of 21.1C.
aDelays longer than 30 sec are not acceptable.

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RESULTS OF DELAYS IN DELIVERING


HOT WATER TO FIXTURES
As mentioned previously, when there is a long delay in obtaining
hot water at the fixture, there is significant wastage of potable
water as the cooled hot water supply is simply discharged down
the drain unused. Furthermore, plumbing engineers concerned
about total system costs should realize that the cost of this wasted,
previously heated water must include: the original cost for obtaining potable water, the cost of previously heating the water,
the final cost of the waste treatment of this excess potable water,
which results in larger sewer surcharges (source of supply to end
disposal point), and the cost of heating the new cold water to
bring it up to the required temperature. Furthermore, if there is
a long delay in obtaining hot water at the fixtures, the faucets
are turned on for long periods of time to bring the hot water
supply at the fixture up to the desired temperature. This can
cause the water heating system to run out of hot water and make
the heater sizing inadequate, because the heater is unable to
heat all the extra cold water brought into the system through the
wastage of the water discharged down the drain. In addition, this
extra cold water entering the hot water system reduces the hot
water supply temperature. This exacerbates the problem of insufficient hot water because to get a proper blended temperature
more lower temperature hot water will be used to achieve the
final mixed water temperature. (See Chapter 1, Table 1.1.) Additionally, this accelerates the downward spiral of the temperature
of the hot water system.
Another problem resulting from long delays in getting hot
water to the fixtures is that the fixtures operate for longer than
expected periods of time. Therefore, the actual hot water demand
is greater than the demand normally designed for.
Therefore, when sizing the water heater and the hot water
piping distribution system, the designer should be aware that
the lack of a proper hot water maintenance system can seriously
impact the required heater size.

METHODS OF DELIVERING REASONABLY


PROMPT HOT WATER SUPPLY
Hot water maintenance systems are as varied as the imaginations of the plumbing engineers who create them. They can be
grouped into three basic categories, though any actual installa-

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tion may be a combination of more than one of these types of


system. The three basic categories are
1. Circulation systems.
2. Self-regulating heat trace systems.
3. Point-of-use water heaters (include booster water heaters).

Circulation Systems for Commercial, Industrial, and


Large Residential Projects
A circulation system is a system of hot water supply pipes and
hot water return pipes with appropriate shutoff valves, balancing valves, circulating pumps, and a method of controlling the
circulating pump. The diagrams for six basic circulating systems
are shown in Figures 14.1 through 14.6.

Fixture 14.1 Upfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Bottom of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

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Figure 14.2 Downfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Top of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

Figure 14.3 Upfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Bottom of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

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Figure 14.4 Downfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Top of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

Figure 14.5 Combination Upfeed and Downfeed Hot Water System


with Heater at Bottom of System.
Note: This piping system increases the developed length of the HW system over the upfeed
systems shown in Figures 14.1 and 14.3.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

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Figure 14.6 Combination Downfeed and Upfeed Hot Water System


with Heater at Top of System.
Note: This piping system increases the developed length of the HW system over the downfeed
systems shown in Figures 14.2 and 14.4.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

Self-Regulating Heat Trace


Over approximately the last 20 years, self-regulating heat trace
has come into its own because of the problems of balancing circulated hot water systems and energy loss in the return piping.
For further discussion of this topic, see Chapter 15.

Point-of-Use Heaters
This concept is applicable when there is a single fixture or group
of fixtures that is located far from the temperature maintenance
system. In such a situation, a small, instantaneous, point-of-use
water heateran electric water heater, a gas water heater, or a
small under-fixture storage type water heater of the magnitude
of 6 gal (22.71 L)can be provided. (See Figure 14.7.) The pointof-use heater will be very cost-effective because it will save the
cost of running hot water piping to a fixture that is a long distance away from the temperature maintenance system. The

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243

plumbing engineer must remember, however, that when a water


heater is installed there are various code and installation requirements that must be complied with, such as those pertaining to T
& P relief valve discharge.
Instantaneous electric heaters used in point-of-use applications can require a considerable amount of power, and may require
240 or 480 V service.

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN CIRCULATED HOT


WATER MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS
The following are some of the potential problems with circulated
hot water maintenance systems that must be addressed by the
plumbing designer.

Figure 14.7 Instantaneous Point-of-Use Water Heater


Piping Diagram.
Source: Courtesy of Chronomite Laboratories, Inc.

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Water Velocities in Hot Water Piping Systems


For copper piping systems, it is very important that the circulated hot water supply piping and especially the hot water return
piping be sized so that the water is moving at a controlled velocity. High velocities in these systems can cause pinhole leaks in
the copper piping in as short a period as six months or less.

Balancing Systems
It is extremely important that a circulated hot water system be
balanced for its specified flows, including all the various individual loops within the circulated system. Balancing is required
even though an insulated circulated line usually requires very
little flow to maintain satisfactory system temperatures. If the
individual hot water circulated loops are not properly balanced,
the circulated water will tend to short-circuit through the closest
loops, creating high velocities in that piping system. Furthermore, the short-circuiting of the circulated hot water will result
in complaints about the long delays in getting hot water at the
remotest loops. If the hot water piping is copper, high velocities
can create velocity erosion which will destroy the piping system.
Because of the problems inherent in manually balancing hot
water circulation systems, many professionals incorporate factory preset flow control devices in their hot water systems. While
the initial cost of such a device is higher than the cost of a manual
balancing valve, a preset device may be less expensive when the
field labor cost for balancing the entire hot water system is included. When using a preset flow control device, however, the
plumbing designer has to be far more accurate in selecting the
control device's capacity as there is no possibility of field adjustment. Therefore, if more or less hot water return flow is needed
during the field installation, a new flow control device must be
installed and the old one must be removed and discarded.

Isolating Portions of Hot Water Systems


It is extremely important in circulated systems that shutoff valves
be provided to isolate an entire circulated loop. This is done so
that if individual fixtures need modification, their piping loop can
be isolated from the system so the entire hot water system does
not have to be shut off and drained. The location of these shutoff
valves should be given considerable thought. The shutoff valves
should be accessible at all times, so they should not be located in

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such places as the ceilings of locked offices or condominiums.

Maintaining the Balance of Hot Water Systems


To ensure that a balanced hot water system remains balanced
after the shutoff valves have been utilized, the hot water return
system must be provided with a separate balancing valve in addition to the shutoff valve or, if the balancing valve is also used
as the shutoff valve, the balancing valve must have a memory
stop. (See the discussion of "balancing valves with memory stops"
below.) With a memory stop on the valve, plumbers can return a
system to its balanced position after working on it rather than
have the whole piping system remain unbalanced, which would
result in serious problems.

Providing Check Valves at the Ends of


Hot Water Loops
The designer should provide a check valve on each hot water return line where it joins other hot water return lines. This is done
to ensure that a plumbing fixture does not draw hot return water
instead of hot supply water, which could unbalance the hot water
system and cause delays in obtaining hot water at some fixtures.

A Delay in Obtaining Hot Water at Dead-End Lines


Keep the delay in obtaining hot water at fixtures to within the
time (and branch length) parameters given previously to avoid
unhappy users of the hot water system and to prevent lawsuits.

FLOW BALANCING DEVICES


The following are the more common types of balancing device.

Fixed Orifices and Venturis


These can be obtained for specific flow rates and simply inserted
into the hot water return piping system. (See Figure 14.8.) However, extreme care should be taken to locate these devices so they
can be removed and cleaned out, as they may become clogged
with the debris in the water. It is recommended, therefore, that a
strainer with a blowdown valve be placed ahead of each of these

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Figure 14.8 Fixed Orifices and Venturi Flow Meters.


Source: Courtesy of Gerand Engineering Co.

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247

devices. Additionally, a strainer with a fine mesh screen can be


installed on the main water line coming into the building to help
prevent debris buildup in the individual strainers. Also, a shutoff
valve should be installed before and after these devices so that an
entire loop does not have to be drained in order to service a strainer
or balancing device.

Factory Preset Automatic Flow Control Valves


The same admonition about strainers and valves given for "fixed
orifices and venturis" above applies to the installation and location of these devices. (See Figure 14.9.)

Figure 14.9 Preset Self-Limiting Flow Control Cartridge.


Source: Courtesy of Griswold Controls.

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Flow Regulating Valves


These valves can be used to determine the flow rate by reading
the pressure drop across the valve. They are available from various manufacturers. (See Figure 14.10.)

Figure 14.10 Adjustable Orifice Flow Control Valve.


Source: ITT Industries. Used with permission.

Balancing Valves with Memory Stops


These valves can be adjusted to the proper setting by installing
insertable pressure measuring devices (Petes Plugs, etc.) in the
piping system, which indicate the flow rate in the pipe line. (See
Figure 14.11.)

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249

Figure 14.11 Adjustable Balancing Valve with Memory Stop.


Source: Courtesy of Milwaukee Valve Co.

SIZING HOT WATER RETURN PIPING SYSTEMS


AND RECIRCULATING PUMPS
The method for selecting the proper size of the hot water return
piping system and the recirculating pump is fairly easy, but it
does require engineering judgment. First, the plumbing engineer
has to design the hot water supply and hot water return piping
systems, keeping in mind the parameters for total developed
length,1 prompt delivery of hot water to fixtures, and velocities in
pipe lines. The plumbing engineer has to make assumptions about
the sizes of the hot water return piping.
After the hot water supply and hot water return systems are
designed, the designer should make a piping diagram of the hot
1See American Society of Plumbing Engineers, 2000, Cold-water systems, Chapter 5 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 2, for piping sizing methods.

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water supply system and the assumed return system showing


piping sizing and approximate lengths. From this piping diagram
the hourly heat loss occurring in the circulated portion of the hot
water supply and return systems can be determined. (See Table
14.4 for minimum required insulation thickness and Table 14.5
for approximate piping heat loss.)
Next determine the heat loss in the hot water storage tank if
one is provided. (See Table 14.6 for approximate tank heat loss.)
Calculate the total hot water system energy loss (tank heat loss
plus piping heat loss) in British thermal units per hour (watts).
This total hot water system energy loss is represented by q in
Equation 14.1 below. Note: Heat losses from storage type water
heater tanks are not normally included in the hot water piping

Table 14.4 Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness


Required Insulation Thickness for Piping (in.)
Runouts
2 in. or
Lessa

1 in. or Less

12 in.

24 in.

5 & 6 in.

8 in. or
Larger

Note: Data based on fiberglass insulation with all-service jacket. Data will change depending on actual type of insulation used. Data apply to recirculating sections of hot water
systems and the first 3 ft from the storage tank of uncirculated systems.
aUncirculated pipe branches to individual fixtures (not exceeding 12 ft in length).
For lengths longer than 12 ft, use required insulation thickness shown in table.

Table 14.4(M) Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness


Required Insulation Thickness for Piping (mm)
Runouts
DN32 or
Lessa

DN25 or
Less

DN32DN50

DN65DN100

DN125 & DN150

DN200 or
Larger

13

25

25

40

40

40

Note: Data based on fiberglass insulation with all-service jacket. Data will change depending on actual type of insulation used. Data apply to recirculating sections of hot water
systems and the first 0.9 m from the storage tank of uncirculated systems.
aUncirculated pipe branches to individual fixtures (not exceeding 3.7 m in length). For
lengths longer than 305 mm, use required insulation thickness shown in table.

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Table 14.5 Approximate Insulated Piping Heat Loss


and Surface Temperature
Nominal
Pipe Size
(in.)

1
1
1
2 or less
2
2
3
4
6
8
10

Insulation
Thickness
(in.)

Heat Loss
(Btu/h/
linear ft)

1
1
1
1
1
a
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
10
10
13
13
24 or less
16
12
16
19
27
32
38

Surface
Temperature
(F)
68
69
69
70
69
74
70
67
68
69
69
69
69

Note: Figures based on average ambient temperature of 65F and annual average
wind speed of 7.5 mph.
aUncirculating hot water runout branches only.

Table 14.5(M) Approximate Insulated Piping Heat


Loss and Surface Temperature
Nominal
Pipe Size
(mm)
DN15
DN20
DN25
DN32
DN40
DN50 or less
DN50
DN65
DN80
DN100
DN150
DN200
DN250

Insulation
Thickness
(mm)
25
25
25
25
25
13a
25
38
38
38
38
38
38

Heat Loss
(W/m)
7.7
9.6
9.6
12.5
12.5
23.1 or less
15.4
11.5
15.4
18.3
26.0
30.8
36.5

Surface
Temperature
(C)
20
21
21
21
21
23
21
19
20
21
21
21
21

Note: Figures based on average ambient temperature of 18C and annual average
wind speed of 12 km/h.
aUncirculating hot water runout branches only.

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Table 14.6 Heat Loss from Various Size Tanks


with Various Insulation Thicknesses
Insulation
Thickness
(in.)
1
1
2
3
3

Tank
Size
(gal)
50
100
250
500
1000

Approx. Energy Loss


from Tank at Hot
Water Temperature
140F (Btu/h)a
468
736
759
759
1273

Source: From Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA) Table 2 data.
aFor unfired tanks, federal standards limit the loss to no more than 6.5 Btu/h/
ft2 of tank surface.

Table 14.6(M) Heat Loss from Various Size Tanks


with Various Insulation Thicknesses
Insulation
Thickness
(mm)
25.4
25.4
50.8
76.2
76.2

Tank
Size
(L)
200
400
1000
2000
4000

Approx. Energy Loss


from Tank at Hot
Water Temperature
60C (W)a
137
216
222
222
373

Source: From Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA) Table 2 data.
aFor unfired tanks, federal standards limit the loss to no more than 1.9 W/m2 of
tank surface.

system heat loss because the water heater capacity takes care of
this loss, whereas pumped hot water has to replace the piping
convection losses in the piping system.
(14.1)

q = 60rwcT
[q = 3600rwcT]

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253

where
60
3600
q
r
w
c
T

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

min/h
sec/h
piping heat loss, Btu/h (kJ/h)
flow rate, gpm (L/sec)
weight of heated water, lb/gal (kg/L)
specific heat of water, Btu/lb/F (kJ/kg/K)
change in heated water temperature (temperature of leaving water minus temperature of
incoming water, represented in this manual as
Th Tc, F [K])

Therefore
= c (gpm 8.33 lb/gal)(60 min/h)(F temperature
drop)
= 1(gpm) 500 F temperature drop
[q = c (L/sec 1kg/L)(3600 sec/h)(K temperature drop)
= 1(L/sec) 15 077 kJ/L/sec/K K temperature
drop]
q

(14.2) gpm

system heat loss (Btu/h)


500 F temperature drop

L/sec

system heat loss (kJ/h)


15 077 K temperature drop

In sizing hot water circulating systems, the designer should


note that the greater the temperature drop across the system,
the less water is required to be pumped through the system and,
therefore, the greater the savings on pumping costs. However, if
the domestic hot water supply starts out at 140F (60C) with,
say, a 20F (6.7C) temperature drop across the supply system,
the fixtures near the end of the circulating hot water supply loop
could be provided with a hot water supply of only 120F (49C).
In addition, if the hot water supply delivery temperature is 120F
(49C) instead of 140F (60C), the plumbing fixtures will use
greater volumes of hot water to get the desired blended water
temperature (see Chapter 1, Table 1.1). Therefore, the recommended hot water system temperature drop should be of the
magnitude of 5F (3C). This means that if the hot water supply
starts out from the water heater at a temperature between 135
and 140F (58 and 60C), the lowest hot water supply temperature provided by the hot water supply system could be between
130 and 135F (54 and 58C). With multiple temperature distri-

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bution systems, it is recommended that the recirculation system


for each temperature distribution system be extended back to
the water heating system separately and have its own pump.
Using Equation 14.2, we determine that, if there is a 5F (3C)
temperature drop across the hot water system, the number to
divide into the hot water circulating system heat loss (q) to obtain the minimum required hot water return circulation rate in
gpm (L/sec) is 2500 (500 5F), (45 213 [15 071 3C]).
For a 10F (6C) temperature drop that number is 5000 (from
Equation 14.2, 500 10F = 5000) (90 426 [from Equation 14.2,
15 071 6C = 90 426]). However, this 10F (6C) temperature
drop may produce hot water supply temperatures that are lower
than desired.
After Equation 14.2 is used to establish the required hot water return flow rate, in gpm (L/sec), the plumbing designer can
size the hot water return piping system based on piping flow rate
velocities and the available pump heads. It is quite common that
a plumbing designer will make wrong initial assumptions about
the sizes of the hot water return lines to establish the initial heat
loss figure (q). If that is the case, the plumbing engineer will have
to correct the hot water return pipe sizes, redo the calculations
using the new data based on the correct pipe sizing, and verify
that all the rest of the calculations are now correct.

EXAMPLE 14.1CALCULATION TO DETERMINE


REQUIRED CIRCULATION RATE
1. Assume that the hot water supply piping system has 800 ft
(244 m) of average size 1 in. (DN32) pipe. From Table 14.5,
determine the heat loss per linear foot (meter). To find the
total heat loss, multiply length times heat loss per foot (meter):
800 ft 13 Btu/h/ft = 10,400 Btu/h supply piping
losses
(244 m 12.5 W = 3050 W supply piping losses)
2. Assume that the hot water return piping system for the
system in no. 1 above has 100 ft (30.5 m) of average in.
(DN15) piping and 100 ft (30.5 m) of average in. (DN20)
pipe. From Table 14.5 determine the heat loss per linear foot
(meter):
100 ft 8 Btu/h/ft = 800 Btu/h piping loss

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255

(30.5 m 7.7 W/m = 235 W piping loss)


100 ft 10 Btu/h/ft =

30.5 m 9.6 W/m =

1000 Btu/h piping loss


1800 Btu/h piping loss

293 W piping loss


528 W piping loss

3. Determine the hot water storage tank heat loss. Assume the
system in no. 1 above has a 200-gal (757-L) hot water storage
tank. From Table 14.6 determine the heat loss of the storage
tank @ 759 Btu/h (222 W).
4. Determine the hot water systems total heat losses by totaling the various losses:
A. Hot water supply piping losses
B. Hot water return piping losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses
Total system heat losses

10,400 Btu/h
1,800 Btu/h
759 Btu/h
12,959 Btu/h

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 12,200 Btu/h


[A. Hot water supply piping losses
B. Hot water return piping losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses
Total system heat losses

3050 W
527 W
222 W
3799 W

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 3577 W]


From Equation 14.2, using a system piping loss of
12,200 Btu/h (3577 W) and a 5F (3C) temperature
drop,
12,200 Btu/h
= 4.88 gpm (say 5 gpm)
5F temperature difference 500
required hot water
return circulation rate

3577 W

3C temp. difference 4188.32 kJ/m3

= 0.29 (say 0.3) L/sec


required hot water
return circulation rate

Recalculation of Hot Water System Losses


1. Assume that the hot water supply piping system has 800 ft
(244 m) of average size 1 in. (DN32) pipe. From Table 14.5
determine the heat loss per linear foot (meter):

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800 ft 13 Btu/h/ft = 10,400 Btu/h piping loss


(244 m

12.5 W/m = 3050 W piping loss)

2. Assume that the hot water return piping system for the
system in no. 1 above has 100 ft (30.5 m) of average in.
(DN15) pipe, 25 ft (7.6 m) of average in. (DN22) pipe, and
75 ft (22.9 m) of average 1 in. (DN28) pipe. From Table 14.5,
determine the heat loss per linear foot (meter):
100 ft 8 Btu/h/ft = 800 Btu/h piping loss
25 ft 10 Btu/h/ft = 250 Btu/h piping loss
75 ft 10 Btu/h/ft = 750 Btu/h piping loss
1800 Btu/h piping loss
[30.5 m 7.7 W/m =
7.6 m 9.6 W/m =
22.9 m 9.6 W/m =

235 W piping loss


73 W piping loss
220 W piping loss
528 W piping loss]

3. Determine the hot water storage tank heat loss. Assume the
system in no. 1 above has a 200-gal (757-L) hot water storage
tank. From Table 14.6 determine the heat loss of the storage
tank @ 759 Btu/h (222 W).
4. Determine the systems total heat losses:
A. Hot water supply losses
B. Hot water return losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses

10,400 Btu/h
1,800 Btu/h
759 Btu/h

Total system heat losses

12,959 Btu/h

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 12,200 Btu/h


[A. Hot water supply losses
B. Hot water return losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses
Total system heat losses

3050 W
528 W
222 W
3800 W

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 3578 W]


Note: The recalculation determined that the hot water system
heat losses remained unchanged and that 4.88 (say 5) gpm (0.29
[say 0.3] L/sec) is the flow rate that is required to maintain the 5F
(3C) temperature drop across the hot water supply system.

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


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257

It should be stated that engineers use numerous rules of


thumb to size hot water return systems. These rules of thumb
are all based on assumptions, however, and are not recommended.
It is recommended that the engineer perform the calculations for
each project to establish the required flow rates because, with all
the various capacities of the pumps available today, exact sizing
is possible, and any extra circulated flow caused by the plumbing engineer using a rule of thumb equates to higher energy costs,
to the detriment of the client.

ESTABLISHING THE HEAD CAPACITY OF THE


HOT WATER CIRCULATING PUMP
The hot water return circulating pump is selected based on the
required hot water return flow rate (in gpm [L/sec]), calculated
using Equation 14.2, and the systems pump head. The pump
head is normally determined by the friction losses through only
the hot water return piping loops and any losses through balancing valves. The hot water return piping friction losses usually do
not include the friction losses that occur in the hot water supply
piping. The reason for this is that the hot water return circulation
flow is needed only to keep the hot water supply system up to the
desired temperature when there is no flow in the hot water supply
piping. When people use the hot water at the fixtures, there is
usually sufficient flow in the hot water supply piping to keep the
system hot water supply piping up to the desired temperature
without help from the flow in the hot water return piping.
The only exception to the rule of ignoring the friction losses
in the hot water supply piping is a situation where a hot water
return pipe is connected to a relatively small hot water supply
line. "Relatively small" here means any hot water supply line that
is less than one pipe size larger than the hot water return line.
The problems created by this condition are that the hot water
supply line will add additional friction to the head of the hot
water circulating pump, and the hot water circulating pump flow
rate can deprive the last plumbing fixture on this hot water supply line from obtaining its required flow. It is recommended,
therefore, that in such a situation the hot water supply line supplying each hot water return piping connection point be increased
to prevent these potential problems, i.e., use in. (DN22) hot
water supply piping and in. (DN15) hot water return piping, or
1 in. (DN28) hot water supply piping and in. (DN22) hot water
return piping, etc.

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When selecting the hot water circulating pumps head, the


designer should be sure to calculate only the restrictions encountered by the circulating pump. A domestic hot water system
is normally considered an open system (i.e., open to the atmosphere). When the hot water circulating pump is operating,
however, it is assumed that the piping is a closed system. Therefore, the designer should not include static heads where none
exists. For example, in Figure 14.1, the hot water circulating
pump has to overcome only the friction in the hot water return
piping not the loss of the static head pumping the water up to
the fixtures because in a closed system the static head loss is
offset by the static head gain in the hot water return piping.

HOT WATER CIRCULATING PUMPS


Most hot water circulating pumps are of the centrifugal type and
are available as either in-line units for small systems or basemounted units for large systems. Because of the corrosiveness of
hot water systems, the pumps should be bronze, bronze fitted,
or stainless steel. Conventional, iron bodied pumps, which are
not bronze fitted, are not recommended.

CONTROL FOR HOT WATER CIRCULATING


PUMPS
There are three major methods commonly used for controlling
hot water circulating pumps: manual, thermostatic (aquastat),
and time clock control. Sometimes more than one of these methods are used on a system.
1. A manual control runs the hot water circulating pump continuously when the power is turned on. A manual control
should be used only when hot water is needed all the time,
24 h a day, or during all the periods of a building's operation.
Otherwise, it is not a cost-effective means of controlling the
circulating pump because it will waste energy.
Note: The method for applying the on demand concept for
controlling the hot water circulating pump is a manual control.
It can be used very successfully for residential and commercial
applications.
2. A thermostatic aquastat is a device that is inserted into the
hot water return line. When the water in the hot water return
system reaches the distribution temperature, it shuts off the

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


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259

circulating pump until the hot water return system temperature drops by approximately 10F [5.5C]. With this method,
when there is a large consumption of hot water by the plumbing fixtures, the circulating pump does not operate.
3. A time clock is used to turn the pump on during specific
hours of operation when people are using the fixtures. The
pump would not operate, for example, at night in an office
building when nobody is using the fixtures.
4. Often an aquastat and a time clock are used in conjunction
so that during the hours a building is not operating the time
clock shuts off the circulating pump, and during the hours
the building is in use the aquastat shuts off the pump when
the system is up to the desired temperature.

AIR ELIMINATION
In any hot water return circulation system it is very important
that there be a means of eliminating any entrapped air from the
hot water return piping. Air elimination is not required in the hot
water supply piping because the discharge of water from the fixtures will eliminate any entrapped air. If air is not eliminated
from the hot water return lines, however, it can prevent the proper
circulation of the hot water system. It is imperative that a means
of air elimination be provided at all high points of a hot water
return system. The plumbing engineer must always give consideration to precisely where the air elimination devices are to be
located and drained. For example, they should not be located in
the unheated attics of buildings in cold climates. If the plumbing
engineer does not consider the location of these devices and where
they will drain, the result may be unsightly piping in a building
or extra construction costs.

INSULATION
The use of insulation is very cost-effective. It means paying one
time to save the later cost of significant energy lost by the hot
water supply and return piping system. Also, insulation decreases
the stresses on the piping due to thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in water temperature. Furthermore,
the proper use of insulation eliminates the possibility of someone getting burned by a hot, uninsulated water line. See Table
14.5 for the surface temperatures of insulated lines (versus 140F
[60C] for bare piping).

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It is recommended that all hot water supply and return piping be insulated. This recommendation exceeds some code
requirements. See Table 14.4 for the minimum required insulation thicknesses for all systems.
If the insulated piping is installed in a location where it is
subjected to rain or other water, the insulation must be sealed
with a watertight covering that will maintain its tightness over
time. Wet insulation not only does not insulate, it also releases
considerable heat energy from the hot water piping, thus wasting energy. Furthermore, the insulation on any outdoor lines that
is not sealed watertight can be plagued by birds or rodents, etc.,
pecking at the insulation to use it for their nests. In time, the
entire hot water supply and/or return piping will have no insulation. Such bare hot water supply and/or return piping will waste
considerable energy and can seriously affect the operation of the
hot water system and water heaters.
The minimum required insulation thicknesses given in Table
14.4 are based on insulation having thermal resistivity (R) in the
range of 4.0 to 4.6 ft2 h (F/Btu) in. (0.028 to 0.032 m2
[C/W] mm) on a flat surface at a mean temperature of 75F
(24C). Minimum insulation thickness shall be increased for
materials having R values less than 4.0 ft2 h (F/Btu) in.
(0.028 m2 [C/W] mm) or may be reduced for materials having
R values greater than 4.6 ft2 h (F/Btu) in. (0.032 m2 [C/
W] mm).
1. For materials with thermal resistivity greater than 4.6 ft2 h
(F/Btu) in. (0.032 m2 [C/W] mm), the minimum insulation thickness may be reduced as follows:

4.6 Table 14.4 thickness


= New minimum thickness
Actual R

0.032 Table 14.4 thickness


= New minimum thickness
Actual R

2. For materials with thermal resistivity less than 4.0 ft2 h


(F/Btu) in. (0.028 m2 [C/W] mm), the minimum insulation thickness shall be increased as follows:

4.0 Table 14.4 thickness


= New minimum thickness
Actual R
0.028 Table 14.4 thickness

= New minimum thickness

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


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261

Actual R

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, an inappropriate hot water recirculation system
can have serious repercussions for the operation of the water
heater and the sizing of the water heating system. In addition, it
can cause the wastage of vast amounts of energy, water, and
time. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the plumbing designer to
design a hot water recirculation system so that it conserves natural
resources and is in accordance with the recommendations given
in this chapter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. 1993. Pipe sizing. Chapter 33 in Fundamentals Handbook.

2.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. 1993. Thermal and water vapor transmission data.
Chapter 22 in Fundamentals Handbook.

3.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. 1995. Service water heating. Chapter 45 in Applications Handbook.

4.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. Energy conservation in new building design. ASHRAE
Standards, 90A1980, 90B1975, and 90C1977.

5.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. Energy efficient design of new low rise residential buildings. ASHRAE Standards, 90.21993.

6.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. New information on service water heating. Technical
Data Bulletin. Vol. 10, No. 2.

7.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Plumbing fixture fittings. ASME A112.18.1M1989.

8.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 2000. Cold water systems. Chapter 5 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 2.

9.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Piping systems.


Chapter 10 in ASPE Data Book.

10. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Position paper on


hot water temperature limitations.
11. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Service hot water

262

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

systems. Chapter 4 in ASPE Data Book.


12. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1990. Insulation. Chapter 12 in ASPE Data Book.
13. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1990. Pumps. Chapter
11 in ASPE Data Book.
14. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 2000. Energy conservation in plumbing systems. Chapter 7 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 1.
15. American Water Works Association. 1985. Internal corrosion of
water distribution systems. Research Foundation cooperative research report.
16. Cohen, Arthur. Copper Development Association. 1978. Copper for
hot and cold potable water systems. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Magazine. May.
17. Cohen, Arthur. Copper Development Association. 1993. Historical
perspective of corrosion by potable waters in building systems.
Paper no. 509 presented at the National Association of Corrosion
Engineers Annual Conference.
18. Copper Development Association. 1993. Copper Tube Handbook.
19. International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials.
1985. Uniform Plumbing Code Illustrated Training Manual.
20. Konen, Thomas P. 1984. An experimental study of competing systems for maintaining service water temperature in residential
buildings. In ASPE 1984 Convention Proceedings.
21. Konen, Thomas P. 1994. Impact of water conservation on interior
plumbing. In Technical Proceedings of the 1994 ASPE Convention.
22. Saltzberg, Edward. 1988. The plumbing engineer as a forensic engineer. In Technical Proceedings of the 1988 ASPE Convention.
23. Saltzberg, Edward. 1993. To combine or not to combine: An in
depth review of standard and combined hydronic heating systems
and their various pitfalls. Paper presented at the American Society
of Plumbing Engineers Symposium, October 2223.
24. Saltzberg, Edward. 1996. The effects of hot water circulation systems on hot water heater sizing and piping systems. Technical
presentation given at the American Society of Plumbing Engineers
convention, November 36.
25. Saltzberg, Edward. 1997. In press. New methods for analyzing hot
water systems. Plumbing Engineer Magazine.
26. Saltzberg, Edward. 1997. In press. Prompt delivery of hot water at
fixtures. Plumbing Engineer Magazine.
27. Sealine, David A., Tod Windsor, Al Fehrm, and Greg Wilcox. 1988.
Mixing valves and hot water temperature. In Technical Proceedings
of the 1988 ASPE Convention.

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


ater Systems
Water

263

28. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association. 1982. Retrofit of Building Energy Systems and Processes.
29. Steele, Alfred. Engineered Plumbing Design. 2d ed.
30. Steele, Alfred. 1988. Temperature limits in service hot water systems. In Technical Proceedings of the 1988 ASPE Convention.
31. Wen-Yung, W. Chan, and Milton Meckler. 1983. Pumps and pump
systems. In American Society of Plumbing Engineers Handbook.

Section

II

EQUIPMENT
The material presented in the majority of chapters in this section
is drawn from information and documents received from numerous manufacturers. In order to provide balanced, unbiased, and
complete coverage, ASPE made every effort possible to solicit information from all applicable equipment manufacturers. The
chapters reflect that effort to the extent that manufacturers responded. For some chapters, such as Chapter 17, there was only
limited manufacturer input, and the limitations of the material
in these chapters are obvious.
Manufacturers may submit additional information, data, documents, and new innovations for this section at any time. All
submitted materials will be considered and incorporated as appropriate. As new editions of this work in progress are issued
in future years, this equipment section will develop into a complete compendium of domestic water heating equipment
possibilities to assist the design engineer.

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


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Water

14

233

RECIRCULATING
DOMESTIC HOT
WATER SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION
It has been determined through field studies that the correct
sizing and operation of water heaters depend on the appropriateness of the hot water maintenance system. If the hot water
maintenance system is inadequate, the water heater sizing criteria
are wrong and the temperature of the hot water distributed to
the users of the plumbing fixtures is below acceptable standards.
Additionally, a poorly designed hot water maintenance system
wastes large amounts of energy and potable water and creates
time delays for those using the plumbing fixtures. This chapter
addresses the criteria for establishing an acceptable time delay
in delivering hot water to fixtures and the limitations of the length
between a hot water recirculation system and plumbing fixtures.
It also discusses the temperature drop across a hot water supply
system, types of hot water recirculation system, and pump selection criteria, and gives extensive information on the insulation of
hot water supply and return piping.

BACKGROUND
In the past, the plumbing engineering community considered the
prompt delivery of hot water to fixtures either a requirement for a
project or a matter of no concern. The plumbing engineers decision was based primarily on the type of facility under consideration
and the developed length from the water heater to the farthest
fixture. Previous reference material and professional common
practices have indicated that, when the distance from the water
heater to the farthest fixture exceeds 100 ft (30.48 m) water should
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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be circulated. However, this recommendation is subjective, and,


unfortunately, some engineers and contractors use the 100-ft
(30.48-m) criterion as the maximum length for all uncirculated,
uninsulated, dead-end hot water branches to fixtures in order to
cut the cost of hot water distribution piping. These long,
uninsulated, dead-end branches to fixtures create considerable
problems, such as a lack of hot water at fixtures, inadequately
sized water heater assemblies, and thermal temperature escalation in showers.
The 100-ft (30.48-m) length criterion was developed in 1973
after the Middle East oil embargo, when energy costs were the
paramount concern and water conservation was given little consideration. Since the circulation of hot water causes a loss of energy
due to radiation and convection in the circulated system and such
energy losses have to be continually replaced by water heaters,
the engineering community compromised between energy loss and
construction costs and developed the 100-ft (30.48-m) maximum
length criterion.

LENGTH AND TIME CRITERIA


Recently, due to concern about not only energy conservation but
also the extreme water shortages in parts of the country, the 100ft (30.48-m) length criteria has changed. Water wastage caused by
the long delay in obtaining hot water at fixtures has become as
critical an issue as the energy losses caused by hot water temperature maintenance systems. To reduce the wasting of cooled
hot water significantly, the engineering community has reevaluated the permissible distances for uncirculated, dead-end branches
to periodically used plumbing fixtures. The new allowable distances
for uncirculated, dead-end branches represent a trade-off between
the energy utilized by the hot water maintenance system and the
cost of the insulation, on the one hand, and the cost of energy to
heat the excess cold water makeup, the cost of wasted potable
water, and extra sewer surcharges, on the other hand. Furthermore, engineers should be aware that various codes now limit the
length between the hot water maintenance system and plumbing
fixtures. They also should be aware of the potential for liability if
an owner questions the adequacy of their hot water system design.
What are reasonable delays in obtaining hot water at a fixture? For anything beside very infrequently used fixtures (such as
those in industrial facilities or certain fixtures in office buildings),
a delay of 0 to 10 sec is normally considered acceptable for most

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


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Water

235

residential occupancies and public fixtures in office buildings. A


delay of 11 to 30 sec is marginal but possibly acceptable, and a
time delay longer than 31 sec is normally considered unacceptable and a significant waste of water and energy. Therefore, when
designing hot water systems, it is prudent for the designer to
provide some means of getting hot water to the fixtures within
these acceptable time limits. Normally this means that there
should be a maximum distance of approximately 25 ft (7.6 m)
between the hot water maintenance system and each of the plumbing fixtures requiring hot water, the distance depending on the
water flow rate of the plumbing fixture at the end of the line and
the size of the line. (See Tables 14.1, 14.2, and 14.3.) The plumbing designer may want to stay under this length limitation because
the actual installation in the field may differ slightly from the
engineer's design, and additional delays may be caused by either
the routing of the pipe or other problems. Furthermore, with the
low fixture discharge rates now mandated by national and local
laws, it takes considerably longer to obtain hot water from nontemperature maintained hot water lines than it did in the past,
when fixtures had greater flow rates. For example, a public lavatory with a 0.50 or 0.25 gpm (0.03 or 0.02 L/sec) maximum
discharge rate would take an excessive amount of time to obtain
hot water from 100 ft (30.48 m) of uncirculated, uninsulated hot
water piping. (See Table 14.3.) This table gives conservative approximations of the amount of time it takes to obtain hot water
at a fixture. The times are based on the size of the line, the fixture flow rate, and the times required to replace the cooled off
hot water, to heat the pipe, and to offset the convection energy
lost by the insulated hot water line.

Table 14.1 Water Contents and Weight of Tube or


Piping per Linear Foot
Nominal
Diameter
(in.)a

1
1
1

Copper
Pipe
Type L

Copper
Pipe
Type M

Steel Pipe
Schedule
40

CPVC Pipe
Schedule
40

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

Water
(gal/ft)

Wgt.
(lb/ft)

0.012
0.025
0.043
0.065
0.093

0.285
0.445
0.655
0.884
1.14

0.013
0.027
0.045
0.068
0.100

0.204
0.328
0.465
0.682
0.940

0.016
0.028
0.045
0.077
0.106

0.860
1.140
1.680
2.280
2.720

0.016
0.028
0.045
0.078
0.106

0.210
0.290
0.420
0.590
0.710

aPipe sizes are indicated for mild steel pipe sizing.

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Table 14.1(M) Water Contents and Weight of Tube or


Piping per Meter
Copper
Pipe
Type L

Nominal
Diameter
(mm)a

Water
(L)

Wgt.
(kg)

Copper
Pipe
Type M
Water
(L)

Steel Pipe
Schedule
40
Wgt.
(kg)

Water
(L)

CPVC Pipe
Schedule
40
Wgt.
(kg)

Water
(L)

Wgt.
(kg)

DN15

0.045

0.129

0.049

0.204

0.061

0.390

0.061

0.099

DN20
DN25
DN32
DN40

0.095
0.163
0.246
0.352

0.202
0.297
0.401
0.517

0.102
0.170
0.257
0.379

0.328
0.465
0.682
0.940

0.106
0.170
0.291
0.401

0.517
0.762
1.034
1.233

0.106
0.170
0.295
0.401

0.132
0.191
0.268
0.322

aPipe sizes are indicated for mild steel pipe sizing.

Table 14.2 Approximate Fixture and Appliance


Water Flow Rates
Maximum Flow Ratesa
Fittings
Lavatory faucet
Public non-metering
Public metering
Sink faucet
Shower head
Bathtub faucets
Single-handle
Two-handle
Service sink faucet
Laundry tray faucet
Residential dishwasher
Residential washing machine
aUnless otherwise noted.

GPM

L/Sec

2.0
0.5
0.25 gal/cycle
2.5
2.5

1.3
0.03
0.946 L/cycle
0.16
0.16

2.4 minimum
4.0 minimum
4.0 minimum
4.0 minimum
1.87 aver
7.5 aver

0.15 minimum
0.25 minimum
0.25 minimum
0.25 minimum
0.12 aver
0.47 aver

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237

Table 14.3 Approximate Time Required to Get


Hot Water to a Fixture
Delivery Time (sec)
Fixture Flow
Rate (gpm)
Piping
Length (ft)

0.5

1.5

2.5

4.0

10

25

10

25

10

25

10

25

Copper
Pipe

in.
in.

25
48a

63a
119a

8
16

21
40a

5
10

13
24

3
6

8
15

Steel Pipe
Sched. 40

in.
in.

63a
91a

157a
228a

21
30

52a
76a

13
18

31a
46a

8
11

20
28

CPVC Pipe
Sched. 40

in.
in.

64a
95a

159a
238a

21
32

53a
79a

13
19

32a
48a

8
12

20
30

Note: Table based on various fixture flow rates, piping materials, and dead-end
branch lengths. Calculations are based on the amount of heat required to heat
the piping, the water in the piping, and the heat loss from the piping. Based on
water temperature of 140F and an air temperture of 70F.
aDelays longer than 30 sec are not acceptable.

Table 14.3(M) Approximate Time Required to Get


Hot Water to a Fixture
Delivery Time (sec)
Fixture Flow
Rate (L/sec)
Piping
Length (m)

0.03

0.10

0.16

3.1

7.6

3.1

7.6

3.1

7.6

0.25
3.1

7.6

Copper
Pipe

DN15
DN22

25
48a

63a
119a

8
16

21
40a

5
10

13
24

3
6

8
15

Steel Pipe
Sched. 40

DN15
DN20

63a
91a

157a
228a

21
30

52a
76a

13
18

31a
46a

8
11

20
28

CPVC Pipe
Sched. 40

DN15
DN20

64a
95a

159a
238a

21
32

53a
79a

13
19

32a
48a

8
12

20
30

Note: Table based on various fixture flow rates, piping materials, and dead-end
branch lengths. Calculations are based on the amount of heat required to heat
the piping, the water in the piping, and the heat loss from the piping. Based on
water temperature of 60C and an air temperture of 21.1C.
aDelays longer than 30 sec are not acceptable.

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RESULTS OF DELAYS IN DELIVERING


HOT WATER TO FIXTURES
As mentioned previously, when there is a long delay in obtaining
hot water at the fixture, there is significant wastage of potable
water as the cooled hot water supply is simply discharged down
the drain unused. Furthermore, plumbing engineers concerned
about total system costs should realize that the cost of this wasted,
previously heated water must include: the original cost for obtaining potable water, the cost of previously heating the water,
the final cost of the waste treatment of this excess potable water,
which results in larger sewer surcharges (source of supply to end
disposal point), and the cost of heating the new cold water to
bring it up to the required temperature. Furthermore, if there is
a long delay in obtaining hot water at the fixtures, the faucets
are turned on for long periods of time to bring the hot water
supply at the fixture up to the desired temperature. This can
cause the water heating system to run out of hot water and make
the heater sizing inadequate, because the heater is unable to
heat all the extra cold water brought into the system through the
wastage of the water discharged down the drain. In addition, this
extra cold water entering the hot water system reduces the hot
water supply temperature. This exacerbates the problem of insufficient hot water because to get a proper blended temperature
more lower temperature hot water will be used to achieve the
final mixed water temperature. (See Chapter 1, Table 1.1.) Additionally, this accelerates the downward spiral of the temperature
of the hot water system.
Another problem resulting from long delays in getting hot
water to the fixtures is that the fixtures operate for longer than
expected periods of time. Therefore, the actual hot water demand
is greater than the demand normally designed for.
Therefore, when sizing the water heater and the hot water
piping distribution system, the designer should be aware that
the lack of a proper hot water maintenance system can seriously
impact the required heater size.

METHODS OF DELIVERING REASONABLY


PROMPT HOT WATER SUPPLY
Hot water maintenance systems are as varied as the imaginations of the plumbing engineers who create them. They can be
grouped into three basic categories, though any actual installa-

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239

tion may be a combination of more than one of these types of


system. The three basic categories are
1. Circulation systems.
2. Self-regulating heat trace systems.
3. Point-of-use water heaters (include booster water heaters).

Circulation Systems for Commercial, Industrial, and


Large Residential Projects
A circulation system is a system of hot water supply pipes and
hot water return pipes with appropriate shutoff valves, balancing valves, circulating pumps, and a method of controlling the
circulating pump. The diagrams for six basic circulating systems
are shown in Figures 14.1 through 14.6.

Fixture 14.1 Upfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Bottom of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

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ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
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Figure 14.2 Downfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Top of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

Figure 14.3 Upfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Bottom of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

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241

Figure 14.4 Downfeed Hot Water System with Heater at


Top of System.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

Figure 14.5 Combination Upfeed and Downfeed Hot Water System


with Heater at Bottom of System.
Note: This piping system increases the developed length of the HW system over the upfeed
systems shown in Figures 14.1 and 14.3.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

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Figure 14.6 Combination Downfeed and Upfeed Hot Water System


with Heater at Top of System.
Note: This piping system increases the developed length of the HW system over the downfeed
systems shown in Figures 14.2 and 14.4.
* See text for requirements for strainers.

Self-Regulating Heat Trace


Over approximately the last 20 years, self-regulating heat trace
has come into its own because of the problems of balancing circulated hot water systems and energy loss in the return piping.
For further discussion of this topic, see Chapter 15.

Point-of-Use Heaters
This concept is applicable when there is a single fixture or group
of fixtures that is located far from the temperature maintenance
system. In such a situation, a small, instantaneous, point-of-use
water heateran electric water heater, a gas water heater, or a
small under-fixture storage type water heater of the magnitude
of 6 gal (22.71 L)can be provided. (See Figure 14.7.) The pointof-use heater will be very cost-effective because it will save the
cost of running hot water piping to a fixture that is a long distance away from the temperature maintenance system. The

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plumbing engineer must remember, however, that when a water


heater is installed there are various code and installation requirements that must be complied with, such as those pertaining to T
& P relief valve discharge.
Instantaneous electric heaters used in point-of-use applications can require a considerable amount of power, and may require
240 or 480 V service.

POTENTIAL PROBLEMS IN CIRCULATED HOT


WATER MAINTENANCE SYSTEMS
The following are some of the potential problems with circulated
hot water maintenance systems that must be addressed by the
plumbing designer.

Figure 14.7 Instantaneous Point-of-Use Water Heater


Piping Diagram.
Source: Courtesy of Chronomite Laboratories, Inc.

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Water Velocities in Hot Water Piping Systems


For copper piping systems, it is very important that the circulated hot water supply piping and especially the hot water return
piping be sized so that the water is moving at a controlled velocity. High velocities in these systems can cause pinhole leaks in
the copper piping in as short a period as six months or less.

Balancing Systems
It is extremely important that a circulated hot water system be
balanced for its specified flows, including all the various individual loops within the circulated system. Balancing is required
even though an insulated circulated line usually requires very
little flow to maintain satisfactory system temperatures. If the
individual hot water circulated loops are not properly balanced,
the circulated water will tend to short-circuit through the closest
loops, creating high velocities in that piping system. Furthermore, the short-circuiting of the circulated hot water will result
in complaints about the long delays in getting hot water at the
remotest loops. If the hot water piping is copper, high velocities
can create velocity erosion which will destroy the piping system.
Because of the problems inherent in manually balancing hot
water circulation systems, many professionals incorporate factory preset flow control devices in their hot water systems. While
the initial cost of such a device is higher than the cost of a manual
balancing valve, a preset device may be less expensive when the
field labor cost for balancing the entire hot water system is included. When using a preset flow control device, however, the
plumbing designer has to be far more accurate in selecting the
control device's capacity as there is no possibility of field adjustment. Therefore, if more or less hot water return flow is needed
during the field installation, a new flow control device must be
installed and the old one must be removed and discarded.

Isolating Portions of Hot Water Systems


It is extremely important in circulated systems that shutoff valves
be provided to isolate an entire circulated loop. This is done so
that if individual fixtures need modification, their piping loop can
be isolated from the system so the entire hot water system does
not have to be shut off and drained. The location of these shutoff
valves should be given considerable thought. The shutoff valves
should be accessible at all times, so they should not be located in

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such places as the ceilings of locked offices or condominiums.

Maintaining the Balance of Hot Water Systems


To ensure that a balanced hot water system remains balanced
after the shutoff valves have been utilized, the hot water return
system must be provided with a separate balancing valve in addition to the shutoff valve or, if the balancing valve is also used
as the shutoff valve, the balancing valve must have a memory
stop. (See the discussion of "balancing valves with memory stops"
below.) With a memory stop on the valve, plumbers can return a
system to its balanced position after working on it rather than
have the whole piping system remain unbalanced, which would
result in serious problems.

Providing Check Valves at the Ends of


Hot Water Loops
The designer should provide a check valve on each hot water return line where it joins other hot water return lines. This is done
to ensure that a plumbing fixture does not draw hot return water
instead of hot supply water, which could unbalance the hot water
system and cause delays in obtaining hot water at some fixtures.

A Delay in Obtaining Hot Water at Dead-End Lines


Keep the delay in obtaining hot water at fixtures to within the
time (and branch length) parameters given previously to avoid
unhappy users of the hot water system and to prevent lawsuits.

FLOW BALANCING DEVICES


The following are the more common types of balancing device.

Fixed Orifices and Venturis


These can be obtained for specific flow rates and simply inserted
into the hot water return piping system. (See Figure 14.8.) However, extreme care should be taken to locate these devices so they
can be removed and cleaned out, as they may become clogged
with the debris in the water. It is recommended, therefore, that a
strainer with a blowdown valve be placed ahead of each of these

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Figure 14.8 Fixed Orifices and Venturi Flow Meters.


Source: Courtesy of Gerand Engineering Co.

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247

devices. Additionally, a strainer with a fine mesh screen can be


installed on the main water line coming into the building to help
prevent debris buildup in the individual strainers. Also, a shutoff
valve should be installed before and after these devices so that an
entire loop does not have to be drained in order to service a strainer
or balancing device.

Factory Preset Automatic Flow Control Valves


The same admonition about strainers and valves given for "fixed
orifices and venturis" above applies to the installation and location of these devices. (See Figure 14.9.)

Figure 14.9 Preset Self-Limiting Flow Control Cartridge.


Source: Courtesy of Griswold Controls.

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Flow Regulating Valves


These valves can be used to determine the flow rate by reading
the pressure drop across the valve. They are available from various manufacturers. (See Figure 14.10.)

Figure 14.10 Adjustable Orifice Flow Control Valve.


Source: ITT Industries. Used with permission.

Balancing Valves with Memory Stops


These valves can be adjusted to the proper setting by installing
insertable pressure measuring devices (Petes Plugs, etc.) in the
piping system, which indicate the flow rate in the pipe line. (See
Figure 14.11.)

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249

Figure 14.11 Adjustable Balancing Valve with Memory Stop.


Source: Courtesy of Milwaukee Valve Co.

SIZING HOT WATER RETURN PIPING SYSTEMS


AND RECIRCULATING PUMPS
The method for selecting the proper size of the hot water return
piping system and the recirculating pump is fairly easy, but it
does require engineering judgment. First, the plumbing engineer
has to design the hot water supply and hot water return piping
systems, keeping in mind the parameters for total developed
length,1 prompt delivery of hot water to fixtures, and velocities in
pipe lines. The plumbing engineer has to make assumptions about
the sizes of the hot water return piping.
After the hot water supply and hot water return systems are
designed, the designer should make a piping diagram of the hot
1See American Society of Plumbing Engineers, 2000, Cold-water systems, Chapter 5 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 2, for piping sizing methods.

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water supply system and the assumed return system showing


piping sizing and approximate lengths. From this piping diagram
the hourly heat loss occurring in the circulated portion of the hot
water supply and return systems can be determined. (See Table
14.4 for minimum required insulation thickness and Table 14.5
for approximate piping heat loss.)
Next determine the heat loss in the hot water storage tank if
one is provided. (See Table 14.6 for approximate tank heat loss.)
Calculate the total hot water system energy loss (tank heat loss
plus piping heat loss) in British thermal units per hour (watts).
This total hot water system energy loss is represented by q in
Equation 14.1 below. Note: Heat losses from storage type water
heater tanks are not normally included in the hot water piping

Table 14.4 Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness


Required Insulation Thickness for Piping (in.)
Runouts
2 in. or
Lessa

1 in. or Less

12 in.

24 in.

5 & 6 in.

8 in. or
Larger

Note: Data based on fiberglass insulation with all-service jacket. Data will change depending on actual type of insulation used. Data apply to recirculating sections of hot water
systems and the first 3 ft from the storage tank of uncirculated systems.
aUncirculated pipe branches to individual fixtures (not exceeding 12 ft in length).
For lengths longer than 12 ft, use required insulation thickness shown in table.

Table 14.4(M) Minimum Pipe Insulation Thickness


Required Insulation Thickness for Piping (mm)
Runouts
DN32 or
Lessa

DN25 or
Less

DN32DN50

DN65DN100

DN125 & DN150

DN200 or
Larger

13

25

25

40

40

40

Note: Data based on fiberglass insulation with all-service jacket. Data will change depending on actual type of insulation used. Data apply to recirculating sections of hot water
systems and the first 0.9 m from the storage tank of uncirculated systems.
aUncirculated pipe branches to individual fixtures (not exceeding 3.7 m in length). For
lengths longer than 305 mm, use required insulation thickness shown in table.

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Table 14.5 Approximate Insulated Piping Heat Loss


and Surface Temperature
Nominal
Pipe Size
(in.)

1
1
1
2 or less
2
2
3
4
6
8
10

Insulation
Thickness
(in.)

Heat Loss
(Btu/h/
linear ft)

1
1
1
1
1
a
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

8
10
10
13
13
24 or less
16
12
16
19
27
32
38

Surface
Temperature
(F)
68
69
69
70
69
74
70
67
68
69
69
69
69

Note: Figures based on average ambient temperature of 65F and annual average
wind speed of 7.5 mph.
aUncirculating hot water runout branches only.

Table 14.5(M) Approximate Insulated Piping Heat


Loss and Surface Temperature
Nominal
Pipe Size
(mm)
DN15
DN20
DN25
DN32
DN40
DN50 or less
DN50
DN65
DN80
DN100
DN150
DN200
DN250

Insulation
Thickness
(mm)
25
25
25
25
25
13a
25
38
38
38
38
38
38

Heat Loss
(W/m)
7.7
9.6
9.6
12.5
12.5
23.1 or less
15.4
11.5
15.4
18.3
26.0
30.8
36.5

Surface
Temperature
(C)
20
21
21
21
21
23
21
19
20
21
21
21
21

Note: Figures based on average ambient temperature of 18C and annual average
wind speed of 12 km/h.
aUncirculating hot water runout branches only.

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Table 14.6 Heat Loss from Various Size Tanks


with Various Insulation Thicknesses
Insulation
Thickness
(in.)
1
1
2
3
3

Tank
Size
(gal)
50
100
250
500
1000

Approx. Energy Loss


from Tank at Hot
Water Temperature
140F (Btu/h)a
468
736
759
759
1273

Source: From Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA) Table 2 data.
aFor unfired tanks, federal standards limit the loss to no more than 6.5 Btu/h/
ft2 of tank surface.

Table 14.6(M) Heat Loss from Various Size Tanks


with Various Insulation Thicknesses
Insulation
Thickness
(mm)
25.4
25.4
50.8
76.2
76.2

Tank
Size
(L)
200
400
1000
2000
4000

Approx. Energy Loss


from Tank at Hot
Water Temperature
60C (W)a
137
216
222
222
373

Source: From Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association
(SMACNA) Table 2 data.
aFor unfired tanks, federal standards limit the loss to no more than 1.9 W/m2 of
tank surface.

system heat loss because the water heater capacity takes care of
this loss, whereas pumped hot water has to replace the piping
convection losses in the piping system.
(14.1)

q = 60rwcT
[q = 3600rwcT]

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253

where
60
3600
q
r
w
c
T

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

min/h
sec/h
piping heat loss, Btu/h (kJ/h)
flow rate, gpm (L/sec)
weight of heated water, lb/gal (kg/L)
specific heat of water, Btu/lb/F (kJ/kg/K)
change in heated water temperature (temperature of leaving water minus temperature of
incoming water, represented in this manual as
Th Tc, F [K])

Therefore
= c (gpm 8.33 lb/gal)(60 min/h)(F temperature
drop)
= 1(gpm) 500 F temperature drop
[q = c (L/sec 1kg/L)(3600 sec/h)(K temperature drop)
= 1(L/sec) 15 077 kJ/L/sec/K K temperature
drop]
q

(14.2) gpm

system heat loss (Btu/h)


500 F temperature drop

L/sec

system heat loss (kJ/h)


15 077 K temperature drop

In sizing hot water circulating systems, the designer should


note that the greater the temperature drop across the system,
the less water is required to be pumped through the system and,
therefore, the greater the savings on pumping costs. However, if
the domestic hot water supply starts out at 140F (60C) with,
say, a 20F (6.7C) temperature drop across the supply system,
the fixtures near the end of the circulating hot water supply loop
could be provided with a hot water supply of only 120F (49C).
In addition, if the hot water supply delivery temperature is 120F
(49C) instead of 140F (60C), the plumbing fixtures will use
greater volumes of hot water to get the desired blended water
temperature (see Chapter 1, Table 1.1). Therefore, the recommended hot water system temperature drop should be of the
magnitude of 5F (3C). This means that if the hot water supply
starts out from the water heater at a temperature between 135
and 140F (58 and 60C), the lowest hot water supply temperature provided by the hot water supply system could be between
130 and 135F (54 and 58C). With multiple temperature distri-

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bution systems, it is recommended that the recirculation system


for each temperature distribution system be extended back to
the water heating system separately and have its own pump.
Using Equation 14.2, we determine that, if there is a 5F (3C)
temperature drop across the hot water system, the number to
divide into the hot water circulating system heat loss (q) to obtain the minimum required hot water return circulation rate in
gpm (L/sec) is 2500 (500 5F), (45 213 [15 071 3C]).
For a 10F (6C) temperature drop that number is 5000 (from
Equation 14.2, 500 10F = 5000) (90 426 [from Equation 14.2,
15 071 6C = 90 426]). However, this 10F (6C) temperature
drop may produce hot water supply temperatures that are lower
than desired.
After Equation 14.2 is used to establish the required hot water return flow rate, in gpm (L/sec), the plumbing designer can
size the hot water return piping system based on piping flow rate
velocities and the available pump heads. It is quite common that
a plumbing designer will make wrong initial assumptions about
the sizes of the hot water return lines to establish the initial heat
loss figure (q). If that is the case, the plumbing engineer will have
to correct the hot water return pipe sizes, redo the calculations
using the new data based on the correct pipe sizing, and verify
that all the rest of the calculations are now correct.

EXAMPLE 14.1CALCULATION TO DETERMINE


REQUIRED CIRCULATION RATE
1. Assume that the hot water supply piping system has 800 ft
(244 m) of average size 1 in. (DN32) pipe. From Table 14.5,
determine the heat loss per linear foot (meter). To find the
total heat loss, multiply length times heat loss per foot (meter):
800 ft 13 Btu/h/ft = 10,400 Btu/h supply piping
losses
(244 m 12.5 W = 3050 W supply piping losses)
2. Assume that the hot water return piping system for the
system in no. 1 above has 100 ft (30.5 m) of average in.
(DN15) piping and 100 ft (30.5 m) of average in. (DN20)
pipe. From Table 14.5 determine the heat loss per linear foot
(meter):
100 ft 8 Btu/h/ft = 800 Btu/h piping loss

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255

(30.5 m 7.7 W/m = 235 W piping loss)


100 ft 10 Btu/h/ft =

30.5 m 9.6 W/m =

1000 Btu/h piping loss


1800 Btu/h piping loss

293 W piping loss


528 W piping loss

3. Determine the hot water storage tank heat loss. Assume the
system in no. 1 above has a 200-gal (757-L) hot water storage
tank. From Table 14.6 determine the heat loss of the storage
tank @ 759 Btu/h (222 W).
4. Determine the hot water systems total heat losses by totaling the various losses:
A. Hot water supply piping losses
B. Hot water return piping losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses
Total system heat losses

10,400 Btu/h
1,800 Btu/h
759 Btu/h
12,959 Btu/h

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 12,200 Btu/h


[A. Hot water supply piping losses
B. Hot water return piping losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses
Total system heat losses

3050 W
527 W
222 W
3799 W

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 3577 W]


From Equation 14.2, using a system piping loss of
12,200 Btu/h (3577 W) and a 5F (3C) temperature
drop,
12,200 Btu/h
= 4.88 gpm (say 5 gpm)
5F temperature difference 500
required hot water
return circulation rate

3577 W

3C temp. difference 4188.32 kJ/m3

= 0.29 (say 0.3) L/sec


required hot water
return circulation rate

Recalculation of Hot Water System Losses


1. Assume that the hot water supply piping system has 800 ft
(244 m) of average size 1 in. (DN32) pipe. From Table 14.5
determine the heat loss per linear foot (meter):

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800 ft 13 Btu/h/ft = 10,400 Btu/h piping loss


(244 m

12.5 W/m = 3050 W piping loss)

2. Assume that the hot water return piping system for the
system in no. 1 above has 100 ft (30.5 m) of average in.
(DN15) pipe, 25 ft (7.6 m) of average in. (DN22) pipe, and
75 ft (22.9 m) of average 1 in. (DN28) pipe. From Table 14.5,
determine the heat loss per linear foot (meter):
100 ft 8 Btu/h/ft = 800 Btu/h piping loss
25 ft 10 Btu/h/ft = 250 Btu/h piping loss
75 ft 10 Btu/h/ft = 750 Btu/h piping loss
1800 Btu/h piping loss
[30.5 m 7.7 W/m =
7.6 m 9.6 W/m =
22.9 m 9.6 W/m =

235 W piping loss


73 W piping loss
220 W piping loss
528 W piping loss]

3. Determine the hot water storage tank heat loss. Assume the
system in no. 1 above has a 200-gal (757-L) hot water storage
tank. From Table 14.6 determine the heat loss of the storage
tank @ 759 Btu/h (222 W).
4. Determine the systems total heat losses:
A. Hot water supply losses
B. Hot water return losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses

10,400 Btu/h
1,800 Btu/h
759 Btu/h

Total system heat losses

12,959 Btu/h

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 12,200 Btu/h


[A. Hot water supply losses
B. Hot water return losses
C. Hot water storage tank losses
Total system heat losses

3050 W
528 W
222 W
3800 W

Total system piping heat losses (A + B) = 3578 W]


Note: The recalculation determined that the hot water system
heat losses remained unchanged and that 4.88 (say 5) gpm (0.29
[say 0.3] L/sec) is the flow rate that is required to maintain the 5F
(3C) temperature drop across the hot water supply system.

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257

It should be stated that engineers use numerous rules of


thumb to size hot water return systems. These rules of thumb
are all based on assumptions, however, and are not recommended.
It is recommended that the engineer perform the calculations for
each project to establish the required flow rates because, with all
the various capacities of the pumps available today, exact sizing
is possible, and any extra circulated flow caused by the plumbing engineer using a rule of thumb equates to higher energy costs,
to the detriment of the client.

ESTABLISHING THE HEAD CAPACITY OF THE


HOT WATER CIRCULATING PUMP
The hot water return circulating pump is selected based on the
required hot water return flow rate (in gpm [L/sec]), calculated
using Equation 14.2, and the systems pump head. The pump
head is normally determined by the friction losses through only
the hot water return piping loops and any losses through balancing valves. The hot water return piping friction losses usually do
not include the friction losses that occur in the hot water supply
piping. The reason for this is that the hot water return circulation
flow is needed only to keep the hot water supply system up to the
desired temperature when there is no flow in the hot water supply
piping. When people use the hot water at the fixtures, there is
usually sufficient flow in the hot water supply piping to keep the
system hot water supply piping up to the desired temperature
without help from the flow in the hot water return piping.
The only exception to the rule of ignoring the friction losses
in the hot water supply piping is a situation where a hot water
return pipe is connected to a relatively small hot water supply
line. "Relatively small" here means any hot water supply line that
is less than one pipe size larger than the hot water return line.
The problems created by this condition are that the hot water
supply line will add additional friction to the head of the hot
water circulating pump, and the hot water circulating pump flow
rate can deprive the last plumbing fixture on this hot water supply line from obtaining its required flow. It is recommended,
therefore, that in such a situation the hot water supply line supplying each hot water return piping connection point be increased
to prevent these potential problems, i.e., use in. (DN22) hot
water supply piping and in. (DN15) hot water return piping, or
1 in. (DN28) hot water supply piping and in. (DN22) hot water
return piping, etc.

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When selecting the hot water circulating pumps head, the


designer should be sure to calculate only the restrictions encountered by the circulating pump. A domestic hot water system
is normally considered an open system (i.e., open to the atmosphere). When the hot water circulating pump is operating,
however, it is assumed that the piping is a closed system. Therefore, the designer should not include static heads where none
exists. For example, in Figure 14.1, the hot water circulating
pump has to overcome only the friction in the hot water return
piping not the loss of the static head pumping the water up to
the fixtures because in a closed system the static head loss is
offset by the static head gain in the hot water return piping.

HOT WATER CIRCULATING PUMPS


Most hot water circulating pumps are of the centrifugal type and
are available as either in-line units for small systems or basemounted units for large systems. Because of the corrosiveness of
hot water systems, the pumps should be bronze, bronze fitted,
or stainless steel. Conventional, iron bodied pumps, which are
not bronze fitted, are not recommended.

CONTROL FOR HOT WATER CIRCULATING


PUMPS
There are three major methods commonly used for controlling
hot water circulating pumps: manual, thermostatic (aquastat),
and time clock control. Sometimes more than one of these methods are used on a system.
1. A manual control runs the hot water circulating pump continuously when the power is turned on. A manual control
should be used only when hot water is needed all the time,
24 h a day, or during all the periods of a building's operation.
Otherwise, it is not a cost-effective means of controlling the
circulating pump because it will waste energy.
Note: The method for applying the on demand concept for
controlling the hot water circulating pump is a manual control.
It can be used very successfully for residential and commercial
applications.
2. A thermostatic aquastat is a device that is inserted into the
hot water return line. When the water in the hot water return
system reaches the distribution temperature, it shuts off the

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259

circulating pump until the hot water return system temperature drops by approximately 10F [5.5C]. With this method,
when there is a large consumption of hot water by the plumbing fixtures, the circulating pump does not operate.
3. A time clock is used to turn the pump on during specific
hours of operation when people are using the fixtures. The
pump would not operate, for example, at night in an office
building when nobody is using the fixtures.
4. Often an aquastat and a time clock are used in conjunction
so that during the hours a building is not operating the time
clock shuts off the circulating pump, and during the hours
the building is in use the aquastat shuts off the pump when
the system is up to the desired temperature.

AIR ELIMINATION
In any hot water return circulation system it is very important
that there be a means of eliminating any entrapped air from the
hot water return piping. Air elimination is not required in the hot
water supply piping because the discharge of water from the fixtures will eliminate any entrapped air. If air is not eliminated
from the hot water return lines, however, it can prevent the proper
circulation of the hot water system. It is imperative that a means
of air elimination be provided at all high points of a hot water
return system. The plumbing engineer must always give consideration to precisely where the air elimination devices are to be
located and drained. For example, they should not be located in
the unheated attics of buildings in cold climates. If the plumbing
engineer does not consider the location of these devices and where
they will drain, the result may be unsightly piping in a building
or extra construction costs.

INSULATION
The use of insulation is very cost-effective. It means paying one
time to save the later cost of significant energy lost by the hot
water supply and return piping system. Also, insulation decreases
the stresses on the piping due to thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in water temperature. Furthermore,
the proper use of insulation eliminates the possibility of someone getting burned by a hot, uninsulated water line. See Table
14.5 for the surface temperatures of insulated lines (versus 140F
[60C] for bare piping).

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It is recommended that all hot water supply and return piping be insulated. This recommendation exceeds some code
requirements. See Table 14.4 for the minimum required insulation thicknesses for all systems.
If the insulated piping is installed in a location where it is
subjected to rain or other water, the insulation must be sealed
with a watertight covering that will maintain its tightness over
time. Wet insulation not only does not insulate, it also releases
considerable heat energy from the hot water piping, thus wasting energy. Furthermore, the insulation on any outdoor lines that
is not sealed watertight can be plagued by birds or rodents, etc.,
pecking at the insulation to use it for their nests. In time, the
entire hot water supply and/or return piping will have no insulation. Such bare hot water supply and/or return piping will waste
considerable energy and can seriously affect the operation of the
hot water system and water heaters.
The minimum required insulation thicknesses given in Table
14.4 are based on insulation having thermal resistivity (R) in the
range of 4.0 to 4.6 ft2 h (F/Btu) in. (0.028 to 0.032 m2
[C/W] mm) on a flat surface at a mean temperature of 75F
(24C). Minimum insulation thickness shall be increased for
materials having R values less than 4.0 ft2 h (F/Btu) in.
(0.028 m2 [C/W] mm) or may be reduced for materials having
R values greater than 4.6 ft2 h (F/Btu) in. (0.032 m2 [C/
W] mm).
1. For materials with thermal resistivity greater than 4.6 ft2 h
(F/Btu) in. (0.032 m2 [C/W] mm), the minimum insulation thickness may be reduced as follows:

4.6 Table 14.4 thickness


= New minimum thickness
Actual R

0.032 Table 14.4 thickness


= New minimum thickness
Actual R

2. For materials with thermal resistivity less than 4.0 ft2 h


(F/Btu) in. (0.028 m2 [C/W] mm), the minimum insulation thickness shall be increased as follows:

4.0 Table 14.4 thickness


= New minimum thickness
Actual R
0.028 Table 14.4 thickness

= New minimum thickness

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


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Water

261

Actual R

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, an inappropriate hot water recirculation system
can have serious repercussions for the operation of the water
heater and the sizing of the water heating system. In addition, it
can cause the wastage of vast amounts of energy, water, and
time. Therefore, it is incumbent upon the plumbing designer to
design a hot water recirculation system so that it conserves natural
resources and is in accordance with the recommendations given
in this chapter.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. 1993. Pipe sizing. Chapter 33 in Fundamentals Handbook.

2.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. 1993. Thermal and water vapor transmission data.
Chapter 22 in Fundamentals Handbook.

3.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. 1995. Service water heating. Chapter 45 in Applications Handbook.

4.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. Energy conservation in new building design. ASHRAE
Standards, 90A1980, 90B1975, and 90C1977.

5.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. Energy efficient design of new low rise residential buildings. ASHRAE Standards, 90.21993.

6.

American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning


Engineers. New information on service water heating. Technical
Data Bulletin. Vol. 10, No. 2.

7.

American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Plumbing fixture fittings. ASME A112.18.1M1989.

8.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 2000. Cold water systems. Chapter 5 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 2.

9.

American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Piping systems.


Chapter 10 in ASPE Data Book.

10. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Position paper on


hot water temperature limitations.
11. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1989. Service hot water

262

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

systems. Chapter 4 in ASPE Data Book.


12. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1990. Insulation. Chapter 12 in ASPE Data Book.
13. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 1990. Pumps. Chapter
11 in ASPE Data Book.
14. American Society of Plumbing Engineers. 2000. Energy conservation in plumbing systems. Chapter 7 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 1.
15. American Water Works Association. 1985. Internal corrosion of
water distribution systems. Research Foundation cooperative research report.
16. Cohen, Arthur. Copper Development Association. 1978. Copper for
hot and cold potable water systems. Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Magazine. May.
17. Cohen, Arthur. Copper Development Association. 1993. Historical
perspective of corrosion by potable waters in building systems.
Paper no. 509 presented at the National Association of Corrosion
Engineers Annual Conference.
18. Copper Development Association. 1993. Copper Tube Handbook.
19. International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials.
1985. Uniform Plumbing Code Illustrated Training Manual.
20. Konen, Thomas P. 1984. An experimental study of competing systems for maintaining service water temperature in residential
buildings. In ASPE 1984 Convention Proceedings.
21. Konen, Thomas P. 1994. Impact of water conservation on interior
plumbing. In Technical Proceedings of the 1994 ASPE Convention.
22. Saltzberg, Edward. 1988. The plumbing engineer as a forensic engineer. In Technical Proceedings of the 1988 ASPE Convention.
23. Saltzberg, Edward. 1993. To combine or not to combine: An in
depth review of standard and combined hydronic heating systems
and their various pitfalls. Paper presented at the American Society
of Plumbing Engineers Symposium, October 2223.
24. Saltzberg, Edward. 1996. The effects of hot water circulation systems on hot water heater sizing and piping systems. Technical
presentation given at the American Society of Plumbing Engineers
convention, November 36.
25. Saltzberg, Edward. 1997. In press. New methods for analyzing hot
water systems. Plumbing Engineer Magazine.
26. Saltzberg, Edward. 1997. In press. Prompt delivery of hot water at
fixtures. Plumbing Engineer Magazine.
27. Sealine, David A., Tod Windsor, Al Fehrm, and Greg Wilcox. 1988.
Mixing valves and hot water temperature. In Technical Proceedings
of the 1988 ASPE Convention.

Recirculating Domestic Hot W


ater Systems
Water

263

28. Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association. 1982. Retrofit of Building Energy Systems and Processes.
29. Steele, Alfred. Engineered Plumbing Design. 2d ed.
30. Steele, Alfred. 1988. Temperature limits in service hot water systems. In Technical Proceedings of the 1988 ASPE Convention.
31. Wen-Yung, W. Chan, and Milton Meckler. 1983. Pumps and pump
systems. In American Society of Plumbing Engineers Handbook.

Self-Regulating Heat TTrace


race Systems

15

265

SELF-REGULATING
HEAT TRACE
SYSTEMS

INTRODUCTION
A hot water self-regulating heat trace system can be used for
prompt delivery of hot water at the fixtures. A heating cable system is one of several accepted methods of providing prompt
delivery of hot water. (See Chapter 14.)
Todays buildings are more architecturally complex than those
built a decade ago and make ever increasing demands on the interstitial space occupied by HVAC ductwork, mechanical piping,
communication wiring, and electrical conduits. This, combined
with the need to conserve energy and water, challenge engineers
to provide cost-effective, energy-efficient domestic hot water systems. Maintaining the temperature of a domestic hot water system
may entail establishing a means to continuously recirculate the
water via pumps, valves, and additional piping. An alternative
method is to use self-regulating heat trace systems.
Water conservation has become a major concern in the past
few years. The need to conserve water has led to requirements
for the use of low-flow fixtures, including faucets, showers, and
water closets. The water wastage that occurs when cooled water
is dumped down the drain while the user is waiting for hot water
to flow can no longer be tolerated. In addition to wasting a precious resource, this practice incurs extra energy costs to heat
the water and waste treatment costs to process the wasted water. The ability to keep a pipe warm close to the point of use is of
particular interest with the low-flow fixtures used today.

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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Variables affecting the performance of a heat trace system


include: the system temperature range, time to tap, water wastage, and energy efficiency. Designers should consider these factors
along with installation and life-cycle costs when selecting the
proper hot water self-regulating heat trace system for a particular building.

SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
Electric heat tracing systems replace heat lost through the thermal insulation on hot water supply piping to maintain the water
at desired nominal temperatures, eliminating the need for insulated recirculation lines, pumps, and balancing valves. Preventing
the hot water from cooling also ensures that hot water is readily
available when it is needed.
An electrical heat tracing system is not a substitute for a
complete, efficient domestic hot water system. It does not eliminate the need for an efficient water heater. What a heat tracing
system does is provide another approach to the design and installation of a hot water system. It does this by simplifying the
hot water distribution system, thereby minimizing the amount of
piping required. Items such as additional piping and balancing
valves are unnecessary.
In a heat trace system, a self-regulating heating cable is attached directly to the hot water supply piping and insulated. A
self-regulating heating cable adjusts its power at each point along
its length to maintain nominal temperature throughout the piping system. Electrical energy input is controlled by the cables
construction to maintain the required water temperature at the
fixtures. No return piping or circulation pump is required.
Successful installation of a heat tracing system requires
coordination among the various tradespeople involved. Plumbers
and electrical and insulation contractors must be made aware of
the specific requirements affecting each others work.
The information in this chapter will help the designer understand electric heat tracing as it applies to hot water systems.
With this information, a designer should be able to:
1. Compare the merits of heat tracing and a recirculation system based on the requirements of a specific project.
2. Identify the extent of piping requiring heat tracing.

Self-Regulating Heat TTrace


race Systems

267

3. Understand the role of thermal insulation in hot water heat


tracing.
4. In coordination with an electrical engineer, determine the circuit breaker/power requirements based on the estimated heat
tracing circuit lengths.
5. Translate the design requirements into a complete design for
a project.
All examples and descriptions in this chapter are based on
copper water piping with fiberglass thermal insulation and
other typical design conditions. While design parameters may
differ and pipe and insulation materials other than those discussed can be and frequently are equipped with heat tracing,
such jobs should be undertaken with the design assistance of a
qualified manufacturers representative.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
Only Underwriters Laboratories, Inc., listed electric heat tracing
systems for hot water temperature maintenance should be used.
(Note: Thirty mA ground fault equipment protection is to be used
for all hot water heat tracing circuits.) These tested and approved
systems are based on self-regulating heating cables that are specifically designed for hot water temperature maintenance. (See
Figure 15.1.) Heat is delivered through a carbon matrix heating
element that responds to temperature changes. Whenever the
temperature in the heat traced piping begins to rise, the cable
automatically reduces its heat output. Conversely, when the water
temperature begins to drop the cable reacts by increasing its
heat output. This self-regulating feature occurs along the entire
length of a heat tracing circuit to ensure that each point receives
the amount of heat necessary to maintain thermal equilibrium.
Heating cables, self-regulating or otherwise, intended for pipe
freeze protection or general temperature maintenance should not
be used for hot water temperature maintenance, since their performance has not been matched to the requirements of hot water
applications.

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Figure 15.1 Construction of a Typical Heating Cable for


Hot Water Temperature Maintenance.
Source: Courtesy of Raychem Corporation.

Self-Regulating Heat TTrace


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269

SYSTEM COMPONENTS
A hot water temperature maintenance system (such as the one
shown in Figure 15.2) typically includes the following components:
1. Self-regulating heating cable.
2. Power connection kit.1
3. Tee/inline splice kit (permits 2 or 3 cables to be spliced together).
4. Cable end termination.
5. Attachment tape (secures cable to pipe, use at 12 to 24 in.
[305 to 610 mm] intervals).
6. Electric heat tracing label (peel and stick label that attaches
to insulation vapor barrier at 10 ft [3.05 m] intervals, or as
required by code or specification).
7. Fiberglass thermal insulation and vapor barrier.2

Figure 15.2 Components of a Hot Water Temperature


Maintenance System.
Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.
Note: See System Components, above, for identification of numbered parts.

1Power connection kits do not include electrical junction boxes.


2All heat traced lines are to be thermally insulated with fiberglass. Refer to the

manufacturers insulation schedule for insulation information.

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IDENTIFYING THE PIPING REQUIRING HEAT


TRACING
Typically, main and branch lines that are inch (DN22) and
larger are the primary locations for the application of a hot water
heat tracing system. A heat traced line can maintain hot water to
every point of use. Systems with different pressure or temperature zones can easily be accommodated in the design and layout
of heating circuits.
Deciding how close to the point of use the heat tracing should
be installed depends on the following conditions:
1. The gallons per minute (liters per second) of the fixture.
2. The diameter of the runout line.
3. The number of times per day the fixture will be used.
4. The acceptable period of time to wait for hot water.
5. The acceptable level of water waste per fixture per use.
6. Any special requirements at the point of use.
Most new facilities require fixtures that limit the gpm (L/sec)
used by lavatories and showers. As a result, the length of uncirculated, non-heat traced piping has become increasingly
important. Table 15.1 shows the correlation of time to get hot
water (in seconds), to fixture flow rate, to length of in. (DN22)
diameter runout piping that is not temperature maintained.

Table 15.1 Time for Hot Water to Reach Fixture (sec)


Fixture
Flow Rate

Distance from End of Heat Tracing Circuit to


Point of Use (ft)

(gpm)

15

20

25

30

40

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4

23
15
11
9
8
6
6

30
20
15
12
10
9
8

38
25
19
15
13
11
9

45
30
23
18
15
13
11

60
40
30
24
20
17
15

Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.


Note: Numbers based on use of in. nominal diameter type L copper tubing.
Calculations are based on the heat loss from the piping and do not include the
amount of heat required to heat the piping or the water in the piping. See Chapter
14 for these values.

Table 15.1(M) Time for Hot Water

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271

to Reach Fixture (sec)


Fixture
Flow Rate
(L/sec)
0.06
0.1
0.13
0.16
0.19
0.22
0.25

Distance from End of Heat Tracing Circuit to


Point of Use (m)
4.6

6.1

7.6

9.1

12.2

23
15
11
9
8
6
6

30
20
15
12
10
9
8

38
25
19
15
13
11
9

45
30
23
18
15
13
11

60
40
30
24
20
17
15

Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.


Note: Numbers based on use of DN22 nominal diameter type L copper tubing.
Calculations are based on the heat loss from the piping and do not include the
amount of heat required to heat the piping or the water in the piping. See Chapter
14 for these values.

While considering the time factor may be important for the


purposes of keeping users satisfied, there is a more critical issue. Even with low-flow fixtures, the amount of water wasted by
dumping water until the desired temperature is reached can be
significant. (See Table 15.2.)

Table 15.2 Water Wasted While Waiting for Hot Water


to Reach Fixture (oz)
Distance from End of Temperature Maintenance
Nom. Diam.
to Point of Use (ft)
Type L
Copper (in.) 15
20
25
30
40

48

64

80

97

129

Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.


Notes:
1. Remember to add up all the fixtures in a facility and to multiply by both the
waste number shown and the expected number of usages per day.
2. Numbers based on line diameter and distance from end of temperature
maintenance.

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Table 15.2(M) Water Wasted While Waiting for Hot


Water to Reach Fixture (mL)
Nom. Diam.
Type L
Copper
DN22

Distance from End of Temperature Maintenance


to Point of Use (m)
4.6

6.1

7.6

9.1

12.2

1420

1895

2365

2870

3815

Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.


Notes:
1. Remember to add up all the fixtures in a facility and to multiply by both the
waste number shown and the expected number of usages per day.
2. Numbers based on line diameter and distance from end of temperature
maintenance.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Heating cable systems do not require system balancing. Often
they are used in buildings with significant lengths of return piping relative to the lengths of supply piping or in hot water systems
requiring multiple circulation loops.
Heating cable systems may not be economical in buildings
with doughnut configurations and small amounts of return piping. Such systems still may be selected, however, if the designer
wishes to eliminate flow balancing.

Multiple Temperature Systems


For systems requiring multiple temperatures, heating cable can
be installed on the supply piping after the mixing valve to maintain the different temperatures independently.

Remodels and Additions


For buildings with existing return systems, heating cable systems can be installed in the additions so that hot water
temperature is maintained in the new piping without affecting
the performance of the existing hot water systems.

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273

COORDINATING DESIGN INFORMATION


To get the most from each heat tracing circuit, the designer should
establish the maximum circuit length based on the number of
circuit breakers available for the project. (Note: Maximum circuit
lengths vary according to the voltage and temperature selection.)
Regardless of a buildings shape and size, it is recommended that
the heat tracing circuits be organized to follow the layout of the
cable. For ease of identification during the layout process and for
effective communication, the designer should identify the piping
requiring heat tracing on the plumbing drawings. While indication of the heating cable, power connection, end termination,
and tee splice kits is given on the plumbing drawings, only the
power connection points need to be referenced on the electrical
drawings.
The symbols shown in Figure 15.3 are routinely used to indicate components of a heat traced hot water supply system.

Figure 15.3 Symbols Used to Indicate Components of a


Heat Traced Hot Water Supply System.
Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.
Note: The numerals inside the symbols refer to circuit numbers.

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DETERMINING THE TEMPERATURE TO


MAINTAIN
The desired temperatures for most applications are given in Table
15.3 along with the ambient temperature ranges of the space
surrounding the insulated pipe. The appropriate self-regulating
cable is chosen based on the desired maintenance temperature.
If temperatures differ from those shown, contact the manufacturer.

Table 15.3 Nominal Maintenance Temperatures, F (C)


Ambient
Range,
F (C)
7580

Hospitals,
Nursing Homes,
Prisons

Hospitals,
Hotels, Condos,
Prisons, Schools

Kitchens,
Laundries

105 (42)

(2427)
7280

120 (49)

140 (60)

(2227)
Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT CABLE


After determining the extent of the hot water supply piping to be
heat traced, the designer should decide the lengths to be maintained at 105, 120, and/or 140F (42, 49, and/or 60C). At this
point, the total length of each type of heating cable can be determined. Using the manufacturers published maximum circuit
length for the desired temperature cable, the designer can figure
the required number of circuits. These maximum circuit lengths
should not be exceeded; otherwise, there will be excessive electrical currents in the bus wires of the heating cable. The maximum
circuit length is the total length of cable that can be fed from a
single power connection point, inclusive of all splices, including
tees. Note that circuit lengths that are longer than these maximum lengths may require larger circuit breakers. The designer
must be sure to check with the electrical engineer the available
amperages of the branch circuit breakers supplying power to the
heat tracing. After the required number of circuits is determined,
that information should also be checked with the electrical engineer. This will ensure that the proper number of circuits has
been allotted in the power distribution system.

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275

THERMAL INSULATION
While frequently overlooked, thermal insulation plays a critical
role in ensuring that hot water is available at the point of use.
This is true for both recirculation and heat traced hot water
systems.
The standard design for heat traced piping (the design that
manufacturers design guides are based on) utilizes fiberglass thermal insulation with a kraft paper vapor barrier. Thicknesses range
from 1 to 2 in. (25.4 to 50.8 mm) based on line diameter. If a heat
traced hot water system is designed to use only one cable for each
temperature range, the thickness of the insulation will vary.
Manufacturers of hot water heat tracing systems have established insulation schedules that outline the thicknesses required
to keep the heat loss within the desired range. Note that in these
schedules the insulation on piping 1 in. (DN35) in diameter and
smaller is oversized to allow space for the heating cable.
After the installation of the heating cable and thermal insulation is completed, the piping is identified with stick-on labels to
note the presence of electric heat tracing. This labeling gives notice to facility maintenance workers that heating cable has been
installed under the insulation should any pipe maintenance or
renovations be required.

HEAT TRACING HOT WATER PIPING


The design of a heat tracing temperature maintenance system
for mains and branch lines can be done on the plumbing drawings. (See Figure 15.4.) By referring to the manufacturers heating
cable selection chart for the desired maintenance temperature,
the designer can determine the maximum heating cable circuit
length for circuit breakers of different sizes. Taking this information into account when laying out the hot water lines will ensure
optimum use of the circuit lengths.
Note, in Figure 15.4, that the main and branch lines are heat
traced and insulated while the short runouts are only insulated.
(Runouts that feed individual points of use typically contain less
than gal [1.89 L] of water. If the faucet flow rate is above 1
gpm [0.1 L/sec], hot water will reach the point of use within 10
sec.) If the distance between the branch line and the point of use
is much longer than 40 ft (12.19 m) or the flow rate is lower, the
potential for water wastage and the time required for hot water to

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Figure 15.4 Partial Simplified System Typical of Hospitals,


Correctional Facilities, and Hotels.
Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.

reach the point of use may be beyond the levels considered acceptable for the facility. To remedy this situation, simply heat
trace closer to the point of use.

COMBINING HORIZONTAL MAINS WITH


SUPPLY RISERS
Designers of multilevel facilities often duplicate floor plans over
several levels, which simplifies the layout of electrical, HVAC,
and mechanical equipment. This practice also simplifies the layout
of hot water supply lines, unless there is a maze of recirculation
piping and balancing valves are required. Figure 15.5 shows a
layout typical of two to four-story facilities, such as hospitals,
research labs, correctional facilities, and campus dormitories.

Self-Regulating Heat TTrace


race Systems

277

In this example, the supply main is located in the interstitial


space between the first-story ceiling and the second-story floor.
Because each story has roughly the same layout and water use
points are stacked, a riser and drop are used to supply water at
each plumbing location. Electric heat tracing is installed on the
horizontal mains and the risers. Since the distance between the
horizontal piping and the first-story runouts is minimal (less than
15 ft [4.57 m]), heating cable is not required beyond the horizontal
line connecting the main to the riser.
Since this example is of a four-story facility, it is recommended
that heating cable be installed up to the feed point for the third
story. The line feeding from level three to level four again is less

Figure 15.5 Typical Layout for 2 to 4-Story Hospitals, Research


Labs, Correctional Facilities, and Dormitories.
Source: Courtesy of Thermon Manufacturing Co.

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than 15 ft (4.57 m), and under most conditions a line of this


length does not require heat tracing. Untraced lines should be
installed so as to prevent rapid heat loss between uses.
While this example is somewhat simplistic, the design principles it demonstrates can be applied to a project of any size.

HOT WATER HEAT TRACING TERMS


The following terms apply to all hot water heat tracing systems
and may aid in the selection of the appropriate system for each
project.
1. System temperature range. For a return system, this is the
allowable temperature drop to the end of the system plus any
additional variability caused by improper system balancing.
With return systems, there is a trade-off between desired system performance and the life-cycle cost of the system. For a
heating cable system, the system temperature range is the
range around the nominal maintenance temperature.
2. Unheated distance. This is the distance in feet (meters) between the last maintained leg of hot water piping and the
point of use. For example, if hot water temperature is maintained only for the main run, the distance from the main to
the point of use is the unheated distance.
3. Time to tap. This is the time required for hot water to reach
the fixture when the fixture is turned on. If the hot water
temperature is not maintained all the way to the fixture, the
cold water in the pipe must be drawn out before the user gets
hot water. The length of the wait is called time to tap. It is a
function of the unheated distance, the gpm (L/sec) flow rate,
and the diameter of the pipe.

Heat Exchangers

16

279

HEAT
EXCHANGERS

INTRODUCTION
The basic process behind the heating of water is heat exchange,
whereby heat from a hot substance (the heating medium) is given
to a colder substance or medium, in this case water. This heat
exchange between a heating medium and water usually takes
place in a piece of equipment called a heat exchanger that is
specifically designed and manufactured to efficiently and costeffectively transfer heat from one medium to another.
This section discusses the basic construction, operation, configuration, and selection of various types of heat exchanger and
offers insights into their advantages, disadvantages, and application.

CODES AND STANDARDS


Plumbing Codes
Over the last few years, some plumbing codes have been revised
to require double-wall protection in potable water systems. These
revisions address concern over the contamination of potable water during normal use or as a result of excess pressure by any
fluid that is flooded in a tank or heat exchanger. The possibility
of such contamination has led to the introduction of double-wall
heat exchangers to generate domestic hot water.

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association


The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (TEMA), of
Tarrytown, New York, has established heat exchanger standards
and nomenclature for industrial applications. It has assigned every
shell and tube device a three-letter designation, the letters referring to the specific type of stationary head at the front end, the
shell type, and the rear end head type, in that order. (A fully
illustrated description of all the shell and tube devices can be
found in the TEMA standards).

DEFINITIONS
Heating Medium
A heating medium is any substance used to heat another substance to a higher temperature. In the case of heat exchangers
used to heat domestic hot water, the heating mediums are generally fluids or fuels. There are exceptions to this rule, however,
such as electrical energy, which is used to heat a solid wire, or
element, which then directly transfers heat to the water by contact. Examples of heating mediums include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Steam.
Water.
Gas.
Oil.
Electricity.
Solar energy.
Geothermal energy.
Refrigerants.

Approach
The term approach is used to describe how close the outlet
temperature of the water to be heated comes to (or approaches)
the inlet temperature of a fluid heating medium.

Heat Exchanger
This term refers to a device specifically designed and constructed
to efficiently transfer heat energy from a hot substance to a colder
one.

Heat Exchangers

281

Countercurrent
This term is used to describe a situation where the liquid heating
medium in a heat exchanger flows in a direction opposite to that
of the fluid to be heated.

Temperature Cross
A temperature cross occurs when the liquid being heated has
an outlet temperature that falls between the inlet and outlet temperatures of the heating medium; this is possible only when flows
are 100% countercurrent.

TYPES OF HEAT EXCHANGER


Heat exchangers have been used to heat water for domestic and
other purposes in commercial and industrial facilities for years.
In fact, the ever-increasing cost of energy has led to the increased
use of heat exchangers to extract and conserve energy that previously was wasted.
Commonly used types of heat exchanger include: plate type,
shell and tube, tube-in-tube, and tube-on-tube. However, only
the plate type and the shell and tube are discussed below.
Operating conditions, ease of access for inspection and maintenance, and compatibility with heating medium are some of the
variables engineers must consider when assessing heat exchanger
options. Others include:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Maximum pressure and temperature.


Heating or cooling applications.
Compatibility of the material with process fluids.
Cleanliness of the streams.
Approach temperature.

Certain exchangers operate better than others at different


temperature approaches. Plate and frame exchangers, for example, work well at a very close approach, in the order of 2F
(1C). For shell and tube exchangers, however, the lowest possible approach is in the order of 10F (5.5C).
As for cleanliness, shell and tube exchangers have tube diameters that can accommodate a certain amount of particulate
matter with very little clogging or fouling. Plate and frame exchangers, however, have narrow passageways, making them more
susceptible to damage from precipitation or particulate fouling.

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The most common type of heat exchanger, the shell and tube,
can be found in almost every type of application. In recent years,
the plate and frame has emerged as a viable alternative to the
shell and tube.

Shell and Tube


Mechanically simple in design and relatively unchanged for more
than 60 years, the shell and tube offers a low-cost method of
heat exchange. The shell and tube heat exchanger has the following advantages:
1.
2.
3.
4.

The greatest flexibility of design and configuration.


A large choice of shell and tube materials.
High temperature and pressure characteristics.
Ability to handle large amounts of particulate material.

U-tube, removable bundle


The U-tube heat exchanger is made by bending straight tubes
into the shape of a U, hence the name. The U-shaped tubes are
then mechanically rolled into a common header or tubesheet.
Depending on the fluid outside the tubes, this bundle is fitted
with either tube supports or flow baffles along its length. The
tubesheet, tubes, and tube supports/flow baffles make up the
bundle assembly. The bundle assembly is then placed in a shell
(a length of pipe that contains inlet and outlet connections and a
pipe sized flange at one end for insertion of the tube bundle; and
a cap at the other end), which will contain the fluid heating medium outside the tube bundle. A head assembly (usually a casting
that contains inlet and outlet connections for directing a fluid
into the tube bundle) is then bolted to the shell flange to complete the heat exchanger.
The head assembly contains one or more pass partitions for
controlling tube velocity, hence the tube side heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop.
If a condensing vapor (such as steam) is to be the heating
medium, the tube bundle will have supports designed to support
the tubes along their length and provide for the proper flow and
drainage of the condensate from the shell. If a liquid is to be
circulated outside the tube bundle, flow baffles will be used to
support the tubes and direct the flow across the bundle. In such
a case, the number and spacing of the flow baffles will control
the shell side heat transfer coefficient and its pressure drop.

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283

The U-tube heat exchanger is well suited for large domestic


water heating applications that use either boiler water or steam
as the heating medium. It is in the nature of the U-tube construction to allow for large temperature differences between the
tube side and shell side fluids because the U-tubes expand and
contract independently of the shell assembly. In addition, the
tube bundle assembly is removable, allowing for easy and economical replacement of the heat transfer surface should a failure
or leak develop in the bundle.
The U-tube design does, however, have its limitations. First,
because of the U-bends, the tube side fluid must make multiple
passes down the length of the unit. This makes it less economical
to use the U-tube for close temperature approaches and eliminates the possibility of its use (i.e., a single U-tube unit) for
temperature-cross applications such as those found in energy reclamation projects. Also, because of the U-bend, the unit cannot be
completely cleaned by mechanical means, which could be a problem if the tube side fluid is dirty or prone to scaling/fouling.
The basic U-tube design can be modified to meet a number
of special applications.
Tank heater
Replacing the shell assembly of a U-tube heat exchanger with a
tank mounting collar will allow the exchanger to function as a
storage heater for large domestic water systems. In such an application, the tank heater uses hot water as a heating medium.
The hot water is pumped through the tubes, thus maintaining
the tank system water at a set temperature. Steam can also be
used as the heating medium if a special head assembly that allows for proper condensate drainage of the unit is installed.
The tank heater uses natural convection as the means for
transferring heat to the tank side system. Most heat exchangers
use forced convection. This is a significant difference in that natural convection produces much lower rates of heat transfer.
Consequently, for a given capacity, tank heaters require more
heat transfer surface area than heat exchangers utilizing forced
convection. In addition, it is very important for proper natural
convection that the relationship between the size of the tank heater
and the size of the tank be within specific limits. The guideline
for this relationship is to have the tube bundle extend into the
tank for a distance of from 50 to 75% of the tube bundles length
for a horizontal tank and a distance nearly equal to its full diameter for a tank that is to be installed vertically.

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A steel tank for a domestic water system requires a lining.


Consequently, the manufacturer of the tank heater must take
care to ensure that the tube bundle fits inside the tank mounting
collar. Finally, every tank heater should have adequate support
inside the tank to eliminate stress on the tube-tubesheet rolled
joint. Inadequate support can lead to leaks of the tube bundle in
this area.
Double-wall heat exchanger
The purpose of double-wall protection is to warn of a tube failure
before cross-contamination between the tube-side and shell-side
fluids can occur. Such cross-contamination could occur, for instance, where treated water from a boiler in a closed loop system
is utilized to produce heat. A number of manufacturers now produce double-wall units in a U-tube design. Although some of the
design features of these units may differ, the basic design is fairly
common among double-wall manufacturers.
The double-wall U-tube unit has a tube-within-a-tube design.
Fins or grooves are used on one of the tubes to create a leak path
between the tubes when they are mechanically bonded to enhance
heat transfer. The outside tube is machined back at each end,
bent into the U-tube, and either mechanically rolled or brazed into
a double-tubesheet arrangement. Should either of the tubes fail,
its fluid would be channeled through the leak path between the
tubes to the space between the tubesheets. The appearance of
fluid between the tubesheets is evidence of tube failure.
While the double-wall design is very expensive compared to
the single-wall unit, its use is increasing, due in large part to
revisions to local plumbing codes. Double-wall exchangers are
used for applications where a failed tube bundle would result in
a health hazard.
A disadvantage of the double-wall design is the loss of efficiency in transferring heat from the heating medium to the water.

Plate Type Heat Exchanger


In recent years, the plate type heat exchanger has emerged as an
alternative to the shell and tube. With its ability to optimize thermal performance, the plate type exchanger has made possible a
number of close approach and temperature-cross applications that
would not have been economical or practical with a shell and tube
exchanger. A plate type unit is efficient, easy to maintain, and less
susceptible to fouling, and it takes up little space.

Heat Exchangers

285

A plate type heat exchanger is characterized by having heat


transfer occur via metal, plastic, glass, or ceramic barriers between fluids. One stream heats the other by means of conduction
(or radiation) through the barrier. Inside the heat exchanger, the
fluids are heated by convection.
There are two types of plate type unit: prime surface and
plate and frame.
In general, the prime surface units are best suited to small
heat loads and batch operations and the plate and frame are most
efficient when used for large heat loads and continuous duty.
Prime surface heat exchanger
A prime surface heat exchanger is fabricated from two die-formed
sheets, which are welded together. One or both of the sheets are
die or pressure formed (cold formed) to create a series of welldefined passages through which the heating medium flows. Any
common metal that can be cold worked and resistance welded
could be used, the most typically used being carbon steel, stainless steel, monel, titanium, and hastelloy. A prime surface heat
exchanger has a single circuit design and can be used as a shelf
or immersed, clamped on, or built into a tank or used otherwise
where a plate and frame exchanger would not be suitableeven
given the same media. Maximum operating parameters are generally a temperature of 650F (343C) and a pressure of 500 psig
(3450 kPa).
Plate and frame heat exchanger
A plate and frame unit is fabricated from a series of channel
plates, which are pressed together to form a plate pack, with the
holes at the corners of the plates forming a continuous passage
or manifold. This manifold distributes the heat transfer media
from the inlet of the heat exchanger into the plate pack for each
fluid. The media are then distributed into the narrow channels
formed by the plates. The gasket arrangement on each plate distributes the hot and cold media into alternating flow channels
throughout the plate pack. In all cases, hot and cold media flow
countercurrent to each other.
The most common plate and frame type heat exchanger is the
gasketed plate unit, in which a series of channel plates are mounted
on a frame and clamped together. Each plate is made from pressable
materials, such as stainless steel, and is corrugated. The most
common pattern of corrugation is the herringbone or chevron. In-

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cluded with each plate is an elastomer gasket. This gasket is used


for sealing purposes and for the proper distribution of fluids in
the plate heat exchanger. The spaces between adjacent plates form
flow channels for the hot and cold fluids.
A corrugated herringbone or chevron pattern is pressed into
each plate to produce highly turbulent fluid flows. The high degree of turbulence results in high heat transfer coefficients and
keeps fouling to a minimum. In addition, the corrugations add
rigidity to each channel plate. This allows the use of thinner plate
material and improves heat transfer.
The basic design of the gasketed plate exchanger allows for
the opening of the frame to add or remove channel plates to optimize heat exchanger performance or to service and maintain the
channel plates, all with a minimum of downtime.
The benefits of a plate and frame heat exchanger (100% countercurrent flow, high turbulence, and thin plate material) make
it a highly efficient device that typically yields heat transfer rates
three to five times greater than those of other types of heat exchanger. Because of these high heat transfer rates, it is possible
to use a plate and frame exchanger that is compact relative to
other types of heat exchanger for a given application. Ideal operating conditions include temperature crosses and close approach
temperatures for the hot and cold media.
While a gasketed plate and frame heat exchanger can be used
in almost any application, it has limitations, which must be considered. These limitations have to do primarily with the units
design pressures and temperatures. Practical design pressures
are limited to 800 psig (5516 kPa), while design temperatures
are a function of the gasket material used in the exchanger. The
most popular and widely used gasket material is nitrile rubber
(NR), which has a temperature limit of 280F (138C). NR is followed in popularity by ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM),
which has a temperature limit of 820F (438C). EPDM gaskets
can be used to substitute for NR gaskets (for higher temperature
ratings) on all applications except those involving oil heating or
cooling, since EPDM swells in the presence of most oils. Other
gasket materials, such as hypalon and viton, are also available.
These gasket materials are more prevalent in industrial applications.
Gasketed exchangers have benefited from improvements in
the quality and diversity of elastomer materials and gasket designs. The use of exchangers with welded connections, rather
than gaskets, reduces the likelihood of process fluid escape.

Heat Exchangers

287

Other limitations of the gasketed plate and frame exchanger


are due to the narrow channels between adjacent plates. If a
fluid that will enter the plate heat exchanger has suspended solids or is likely to deposit large amounts of scale on the plate
surfaces, careful consideration should be given to the free channel space between the plates. Also, the narrow channels and
resultant high turbulence of the fluid flows produce high pressure drops, making the plate exchanger incompatible with
low-pressure applications.
Until recently, a major limitation to the gasketed plate and
frame heat exchanger was caused by the method of attaching the
gaskets to the channel plates. In the past, gaskets were glued to
the channel plates. Since gaskets are a replaceable part, this
made removing old gaskets and installing new ones a very timeconsuming and labor-intensive procedure. Most manufacturers
now use a glueless gasket design. Clip and snap are the two most
common types of glueless gasket. Both simplify the re-gasketing
procedure, making on-site service possible and thus reducing
downtime.
Recent advances in plate design and technology have produced two variations to gasketed plate and frame heat exchangers:
double-wall and welded plate.
Double-wall plate and frame exchanger
In a double-wall plate and frame exchanger, two standard channel plates are welded together at the four corner ports to form
one assembly. An air space or leak path is created between the
plates for the passage of a fluid should a plate fail. The appearance of this fluid is evidence of plate failure.
The purpose of the double-wall plate and frame exchanger,
like that of the double-wall shell and tube heat exchanger (discussed earlier in this chapter), is to warn of a plate failure before
cross-contamination can occur between the heating medium and
potable water.
Welded plate and frame exchanger
In welded plate and frame exchangers, two standard channel
plates are welded together at their peripheries. These welded plates
(usually called a cassette) form a flow channel where the elastomer gasket has been replaced by the welded joint. This
configuration may be necessary if there is no elastomer gasket
compatible with the fluid or if more positive containment is re-

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quired. Typical applications include refrigerant evaporators/condensers, ammonia refrigeration, and cases where aggressive or
corrosive fluids are present.

SELECTING HEAT EXCHANGERS


When it comes to selecting a type of heat exchanger for a particular application, one of the questions asked most frequently is,
Which is bestshell and tube or plate type? Assuming that the
application is within the pressure and temperature limits of both
designs, the issues come down to initial cost, maintenance costs,
and future operating conditions.
The initial cost is usually dictated by the approach temperatures of the application. Close approach temperatures and
temperature crosses favor the plate heat exchanger while wide
temperature approaches favor the shell and tube. Construction
materials can influence initial cost too, especially if the application requires the use of stainless steel. With the computerized
selection programs now used extensively, little effort is required
to obtain prices for each type of unit for the quick comparison of
initial costs.
With respect to maintenance costs, much depends on the
properties of the fluids involved. If the fluids have a tendency to
foul, the plate heat exchanger may be a better choice, since it
offers somewhat easier and more direct access to the heat transfer surface for the purpose of cleaning. In addition, because of
the high turbulence in plate units, they tend to scale or foul less
than shell and tube exchangers.
If the plate and frame heat exchanger has a weakness compared to the shell and tube, it is the amount of gasketing in the
unit. Compared to the shell and tube, the plate and frame has a
much greater amount of gasketing, and therefore a much higher
potential for leakage. In addition, since the gaskets are elastomers,
they have a service life. On average, the life of a gasket on a plate
and frame heat exchanger is approximately 6 to 7 years, with
operating temperatures having a significant effect on actual performance. Units operating close to the temperature limit of the
gasket will experience shorter gasket life. There is one other aspect of an elastomer gasket that must be considered: the
phenomenon of cold leakage. Cold leakage is caused by the cooling down of a plate heat exchanger from high operating
temperatures when there is a pressure differential between the

Heat Exchangers

289

hot and cold media in the unit. The plate and frame unit has a
tendency to weep through the gasket interface. The weeping normally stops after the gaskets reset or the unit is brought back up
to operating temperatures. Basically, if the application requires
a low probability of leakage, the better choice is a prime surface
or shell and tube design rather than a plate and frame.
While gaskets may be a weakness in a plate and frame unit,
being able to expand its thermal capacity merely by adding channel plates to an existing unit is one of its major strengths. If it is
known that a particular application will be expanded in the future, a plate unit is by far the easiest and most economical design
to use.

Indirect Fired W
ater Heaters
Water

17

291

INDIRECT FIRED
WATER HEATERS

INTRODUCTION
An indirect water heater is a fluid-to-fluid heat exchanger that
uses one hot fluid to heat a second colder fluid. The hot fluid can
be anything, such as freon or ammonia from an air conditioning
compressor, but most often is water heated by a boiler or a direct
fired unit. In homes and offices, the liquid heated is usually potable domestic cold water, but indirect water heaters can also be
used to heat pool water or melt snow. Since they do not contain
a firebox or electrical element for heating, they have no need of a
separate flue or fuel line, which reduces related installation and
construction costs.

PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
There are two basic types of indirect water heater on the market
today, which are distinguished primarily by the location of the
boiler water.

Storage Tank Type Indirect Water Heaters


The first kind of indirect water heater to appear in the marketplace, the storage tank type is very similar to its direct fired cousins
in that its tank contains potable domestic water to be heated by
boiler water flowing through a single coil. (See Figure 17.1.)
The advantage of this type of indirect water heater is its ability
to deliver a large amount of heated water. However, as hot water is
delivered, the tank must constantly be refilled with incoming cold
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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Figure 17.1 Indirect Water Heater Designs.


Source: Courtesy of Group Thermo, Inc.

water, which reduces the temperature of the remaining stored


water. This type of indirect water heater needs sufficient time to
recover (reheat) its contents once they are cooled. Therefore, its
capacity to deliver hot water during short intervals of high demand may be limited. In such instances as a residential application
requiring large amounts of hot water within 5 to 10 min, for the
purposes of filling a large spa or a whirlpool bathtub or the concurrent operation of several appliances needing hot water,
installation of a commercial size storage indirect water heater tank
of at least 80 to 100 gal (303 to 379 L) would be necessary. This
tactic would meet the demand for the availability of more hot water but would significantly increase the cost to the consumer.
Another kind of storage tank type indirect water heater is the
double-tank or tank-within-a-tank design. The potable domestic water is held in an inner tank while the boiler water circulates
around it.

Indirect Fired W
ater Heaters
Water

293

This design innovation has led to considerably improved performance and faster recovery due to the larger heat transfer
surface. However, the same dump limitation applies. Early models of this type of water heater were prone to corrosion at the top
of the tank due to oxygen accumulation, but current versions
are vented to prevent this problem. Nevertheless, the constant
refilling of the tank with fresh water makes all storage indirect
water heaters susceptible to two other major causes of tank failurethermal stress and scaling.
Thermal stress results because the 90 to 100F (32 to 38C)
temperature fluctuations that occur on a daily basis cause tank
linings and dissimilar metals to expand and contract at different
rates. This expansion and contraction eventually leads to cracking. Over time, oxygen contained in the fresh water attacks these
cracks and corrodes the tank. Fresh water also contains mineral
salts, which precipitate out as the water is heated and attach
themselves to the hottest surface available. Regardless of whether
the hottest surface is the coil containing the boiler water or a portion of the tank wall, scale buildup steadily erodes heat transfer
efficiency.
The chart in Figure 17.2 illustrates how dramatically the rate
of scale formation increases as temperatures rise above 140F
(60C). At this temperature in residential use, their average
lifespan ranges anywhere from 7 to 12 years, depending on water conditions. For water heaters in commercial use, the life
expectancy is considerably shorter.
In summary, while both of these storage tank designs are
capable of delivering water at high temperatures, their consistent operation at temperatures above 140F (60C) will result in
significantly faster scale formation, rapidly deteriorating heat
transfer efficiency, and much shorter life expectancies.

Instantaneous Indirect Water Heaters


The second type is the instantaneous indirect water heater. Its
tank is filled with boiler water that heats potable domestic water
that passes through multiple, small diameter coils as it is needed.
Provided that the boiler continues to produce enough heat, the
instantaneous indirect water heater will provide an unending
supply of hot water for as long as it is needed. This type of water
heater needs no recovery time.

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The instantaneous indirect water heater is a descendant of the


well-known instantaneous coil in a boiler water heater. Several
simple design innovations make the modern version better.

Figure 17.2 Purdue Bulletin 74 Chart, Showing the Relationship


Between Lime Deposits and Water Temperature.
Source: Chart developed by Purdue University. Reprinted courtesy of Group Thermo, Inc.
Notes:
1. Chart is based on 10 grains of hardness. For any other hardness, multiply the
pounds of lime deposited per year data by the new grain hardness converted by a
multiple of 10. For example, 20 grain hardness = 2 times the data. (1 grain hardness =
17.1 ppm hardness.)
2. A very important fact demonstrated by this figure is that almost 7 times more lime is
deposited when the water temperature is 180F (82C) as opposed to 140F (60C). The
factor of 7 translates into a very short life expectancy for tank type heaters in services
that require sanitizing (180F [82C]) water temperatures.

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295

First, the potential for scaling and corrosion in the boiler water tank has been virtually eliminated because it is filled with
dead boiler water circulating in a closed loop. Once the loop is
filled, the small amount of makeup water added over time is not
enough to cause problems, provided the loop is properly vented.
Scaling inside the coils is prevented by the accelerated flow of the
potable water whenever hot water is drawn. By using several
coils of relatively small diameter, high output levels are possible
with little pressure drop. Since this type of indirect water heater
does not develop scale, even at higher temperatures, it is often
used in applications where 180F (82C) water is needed for sanitizing (e.g., automatic dishwashers, hospital laundries, and food
processing equipment).
Second, a tankless coil typically used a single, finned coil
immersed in the boiler water. Since both sides of each fin or rib
on the coil were considered part of the available heat transfer
surface, efficiency was expected to be high. In reality, the fins
and ribs trapped pockets of static water which acted like a layer
of insulation and hindered the heat transfer process. Scale collected in the valleys, compounding the problem. Wherever coils
were tightly wrapped or touching, heat transfer surfaces were
either unavailable or starved of boiler water. In comparison, the
new instantaneous water heater design makes use of multiple
smooth coils in loosely overlapping bundles to maximize the
amount of available heat transfer surface. The addition of turbulent flows inside and outside the coil boosts the heat transfer
efficiency into the high 90% range and raises the overall operating efficiency to new levels. The turbulence also scrubs the coils
clean of any scale buildup. As a result, instantaneous indirect
water heaters are projected to last 20 or more years.

WATER CONDITIONS
Obviously, the quality and condition of the potable water supply
will affect the performance of a water heater, direct or indirect. In
general, if the water supply has a pH value close to 7, neither
highly acidic nor heavily alkaline, any indirect water heater will
function properly. However, when high acidity is encountered and
cannot be modified using water treatment equipment, indirect water
heaters with copper coils may be adversely affected. Conversely,
very alkaline water will cause storage tank type indirect water heaters to accumulate scale much more rapidly. Particulate matter in
suspension or otherwise contained in the potable water supply

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should be filtered out before the water enters either type of indirect water heater. Sediment will quickly accumulate in and clog
up the storage tank type or sandblast the coils of the instantaneous indirect water heater, causing damage.

Electri
ater Heaters
Storage and Booster
Electricc W
Water
Heaters

18

297

ELECTRIC WATER
HEATERS
STORAGE AND
BOOSTER

INTRODUCTION
An electric water heater is an appliance for heating water that is
to be used for purposes other than space or central heating (for
instance, cooking, dish and cooking utensil washing, clothes
washing, lavatories, baths, and showers).

PRINCIPAL TYPES OF ELECTRIC WATER HEATER


Water heaters are classified as residential or commercial, based
on their size as well as their intended use.
Residential water heaters that meet UL Standard 174 generally include those with inputs of 600 volts (V) or fewer, no more
than 12 kW, and with tanks at capacities of between 1 and 120
gal (3.79 and 454 L).
Commercial storage tank water heaters and electric booster
water heaters that meet UL Standard 1453 are those that have
inputs of 600 V or fewer and satisfy at least one of the following
conditions:
1. Have a capacity of more than 120 gal (454 L).
2. Are rated over 12 kW.
3. Are equipped with one or more temperature regulating controls permitting a water temperature higher than 185F (85C).
For medium and heavy-duty commercial applications, hot
water with temperatures of 180F (82C) and above generally must
be available to meet the dish and utensil washing requirements
of restaurant installations. For equipment to be classified as a

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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water heater instead of a boiler, it must have provisions that


guard against water temperatures exceeding 210F (99C).

COMPONENTS
Other than controls, the following are the principal components
of an electric water heater.

The Tank
In electric tank type water heaters, the tank serves the purpose
of hot water storage.
Linings are generally used in steel tanks to protect the steel
and to prolong tank life. (Tank materials other than steel are also
available.) An additional means of protecting a tank against corrosion is the use of a sacrificial anode. With the insertion of a
sacrificial anode, such as an aluminum or magnesium rod in the
tank, the primary electrolytic reaction occurs between the anode
and the other exposed dissimilar metals within the tank. The
anode is consumed first, thereby protecting the tank. The anode
should be replaced as it approaches decomposition to ensure
continued protection of the tank.

Tank Fittings
Tanks require fittings for cold water inlet and hot water outlet
connections. These connections normally are threaded nipples
welded to openings in the tank to provide for the water pipe
inlet and outlet connections. A fitting that enables the replacement of the sacrificial anode also is usually provided. In addition
to the inlet and outlet fittings, there are threaded nipples for
the insertion of immersion type elements, thermostats, temperature-pressure relief valves, and high limits. Residential and
light-duty commercial tanks have brackets on the outside for
surface-mounted thermostats and high limits.
A fitting for the insertion of a drain cock is required on all
domestic and commercial water heater tanks to allow easy drainage of the tank and removal of foreign matter that may accumulate
on the tank bottom.
Figure 18.1 illustrates a typical residential or commercial
electric water heater and shows the location of some of
the fittings on the tank.

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ater Heaters
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Figure 18.1 A Typical Electric Water Heater.


Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.
Note: Cover of electric water heater shown removed to reveal fittings at tank top.

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Dip Tube
A dip tube is used with all tank water heaters that have the cold
water inlet located at the top of the tank. The dip tube directs the
cold water toward the bottom of the tank to prevent excessive
mixing of cold and hot water as the hot water is used. The relationship between the length of the dip tube and the height of the
tank determines the amount of usable hot water that can be
drawn from the tank at any one time (the tank draw efficiency). A
dip tube that is too short will cause excessive mixing of cold
water at the top of the tank, which can cause the hot water to be
delivered at a lower than desired temperature. In the past, dip
tubes were made of metal, but presently most dip tubes are made
of high-temperature-resistant, nontoxic, high-density plastic.
A dip tube has a small hole, located near the top of the tank,
that expels a small amount of cold water into the top of the tank
under operating conditions. This anti-siphoning feature prevents the tank from being siphoned in case the cold water supply
is cut off. In such a situation, the tank would be siphoned only to
the level of the anti-siphon hole, where the siphoning action would
be stopped.

Elements
Electric water heating technology has been through only minor
changes since its inception. That is because immersion elements
are considered 100% efficient. Only the wattage of the elements
has been increased over the years to shorten recovery times.
Two types of elementwraparound and immersionhave been
used, with immersion type elements representing the overwhelming majority. Wraparound elements, as their name implies, wrap
around the outside of the tank in a channel. This type of element
heats from the outside and is used primarily in high lime areas to
prevent scaling and premature element failure. Immersion elements, as their names implies, are immersed in the water and are
made in several styles: blade, single-loop, and multi-loop. (Figure
18.2 shows the types of electric water heater element.)
Element construction
Element construction is essentially the same, regardless of wattage or sheath surface area. As Figure 18.3 illustrates, the principle
components of an element are the electrical terminals, flanges,
sheath, magnesium oxide, and resistance wire.

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ater Heaters
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Figure 18.2 Electric Water Heater Element Types.


Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.

Figure 18.3 Electric Water Heater Element Construction.


Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.

The magnesium oxide is used as an electrical insulator between the resistance wire and sheath as well as a conductor of heat.
The resistance wire is made of nichrome (nickle chrome) and
is of an appropriate length and diameter (ohm rating) to draw a
certain wattage (producing a predictable amount of heat) at a
given voltage. (Table 18.1 charts the relationship among the watt-

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age, voltage, and resistance of an element.)

Table 18.1 Resistance of Element (in ohms) ( 7.5%)


Rated Wattage

Rated
Voltage

600

750

1000

1250

1500

2000

2500

120
208
240
277

23.2
72.1
92.8
128

18.6
57.7
74.3
102

13.9
43.3
55.7
76.7

11.1
34.6
44.6
61.4

9.28
28.6
37.1
51.2

6.96
21.6
27.8
38.4

5.57
17.3
22.3
30.7

Rated Wattage

Rated
Voltage

3000

3500

4000

4500

5000

5500

6000

120
208
240
277
480

4.64
14.4
18.6
25.6
76.8

12.4
15.9
21.9
65.7

10.8
13.9
19.2
57.5

9.61
12.4
17.1
51.1

8.65
11.1
15.3
45.7

7.85
10.1
14.0
41.8

7.2
9.28
12.8
38.4

Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.

Element operation
In an electric element, thermal energy is produced when voltage
is applied to the nichrome wire. The heat energy produced is
conducted through the magnesium oxide and copper or incoloy
sheath into the water. Once the thermal energy enters the water,
it is distributed throughout the tank by convection.
Residential electric water heaters are normally furnished with
dual elements that are wired for non-simultaneous operation (only
one element operates at a time; the upper element operates first
on a cold start). Electric water heaters may be specified with the
elements wired for simultaneous operation (both elements operate at the same time). The designer should be sure to check the
total connected load with the electrical engineer.
Most electric water heaters currently produced use immersion type electric elements, which are considered 100% efficient.
There are two kinds of such element, distinguished by the material used in their sheathing.

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Copper sheathed element


This consists of a nichrome resistance wire surrounded by
magnesium oxide and sleeved in a copper sheath. Standard
equipment on residential models, this element features:
1. High to medium watt density.
2. UL listing.
3. Zinc plating for corrosion protection.
Note: Copper sheathed elements must be immersed in
water when energized or they will dry fire (melt down). The
dry firing of water heaters usually occurs during initial installation when the heaters are not completely filled with water
and the power is switched on.
Incoloy sheathed element
This consists of a nichrome resistance wire surrounded by
magnesium oxide and sleeved in an incoloy iron-based super
alloy sheath. Standard equipment on top-of-the-line residential models, this element features:
1. Low to medium watt density.
2. UL listing.

CONTROLS FOR RESIDENTIAL AND LIGHT-DUTY,


COMMERCIAL ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
Thermostat
This regulates the temperature of the water in the tank. Usually
one snap-action, surface-mounted thermostat is used per element. Temperatures are adjustable from 110 to 170F, 10F
(43 to 77C, 6C). (See Figure 18.4 for location.)

High Limit
This safety device limits the maximum water temperature in the
tank. Usually one snap-action, surface-mounted high limit safety
device is used. It is set to open at 190F, 5F (88C, 3C).

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Figure 18.4 Location of ControlsResidential and


Light-Duty, Commercial Electric Water Heaters.
Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.

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ater Heaters
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CONTROLS FOR MEDIUM-DUTY, COMMERCIAL


ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
Surface-Mounted Controls
Thermostat
This regulates the temperature of the water in the tank.
Usually one snap-action, surface-mounted thermostat is used
per element. Temperatures generally are adjustable from
approximately 120 to 180F (49 to 82C). Surface-mounted thermostats have a differential of between 8 and 15F (4 and 7C).
High limit
This safety device limits the maximum water temperature in the
tank. Usually one snap-action, surface-mounted high limit safety
device is used. It is set to open at 200F (93C) but can be manually adjusted to open.
Wiring circuits
Voltages commonly available are 208, 240, 277, and 480. Many
of the circuits are field convertible between single and three-phase
voltages. Also, these heaters have internal fusing.

Immersion Controls
Thermostat
An immersion well, remote bulb thermostat is used to regulate
the temperature of the water in the tank. Temperatures
generally are adjustable from approximately 120 to 180F (49 to
82C). Immersion thermostats have a differential of 5F (3C)
and are excellent units to use when precise temperatures are
important. Multiple thermostats may be used.
High limit
This safety device limits the maximum water temperature in the
tank. Usually an immersion well, remote bulb high limit is used.
It is set to open at 200F (93C) but can be manually adjusted to
open.

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Wiring circuits
Voltages commonly available are 208, 240, 277, and 480. Many
of the circuits are field convertible between single and three-phase
voltages. Also, these heaters have internal fusing and contactors
to link control (120 V) and power circuits (line voltage).

CONTROLS FOR HEAVY-DUTY, COMMERCIAL


ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
Immersion Thermostat
A direct immersion bulb thermostat is used to regulate the temperature of the water in the tank. Temperatures generally are
adjustable from approximately 95 to 180F (35 to 82C). Immersion thermostats have a differential of 5F (3C) and are excellent
units to use when precise temperatures are important. The control
of groups of elements is done by the use of multiple thermostats,
time-delay sequencers, or a solid-state progressive sequencer.
(See Figure 18.5.)

Immersion High Limit


This safety device limits the maximum water temperature in the
tank. Usually one snap-action, surface-mounted high limit is used
per thermostat. An immersion well, remote bulb high limit may
be used. It is set to open at 200F (93C) but can be manually
reset to open at 180F (82C).

Wiring Circuits
Voltages commonly available are 208, 240, 277, and 480. Many of
the circuits are field convertible between single and three-phase
voltages. Also, these heaters have internal fusing and contactors
to link control (120 V) and power circuits (line voltage).

Options
There are many options available with this category of heater.

CONTROLS FOR BOOSTER TYPE, COMMERCIAL


ELECTRIC WATER HEATERS
These heaters typically are low storage type heaters, with capacities generally ranging from 6 to 20 gal (23 to 76 L).

Electri
ater Heaters
Storage and Booster
Electricc W
Water
Heaters

Figure 18.5 Location of ControlsCommercial Electric


Water Heaters.
Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.

307

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Immersion Thermostat
A direct immersion bulb thermostat is used to regulate the
temperature of the water in the tank. Temperatures generally are
adjustable from approximately 140 to 185F (60 to 85C). Immersion thermostats have a differential of 2F (1C) and are
excellent units to use when precise temperatures are important.
(See Figure 18.6.)

Immersion High Limit


This safety device limits the maximum water temperature in the
tank. Usually one snap-action, surface-mounted high limit is used
per thermostat. An immersion well, remote bulb high limit may
be used. It is set to open at 200F (93C) but can be manually
reset to open at 180F (82C).

Wiring Circuits
Circuits are convertible between single and three-phase voltages.
Also, these heaters have internal fusing and contactors to link
control (120 V) and power circuits (line voltage).

Ratings
All heaters shall be rated according to the following standards:
1. Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
2. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Options
There are many options available with this category of heater.

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Figure 18.6 Location of ControlsBooster Type, Commercial


Electric Water Heaters.
Source: Courtesy of A.O. Smith Water Products.

Ga
ater Heater
Instantaneous With Separate TTank
ank
Gass W
Water
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311

GAS WATER
HEATERS
INSTANTANEOUS
WITH
SEPARATE TANK

The direct or indirect, instantaneous water heater coupled with a


separate hot water storage tank, which can be of various volumes, is a water heating system that is well suited for many
applications. (For the purposes of this chapter, an instantaneous
water heater will be defined as a gas fired heating device with no
storage.) Because of its ability to handle a high peak water heating load, this type of system is used in a variety of applications. It
is frequently found in such facilities as hotels, motels, restaurants, food processing plants, laundries, garment manufacturing
and dye houses, and chemical processing facilities.
In this type of system, a gas fired water heater is used to heat
the domestic water, and a pump moves this water through the
water heater and transfers it to the storage tank. The pump circulates the water between the tank and the heater when there is
a demand for heat, thereby keeping the tank at a relatively uniform temperature. With some systems this pump can be turned
off during periods of no demand. The storage tank is sized to
meet the demands of a particular application.
The criteria that need to be evaluated in order to select the
size of the heater, the circulating pump, and the storage tank
vary from application to application. Please refer to Section I of
this manual for information on sizing domestic water heating
systems. The more that is known about the exact operation of a
facility, the more intelligently the designer can match the input
of the heater (Btu [W]) to the storage tank volume.
In this type of system, cold water is introduced to the system per the manufacturers recommendations, and hot water is
drawn from the storage tank. This type of system has the flex-

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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ibility to allow the designer to balance the heater recovery with


the storage tank.
The size, flow rate (gpm [L/sec]), and head of the pump to be
utilized depend upon the total dynamic head of the system loop.
It is important that the designer consult the manufacturer to
select a pump that will maintain the proper velocity in the heater
tubes, which will reduce the effects of scaling and overheating
the water as it is routed through the heater. When this type of
water heater is used in areas with hard water, softening the water or
selecting a heat exchanger material other than copper (such as
cupro-nickel) will increase the longevity of the heater and system components.

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313

GAS WATER
HEATERS
STORAGE

TYPES OF GAS WATER HEATERS


Water heaters are classified as residential (domestic) or commercial based on their size as well as their intended use. Residential
water heaters are generally considered to include those with input rates up to and including 75,000 Btu/h (21 975 W), and
commercial water heaters are those with input rates over
75,000 Btu/h (21 975 W).
The most common type of gas water heater is the storage
(tank) type heater in which a single tank is used for both heating
and storing the water. The heaters most commonly used for residential purposes are those with 30, 40, and 50-gal (115, 150,
and 190-L) tanks. Large heaters have capacities ranging from
120 up to as many as several thousand gallons (455 up to as
many as several thousand liters).

FLUES AND HEAT EXCHANGERS


Storage type heaters are classified according to the placement of
the gas flue. With respect to this classification, types include the
internal (center) flue, the external channel flue, the floating tank
external flue, and the multiple flue. (See Figure 20.1.)
The internal (center) flue type has the most economical construction. The external channel flue increases the bottom heating
surface and tends to promote heating from the bottom, which
improves efficiency. The floater has the greatest heat transfer
area of the three types, with the whole bottom and the full surface
of the tank available for heat transfer.
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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The internal (center) flue tends to be smaller in diameter than


the external and floating type flues for the same capacity tank.
Flues serve as the primary means for disposing of the products
of combustion and also as heat exchangers. Because commercial
water heaters have higher gas inputs and need even greater heat
transfer areas than residential heaters, many are constructed
with multiple flues to both increase the heat transfer area and
provide a cross-sectional flue area sufficient for properly disposing of the products of combustion. (Figure 20.1 illustrates a
multiple flue commercial water heater.)

TANKS
As previously explained, the tank in a tank type water heater serves
the dual purposes of heat exchange and hot water storage. Also, it
must be able to withstand water pressure in compliance with the
codes and regulations of whatever authority has jurisdiction.
The storage of hot water in the tank accelerates corrosion.
Linings are generally used with steel tanks to protect the steel
and to prolong tank life. Tank materials other than steel are also
available.
A second method of protecting the tank is the sacrificial anode.
When a sacrificial anode such as a magnesium rod is inserted in
the tank, corrosive action occurs between the anode and
any exposed metals in the tank. The anode, being higher on the
galvanic scale, is consumed first, thereby protecting the tank. In
some instances, anode rods are not installed because they have
a detrimental effect on the tank lining. Figure 20.2 illustrates a
residential gas water heater containing one type of sacrificial
anode. An anode such as this should be replaced as it approaches
decomposition to ensure continued protection of the tank.
One disadvantage of the underfired tank is its propensity for
depositing sediment on the bottom of the tank. The harder the
water, the greater the potential for this problem.

TANK FITTINGS
Tanks require fittings for cold water inlet and hot water outlet
connections. These connections are normally threaded nipples
welded to openings in the tank to provide for the water pipe inlet
and outlet connections. A fitting enabling the replacement of the

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ater Heate
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315

sacrificial anode is also normally provided. In addition, most tanks


are provided with one or more threaded nipples for the insertion
of immersion type thermostats, temperature-pressure relief valves,
and automatic gas shut-off devices.
A fitting for the insertion of a drain cock is found on most
residential and commercial water heater tanks to allow easy drainage of the tank and removal of foreign matter that may accumulate
on the tank bottom. Although infrequently done in practice, the
periodic draining of tanks is highly recommended (the frequency
depending on water conditions in the area) because the removal
of foreign matter improves heat transfer, provides for cleaner hot
water, and eliminates any noises caused by the accumulated foreign matter. Commercial tanks have, or can be fitted
with, a handhole cleanout. ASME rated tanks over a certain size
require a manhole.
See Figure 20.3 for possible locations of some of the residential and commercial water heater fittings described. These are
examples only; many variations of location and gas water heater
are encountered.

DIP TUBES
A dip tube is used on all tank water heaters in which the cold
water inlet is at the top of the tank. The dip tube directs the
incoming cold water toward the bottom of the tank to prevent the
mixing of cold and hot water. In all tank water heaters, the water
at the top of the tank, under cycling and intermittent standby
conditions, attains a higher temperature than water at the bottom of the tank. The variation between the two temperatures
depends on heater design and dip tube length. A dip tube that is
too short will cause excessive mixing of the cold and hot water,
which will reduce the tank draw efficiency.
In the past, dip tubes were made of metal, but presently most
dip tubes are made of high-temperature-resistant, nontoxic, highdensity plastic.
A dip tube has a small hole, located near the top of the tank,
that expels a small amount of cold water into the top of the tank
under operating conditions. This anti-siphoning feature prevents the tank from being siphoned. Figure 20.4 shows the
operation of the dip tube under normal operating conditions and
under conditionssuch as occur when the cold water supply is
shut off or a line breaksnecessitating anti-siphoning action.

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(A)

(B)

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ater Heate
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317

(C)

(D)
Figure 20.1 Location and Types of Flue:
(A) Internal Flue Tank, (B) External Channel Flue Tank,
(C) Floating TankExternal Flue, (D) Multiple Flue
Multiple Burner, Commercial Water Heater.
Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

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Figure 20.2 Sacrificial Anode Installation in a Residential


Gas Water Heater Tank.
Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

Figure 20.3 Example of Water Heater Fittings.


Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

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ater Heate
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319

Figure 20.4 The Principle of Operation of the Dip Tube.


Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

BURNERS
Burner assemblies are designed to ensure that gas and air are
properly mixed for combustion. Burners vary greatly in design
and construction, but all have:
1. An inlet air orifice. Varies with the type of gas and the normal
range of gas pressure.
2. A means of controlling air intake. For primary air burners, air
intake control may be fixed or variable (air shutter).
3. A mixing tube or mixing area. Allows gas and air to mix before
or during burning.
4. Ports. Control the gas flame pattern to improve burning characteristics and distribute the flame in relation to the tank
and/or heat exchanger area.
A few of the more common types of burner found in gas water
heaters are illustrated in Figure 20.5.

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Figure 20.5 Types of Gas Burner.


Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

Issues to consider when selecting a burner design include


the overall physical dimensions of the burner, type of burner
head and port, and flame pattern.
A burners gas input rating governs its orifice and total port
areas. Ports that are too large encourage flashback of the flame
to the burner orifice. Ports that are too small encourage the blowing of flames. The number and size of the ports necessary to give
the proper flame characteristics can be calculated. Ports must be
properly spaced for good flame travel and ignition. Flame characteristics are affected by:
1. The form of the ports (slotted, drilled, ribbon, raised, or
flush).
2. Port size, depth, and spacing.
3. Type of burner head.
4. Air-gas mixture temperatures.

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ater Heate
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Air inlets must cover a range wide enough to allow the airgas mixture to be properly adjusted for different gas, pressure,
and altitude conditions. Note: Designers should be sure to consult the manufacturers recommendations for derating burners
as necessitated by high altitudes.

VENTING SYSTEMS
A venting system is required to transfer the products of combustion to
the outside. The venting system of a water heater consists of:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Water heater flues.


A draft diverter or draft regulator.
Vent pipe connections to the outside or chimney.
Vent caps.

Proper venting generally is covered by local codes. Improper


venting results from a lack of understanding of how and why a
venting system functions. The basic principle behind venting
appliances is that flue gases rise because they are lighter than
the surrounding ambient air. It is the heat content of the gases
that lightens them and causes them to rise. A venting system
that uses the natural tendency of hot gases to rise could be
essentially a vertical path.
Other considerations include using:
1. Vents of a diameter sufficient to carry the gases.
2. Controlled mixtures of flue gases with dilution air from the
draft diverter to prevent excessive cooling of the gases.
3. Insulation on the vent pipe to maintain sufficient flue gas
temperatures in excessively long or high vents (to avoid condensation and maintain draft).
4. Mechanical draft inducers with a double-acting barometric
damper.

Draft Hoods
A draft hood is used with almost every water heater not equipped
with a draft regulator or power vent (positive pressure) system.
The draft hood is designed to minimize the effects of:
1. Updrafts. It prevents excessive updrafts through the burner
compartment.

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2. Downdrafts. It prevents a downdraft from blowing out the


pilot flame or causing it to flash back.
3. Blocked flues. If the vent becomes blocked, it minimizes the
concentration of carbon monoxide by diluting the spilling flue
gases.
4. Spillage. It ensures that flue gases do not spill from the
bottom of the diverter if the water heater is installed with a
minimum amount of venting.
Some of the draft hoods commonly used on gas water heaters
are shown in Figure 20.6.

Figure 20.6 Commonly Used Draft Hoods.


Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

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ater Heate
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323

The operation of a vertical draft hood under downdraft conditions is illustrated in Figure 20.7.

Vent Connections
The ideal venting system has vent pipe connections that rise
vertically from the draft hood through the roof to the outside and
terminate in a vent cap, which protects the vent from stoppage
and minimizes the effects of downdraft.

Figure 20.7 Downdraft Conditions in a Vertical Draft Hood.


Source: Courtesy of Uni-Line North America, Robertshaw.

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Where lateral runs are required to connect with chimney installations, the lateral runs should be kept to the minimum
required length. They should slant upward, at a minimum of
in./linear ft (a 2% angle), in the direction of normal flue gas flow.
The connection of a vent to a chimney should be smooth on the
interior surface. The vent pipe should not project into the chimney interior. Consult local codes or National Fuel Gas Code NFPA
54 for details. (See Figure 20.8.)

Figure 20.8 Vent Connection to a Chimney.


Source: Courtesy of UniLine North America, Robertshaw.

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ater Heaters
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325

HEAT PUMP
WATER HEATERS

INTRODUCTION
The heat pump water heater uses modern refrigeration technology. In both residential and commercial applications, this type of
water heater can heat water more efficiently and thus is more
cost-effective than an electrical resistance heater. In the right
commercial applications, the energy savings can be significant. A
residential heat pump water heater has a refrigeration system
much like that of a refrigerator. The heat pump water heater
uses this system to transfer heat from a warm airstream to water. A typical residential heat pump water heater can heat water
to a temperature of 130F (54C). A typical commercial heat pump
water heater can heat water to a temperature of 160F (71C).
Heat pump water heaters operate on the principle of recovering
heat from an air source. For this type of water heater to operate,
there must be a warm air source (35F [1.7C] or higher). The
heat pump water heater consists of two heat exchangers and a
refrigeration compressor. The first heat exchanger is usually located in the airstream with the waste heat and acts to recover
this wasted heat. The compressor pumps the recovered heat from
the airstream to the other heat exchanger, which is associated
with a storage tank, for the heating or preheating of domestic hot
water. This is where the heater gets its nameheat is pumped
from one location to another. The refrigeration compressor uses
the refrigeration systems hot gas for pumping. In the right locations, a heat pump system can provide simultaneous water
heating and space cooling or refrigeration.
Heat pump water heaters use a vapor compression cycle
similar to that of a refrigerator to remove heat from an airstream
Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
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flowing through the evaporator and transfer it to water. Hot, highpressure refrigerant gas is routed from the compressor to the
heat exchanger associated with the storage tank. This exchanger
is either one that the entering cold water flows through (remote
type) or one at the water storage tank to which entering cold
water is piped (integral type).
The temperature of the hot gas in commercial refrigeration
systems is usually around 200F (93C) or higher and is ideal for
heating domestic water. There are several combined heat exchanger and tank designs. Some have less of a pressure drop
through the heat exchanger than others. Some have coils immersed in the tank while others have coils that wrap around the
tank, and one has a heat exchanger plate that surrounds the
water storage tank.
The refrigerant is cooled and condensed when it heats the
water. The refrigerant liquid then passes through capillary tubing (an expansion device), which causes the pressure and
temperature of the refrigerant to drop. The refrigerant gas then
enters the evaporator coil where it absorbs heat from the air passing through the coil and evaporates. The compressor evacuates
the cool, evaporated refrigerant gas and compresses it to a high
pressure and temperature to repeat the process.

TYPES OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER


There are two main types of heat pump water heater. In the integral type, the heat pump and water storage tank are assembled
together. In the remote type, the heat pump is located at a distance from the water storage tank and connected by tubes or
piping. Integral type heat pump water heaters are available in
residential and small commercial sizes (approximately 8000 to
60,000 Btu/h [2345 to 17 580 W]) with storage tank sizes ranging from 50 to 120 gal (190 to 455 L). Remote type heat pump
water heaters are available in these same sizes, as well as in
much larger sizes for commercial and industrial applications (approximately 8000 to 180,000 Btu/h [2345 to 52 740 W]). With a
remote type heat pump water heater a separate storage tank must
be added to complete the water heating system.

Integral Heat Pump Water Heaters


Integral heat pump water heaters are assembled with the main
refrigeration components attached to the hot water storage tank.

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The water storage tank of this type of water heater is essentially


an electric resistance hot water heater. It has electric resistance
heating elements to provide additional heating capability for periods of peak hot water usage. Some integral heat pump water
heaters are available with remote evaporators, which can be located near specific heat sources to provide spot cooling. Remote
evaporators are often used in areas such as a hot kitchen and
the space above an ice machine to remove heat directly.

Remote Heat Pump Water Heaters


Remote type heat pump water heaters are separate from water
storage tanks and can be located at a distance from them. In
most residential and small commercial remote heat pump water
heater installations, an electric resistance water heater is used
for the storage tank. In large commercial remote heat pump water heater installations, a heat pump water heater is used in
combination with a gas or electric resistance water heater to provide enough heating capability for periods of peak hot water usage,
and all the water heaters are connected to a large storage tank.
Remote heat pump water heaters are located inside or outside a
structure depending on available space and whether or not there
is an application for the heat pumps space cooling ability.

ENERGY SOURCES
Electricity is the primary source of energy for the refrigeration
system components of a heat pump water heater, for instance,
the compressor, pumps, and fans. Air is the heat source for the
heat pump water heater. All integral type and most remote type
heat pump water heaters use a water storage tank equipped with
backup electric resistance elements to meet peak hot water demand. If electricity rates are excessive, the tank can be ahead of
a gas fired water heater.
Heat pump water heaters remove heat from an airstream and
put it, along with heat from the electrical power they consume,
into water. A heat pump water heater can produce the same
amount of hot water as an electric resistance water heater using
only one quarter to one half the electrical power. The heat pump
water heater also provides space cooling and dehumidification
as a result of the water heating, a result that is often beneficial to
the customer.

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BENEFITS OF THE HEAT PUMP WATER HEATER


The main benefit of the heat pump water heater is its efficiency.
It is much more efficient than an electric resistance water heater
and may be cheaper to operate than a gas water heater, depending on local costs for gas and electricity.
Also the heat pump water heater provides cool, dehumidified
air as a byproduct of water heating. If there is a need for space
cooling or the existing air conditioning system is inefficient, the
space cooling effect of the heat pump water heater should be
taken into account in an economics analysis.
Another benefit of the heat pump water heater is that it allows
the user to reduce the peak water heating load by spreading it
over a long period of time. With adequate storage, a heat pump
water heater with electric backup enables a large part of the water
heating load to be shifted to off-peak hours for electricity usage,
thereby providing additional savings. Because of this, heat pump
water heaters may qualify users for utility rebates or tax credits.
Heat pump water heaters have lower instantaneous electricity demands than electric resistance water heaters do. If a heat pump
water heater cannot meet peak hot water demand, the backup
electric resistance elements in the storage tank will be energized
until the demand is met. When the backup electric resistance elements are energized, the heat pump water heater has a higher
rate of recovery, but it also has the high electric power demand of
an electric resistance water heater. The combination of a heat pump
water heater and electric resistance heating elements offers redundancy so that hot water heating ability will be maintained in
the case of partial equipment failure.

DRAWBACKS OF THE HEAT PUMP WATER


HEATER
The heat pump water heater may be more expensive than a conventional water heater. A heat pump water heater has a slower
rate of recovery than a conventional water heater. It may require
the engineering and field installation of additional plumbing or
refrigeration piping. If the space cooling is to be distributed,
ductwork may need to be field installed. An air source heat pump
water heater will not operate if the temperature of the evaporator
falls below freezing. Also if the evaporator temperature falls below freezing, the airstream can become blocked as ice forms on
the evaporator coil.

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If a heat pump is used for supplemental cooling, the building


must be able to handle the space cooling year-round. The engineer should not have to supply additional ambient heat during
the cold season in order for the heat pump water heater to continue operatingunless it can be supplied in a cost-efficient
manner.
Heat pump water heaters are not as widely available as conventional electric or gas water heaters. Also, heat pump water
heaters are available in only a limited number of capacities and
sizes, so the designer may have to compromise or manifold units
when sizing a heat pump water heater for a particular application. Heat pump water heaters require maintenance and service
technicians who have an understanding of heating, ventilation,
and air-conditioning systems as well as the conventional plumbing systems associated with water heaters.

HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEMS


Some engineers use heat pump water heater technology in an
engineered system referred to as a heat recovery system. Basically this type of system is similar to a heat pump water heater
system except that its refrigeration compressor is usually part of
the refrigeration system and is used to pump hot gas to the heat
exchangers in the storage tanks. Heat recovery systems may or
may not have electric heating elements. Sometimes a separate
gas water heater is provided downstream of the heat recovery
water heaters.
Heat recovery systems are used in supermarkets, restaurants,
convenience stores, dairy farms, and indoor ice rinks. Such buildings have large demands for warm water for washing down food
preparation, meat processing, dairy, and other areas from hot
and cold hose stations. They also have large refrigeration rooms
full of compressors to keep refrigerator/freezer systems cold. The
waste heat produced by such applications is ideal for a heat recovery water heater. In a study done in a supermarket in Michigan,
the waste heat from the refrigeration equipment heated the domestic water stored in three 120-gal (455-L) storage tanks, then
the preheated water passed through a gas fired water heater before being distributed to the domestic hot water system. A meter
on the gas line serving the water heater showed that over an
extended period of time the water heater burner was never turned
on.

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For supermarket applications, engineers sometimes use a


large single-circuit heat recovery unit that can accommodate high
refrigerant flow rates with low pressure drops. Sometimes multiple heat recovery units are installed in parallel or in series (a
two-stage system) for a single application.
Note: Caution should be used when working with heat recovery units. A separate condenser still must be installed with the
refrigeration system. When manifolding heat recovery units for
large refrigeration systems, the designer must take care to lay
out the piping for the units in such a way that, during periods of
low refrigeration demand, condensed liquid refrigerant is prevented from forming a trap and blocking the flow of refrigerant
gas through the units. Some manufacturers have designed special refrigerant drain tubes on their units to prevent this from
happening.

APPLICATIONS
The heat pump is an excellent choice for a water heater when
certain conditions are met. The building should have a use for
simultaneous water heating and space cooling or refrigeration.
The concurrence of the water heating and space cooling loads is
important. In a good heat pump water heater application, the
water heating load occurs over a long period of time, giving the
heat pump water heater an extended run time. There should be
a use for the space cooling or refrigeration load throughout the
year, and the temperature of the heat pump water heaters evaporator must be maintained above freezing.
If natural gas is expensive or unavailable locally, the heat
pump water heater may be the most cost-efficient choice for heating water. A heat pump water heater makes the most economic
sense when natural gas, liquid petroleum gas (LPG), oil, and electric resistance heat are expensive.
A poor heat pump water heater application is one in which
all or some of the above conditions are not met. The customer
has no use or only limited use for the space cooling byproduct.
The building has a water heating load that occurs over a short
period of time, giving the heat pump water heater a limited run
time and requiring that the backup electric elements be energized during most of the run time. When the backup electric
resistance elements are energized most of the time, the advantages of a heat pump water heater are limited. Also, if low-cost

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natural gas, LPG, oil, or electric resistance heat are readily available, the heat pump water heater loses its relative cost-efficiency.
Possible commercial heat pump/heat recovery water heater
applications are restaurants, grocery stores, and other buildings
with large refrigeration loads and high demands for hot water.
The commercial refrigeration units of such buildings usually have
condensing units, located on the roof or beside the building, that
reject the heat produced by the refrigeration process. In a commercial heat recovery application, the refrigeration hot gas line
has a bypass valve that sends the refrigeration hot gas to the
double-wall heat exchanger in the water storage tank. When the
thermostat in the water storage tank indicates that the water
has reached its set point, the bypass valve sends the hot gas to
the condenser on the roof where the excess heat is rejected.

CRITERIA FOR SELECTING HEAT PUMP


WATER HEATERS
If a natural gas or electric water heater is being replaced, the
designer should take into account the efficiency of the old water
heater or the heat pump water heater will be oversized. If space
cooling is desired, the heat pump water heater should be slightly
undersized to allow maximum run time and prevent overcooling
of the conditioned space. The designer can contact the water
heaters manufacturer or the office of the local utility for engineering assistance for a particular application.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HEAT PUMP


WATER HEATERS
The installation procedures for a heat pump water heater are the
same as the those for a conventional electric resistance water
heater with some additions. A drain must be provided to remove
condensate from the evaporator. Installation of ductwork for the
evaporator to direct the conditioned air may be desired. The installer must connect refrigeration or additional water lines between
the heat pump water heater and the storage tank if a remote type
heat pump water heater is being installed. Remote type heat pump
water heaters also should have unions, strainers, and isolation
valves installed on the water lines. Integral type heat pump water
heaters require a greater height clearance than conventional water heaters if the refrigeration components are mounted on top of
the storage tank.

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The maintenance procedures for a heat pump water heater


are the same as those for a conventional water heater with a few
additions. The anodes and backup electric elements of integral
type water heaters should be checked regularly. The scaling of
the heat exchanger and the accumulation of sediment are concerns and should be dealt with using the same procedures used
for a conventional water heater. The strainers on remote heat
pump water heater piping should be checked regularly.
Additionally, heat pump water heaters require regular maintenance of the refrigeration system. The pump or fan motors may
need lubrication. The air filter on the evaporator should be regularly cleaned or replaced, and the evaporator coil may need to be
cleaned for the heat pump water heater to operate at a high efficiency. The evaporator condensate drain must remain open and
should not have any biological growth in it if the conditioned air
is supplied to an inhabited space. Finally, the refrigeration system should be checked to ensure that it is operating efficiently.

INCOMING WATER QUALITY


Heat pump water heaters have the same requirements for incoming water quality as conventional residential and commercial
water heaters. Special heat exchangers can be used to accommodate extremely poor quality incoming water. Scale and sediment
have the same effect on the heat exchangers of heat pump water
heaters that they have on conventional water heaters and should
be handled with the same procedures. In hard water areas water
softeners should be installed ahead of the water heating system.

SAFETY CONTROLS AND DEVICES


Heat pump water heaters use the same safety controls as conventional electric or gas water heaters, such as temperature/
pressure relief valves and thermostats with manual reset overloads. Heat pump water heaters also use the same safety controls
as HVAC systems, such as refrigeration pressure and temperature controls. Heat pump water heaters with remote components
should have fuses or circuit breakers for remote components on
branch circuits.

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333

STEAM WATER
HEATERS

INTRODUCTION
Instantaneous Water Heaters
A steam, instantaneous water heater is a device that utilizes steam
to heat water to a specific temperature. It is able to supply this
tempered water without delay in volumes up to the water heaters
maximum capacity. Because of its ability to supply hot water
instantly, storage tanks usually are not required with this type of
water heater, providing the water heater is sized to handle the
maximum demand.
A steam, instantaneous water heater can be used for any application that requires domestic or process hot water and has steam
as an available energy source. Such applications include: shower
rooms, washrooms, dishwashing areas, laundries, and food processing plants. The types of facility these applications are found in
include: industrial plants, petrochemical plants, schools, universities, apartments, hotels, motels, and restaurants.
Generally speaking, there are two main types of steam, instantaneous water heater available today: the feedback unit and
the feed-forward unit.

Storage Water Heaters


The storage heater is a type of water heater in which heat is
transferred to water through tubes or coils. The hot water is then
held, ready to supply demand, in a tank. The heating assembly
can be either separate from or incorporated with the tank.

Note: All decimal equivalencies in the metric calculations are rounded. Therefore,
the metric conversions shown in the text may vary slightly from the answers
shown in the metric equations.

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A storage type water heating system requires more floor space


than an instantaneous system to accommodate the storage tank.
Also there must be adequate floor support to hold the weight of
the water stored in the tank.
Water hardness can be a problem with a storage type system.
Scale from hard water can have a degrading effect on any heater,
unless the unit is designed to remove scale buildup. Some heaters reduce scale buildup by expanding and contracting metal
parts, others by properly scouring with high water velocities. If
there is any hardness in the water, a heater that is designed to
counter scale formation and can be easily maintained should be
selected. Systems with welded plates or other similarly sealed
assemblies are best reserved for use with scale-free water.
Storage heaters can generate hot water over a period of time
and hold it, ready for use, in large volumes. Because of this,
boilers with relatively small capacities can be used and the peak
demands for fuel are reduced. Storage heaters can meet high
demands for such things as periodic showers without increasing
peak energy demands.
With a steam, storage water heating system, water is heated
either in the tank or at a remotely located heater. The tanks of
storage heating systems are large, maybe holding thousands of
gallons (liters) of water. Energy is supplied to a storage system at
a rate determined by the design of the system. In a steam, storage system, heat exchangers are used in conjunction with storage
tanks. Temperature controls located on the storage tanks maintain uniform outlet temperatures.
A steam system is operated by boiler- or district-supplied
steam. A steam boiler is operated by oil, gas, or another fuel
source. Electricity is often available for generating steam or directly heating water but is usually a costly source of energy.
District-supplied steam refers to overseas use, where steam is
created in a central location then distributed to the buildings in
a district.

FEEDBACK UNITS
A feedback unit is a water heater that controls hot water temperature by sensing hot water in either a tank or exit piping and
feeding back a signal to the steam control device. Such units are
reactive, depending on a change in water temperature for their
control. This need to react to change causes a lag in the control

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of the temperature. Lag time is greatly affected by the quality of a


units controls. Another way of thinking of the term feedback is
that control of the unit is accomplished behind or in back of the
operation of the heat exchanger.
There are generally two types of feedback system:
1. Storage tank feedback system.
2. Tankless, instantaneous feedback system.
Storage tank feedback systems are used more often than
tankless systems. The following are the main components of the
storage tank feedback system:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Bayonet type U-tube heat exchanger.


Temperature controlled steam valve.
Storage tank.
Recirculation pump.
The U-tube heat exchanger is located in the bottom portion
of the storage tank, and the steam flowing to it is controlled by
the temperature controlled steam valve. A gas or liquid-filled temperature sensing bulb is located in the midsection of the tank
and is connected via a capillary to the temperature controlled
steam valve, which modulates the flow of steam to the heat exchanger based on the temperature of the water in the tank. The
function of a recirculation pump (in a large tank) is to keep the
water in the tank turbulent to prevent stratification and to allow
for more accurate temperature readings by the sensing bulb.
A storage tank feedback system is capable of supplying a
large volume of water (the volume depending on the size of the
storage tank). It is not an instantaneous system, however, so its
recovery rate can be slow. Also because the storage tank can be
very large, it may require a large floor space. Because these units
are usually located in a basement or mechanical room, replacing
the storage tank is impossible without either making major modifications to the building or replacing the large tank with multiple
smaller tanks.
The tankless, instantaneous feedback system operates exactly the way the storage tank feedback system does. Because
there is no tank, however, the temperature sensing bulb is
mounted in the outlet water line. Because of the bulb location
and the slow response time associated with self-contained temperature regulators, inaccurate control is a characteristic of this
type of unit when hot water demand fluctuates the way it does in
a domestic hot water system. In the transition from low to heavy

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load, there is a lag time before the temperature regulator reacts,


which causes a temperature drop in the water. Conversely, when
demand changes from heavy to low load the lag time causes overheating of the outlet water.
Another shortcoming of this type of feedback system is the
thermostatic capillary system. Domestic hot water systems usually have demands from 10 to 20% of the time. The other 80 to
90% of the time they stand idle. Under no load conditions, the
water radiates heat, thus cooling down. As this happens, the
temperature regulator opens and allows steam into the heat exchanger, elevating the water temperature, which in turn causes
the temperature regulator to close. While the system is idle, this
cycling goes on continuously. Such cycling can cause the bellows of the thermostatic capillary system to fail, causing severe
overheating of the outlet water.
In summary, the storage tank feedback system offers large
volumes of constant temperature water but has storage tanks
that take up valuable floor space. Because of the size of such a
system, maintenance or replacement is very difficult and very
expensive. Also this type of unit wastes more energy than a
tankless system because it heats and maintains the temperature
of water that is not being used. On the other hand, the tankless,
instantaneous feedback system can fit into very small areas and
uses no tank that would require service or replacement. It does
not waste energy keeping unused water hot, but rather heats
water instantly on demand. Because it does not use a large stored
volume of water as a temperature heat sink, however, it is prone
to large temperature swings and temperature system failures.
Both systems, being thermostatically controlled, have modulating steam pressures within the heat exchanger. If they are not
piped and trapped properly, water hammer and corrosion can
occur in the heat exchanger, causing premature failure.

FEED-FORWARD UNITS
A feed-forward unit is a water heater that controls hot water
temperature by sensing the difference between the inlet and outlet water pressures. This differential pressure is an indication of
demand. The greater the differential pressure, the greater the
demand for hot water. Such units are proactive, rather than reactive, in terms of their control of outgoing water temperature.
There is no lag time associated with this method of control because with it a unit responds to demand rather than to something

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affected by demand, such as water temperature. Another way of


thinking of the term feed-forward is that, in such a unit, control is accomplished in front of or forward of the operation of the
heat exchanger.
Feed-forward control eliminates the need for the temperature
controlled valve associated with feedback systems. Instead a specially designed differential pressure diaphragm mixing valve is
used to regulate the flow of water in the unit and to maintain
temperature control. This valve is combined with a shell and tube
heat exchanger to complete the system. As hot water demand
downstream of the valve increases, it creates a pressure drop
that is sensed by the differential pressure diaphragm, causing it
to position a series of valves to allow flow of makeup water into
the heat exchanger as well as bypass water around the heat exchanger. The concept is to overheat the water in the heat
exchanger and then blend cold water as needed with the overheated water so the unit delivers the proper temperature water
over a broad range of flows. Because the differential pressure is
associated with and proportional to demand, a feed-forward unit
can respond immediately to demand by positioning its valves to
control output temperature. There is no lag time.
The greatest benefit of the feed-forward system is safety. First,
because it has proactive control, such a system provides much
better temperature control than its feedback instantaneous counterpart. Second, if its operator, the differential pressure
diaphragm, fails, the unit cannot pass water to the heat exchanger.
Only cold water may exit the unit. This prevents a scalding situation, such as would occur with a feedback instantaneous system,
which fails uncontrolled. The feedback unit cycles its controls on
and off under no load conditions, ultimately wearing them out.
The feed-forward unit does not operate unless there is demand,
meaning that it can sit idle for prolonged periods of time, not
cycling and wearing out its controls.
Feed-forward units operate on low-pressure steam, usually
no greater than 15 psig (103 kPa). This steam pressure remains
on the unit throughout its operation. The water in the unit does
not boil because its pressure is greater than the steams. Because the steam pressure is constant, condensate drainage from
the feed-forward unit is more assured than it is with the modulating pressure of the feedback system. If low-pressure steam is
readily available at the point of installation, the installer need
only make the connection to the steam main and include an isolation valve. If steam pressures are higher than 15 psig (103 kPa),

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a pressure reducing valve must be used and sized to supply adequate volumes of steam at delivery pressures between 2 and 15
psig (14 and 103 kPa). Steam volume requirements must be studied to determine whether the steam available at the units location
is adequate. Steam mains are sized to handle the maximum volume of steam required by any instantaneous device experiencing
substantial pressure drops due to equipment and valve restrictions. Steam volume requirements are provided in the
manufacturers feed-forward capacity charts and depend on the
sizes and condensing rates of the units used.
For all the benefits of a feed-forward unit, there also are a few
shortcomings. First, because the differential pressure control valve
on a feed-forward unit is not temperature activated, the unit requires that two things delivered to the unit remain constant. One
is steam pressure, which ensures a constant temperature in the
shell of the heat exchanger. The other is entering water temperature. A constant steam pressure is generally not difficult to
maintain, but a constant inlet water temperature may be. This
means that preheating the inlet water with a heat recovery system or energy conservation device, as is is done with a feedback
system, cannot be done. Sudden changes in inlet water temperature can affect the output water temperatures of the feed-forward
unit once it has been adjusted. Seasonal temperature changes of
the water are generally not a problem. These changes occur so
slowly that they are not noticed by the user. If, however, seasonal changes are undesirable to the user, a quick and simple
readjustment of the unit will solve the problem. With a typical
domestic hot water temperature of 120 to 140F (49 to 60C), for
every 3F (2C) inlet water temperature change, the outlet temperature change with a feed-forward unit will be 1F (1C) in the
same direction.

RECIRCULATION SYSTEM PIPING AND


OPERATION
Because a feed-forward system is relatively small and compact, it
can easily be installed close to the point of usage. This usually
eliminates the need for a recirculation system.
In applications where the unit is located in a basement or
utility room and feeds an entire building or the wing of a building, a recirculation system or loop is desirable to ensure delivery
of instantaneous hot water at all points of usage.

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The feed-forward recirculation system is composed of several


different components designed to work together to maintain the
temperature of the water in the loop during times of no or very
low demand. (See Figure 22.1.)
The recirculation pump runs continuously, regardless of the
hot water demand. Its function is to constantly recirculate the
water in the loop to maintain the temperature during times of no
or low demand. The size of the pump is determined by the maximum capacity of the feed-forward unit used. As a rule of thumb,
the pump flow rate should be approximately 10 to 15% of the
maximum capacity of the feed-forward unit. The recirculation
pump can be larger than 15%, but when a larger pump is used,
the installer must pipe a full size balancing line with globe valves
around the thermostatic capsule to balance the flow going to the
diverting valve. Failure to do this can cause overheating of the

Figure 22.1 Recirculation System Piping and Operation.


Source: Courtesy of Armstrong-Yoshitake, Inc.

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system due to the large volume of diverted water going back to


the unit for reheating.
The three-way diverting valve is a device with a nominal set
point that is roughly 15 to 20F (8 to 11C) below the set point of
the feed-forward unit or a diverting temperature that is roughly
5 to 10F (3 to 6C) below the units set point. The capsule senses
the temperature of the recirculated water and compares it with
its diverting temperature. If the temperature in the return piping
drops below the three-way valves diverting temperature because
of radiation loss from the piping and there is no hot water demand from the loop, the valve begins to divert some of the loops
flow to the inlet of the feed-forward unit (ports A to B in Figure
22.1). There it is reheated to bring the temperature of the loop
back up to its required level. Once the temperature in the loop is
above the capsules diverting temperature, all flow from the recirculation pump is directed straight through the valve (ports A
to C in Figure 22.1) and the return water is fed back out to the
hot water system.
This diverting recirculation system eliminates the need for
aquastats and electrical wiring. It is a self-contained, self-regulating system that controls the temperature of the water in the loop
during periods of no or low hot water demand. When there is a
demand for hot water, the temperature of the water introduced
into the system is instantly controlled by the feed-forward unit.
Note: Failure to install the diverting valve in the feed-forward
units recirculation system will result in the eventual overheating
of the system due to the constant elevation of inlet water temperatures.

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The following are system design criteria:
The heat exchanger must be sized on gpm not gph when a
storage tank is not provided. The maximum instantaneous flow,
not the diversified flow, must be used.
The heat exchanger should have the domestic water in the
shell and the steam in the bundle. This will provide for the load/
lag flywheel required to maintain a uniform delivery temperature.
Heat exchanger selection should include local, state, and federal code provisions.

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A recirculating hot water pump should be provided.


Since most steam control valves are not good for finite control less than 30%, two steam valves should be provided for, sized
at 030% and 25100% of the load.
For other design considerations, please refer to American
Society of Plumbing Engineers, 2001, Steam and condensate systems, Chapter 8 in ASPE Data Book, Volume 3.

Example 22.1
A hot water system is required for 1110 gph (4202 L/h) of 160F
(71C) water from a 50F (10C) cold water system. The maximum fixture demand is 43 gpm (2.7 L/sec).
Gph method (with storage tank)
1110 gph 8.33 (160 50F) = 1017.5 Mbh
[4202 L/h 4.186 (71 10C) = 1 073 519 kJ/h]
Gpm method (using maximum connected flow)
43 gpm 500 (160 50F) = 2365 Mbh
[2.7 L/sec 15 071 (71 10C) = 2 495 207 kJ/h]

Expansion TTanks
anks

23

343

EXPANSION
TANKS

INTRODUCTION
The objective of this chapter is to show the designer how to size
an expansion tank for a domestic hot water system and to explain the theory behind design and the calculations. The following
discussion is based on a diaphragm or bladder type expansion
tank, which is the one most commonly used in the plumbing
industry. This type of expansion tank does not allow the water
and air to come in contact with each other.
When water is heated, it expands. If this expansion occurs in
a closed system, dangerous water pressures can be created. A
domestic hot water system can be a closed system. When hot
water fixtures are closed and the cold water supply piping has
backflow preventers or any other device that can isolate the domestic hot water system from the rest of the domestic water
supply, a closed system can be created. (See Figure 23.1[a].)
The water pressures can quickly rise to a point at which the
relief valve on the water heater will unseat, hence relieving the
pressure but also compromising the integrity of the relief valve.
(See Figure 23.1[b].) A relief valve installed on a water heater is
not a control valve but a safety valve. It is not designed or intended for continuous usage. Repeated excessive pressures can
lead to equipment and pipe failure and personal injury.
An expansion tank, when properly sized and connected to a
closed system, provides additional system volume for water expansion while ensuring a maximum desired pressure in a domestic
hot water system. It does this by utilizing a pressurized cushion
of air. (See Figure 23.2[a] and [b].)

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(a)

(b)

Figure 23.1 A Closed Hot Water System Showing the Effects as


Water and Pressure Increase from (a) P1 and T1 to (b) P2 and T2.

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anks

345

(a)

(b)

Figure 23.2 Effects of an Expansion Tank in a Closed


System as Pressure and Temperature Increase from
(a) P1 and T1 to (b) P2 and T2.

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EXPANSION OF WATER
A pound of water at 140F (60C) has a larger volume than the
same pound of water at 40F (4.4C). To look at it another way,
the specific volume of water increases with an increase in temperature. Specific volume data show the volume of 1 lb (1 kg) of
water for a given temperature and are expressed in ft3/lb (m3/
kg). When the volume of water at each temperature condition is
known, the expansion of water can be calculated.
(23.1) Vew = Vs2 Vs1
where
Vew = expansion of water, gal (L)
Vs1 = system volume of water at temperature 1, gal (L)
Vs2 = system volume of water at temperature 2, gal (L)
Vs1 is the initial system volume and can be determined by calculating the volume of the domestic hot water system. This entails
adding the volume of the water heating equipment with the volume of piping and any other part of the hot water system.
Vs2 is the expanded system volume of water at the design hot
water temperature. Vs2 can be expressed in terms of Vs1. To do
that, we must look at the weight of water at both conditions.
The weight of water at temperature 1 (T1) equals the weight of
water at temperature 2 (T2), or W1 = W2. At T1,
W1 =

Vs1
VSP1

where
VSP = specific volume of water at a specified
temperature condition (see Table 23.1 for
specific volume data).
Similarly, at T2,
W2 =

Vs2
VSP2

Since W1 = W2, then

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Table 23.1 Thermodynamic Properties of Water


at a Saturated Liquid
Temp.,
F (C)

Specific Volume,
ft3/lb (m3/kg)

40 (4.4)
50 (10)

0.01602 (0.0010013)
0.01602 (0.0010013)

60 (15.55)
70 (22.1)

0.01604 (0.0010027)
0.01605 (0.0010032)

80 (26.7)
90 (32.2)

0.01607 (0.0010045)
0.01610 (0.0010064)

100 (37.8)
110 (43.3)

0.01613 (0.0010082)
0.01617 (0.0010107)

120 (48.9)
130 (54.4)

0.01620 (0.0010126)
0.01625 (0.0010157)

140 (60)
150 (65.6)

0.01629 (0.0010181)
0.01634 (0.0010214)

160 (71.1)

0.01639 (0.0010245)

Vs1 =
VSP1

Vs2
VSP2

Solving for Vs2:


Vs2 = Vs1

(VSP
VSP )
2

Earlier it was stated that the expansion of the water (Vew) =


Vs2 Vs1. Substituting Vs2 from above, we can now say that:
Vew = Vs2 Vs1
Since Vs2 = Vs1

, then
(VSP
VSP )
2

Vew = Vs1

V
(VSP
VSP )
2

(23.2) Vew = Vs1

VSP
1)
(VSP
2

, or

s1

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Example 23.1
A domestic hot water system has 1000 gal (3785.4 L) of water.
How much will the 1000 gal (3785.4 L) expand from a temperature of 40F (4.4C) to a temperature of 140F (60C)?
From Table 23.1:
VSP1 = 0.01602, at 40F (0.0009, at 4.4C)
VSP2 = 0.01629, at 140F (0.001017, at 60C)
Using Equation 23.2:
Vew = 1000

0.01629
1
( 0.01602
)

Vew = 16.9 gal


[Vew = 3785.4

0.0010181
1)
( 0.0010013

Vew = 64.0 L]
Note: This is the amount of expansion of the water and should
not be confused with the size of the expansion tank needed.

EXPANSION OF MATERIALS
Does the expansion tank receive all of the water expansion? The
answer is no because not just the water is expanding. The piping
and water heating equipment expand with increased temperature as well. So any expansion of material results in less of the
water expansion being received by the expansion tank. Another
way of looking at it is as follows:
(23.3) Venet = Vew Vemat
where
Venet = net expansion of water seen by the
expansion tank, gal (L)
Vew

= expansion of water, gal (L)

Vemat = expansion of material, gal (L)

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To determine the amount of expansion each material will


experience per a certain change in temperature, look at the
coefficient of linear expansion for each material. For copper,
the coefficient of linear expansion is 9.5 106 in./in.F (1.7
10-5 mm/mmC); for steel, it is 6.5 106 in./in.F (1.2 105
mm/mmC). From the coefficient of linear expansion we can
determine the coefficient of volumetric expansion of material.
The coefficient of volumetric expansion is three times the
coefficient of linear expansion.
= 3

(23.4)
where

= volumetric coefficient of expansion

= linear coefficient of expansion

steel = 19.5 106 gal/galF (3.6 105 L/LC)


copper = 28.5 106 gal/galF (5.1 105 L/LC)
The material will expand proportionally with an increase in
temperature.
(23.5) Vemat = Vmat (T2 T1)
Making the above substitution and solving for Venet:
(23.6) Venet = Vew [Vmat1 1 (T2 T1) + Vmat2 2 (T2 T1)]

Example 23.2
A domestic hot water system has a water heater with a volume of
900 gal (3406.86 L) and is made of steel. It also has 100 ft (304.8
m) of 4 in. (101.6 mm) piping, 100 ft (304.8 m) of 2 in. (50.8 mm)
piping, 100 ft (304.8 m) of 1 in. (38.1 mm) piping and 300 ft
(91.44 m) of in. (12.7 mm) piping. All the piping is copper.
Assuming that the initial temperature of water is 40F (4.4C)
and the final temperature of water is 140F (60C), (A) how much
will each material expand, and (B) what is the net expansion of
water that an expansion tank would see?
A. Utilizing Equation 23.5, for the steel (material no. 1):
Vmat1 = 900 gal

350

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

Vemat1 = 900 (19.5 106)(140 40) = 1.8 gal


[Vmat1 = 3406.86 L
Vemat1 = 3406.86 (3.6 105)(60 4.4) = 6.81 L]
For the copper (material no. 2) we first look at Table 23.2 to
determine the volume of each size of pipe.
4 in. (101.6 mm):

100 0.67 = 67 gal


(30.48 8.32 = 253.6 L)

2 in. (50.8 mm):

100 0.17 = 17 gal


(30.48 2.113 = 64.4 L)

1 in. (38.1 mm):

100 0.10 = 10 gal


(30.48 1.243 = 37.99 L)

in. (12.7 mm):

300 0.02 = 6 gal


(91.44 0.249 = 22.7 L)

Total volume of copper piping = 100 gal (378.69 L)


Utilizing Equation 23.5 for copper:
Vmat2

= 100 gal (378.69 L)

Table 23.2 Nominal Volume of Piping


Pipe Size,
in. (mm)

Volume of Pipe,
gal/l ft (L/m)

(12.7)
(19.1)

0.02
0.03

(0.249)
(0.472)

1
(25.4)
1 (32.5)

0.04
0.07

(0.495)
(0.869)

1 (38.1)
2
(50.3)

0.10
0.17

(1.243)
(2.113)

2 (63.5)
3
(76.2)

0.25
0.38

(3.104)
(4.718)

4 (101.6)
6 (152.4)

0.67 (8.32)
1.50 (18.629)

8 (203.2)

2.70 (33.533)

Expansion TTanks
anks

351

Vemat2 = 100 (28.5 x 106)(140 40) = 0.3 gal


[Vemat2 = 378.69 (5.1 105)(60 4.4) = 1.07 L]
B. The initial system volume of water (Vs1) equals Vmat1 + Vmat2,
or 900 gal + 100 gal (3406.86 L + 378.69 L).
From Example 23.1, we already determined that 1000 gal (3785.4
L) of water heated from 40 to 140F (4.4 to 60C) will expand 16.9
gal (64.0 L). So, utilizing Equation 23.6, we find that
Venet = 16.9 (1.8 + 0.3) = 15 gal
[Venet = 60.4 (6.81 + 1.07) = 56.12 L].
This is the net amount of water expansion that the expansion
tank will see. Again, please note that this is not the size of the
expansion tank needed.

BOYLES LAW
We have determined how much water expansion will be seen by
the expansion tank. Now it is time to look at how the cushion of
air in an expansion tank allows us to limit the system pressure.
Boyles Law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume occupied by a given weight of perfect gas (including, for
practical purposes, atmospheric air) varies inversely as the absolute pressure (gage pressure + atmospheric pressure). It is
expressed by:
P1V1 = P2V2
How does this law relate to sizing expansion tanks in domestic
hot water systems? The air cushion in the expansion tank
allows a space for the expanded water to go. The volume of air
in the tank will decrease as the water expands and enters the
tank. As the air volume decreases the air pressure increases.
Utilizing Boyles Law, we can determine what the initial volume of air (size of expansion tank) needs to be based on (A) the
initial water pressure, (B) the desired maximum water pressure,
and (C) the change in the initial volume of air. In using the above
equation, we realize that the pressure of the air equals the pressure of the water at each condition and we make the assumption
that the temperature of the air remains constant at condition 1
and condition 2. This assumption is reasonably accurate if the

352

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

expansion tank is installed on the cold water side of the water


heater. Remember, to size an expansion tank you are sizing a
tank of air, not a tank of water.
Referring to Figure 23.3, you see that at condition 1 the tank
has its initial air pressure charge, P1, which equals the incoming
water pressure on the other side of the diaphragm. V1 is the
initial volume of air in the tank and is also the size of the expansion tank we are solving for. V2 is the final volume of air in the
tank, which also can be expressed as V1 less the net expansion of
water (Venet). P2 is the pressure of the air at condition 2. P2 will be
the same pressure as the maximum desired pressure of the domestic hot water system at T2. P2 should always be less than the
relief valve setting on the water heater (approximately 10% less
than the relief valve setting).
Utilizing Boyles law, P1V1 = P2V2, since V2 = V1 Venet
P1V1 = P2 (V1 Venet)
P1V1 = P2V1 P2Venet
(P2 P1) V1 = P2Venet
V1 =

P2Venet
(P2 P1)

Multiplying both sides of the equation by (1/P2)/(1/P2) or by


1 we have:
Venet
(23.8)
V1 =
(1 P1/P2)
where
V1
P1

= size of expansion tank required to maintain the


desired system pressure (P2), gal (L)
= incoming water pressure (in absolute pressure),
psia (kPa)

(Note: Absolute pressure is the gage pressure, psig, plus atmospheric pressure, e.g., 50 psig = 64.7 psi in absolute pressure
[344.5 kPa = 445.78 kPa].)
Venet = net expansion of water, gal (L)
P2

= maximum desired pressure of water (in absolute


pressure), psia (typically 10% less than the
relief valve setting)

Expansion TTanks
anks

353

Figure 23.3 Sizing the Expansion Tank.

Example 23.3
Looking further at the domestic hot water system described in
Example 23.2, if the cold water supply pressure is 50 psig (344.5
kPa) and the maximum desired water pressure is 110 psig (757.9
kPa) (the relief valve setting is 125 psig [861.25 kPa]), what size
expansion tank is required?
In example 23.2 we determined that Venet equals 15 gal (56.78
L). Converting the given pressures to absolute and utilizing Equation 23.8 we can determine the size of expansion tank needed:
V1 =

15
= 31 gal
(1 64.7/124.7)

[V

56.78
= 117.3 L
(1 445.78/859.18)

Note: When selecting the expansion tank, make sure the tanks
diaphragm or bladder can accept 15 gal (56.78 L) of water
(Venet).

354

Domestic W
ater Heating Design Manual, Second Edition
Water

SUMMARY
Earlier in this chapter the following was established,
Equation 23.2:
Vew = Vs1

VSP
1)
( VSP
2

Equation 23.6:
Venet = Vew [Vmat1 1 (T2 T1) + Vmat2 2 (T2 T1)]
In Equation 23.2, Vs1 was defined as the system volume at condition 1. Vs1 can also be expressed in terms of Vmat.
Vs1 = Vmat1 + Vmat2
Making this substitution and combining the equations, we get
the following:
(23.9) Venet = (Vmat1 + Vmat2)

VSP
1) [V
( VSP
2

mat1

1 (T2 T1) +

Vmat2 2 (T2 T1)]


(23.8)

V1 =

Venet
(1 P1/P2)

where
Venet

= net expansion of water seen by the expansion


tank, gal (L)

Vmat

= volume of each material, gal (L)

VSP

= specific volume of water at each condition,


ft3/lb (m3/kg)

= volumetric coefficient of expansion of each


material, gal/galF (L/LC)

= temperature of water at each condition, F(C)

= pressure of water at each condition, psia (kPa)

V1

= size of expansion tank required, gal (L)

These two equations are required to size an expansion tank for


a domestic hot water system properly.

INDEX

Index Terms

Links

1-bedroom apartments
retirement homes
water demand

157
26

1 -compartment sinks
hospital example work-sheets

hospital sizing example

84

86

100

108

115

123

112

hospital usage factors

79

80

hourly demand

65

87

jailusage
kitchen requirements

103

183
50

87

151

142

147

149

165

168

171

175

103

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate care
worksheet examples
2-bedroom apartments
retirement homes
water demand

157
26

2 -compartment sinks
central sterile supply

95

high school usage

55

hospital example

112

hospital example work-sheets

113

84

86

100

106

108

115

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital utility rooms

73

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

2 -compartment sinks (Cont.)


hourly demand

65

87

kitchen requirements

50

87

151

142

147

149

care worksheet examples

165

168

173

sports arenas and stadiums

211

103

119

52

53

87

147

149

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate

3-compartment sinks
booster heaters for

187

fast-food restaurants

228

high schools
hospital example

55
112

hospital worksheet examples

84

86

hospital worksheets

79

80

hourly demand

65

kitchen requirements

50
151

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes

142

nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

168

3-way diverting valves (thermostatic capsules)


4-compartment sinks

339

340

65

5-min peak demand guideline

30

30/3 guideline
30 mA ground fault equipment

33

30
267

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

32-bed hospitals
example
worksheets

93
100

48-bed nursing/intermediate
care/retirement home
example

158

gathering information

161

worksheet example totals

176

worksheets

164

100-ft length criterion

234

300-bed hospital example

111

A
absolute pressures
equations

352

gases

351

access to equipment

281

ACEEE (American Council for


Energy Efficient Economy)

xxi

acidity of water, indirect fired


water heaters and

295

activity rooms in religious


facilities
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)

226
xxi

192

additions to buildings, heat


trace systems and

272

adjustable orifice flow control


valves

248

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

administration areas
hospitals

77

82

83

157

163

99
nursing/intermediate
care facilities

138

religious facilities

226

retirement homes

140

sports arenas and stadiums

204

advanced high-efficiency water


heating systems
considerations

17

multifamily buildings
and

30

after-hours at schools

47

after-work crowd at spas and


health clubs

130

afternoon peak demand


multifamily buildings

21

spas and health clubs

130

AGA. See American Gas


Association (AGA)
aggressive fluids, heat ex-changers and

288

air
air intake control in burners

319

321

343

351

cushions in expansion
tanks
entrapped in recirculating
systems

259

as heat source in heat


pumps

327

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

93

Index Terms

Links

air filters in heat pump systems

332

alkalinity of water
heat pump systems and

332

indirect fired water heaters and

295

steam storage water heaters

334

altitudes
DSH systems and
gas burners and

4
321

ambient heat, heat pumps


and

329

American Council for Energy


Efficient Economy (ACEEE)

xxi

American Gas Association


(AGA)

xxi

15

16

American Society of Heating,


Refrigerating, and
Air-Conditioning Engineers
(ASHRAE)

xxi

Energy Conservation in
New Building Design

261

Energy Efficient Design of


New Low Rise
Residential Buildings
IEW 90.1 standard

261
16

New Information on
Service Water Heating

261

Pipe Sizing

261

Service Water Heating

261

Thermal and Water Vapor


Transmission Data

261

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

American Society of
Mechanical Engineers (ASME)

15

code for fired and unfired


pressure vessels

16

code for relief valves

16

Plumbing Fixture Fittings

261

American Society of Plumbing


Engineers (ASPE)

xxi

Cold Water Systems

261

Energy Conservation in
Plumbing Systems

262

Insulation

262

Piping Systems

261

Position Paper on Hot


Water Temperature
Limitations

261

Pumps

262

Service Hot Water Systems

57

261

Steam and Condensate


Systems

341

American Water Works Association


Internal Corrosion of
Water Distribution Systems

262

Americans with Disabilities


Act (ADA)

xxi

192

ammonia
in indirect fired water
heaters

291

refrigeration

288

anchor department stores

228

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Anding, Craig

xix

Andrews, Steven M.

xix

animal facilities in pharmaceutical plants

195

anodes. See also sacrificial


anodes
heat pump systems

332

anti-siphoning features

300

antibacterial cleaners

195

315

319

apartment buildings. See


multifamily buildings
apartments in retirement
homes. See retirement
homes
appliance flow rates table

236

approach temperature
defined

280

heat exchangers

281

plate-type heat exchangers and

284

U-tube removable bundles and

283

aquastat controls

288

258

340

arms/hips/leg/back tubs

94

112

art rooms

46

arenas. See sports arenas


159

ASHRAE. See American Society of


Heating, Refrigerating,
and Air-Conditioning
Engineers (ASHRAE)
ASME. See American Society
of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME)
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

214

Index Terms

Links

ASPE. See American Society


of Plumbing Engineers
(ASPE)
assisted bathing

73

athletic centers
calculating demand

130

gathering information

127

hot water requirements

128

laundry and food service


demand

130

shower rooms

129

athletic teams. See sports


teams
atmospheric pressures
equations

352

gases

351

attachment tape in heat trace


systems

269

automatic flow control valves

247

automatic gas shut-off valves

315

318

77

91

autopsy rooms
considerations

93

gathering information

99

user group totals work-sheets

82

83

average demand
calculating for apartment
building example

32

vs. peak demand

26

average occupancy per hotel


guest room

61

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

B
backflow preventers in closed
systems

343

backup electric elements in


heat pump systems

332

bacteria
biological growth on
drains

332

Legionnaires Disease

14

pharmaceutical plants

195

baffles
gas water heaters

316

U-tube removable bundles and

282

balancing devices. See flow


balancing devices and
valves
Balliet, James L.

xix

ballrooms in hotels

59

baptistries

225

bar sinks
demand

87

high school

55

kitchen requirements

151

sports arenas and stadiums

209

barber shops in prisons

185

barometric dampers

321

211

bars in sports arenas and


stadiums

204

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

base-mounted centrifugal
circulating pumps

258

baseball stadium example

214

batch loads, heat exchangers


and

285

bathing. See also central


bathing areas
compared to showering

37

bathroom groups
hospital example work-sheets

84

86

hospital usage factors

79

80

100

107

115

142

147

149

hospital worksheet examples


nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

173

bathtubs
delivered hot water temperatures
faucet flow rates

12
236

fill times

74

136

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheet examples

84

86

100

91

94

112

142

147

149

170

173

obstetrics areas

77

93

in patient rooms

73

91

107

115
hydrotherapy
nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

95

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

156

Index Terms

Links

bathtubs (Cont.)
therapy tubs

73

whirlpool baths. See


whirlpool baths
bayonet type U-tube heat
exchangers

335

bedpan washers

73

biological growth on drains

95

113

332

biological laboratories. See


laboratories
birthing rooms

77

93

black and white photo processing

198

bladder-type expansion
tanks

343

blade immersion elements

300

blocked flues

322

blood removal
hospital laundry example

222

on prison uniforms

188

Bloodborne Pathogen law

188

blowdown valves for fixed


orifices and venturis
body showers

245
128

boilers
combination heating/
DHW boilers

33

steam storage water


heaters

334

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

135

Index Terms

Links

booster heaters
controls

306

defined

297

308

dishwashers

48

64

hospital food services

74

112

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

137

prison kitchens

185

recovery times and

187

67

Boyles law

351

bradley wash fountains

211

See also wash fountains


branches in heat trace systems

270

break rooms in sports arenas


and stadiums

209

Breese, James L.

xix

bronze pump fittings

258

Btu/h ratings

33

building management
systems in sports arenas
building movement

205
207

building occupants. See


populations
bundle assemblies
approach temperature
and

283

U-tube removable bundles

282

burners for water heaters

319

burns from hot pipes

259

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

burns from hot water. See


scalding
business travelers hotels

60

bypass systems, considerations for

69

Byrley, Tom

14

Byron, R. C.

xix

61

C
cable end termination. See
termination
cafeterias in schools

52

calculations. See equations


can washers
grocery stores

227

hospital food services

92

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheet examples

84

86

103

119

122

123

142

147

149

168

171

hourly demand

65

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate care
worksheet examples
school kitchens

48

capillary tubing for heat


pump water heaters
car washes in schools
carbon matrix heating elements

326
46
267

carbon monoxide, blocked


flues and

322

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

108

Index Terms

Links

carbon steel sheets in heat


exchangers

285

Carpenter, S. C.

37

cart washers
hospital example work-sheets

84

86

103

119

122

123

hospital food services

74

92

96

hospital usage factors

79

80

137

142

108

nursing/intermediate
care/retirement homes

147

149

154

156

157
nursing/intermediate care
worksheet examples

168

171

prison kitchens

187

cassettes (welded plates)

287

CCUs (critical care units)

xxi

111

cell pods in jails

181

185

center flues

313

central bathing areas


48-bed nursing care
facility example

159

gathering information

162

hospitals

73

91

137

152

nursing/intermediate
care/retirement
homes

157
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples
obstetrical use

170

176

77

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

central hot water systems


sports arenas and stadiums
central hot water temperature

207

212

206

central sterile supply areas


32 -bed hospital example

95

300-bed hospital example

113

considerations

76

gathering information

92

usage factors

90

worksheet example totals

82

83

106

122

worksheet examples
central systems for schools
central utility generating facilities

98

109

47
190

197

centrifugal circulating
pumps

258

ceramic barriers in plate-type


heat exchangers
channel flues

285
316

check valves
on loops

245

steam water heater piping systems

339

chemical laboratories. See


laboratories
chemical processing plants

190

196

12

187

chemical sanitizing dishwashers


chevron corrugation

285

children
locker rooms for

129

peak demand and

22

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

124

Index Terms

Links

chimneys

324

churches

225

circuit breakers
heat pump systems

332

heat trace systems

267

273

273

274

circuit length in heat trace


systems
circular wash stations

191

circulating pumps
baptistries

226

centrifugal circulating
pumps

258

in circulation systems

239

controls

258

flow rates

257

head capacity of

257

in-line centrifugal circulating pumps

258

lack of in heat trace systems

266

return pipes and

257

sizing

249

steam water heater systems

341

for vertical storage tanks

207

circulation rate examples

339

254

circulation systems. See


recirculating hot water
systems
Cix, J. B.

37

classrooms
religious facilities
schools

226
46

49

52

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

clean rooms in pharmaceutical plants

195

clean utility rooms


hospitals

73

94

111

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
clean work

135
191

194

74

92

cleaning
hydrotherapy tubs
therapy rooms

128

U-tube removable bundles

283

cleanliness of streams in heat


exchangers
cleanouts on storage tanks

281
315

cleanup activities
fast-food restaurants

228

grocery stores

227

kitchen cleanup time periods


office buildings

64

66

229

clinic sinks. See flushing rim


sinks
clip gaskets

287

closed systems
dangerous water pressures

343

recirculating systems

258

clothes washers. See also


laundries
baseball team locker room
examples

214

capacity

221

high schools

215

217

54

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

clothes washers (Cont.)


hospital example work-sheets

84

hotel laundries

68

jailusage

86

183

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
schools
sport arenas and stadiums
student dormitories

138
49
209
41

club house laundries

203

coal processing plants

196

codes. See standards and


codes
coefficient of linear expansion

349

coefficient of volumetric expansion

349

Cohen, Arthur

262

coin-operated laundries

39

354

40

cold formed sheets in heat


exchangers

285

cold leakage

288

cold showers

197

cold water. See incoming cold


water supply
Cold Water Systems

261

color photo processing

198

column showers

209

combination aquastat/time
clock controls

259

combination heating/DHW
boilers

33

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

combination upfeed/downfeed circulation systems

241

combustion
air requirements
thermal efficiency and

207
4

commercial dishwashers
commercial spray-type dishwashers

12

conveyor dishwashers

50

demand

65

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheet examples

84

142

55

65

67

86

103

119

147

149

50

55

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

168

recovery and

67

school kitchens

48

sports arenas and stadiums

211

commercial facilities, circulation systems for

239

commercial heat pump water


heaters

325

326

commercial laundries
gathering information

221

sports arenas and stadiums

208

211

12

206

water temperatures
commercial water heaters
defined

297

storage tank gas water


heaters

313

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Comparison of Collected and


Compiled Existing Data on
Service Hot Water Use Patterns

38

57

compatibility of heating mediums

281

compressors
electric

327

heat pump water heaters

325

concessions areas in arenas

203

concrete plants

198

205

206

concurrent usage
hospital areas

77

schools

49

condensation
dew points and

206

drains for, in heat pump


systems

331

gas-fired water heaters


and

15

U-tube removable bundles and

282

condensors
heat pump systems

331

heat recovery systems

330

condo hotels

61

condos. See multifamily


buildings
connection points, storage
volume and

16

conservation laws

37

contaminated laundry

76

188

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

209

Index Terms

Links

contamination
cross-contamination in
heat exchangers

284

in nuclear power plants

197

continuous duty systems,


heat exchangers and

285

continuous flow demand

contraction
indirect fired water heaters

293

U-tube removable bundles

283

control circuits

306

controls
booster heaters
coverage in this manual
domestic hot water systems

306

308

1
15

electric water heaters

303

heat pump systems

332

recirculating pumps

258

convection
plate-type heat exchangers

285

tank heaters and

283

convenience stores

226

329

convention hotels and motels


average occupancy

61

considerations

70

defined

59

food service example

65

guest room example

62

conventional, iron bodied


pumps

258

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

conventional water heating


systems

17

conveyor dishwashers. See


commercial dishwashers
cooling functions of heat
pumps
copper coils, pH values and

327

328

329

295

Copper Development Association


Copper Tube Handbook

262

Historical Perspective of
Corrosion by Potable
Waters in Building
Systems

262

copper piping
expansion

349

hard water and

312

in heat trace systems

267

time delays and

235

water velocity and

244

copper sheaths

302

Copper Tube Handbook

262

237

303

correctional facilities. See


prisons
corrosion
indirect fired water heaters

293

instantaneous indirect
water heaters

295

pump fixtures

258

steam feedback systems

336

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

330

Index Terms

Links

corrosion (Cont.)
storage tanks

314

welded plate and frame


exchangers
corrugation in plate units

288
285

costs
delays in hot water and

238

heat exchangers

284

288

heat pumps

328

331

life-cycle costs

278

oversizing and

37

payment for hot water


and demand

25

countercurrent

281

CPVC piping

235

237

critical care units (CCUs)

xxi

111

cross-contamination in heat
exchangers

284

crossover bypass systems

69

CT scan rooms

95

cupro-nickel components

114

312

customized sizing for


multi-family buildings

28

D
daily water demand
multifamily buildings

19

peak flows and

26

dairies. See food product


facilities
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Danenhauer, Greg

xix

dark rooms

112

Daugherty, Larry

xix

198

204

day-care facilities
office buildings

229

religious facilities

226

dead-end hot water branches


Decioco, J.

234

245

37

decontamination
chemical processing
plants

196

nuclear power plants

197

dehumidification, heat
pumps and

327

328

delays in hot water. See also


lag time
dead-end branches and

245

heat trace systems and

266

hospital user group information


low flow fixtures and

270

275

72
235

piping types and diameters table

237

recirculating hot water


systems and

234

results of

238

steam water heaters and

333

time to tap defined

278

delivered hot water temperature recommendations

12

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

demand
commercial laundries

221

delays in hot water and

238

football stadium example

211

heat trace system fixtures

270

high school systems

57

hotel guest rooms

60

monitoring in existing
systems

28

multifamily building determination

24

patterns in multifamily
buildings

19

pay-as-you-go systems
and

25

school calculations

49

special use facilities

35

demographic profiles. See


populations
density of population

23

dental clinics in office buildings

229

department stores
desk phones in hotels

228
60

dew points
condensation and

206

gas-fired water heaters


and

15

DeWerth, D. W.

38

DHW (domestic hot water)

xxi

DHW Modeling

37

57

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

DHW System Sizing Criteria


for Multifamily Buildings

37

diameters of piping, time delays and

237

Diamond, R.

38

diaphragm expansion tanks

343

diaphragm mixing valves

337

352

dietary and food services


grocery stores

227

hospitals
32-bed hospital example

94

300-bed hospital example

112

considerations

74

gathering information

92

requirements table

87

usage factors

89

worksheet examples

82

83

119

124

59

64

136

151

hotels

97

103

nursing/intermediate
care/retirement homes

156

48-bed nursing care


facility example

159

gathering information

162

worksheet examples

168

office buildings

229

schools

47

spas and health clubs

130

water temperatures for

75

176

50

206

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

109

Index Terms

Links

differential pressure
diaphragm mixing valves

337

steam feed-forward systems

336

diluting flue gases

321

dip tubes

300

direct fired water heaters


dirty work

315

316

194

196

318

4
191

dishwasher prerinse. See pre-rinse sinks


dishwashers
apartments in retirement
homes
delivered hot water temperatures
flow rates

139
12
236

high schools

54

55

hospital example work-sheets

84

86

103

hospital food services

74

92

112

instantaneous indirect
water heaters and

295

jail usage

182

manufacturers data

64

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

136

156

prison kitchens

185

187

religious facilities

225

retirement apartments

158

school classrooms

49

school kitchens

47

small hospital example

94

sports arenas and stadiums

209

steam water heaters

333

50

52

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

53

Index Terms

Links

dishwashers (Cont.)
student dormitories
disinfectors

41
95

113

122

hospital example work-sheets

84

86

106

hospital usage factors

79

80

disposable tableware

48

distances from water heater


to fixtures

233

distributed hot water systems

208

district-supplied steam

334

diverting valves

340

Domestic Hot Water Consumption


in Four Low Income
Apartment Buildings
domestic hot water (DSH)

38
xxi

codes and standards

16

controls

15

delivered hot water temperature

12

high altitudes and

mixed water temperatures

recovery. See recovery


periods
relief valves

15

safety and health concerns

13

specific applications. See


under names of specific applications
(i.e., hospitals, jails, hotels
and motels)
steady-state heat balance
formula

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

domestic hot water (DSH) (Cont.)


storage and recovery

15

system alternative considerations

17

thermal efficiency

thermal expansion

15

Domestic Hot Water Loads,


System Sizing and Selection for Multifamily Buildings

37

Domestic Hot Water Service in


Lumley Homes

37

donut configurations, heat


trace systems and

272

door types of dishwashers

50

dormitories
heat trace system plans

277

institutional dormitories

42

student dormitories

39

double bunking in jails

181

186

double compartment sinks.


See 2-compartment sinks
double tank indirect fired
water heaters

292

double-wall heat exchangers


defined

284

double-wall plate and


frame exchangers

287

double-wall protection

279

heat pump systems

331

doughnut configurations,
heat trace systems and

272

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

downdrafts
draft hoods and

323

gas venting systems and

322

downfeed hot water systems

240

draft diverters

321

draft hoods

321

draft regulators

321

drain cocks

298

draining tanks

315

drains for heat pump systems

331

241

315

332

drawdowns
laundry equipment

68

sinks

66

drawings

273

drilled port burners

320

dry firing

303

DSH. See domestic hot water


PSH)
ductwork for heat pump systems

331

dump loads
indirect fired water heaters

293

showers as

193

dumping water. See water


conservation
duration
shift-end wash-up

192

shower turnaround time

210

showers
Dutt, G.

62

181

185

37

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

E
ease of access to equipment

281

educational laboratories. See


laboratories
The Effects of Hot Water Circulation
Systems on Hot
Water Heater Sizing and
Piping Systems

262

efficiency
heat pumps
thermal

328
4

260

286

288

75

92

327

330

booster type

297

306

components

298

elastomer gaskets
electric flash sterilizers
electric heat trace systems.
See self-regulating heat
trace systems
electric resistance hot water
heaters
electric water heaters

continuous flow
controls
heat recovery

308

6
303
5

storage type

297

voltage and phase

207

electrical terminals on
immersion elements

300

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

electricity
heat pump usage

327

heat trace systems

267

as heating medium

185

280

elementary schools

45

52

Ellis, L. Richard

xix

emergency eyewashes

204

209

emergency medical clinics in


prisons

185

emergency operations in surgical suites

75

emergency rooms (ERs)

xxi

95

111

emergency showers in sports


arenas

204

end termination

273

energy codes for sports arenas

205

energy conservation
100 ft. length criteria and

234

heat trace systems and

265

266

problems with inadequate


hot water systems

233

steam feedback systems

336

Energy Conservation in New


Building Design

261

Energy Conservation in
Plumbing Systems

262

Energy Efficient Design of


New Low Rise Residential
Buildings

261

Energy Use and DHW Consumption


Research Project

37

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

113

Index Terms

Links

Engineering Plumbing Design

262

entrapped air in recirculating


systems

259

EPDM (ethylene propylene


diene monomer)

xxi

286

equations
absolute pressure

352

circulation rate example

254

demand
baseball team locker
room examples
elementary schools
football stadiums

215

218

53
212

high school shower


usage

55

hospital laundries

222

hotel guest rooms

62

hotel laundries

68

jail shower usage

181

prisons

186

sports arena shower


usage
student dormitories

210
41

expansion
Boyles law

351

materials expansion

349

tank materials

348

354

water expansion

346

354

heat recovery, electric


water heaters

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

equations (Cont.)
heat transfer
mixed water temperatures
piping heat loss

68
6
252

probable occupancy rates

31

steady-state heat balance

steam water heaters

341

storage tank sizing

183

thermal efficiency (R factor)

260

equipment
electric water heaters

297

expansion tanks

343

heat exchangers

279

heat pump water heaters

325

indirect fired water heaters

291

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks

311

manufacturers information

231

recirculating domestic
hot water systems

233

self-regulating heat trace


systems

265

steam water heaters

333

sterilization

76

93

storage tank gas water


heaters

313

washers and sterilizers

195

equipment ratings

34

erosion, velocity

244

ERs. See emergency rooms


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

(ERs)
Estimating Hot Water Use in
Existing Commercial Buildings

37

ethylene propylene diene


monomer (EPDM)
evaporator coils

xxi

286

332

evening peak demand


multifamily buildings

22

spas and health clubs

130

events at sports arenas

204

examples
32-bed hospital

93

48-bed nursing/intermediate
care/retirement
home

158

300-bed hospital

111

baseball stadium

214

circulation rate

254

continuous flow for electric


water heaters

direct gas-fired heat input


rates
elementary school

5
52

expansion tanks

353

football stadium

211

foundry facility

193

high school
hospital laundry

54
222

hotel food service

65

hotel guest room

62

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

examples (Cont.)
hotel laundry service

68

institutional dormitory

42

jail

181

materials expansion

349

nursing/intermediate
care/retirement home

147

prison

184

shower mixed water temperatures


special use housing facility
steady state heat balance
steam water heaters
student dormitory

7
35
4
341
39

traditional multifamily
building
water expansion

31
348

expansion. See also thermal


expansion
expansion joints
of schools

206
49

expansion tanks
Boyles law

351

defined

343

examples

349

material expansion

348

types

343

use of

15

water expansion formulas

353

346

experimental laboratories.
See laboratories
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

An Experimental Study of
Competing Systemsfor
Maintaining Service Water
Temperature in Residential Buildings
external channel flues

262
313

extracurricular activities

48

eyewashes, emergency

204

317

209

F
factory preset automatic flow
control valves

247

families. See also multifamily


buildings
family changing areas

129

spas and health club usage

130

heat pumps

327

refrigeration units

332

fans

fast-food restaurants

228

faucets. See also fixtures and


fixture outlets
infrared faucets

205

metering faucets

205

non-metering faucets

236

FDA (Food and Drug Administration)

236

194

feed-forward units
components

336

point of usage installation

338

recirculation systems

339

steam water heaters

333

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

feedback units
steam water heaters

333

types

335

Fehrm, Al

262

fertilizer storage rooms

209

334

fiberglass insulation
heat trace systems

267

recirculating systems

275

fiberglass insulation thick-nesses

269

275

74

91

156

204

209

250

fill times for hydrotherapy


tubs
first aid rooms in sports arenas
first-degree burns
fixed orifices in flow balancing

13
245

fixtures and fixture outlets


apartments in retirement
homes
delivered hot water temperatures

139
12

distances between heater


and

233

flow rates table

236

gathering data for requirements

47

hospital user groups

72

kitchens

64

school general purpose

49

78

spas, pools, health clubs,


and athletic centers

128

sports arenas and stadiums

205

temperature at

usage patterns

72

130

78

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

fixtures and fixture outlets (Cont.)


worksheets for
flanges on immersion elements
flash sterilizers

140
300
75

92

313

317

95

112

hospital usage factors

79

80

111

hospital worksheet examples

84

86

100

108

115

142

147

149

165

171

175

floating tank external flues


floor receptors

95

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples
flow baffles, U-tube removable
bundles and

282

flow balancing devices and valves


balancing systems

244

balancing valves

245

in circulation systems

239

248

factory preset automatic


flow control valves

247

fixed orifices and venturis

245

flow regulating valves

248

friction losses and

257

memory stops

248

as not needed in heat


trace systems

272

recirculated hot water systems

244

steam water heater piping


systems

339

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

112

105

Index Terms

Links

flow rates
clothes washers

221

daily water patterns in


multifamily buildings

21

dormitory fixtures

40

fixed orifices and venturis

245

fixtures and appliances


table

236

head capacity of circulating


pumps and
in heat balance formula
hospital user group information
recirculation pumps
showers

257
3
72
339
48

51

158

210

sterilization equipment

76

93

storage volume and

16

therapeutic facilities

128

worksheets
flow restrictors in prisons

77

78
184

flue gases
condensation and

206

mixture control

321

thermal efficiency and

flues
flue routing

207

storage tank gas water


heaters

313

venting systems

321

fluid treatment facilities

190

198

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

93

Index Terms

Links

flush port burners

320

flushing rim sinks

73

95

central sterile supply

113

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheet examples

84

86

100

108

115

121

142

147

149

165

171

93

113

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples
obstetrics area
outpatient surgery

113

surgical suites

112

flywheels in steam water


heater systems

340

fonts, baptismal

225

Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

194

food kiosks in student dormitories

39

40

food processing facilities and


activities
design issues

194

fast-food restaurants

228

food product facilities

196

instantaneous indirect
water heaters

295

steam water heaters

333

food product facilities


dairy heat recovery systems

329

defined

190

design issues

196

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

105

Index Terms

Links

food service. See dietary and


food services
football stadium example
Force, F.
forced convection

211
38
283

formulas. See equations


fossil fuel plants

190

fouling process in heat ex-changers

288

foundries

190

Frankel, Michael

xix

Freehill, Mina

xx

197

193

freezing
areas subject to

207

heat pump installations


and

328

heating cables for freeze


protection

267

freon in indirect fired water


heaters

291

friction loss and circulating


pumps

257

full-condensing equipment

17

full-service kitchens

48

fuses for heat pump systems

332

G
gage pressures
equations

352

gases

351

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

gallons per hour (gph)


in heat recovery equations
in

hospital usage factors

5
88

laundry demand

221

worksheets

140

gallons per minute (gpm)


in heat trace system fixtures
in

hospital usage factors

270
88

hospital user group totals


worksheets

81

hospital user groups

78

worksheets

84

86

140

gallons per pound in laundry


demand

221

gas flues. See flues


gas input ratings

320

gas shut-off valves

315

gas water heaters


burners
condensation and

319
15

dip tubes

315

flues and heat exchangers

313

318

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks

311

storage tank gas water


heaters

313

tank fittings

314

tanks

314

venting systems

321

318

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

gases
flame patterns
flue gases

319

320

as heating medium

280

volume of

351

gasketed plate units

285

288

hospital examples

96

115

hospital food services

74

hospital laundries

75

hospital user groups

72

hospital worksheets

78

hotel food service

64

hotel guest rooms

60

hotel laundries

67

gathering information

jails

181

laundries

221

91

nursing/intermediate care
facilities

134

156

nursing/intermediate
care facility example
obstetrics/nursery areas

161
77

prisons

185

retirement homes

157

spas, pools, health clubs,


and athletic centers

127

sports arenas and stadiums

204

general occupancy hotels

60

61

See also hotels and


motels
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

general purpose demand in


schools

49

53

54

generation rates, capacity


and

30

generation systems in
apartment buildings
geographical variances in demand

34
25

geothermal energy as heating


medium
glass barriers in heat exchangers
glassware sanitizers

280
285
12

195

globe valves

339

glueless gasket designs

287

Goldner, Fredric S.

xix

37

95

113

grocery stores

226

331

grounds services in arenas

203

group wash fountains

192

gph. See gallons per hour


(gph)
gpm. See gallons per minute
(gpm)
gravity sterilizers

193

guest rooms
examples

62

hotel types

59

multiple systems design

69

gym classes

46

gymnasiums

226

48

55

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

57

Index Terms

Links

H
hand sinks
central sterile supply
central sterile supply areas

113
95

fast-food restaurants

228

grocery stores

227

high demand hospital


areas

73

high schools

55

hospital food service

112

hospital utility rooms

73

kitchens

50

52

53

miscellaneous hospital
areas

77

nurses stations

89

94

135

138

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
obstetrics areas
prisons
temperatures
hands/elbows/arms tubs

90
184
75
94

112

159

hard water
heat pump systems and

332

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks

312

steam storage water heaters

334

hastelloy

285

HBV (hepatitis B virus)

xxi

188

head. See pressure


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

225

Index Terms

Links

head assemblies

282

health clinics. See medical


and health clinics
health clubs
calculating demand

130

gathering information

127

hot water requirements

128

in office buildings

229

health concerns

13

71

approach

280

288

codes and standards

279

countercurrent

281

defined

279

flues as

313

in heat pump water heaters

325

heating mediums

280

indirect fired water heaters as

291

selection factors

288

steam water heaters

334

temperature cross

281

terminology

280

types

281

heat exchangers

340

heat loss
equations

252

recirculating systems

250

required circulation rate


example

254

storage tanks

255

256

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

heat pump water heaters


applications

330

benefits

328

considerations

17

criteria

331

defined

325

drawbacks

328

energy sources for

327

heat recovery systems

329

incoming water quality

332

integral heat pump water


heaters

326

maintenance

332

remote heat pump water


heaters

327

requirements

331

safety controls and devices

332

heat recovery. See recovery


periods
heat trace systems. See
self-regulating heat trace
systems
heat transfer
flues and
hotel laundry demand
plate-type heat exchangers
time rates for
turbulence and

313
68
285
3
286

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

heating cable systems


approved systems

267

heat trace systems

265

illustrated

268

plumbing drawing indicators

273

selecting cables

274

heating mediums

266

269

280

Henriques, V. C. Jr.

13

hepatitis B virus (HBV)

xxi

herringbone corrugation

285

188

high altitudes
DSH systems and
gas burners and
high-demand facilities

4
321
35

high-efficiency water heating


systems
considerations

17

multifamily buildings
and

30

high end hotels


high limit safety devices

70
298

303

high population density in


multifamily buildings

23

high schools
defined

45

examples

54

kitchen demand

55

shower demand

55

system selection factors

56

hip/leg tubs

94

112

159

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Historical Perspective of Corrosion


by Potable Waters in
Building Systems

262

HIV (human immune deficiency virus)

xxi

holding kitchens

48

home team locker rooms

203

horizontal draft hoods

322

188

214

horizontal mains in heat


trace systems

276

horizontal slot port case


burners

320

horizontal-to-vertical draft
hoods

322

horizontal water tanks


storage capacity
stratification

207
16

hose stations
grocery stores

227

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheet examples

84

86

119

122

142

147

168

171

103

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes

149

nursing/intermediate care
worksheet examples
hospitals
32-bed example

93

300-bed example

111

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

108

Index Terms

Links

hospitals (Cont.)
heat trace system plans

276

277

instantaneous indirect
water heaters
kitchen hot water requirements table
laundries

295
87
222

safety and health concerns

71

user group example work-sheets

84

user group totals work-sheets

81

user group worksheets

78

user groups defined

72

hot tubs

295

61

Hot Water and Energy Usein


Apartment Buildings

38

hot water multiplier


in hospital worksheets
in mixed water temperatures

82

83

109

61

70

in nursing/intermediate
care worksheets

176

hotels and motels


classifications of

59

design considerations

70

food service

64

guest rooms

60

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

heat trace system plans

276

laundry service

67

resorts

60

steam water heaters

333

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

124

Index Terms

Links

hotels and motels (Cont.)


system considerations

69

hourly consumption figures


hotel kitchens

65

multifamily buildings

27

hourly number of therapies

74

91

137

154

hours of operation
central bathing areas

157

central sterile supply areas

92

food service

64

hospital laundries

92

hydrotherapy units

74

91

136

156

laundries

76

138

139

158

92

222
sterile supply areas

76

surgical suites

75

therapeutic facilities

92

129

human immunodeficiency
virus (HIV)

xxi

188

HVAC ductwork, heat trace


systems in

265

hybrid systems
considerations

17

multifamily buildings
and

30

hydro showers

128

hydrotherapy
32-bed hospital example

94

48-bed nursing care facility example

159

300-bed hospital example

112

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

hydrotherapy (Cont.)
gathering information

91

hospital requirements

73

96

161

152

153

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
school requirements

136
48

sport arenas and stadiums

209

tub temperature

129

usage factors

79

80

89

worksheet example totals

82

83

109

124

86

102

117

147

149

176
worksheet examples

84
167

hydrotherapy tubs
football stadium example

212

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes

142

sports arenas and stadiums

211

worksheet examples

167

hypalon

286

I
ice machines, heat pumps
and

327

ice rinks
heat recovery systems

329

resurfacing

205

ICVs. See intensive care units


(ICUS)

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms
IEW 90.1 standard (ASHRAE)
immersion controls

Links
16
305

high limit safety devices

305

storage tank fittings

315

318

immersion elements
construction and operation

300

storage tanks

298

immersion well remote bulb


thermostats

305

Impact of Water Conservation


on Interior Plumbing

262

in-line centrifugal circulating


pumps

258

incoloy sheaths

302

303

incoming cold water supply


heat pump systems
laundries and
in mixed water temperatures

332
40
6

pressure differences in
steam feed-forward
systems

336

storage tank fittings

314

318

in storage tank indirect


water heaters

291

temperature and approach

280

temperature of

222

incoming hot water supply


in steady-state heat balance formula

supply in mixed water


temperatures

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

indirect fired water heaters


defined

291

as heat exchangers

291

instantaneous indirect
water heaters

293

storage tank types

291

water conditions

295

indoor ice rinks

329

industrial facilities. See also


specific types of facilities
areas of demand

191

circulation systems for

239

clean and dirty work

191

defined

188

design considerations

190

example

193

selecting water heaters

192

showers

192

steam water heaters

333

storage tanks

194

types of

188

wash stations

191

194

194

industrial laundries
gathering information

221

in prisons

188

industrial water treatment


plants

190

infrared faucets

205

198

initial costs
heat exchangers

288

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

initial costs (Cont.)


heat pumps

328

initial fills for sinks

66

initial pressures in expansion


tanks

351

initial volumes
air cushions in expansion
tanks

351

initial system volume of


water

346

inlet air orifices in burners

319

inlet fittings

298

inmates
double bunking

181

186

lavatories and showers

184

186

redundancy in systems
and

185

showers for

180

inns. See hotels and motels


input energy in thermal efficiency formulas

input water. See incoming


cold water supply
insertable pressure measuring devices

248

instantaneous systems
apartment building example
baptistries

32
226

gas heaters with separate


tanks

311

group wash fountains

193

indirect fired water heaters

293

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

instantaneous systems (Cont.)


industrial facilities usage

192

instantaneous-coil-in-a-boiler
water heaters
multifamily buildings

294
30

point-of-use heaters

242

steam feedback systems

335

steam water heaters

333

tankless coil systems

32

institutional dormitories

295

42

institutional laundries
delivered hot water temperatures
gathering information

12
221

insulation
gas water heaters

316

heat trace systems

267

piping

250

recirculating systems

259

269

275

275

sports arena and stadium


piping

207

vent pipes

321

Insulation

262

integral heat pump water


heaters
intensive care units (ICUs)
example
hand washing demand

326

331

xxi
111
73

intermediate care facilities


48-bed facility example

158

central bathing

137

159

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

intermediate care facilities (Cont.)


defined

133

dietary and food service

136

gathering information

156

161

hydrotherapy

136

159

kitchen requirements
table

151

laundries

138

miscellaneous areas

160

nurses stations

135

159

resident areas

135

158

usage factors

152

user group analysis

135

worksheet examples

140

147

worksheet totals

144

176

313

316

internal (center) flues

160

165

Internal Corrosion of Water


Distribution Systems

262

internal fusing in
wiring circuits

305

306

International Association of
Plumbing and Mechanical
Officials

262

iron bodied pumps

258

isolation rooms

73

isolation valves
feed-forward steam systems

337

heat pump systems

331

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

J
jails
auxiliary equipment

182

design considerations

179

examples

181

gathering information

181

heat trace system plans

276

life cycle of

180

janitors closets

46

277

203

janitors receptors. See floor


receptors
Johnson, Peter J.

xix

junior high schools

45

Justin, Lawrence G.

xix

K
kitchen sinks
flow rates

40

hospital user group usage


factors

79

80

care/retirement homes

142

147

sports arenas and stadiums

211

nursing/intermediate

student dormitories

41

user group example work-sheets

84

86

103

119

worksheet examples

149

168

kitchens
cooling functions of heat
pumps

327

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

kitchens (Cont.)
demand
hospital requirements
table

87

hospital usage factors

79

hotel example

65

jails and prisons

80

180

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

136

151

prisons

184

187

schools

46

47

50

205

209

55

57
small hospital example
sports arenas and stadiums
gathering data for requirements

94
203
47

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

multiple kitchens

64

multiple systems design

69

residential

42

water temperature
Kokko, J. P.
Konen, Thomas

43

206
37
262

L
L/h. See liters per hour (L/h)
labels in heat trace systems

269

laboratories

197

defined

190

in hospitals

77

91

93

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

99

Index Terms

Links

laboratories (Cont.)
pharmaceutical plants

195

sinks

195

testing laboratories

198

user group totals work-sheets

82

83

lag time. See also delays in


hot water
feed-forward systems

336

instantaneous steam
feedback systems

336

steam feedback units

335

large apartment buildings

31

large hospitals

111

lateral runs in vents

324

laundries
delivered hot water temperatures

12

demand
apartment buildings

36

coin-operated

39

40

hospital considerations

75

92

113

222

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheets

84

86

hotels and motels

67

institutional dormitories

42

hospital example

jails

98

43

180

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

138

157

160

nursing/intermediate
care worksheets

176

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

295

Index Terms

Links

laundries (Cont.)
prison industrial
laundries

188

prisons

180

184

185

188

retirement apartments

139

155

158

164

208

209

163

221

174
schools

46

spas and health clubs

130

sports arenas and stadiums

203

student dormitories

39

gathering information

98

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

instantaneous indirect
water heaters and

295

manufacturer specifications

68

multiple systems design

69

recover requirements

222

steam water heaters

333

storage tanks

222

wash cycles

40

75

222

baseball team locker room examples

214

215

217

flow rates

236

laundry tubs

hospital usage factors

79

80

142

147

care worksheet examples

171

174

sports arenas and stadiums

211

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes

149

nursing/intermediate

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

lavatories
delivered hot water temperatures

12

demand

87

baseball team locker


room example
hospital usage factors

214

215

79

80

107

115

42

43

180

184

50

151

142

147

88

94

217

hospital worksheet
examples
institutional dormitories
jails and prisons
kitchens
nursing/intermediate
care/retirement
homes
patient areas

149

resident areas in care


facilities

135

schools

49

52

209

211

sport arenas and stadiums


staff toilets

73

student dormitories

41

54

user group example


worksheets

84

flow rates

40

maximum flow rates

236

steam water heaters

333

86

leaks
cold leakage

288

copper piping

244

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

173

Index Terms

Links

Legionella Pneumophila (Legionnaires Disease)

14

length of branches
delays in hot water and

234

in non-heat traced systems

270

life cycles
costs

278

instantaneous indirect
water heaters
lime deposits

295
294

300

See also scaling


linear expansion

349

linings for storage tanks

284

298

liquid petroleum gas (LPG),

xxi

330

314

liters per hour (L/h)


in heat recovery equations

laundry demand

221

worksheets

140

LMH factor (low, medium, and high)

xxi

apartment building example

32

applying

26

multifamily building demographics

23

peak and maximum demands

25

33

small, medium and large


apartment buildings

31

special use facilities

35

load calculations
alternative systems

17

apartment building example

32

load lag flywheels

34

340

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

loads per hour


hospital laundries

75

92

care laundries

138

157

retirement home laundries

139

nursing/intermediate

local plumbing codes

16

locker rooms
hospitals

96

114

industrial facilities

191

shower rooms

129

sports arenas and stadiums

203

214

75

92

surgical suites
loops
check valves on

245

isolating portions of systems

244

lounges

160

low, medium, and high. See


LMH factor (low, medium, and high)
low-flow fixtures
heat trace systems and

265

hot water delays and

235

low-pressure steam

337

LPG (liquid petroleum gas),

xxi

271

330

M
magnesium oxide immersion
elements

300

magnetic resonance imaging


machines

114

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

main lines
heat trace systems

270

in heat trace systems

276

maintenance
accessibility of heat exchangers

281

ease of access to equipment

281

fixed orifices and venturis

245

gasketed heat exchangers

287

heat pump systems

332

nursing/intermediate care
systems
planning for repairs
sports arenas and stadiums

163
40
207

storage tank draining and


cleaning

315

therapy room systems

128

maintenance areas
hospitals

77

91

93

99
nursing/intermediate
care systems

138

retirement homes

140

157

makeup water for feed-for-ward


steam systems
malls

337
228

management systems for


sports arenas

205

manholes

315

manicures

128

manual pump controls

258

129

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

96

Index Terms

Links

manufacturing facilities

188

massage therapy

128

194

meals. See also dietary and


food services
number of

74

92

136

156

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
meat processing facilities
mechanical circulation, stratification and

194
16

mechanical draft inducers

321

Meckler, Milton

262

medical and health clinics


first aid rooms in sports
arenas

204

office buildings

229

prisons

185

schools

46

shower rooms

209

129

medical patients

72

medication rooms

73

94

111

medium-sized apartment
buildings

31

meeting rooms
hotel types
religious facilities

59
226

melt down in immersion elements

303

memory stops on valves

245

metal barriers in heat ex-changers

285

metering faucets

205

248

236

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

135

Index Terms

Links

Mettelstaedt, Bernie

xix

Meyer, Randy

xix

mid-sized apartment buildings

31

middle schools

45

Miller, Julius E.

xix

Milligan, N. H.

37

mineral facilities

196

mineral salt baths

129

mining facilities

190

38

miscellaneous areas
hospitals
32-bed hospital example

95

300-bed hospital example

113

gathering information

93

usage factors

91

99

worksheet example
totals
worksheet examples

82

83

108

123

138

157

109

124

158

164

nursing/intermediate
care
48-bed nursing care
facility example

160

gathering information

163

user groups

152

154

worksheet example
totals

176

worksheet examples

171

retirement homes

140

155

175
miscellaneous facilities

225

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

mixed water temperatures


calculating
in heat loss equations
hydrotherapy
jails
showers
sports arenas and stadiums
tables and equations
tempering devices

56
253
74
181
51
206
6
69

mixing tubes or areas in


burners
mixing valves

319
337

Mixing Valves and Hot Water


Temperature
monel

262
285

mop sinks

41

49

morgues

77

91

considerations

93

gathering information

99

user group totals work-sheets

82

Moritz, A. R.

83

13

morning peak demand


multifamily buildings

21

spas and health clubs

130

22

motels. See hotels and motels


movement of buildings

207

MRI machines

114

Mulder, Bernie

xix

multi-loop immersion elements

300

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

multifamily buildings
centralized systems

25

circulation systems for

239

demand determination

24

demographic profiles

23

examples

31

35

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

laundries in

36

LMH factor and

26

patterns of demand

19

peak vs. average demand

26

potential traps

36

retrofitting

28

steam water heaters

333

multifunction full-condensing
equipment

17

multilevel facilities

276

multiple flues

313

multiple game events

204

17

multiple stamped ribbon


ports

320

multiple systems
high school considerations

56

hospital user group totals


worksheets

81

hotels

69

schools

47

multiple temperature systems

272

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

N
National Board of Boiler and
Pressure Vessel
Inspectors (NBBPVI)

15

National Electric Code (NEC),

xxi

17

xxi

17

National Fire Protection


Association (NFPA)
National Fuel Gas Code

324

National Sanitation Foundation (NSF)

xxi

natural convection

283

natural gas heat sources

185

16

330

NBBPVI (National Board of


Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Inspectors)

15

NEC (National Electric Code),

xxi

Neeck, James T.

xix

neonatal intensive care

113

net expansion of water

354

17

New Information on Seruice


Water Heating

261

New Methods for Analyzing


Hot Water Systems

262

NFPA (National Fire


Protection Association)

xxi

17

nichrome (nickel chrome)

301

302

NICU (neonatal intensive care)

113

nighttime peak demand

22

nitrile rubber (NR)

xxi

non-metering faucets

236

303

286

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

nonambulatory patients
bathing tubs for

137

central bathing areas

157

nonurban hotels
noon-time demand in spas

152

154

61
130

nourishment rooms
hospitals

73

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
NR (nitrile rubber)

135
xxi

286

NSF (National Sanitation


Foundation)

xxi

nuclear power plants

197

nurseries. See obstetrics/


nursery areas
nurses stations
32-bed hospital example

94

48-bed nursing care facility example

159

300-bed hospital example

111

characteristics

73

gathering information

91

hospital usage factors

89

hospital worksheet examples

82

96

156

161

83

101

109

152

153

156

124
nursing/intermediate
care/retirement
homes

135
159

nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

166

176

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

nursing care facilities


48-bed facility example

158

central bathing

137

defined

133

dietary and food service

136

gathering information

156

159

161

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

hydrotherapy

136

159

kitchen requirements
table

151

laundries

138

miscellaneous areas

160

nurses stations

135

159

resident areas

135

158

usage factors

152

user group analysis

135

worksheet examples

147

165

worksheet totals

144

176

worksheets

140

160

O
OB (obstetrics).
See obstetrics/nursery areas
OBrien, Tim

xix

obstetrics/nursery areas
32-bed hospital example

95

300-bed hospital example

113

gathering information

93

obstetrics (OB)

xxi

99

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

obstetrics/nursery areas (Cont.)


usage factors

90

worksheet example totals

82

83

107

115

worksheet examples

109

occupancy rates
in hotels

70

in retirement homes

139

in spas and health clubs

129

occupants. See populations


off-peak generation
heat pumps
multifamily buildings
office buildings

328
28
229

OHRD (Ontario Hydro


Research Division)

xxi

heat pump applications

330

as heating medium

280

refineries

190

on-call rooms

94

Oil

on-demand controls

111

258

one bedroom apartments. See


1-bedroom apartments
one compartment sinks. See
1 -compartment sinks
Ontario Hydro Research
Division (OHRD)
open systems

xxi
258

operating conditions for heat


exchangers

281

288

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

124

Index Terms

Links

ore processing facilities

190

orifices in burners

320

outdoor line insulation

260

outgoing water
pressure differences in
steam feed-forward
systems

336

steady-state heat balance


formula

storage tank fittings

298

temperature and approach

280

outlet fittings
outpatient surgery
output energy in formulas

314

318

298

314

318

95

113

output water. See outgoing


water
overlapping use

49

77

oversizing
avoiding in multifamily
buildings

25

costs and

37

standard methods and,

xvii

P
P. See hot water multiplier
pain threshold

13

pantries

185

pantry sinks

214

paper mills

196

215

218

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

parents at spas and health


clubs

130

particulate fouling
indirect fired water heaters and

295

plate and frame heat ex-changers and

281

shell and tube devices


and

282

patient areas
hospitals
32-bed hospital example

93

300-bed hospital example

111

gathering information

72

91

96

usage factors

88

82

83

109

100

115

worksheet example
totals
worksheet examples
nursing homes
worksheet example
totals

176

worksheet examples

165

Patterns of Domestic Hot


Water Consumptionfor a
Multifamily Building
payment for hot water, demand and

38
25

37

peak demand
alternative systems

17

apartment building example

33

hospital laundries

76

hospital user groups

90

hospital worksheets

81

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

124

Index Terms

Links

peak demand (Cont.)


hotels

61

institutional dormitories

43

multifamily buildings

19

25

26

remote heat pump water


heaters and

327

resort hotels

60

spas, pools, health clubs,


and athletic centers

128

sports arenas and stadium fixtures

204

student dormitories

39

surgical suites

75

time of day and

26

vs. average demand

26

Pearlman, M.
pedicures

38
128

129

peel and stick labels in heat


trace systems

269

pelvic exam rooms

114

perfect gases, volume of

351

Performance of Domestic Hot


Water Systems in Five
Apartment Buildings

37

pesticide storage rooms

209

Petes Plugs

248

petrochemical facilities

333

petroleum refineries

190

pH values

295

See also
alkalinity of water; hard
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

pH values (Cont.)
water
pharmaceutical facilities

188

195

phase, electric water heaters


and

207

photographic dark rooms

112

photography labs

196

physical therapy areas

89

198

204

153

physics laboratories. See


laboratories
pilot plants

188

pinhole leaks in copper piping

244

Pipe Sizing (ASHRAE)

261

piping
expansion

259

heat loss

254

heat pump systems

328

heat trace systems

270

heating

235

348

349

331

instantaneous point of
use heaters

243

insulation

250

pipe routing in sports arenas

205

steam systems

338

surface temperature

251

time delays tables

237

untraced piping

278

vent pipes

323

volumes table

350

weight of

235

259

339

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Piping Systems

261

plastic barriers in heat ex-changers

285

plate and frame heat ex-changers

285

approach temperatures
and

281

precipitation and particulates

281

plate-type heat exchangers


advantages

284

approach temperatures
and

288

compared to other types

281

double-wall plate and


frame exchangers

287

plate and frame heat


exchangers

281

285

prime surface
heat ex-changers

285

welded plate and frame


exchangers

287

plumbing drawings

273

The Plumbing Engineer as a


Forensic Engineer
Plumbing Fixture Fittings

262
261

point-of-use applications
defined

242

grocery stores

227

heat trace systems

270

sports arenas and stadiums

208

temperature

206

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

pools
calculating demand

130

gathering information

127

hot water requirements

128

laundry and food service


demand

130

religious facilities

226

shower rooms

129

populations
by apartment size

26

demographic profiles

23

density of population

23

hotel considerations

70

multifamily buildings

23

schools

47

spas and health clubs

48

130

working tenants in
multi-family buildings
ports in gas burners

22
319

320

Position Paper on Hot Water


Temperature Limitations

261

post-birthing rooms

77

postsurgery rooms

111

93

potable water treatment


plants
pots and pans sinks

190

198

225

pounds per square inch


gauge (PSIG)
power circuits

xxi
306

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

power connection kits


in heat trace systems

269

plumbing drawing indicators

273

power plants

190

power vent systems

321

197

precipitation, plate and frame


heat exchangers and

281

preheating
inlet water in feed-forward
systems

338

laundry water supply

222

prerinse sinks
central sterile supply areas

113

demand

65

food services

92

hospital worksheet examples

84

87

86

103

119

122
hospitals

92

112

kitchens

50

52

53

151

147

149

156

55

187
nursing/intermediate
care/retirement
homes

142

nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

168

prisons

187

schools

50

52

53

prescrapper sinks

50

87

151

preset flow control devices


balancing systems

244

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

preset flow control devices (Cont.)


preset automatic flow
control valves

247

pressure
Boyle's law

351

dangerous water pressures

343

equations

354

head capacity of circulating pumps

257

heat exchangers and

281

heat pump water heaters

326

hospital user group information

72

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks

312

instantaneous indirect
water heaters and

295

kitchen usage and

137

measuring devices

248

sensing in feed-forward
steam units
sterilization equipment

336
76

93

pressure-balanced shower
valves

209

pressure-formed sheets in
heat exchangers
pressure measuring devices

285
248

pressure relief valves


heat pump systems
standards
storage tanks
Price, D. C.

332
15
298

315

37

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

primary air burners

319

prime surface heat exchangers

285

principal's toilets
printing and publishing facilities

46
190

196

prisons
design considerations

179

example

184

gathering information

185

heat trace systems

274

kitchens

187

laundries

188

life cycle of

180

276

277

84

86

100

115

123

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital user group information

72

redundancy in systems
and

185

storage tank sizing

186

work-release programs

186

private lavatories and toilets


hospital example work-sheets

105

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes

142

147

149

nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

165

sports arenas and stadiums

204

209

72

91

private suites in stadiums

203

209

proactive feed-forward systems

336

private patient rooms

135

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

156

Index Terms

Links

probable occupancy rates


calculations
sizing and

26

process fluids

281

professional patrons at spas

130

protective suits at chemical


processing plants
psig (gage pressure)

196
352

PSIG (pounds per square inch


gauge),
public laundries

31

public lavatories and toilets


hospital example work-sheets

84

86

102

115
hospital usage factors

79

hospital user group information

72

institutional dormitories

42

maximum flow rates

80

43

236

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes

142

147

care worksheet examples

171

175

public restrooms

160

149

nursing/intermediate

schools
sports arenas and stadiums
publishing facilities

49
204

209

190

196

Pumps
electric

327

head capacity

257

instantaneous gas heaters


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

103

Index Terms

Links

Pumps (Cont.)
with separate tanks

311

recirculation pumps

257

refrigeration units

332

steam feedback systems

335

339

types of circulating
pumps

258

Pumps

262

Pumps and Pump Systems

262

purified water in sterilization

195

pushbutton self-closing control valves.

180

Q
quality of water. See water
quality
quarter circle wash stations

191

questions. See gathering information

R
R factor (thermal resistivity)
radiology departments

260
95

rain, insulation and

260

raised port burners

320

raw materials processing

196

re-gasketing maintenance

287

reactive feedback units

334

ready-mix concrete plants

198

rebates, utility

328

114

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

recirculating hot water systems


air elimination

259

circulation systems

239

commercial, industrial,
and large residential
projects

239

controls

258

delays in hot water

234

flow balancing devices

245

head capacity of pumps

257

heat trace systems

242

insulation

259

length of systems

234

open and closed systems

258

point-of-use heaters

242

problems

233

pump types

258

238

243

required circulation rate


example

254

return piping and pumps

249

steam feedback systems

335

steam water heaters

338

storage volume and

16

stratification and

42

water delivery methods


recirculating prerinse sinks

44

238
50

87

216

219

151

recirculating pumps. See cir-culating pumps


recovery periods
baseball team locker room
examples

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

recovery periods (Cont.)


electric water heaters
equations
football stadiums
general design principles

5
63
213
15

grocery stores

227

heat pumps

328

heat recovery systems

329

hotel kitchens

67

hotels

62

immersion elements and

300

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks
institutional dormitories
laundry requirements

312
43
222

preheating laundry water


supply

222

prison laundries

188

sanitizers

194

showers and

57

spas, pools, health clubs,


and athletic centers

128

steam feedback systems

335

storage tank indirect water heaters

292

stratification and

16

recovery rooms in hospitals

112

recovery systems

329

redundancy in systems

185

refrigerants
as heating medium

280

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

refrigerants (Cont.)
refrigerant-based water
heating systems

17

refrigerant evaporators/
condensers
refrigeration heat reclaim systems

288
329

See also
heat pump water heaters
considerations

17

grocery stores

227

refrigeration pressure/temperature
controls
regional plumbing codes

332
16

relationships in steady-state
heat balance formula

relief valves
standards
unseating of
religious facilities

15
343
225

remodeling buildings
heat trace systems and

272

multifamily buildings

28

remote bulb thermostats

305

remote evaporators

327

remote heat pump water


heaters

326

327

158

160

331

repairs. See maintenance


resident areas
48-bed nursing facility
example

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

resident areas (Cont.)


gathering information

161

164

135

152

156

155

157

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

176

religious facilities

226

retirement homes

139

sports arenas and stadiums

205

173

residential dishwashers
delivered hot water temperatures
flow rates

12
236

hospital usage factors

79

80

hospital worksheets

84

86

117

142

147

149

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

173

retirement apartments

158

residential heat pump water


heaters

325

326

residential laundries
delivered hot water temperatures
flow rates
hospital example work-sheets
jails and prisons

12
236
84

86

115

142

147

149

171

174

180

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
nursing/intermediate
care worksheet examples

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

117

Index Terms

Links

residential laundries (Cont.)


retirement apartments

139

158

residential water heaters. See


domestic hot water (DSH);
equipment
residents. See populations
resistance of elements

302

resistance wires

300

resorts. See hotels and motels


response times in steam feedback systems

335

restaurants
fast-food
food kiosks

228
39

heat pump systems

331

heat recovery systems

329

in multifunction buildings

40

36

in shopping malls

228

steam water heaters

333

retail spaces
in multifunction buildings

36

in office buildings

229

in shopping malls

228

retired patrons at spas

130

retirement homes
48-bed example

160

defined

134

gathering information

157

161

kitchen requirements
table

151

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

retirement homes (Cont.)


laundries

139

155

160

miscellaneous areas

140

155

158

resident areas

139

155

160

worksheet examples

147

173

worksheet totals

144

176

worksheets

140

Retrofit of Building Energy


Systems and Processes

262

retrofitting buildings
heat trace systems and

272

multifamily buildings

28

return pipes
check valves and

245

in circulation systems

239

entrapped air

259

head capacity
of circulating pumps

257

insulation

260

lack of in heat trace systems

266

sizing

249

ribbon port burners

320

rinse requirements
for dish-washing
rise in temperature
risers in heat trace systems

48
5
276

runout lines in heat trace


systems

270

275

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

160

Index Terms

Links

S
sacrificial anodes

298

314

315

safety concerns
feed-forward steam systems

337

hospitals

71

scalding

13

safety controls for heat pump


systems
safety equipment

332
1

Salisbury, Brian D.

xix

salt baths

129

Saltzberg, Edward

xix

262

same-day surgery

95

113

xviii

xx

Sampler, Donald L.
sanitization
food processing plants

194

grocery stores

227

hospital laundry example

222

sanitizing dishwashers

12

75

scalding
codes and

135

feed-forward steam systems

337

hospital codes and

73

safety concerns

13

scaling
heat exchangers

288

heat pump systems

332

indirect fired water heaters

293

295

instantaneous indirect
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

318

Index Terms

Links

scaling (Cont.)
water heaters and

295

lime deposits

294

steam storage water heaters

334

300

schedules. See also hours of


operation
in prisons

185

schools
calculating demand

49

elementary school example

52

expansion

49

gathering information

47

general considerations

47

heat trace maintenance


temperature table

274

high school example

54

kitchens and food services

47

50

population

47

48

showers

48

51

steam water heaters

333

system selection factors

56

types of

45

science rooms
Scott, J.Joe
scraping sinks

46

49

xviii

xx

112

scrub sinks
emergency rooms

95

hospital example

112

hospital usage factors

79

80

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

scrub sinks (Cont.)


homes
obstetrics area
outpatient surgery

142
93
113

surgical suites

75

usage factors

90

worksheet examples

113

105

92

108

115

123
worksheets
Sealine, David A.
seasonal sports arenas

84

86

xviii

xx

262

205

seasonal temperatures of
water

338

seasonal usage of heat


pumps

330

seasonal water demand

20

secondary schools

45

security type showerheads

205

sediment

296

seismic requirements

207

self-closing valves

180

self-contained photo processors

198

self-limiting flow control car-tridges

247

48

314

332

self-regulating heat trace


systems
approved systems

267

circuit lengths

273

components

269

defined

242

266

design considerations

272

273

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

121

Index Terms

Links

self-regulating heat trace (Cont.)


heating cables

266

horizontal mains and


supply risers

276

identifying pipes

270

insulation

275

maintenance temperatures

274

overview

265

performance variables to
consider

266

piping design

275

selecting cables

274

terminology

278

water and energy conservation

265

semicircular wash stations

191

semiprivate patient rooms

91

semiprivate rooms
hospital patient rooms

72

nursing/intermediate
care facilities
senior high schools
sensors for steam water heaters

135

156

45
334

separate systems. See multiple systems


Service Hot Water Systems

57

261

room examples

214

215

flow rates

236

service sinks
baseball team locker

schools
sports arenas and stadiums

218

49
211

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Service Water Heating

261

servicing plumbing. See


maintenance
sewage treatment plants

190

sheaths on immersion elements

300

198

Sheet Metal and Air


Conditioning Contractors
National Association
(SMACNA),xxi
Retrofit of Building Energy
Systems and Processes

262

shell and tube devices


advantages

282

approach temperatures
and

288

cleanliness of stream and

281

compared to other heat


exchangers

281

double-wall heat exchangers

284

feed-forward steam systems

337

steam water heater systems

340

tank heaters

283

TEMA (Tubular Exchange


Manufacturers Association)
standards

280

U-tube removable bundles

282

shift changes
industrial plants

190

nurses stations

89

wash-up duration

153

192

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Index Terms
shop rooms in schools
shopping malls

Links
46
228

short-circuited water in
loops

244

showerheads
in calculations

51

hotel demand and

62

maximum flow rates

236

security type shower-heads

205

sports arenas and stadiums

211

showers
calculating demand

210

compared to bathing

37

delivered hot water temperatures

12

demand
baseball team locker room
examples

214

emergency showers

204

football stadium example

212

217

high schools

55

hospital locker rooms

92

112

hospital usage factors

79

80

90

100

105

107

121

123

hospital worksheets

84

86

hotels

59

61

hydrotherapy areas

74

92

industrial facilities

191

192

42

43

hospital worksheet examples

institutional dormitories
jails and prisons

180

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

115

Index Terms

Links

showers (Cont.)
nursing/intermediate care facilities

142

147

149

156

157
nursing/intermediate
care worksheets

170

171

173

obstetrics areas

77

90

93

patient rooms

73

91

94

184

185

prisons

95

resident areas in care


facilities

135

schools

46

shower rooms

48

51

206

208

130

181

129

spas, pools, health


clubs, and athletic
centers

128

sports arenas and


stadium fixtures

204

staff shower rooms in


hospitals

77

student dormitories

41

surgical suites

75

dump loads

193

duration

62

equations

181

flow rates

40

gathering data for requirements

47

Legionnaires Disease
and

14

steam water heaters

333

Vichy and swiss showers

129

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

185

Index Terms

Links

showers (Cont.)
water temperature
winter vs. summer demand

206
20

shutoff valves
in circulation systems

239

for fixed orifices and venturis

247

gas

315

isolating portions of systems

244

silverware washers

318

50

single bedroom apartments.


See 1-bedroom apartments
single compartment sinks.
See 1 -compartment sinks
single-loop immersion elements

300

single people at spas

130

single systems

69

sinks. See also specific types


of sinks (i.e., kitchen
sinks)
classrooms
faucet flow rates

52
236

hospital example work-sheets

84

86

hospital food services

74

92

hourly demand

65

initial fills and draw-downs

66

kitchens

48

laboratories

119

50

195

miscellaneous hospital
areas

77

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

sinks (Cont.)
nursing/intermediate
care facilities

136

138

156

50

54

315

319

school general purpose


usage

49

schools

48

service sinks

49

sport arenas and stadiums

209

surgical suites

95

siphoning, preventing

300

sitz baths

77

sizing. See also names of specific systems to be sized


(i.e., laundries, hospitals)
costs and
delays in hot water and
generator size

37
238
30

heat exchangers

340

heat pump systems

331

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks
oversizing
retrofitting buildings
return piping and pumps

312
xvii

25

28
249

steady-state heat balance


formula

storage tanks

183

systems
baseball team locker
room examples

215

218

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

systems (Cont.)
concrete processing water tanks

199

dormitory systems

39

hospital systems

71

hotel and motel systems

59

industrial facility systems

189

jail and prison systems

179

laundries

221

miscellaneous facilities

225

multifamily buildings

19

25

nursing/intermediate
care/retirement
home systems

133

school systems

45

spas, pools, health


clubs, and athletic
center systems

127

sports arenas and


stadium systems

203

Sizing of Sewice Water Heating


Equipment in Commercial and
Institutional Buildings
skin damage

38
14

slaughter houses. See food


product facilities
sleeping quarters in nursing/
intermediate care facilities
slotted port burners

135
320

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

SMACNA (Sheet Metal and Air


Conditioning Contractors
National Association)

xxi

small apartment buildings

30

small hospitals

93

small hotels

70

Smith, Jean B.

xx

snap-action surface-mounted
high limit safety devices

303

snap-action surface-mounted
thermostats

303

snap gaskets

287

social areas

160

soiled utility rooms


hospitals

73

94

111

95

113

122

79

80

84

86

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

135

solar energy
as heating medium

280

solar water heaters

17

solid-state progressive sequencers


sonic cleaners

306

hospital user group usage


factors
user group example worksheets
worksheet examples

106

space cooling functions of


heat pumps

327

329

330

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

spas
calculating demand

130

gathering information

127

hot water requirements

128

laundry and food service


demand

130

shower rooms

129

special education rooms

46

special needs in therapy services


special use housing facilities

128
35

specialized tubs
nonambulatory patients

137

worksheet examples

170

specific heat of water


specific volume of water
Spielvogel, L. G.

346

354

38

spills
flue gas spillage

322

pharmaceutical plants

195

sponge bathing

88

sports arenas
baseball stadium example

214

commercial laundries in

208

demand assumptions

208

design traps

206

football stadium example

211

gathering information

204

sizing systems

210

system design considerations

205

types of systems

207

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

sports arenas (Cont.)


usage areas

203

water temperatures

206

sports teams

46

spot cooling

327

48

55

spray-type dishwashers. See


commercial dishwashers
stadiums
baseball stadium exam-ple

214

commercial laundries in

208

demand assumptions

208

design traps

206

football stadium example

211

gathering information

204

sizing systems

210

system design considerations

205

types of systems

207

usage areas

203

water temperatures

206

staff shower rooms


hospitals

77

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

138

staff toilets
hospitals

73

111

nursing/intermediate
care facilities

135

sport arenas and stadiums

209

sports arenas and stadiums

204

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

stainless steel
in heat exchangers

285

pump fittings

258

288

stamped horizontal port


burners
stamped mono-port burners

320
320

standards and codes


heat exchangers
listing
sports arenas and stadiums
state plumbing codes
static head in closed systems

279
16
205
16
258

steady-state heat balance


formula

steam
as heating medium

185

tank heaters

283

U-tube removable bundles and

282

Steam and Condensate Systems

341

steam generation plants

185

steam mains

338

steam sterilizers

95

280

112

113

steam water heaters


design considerations

340

example

341

feed-forward units

336

feedback units

334

instantaneous water heaters

333

recirculation system piping


and operation

338

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

steam water heaters (Cont.)


storage water heaters

333

types

333

steamers

48

steel mills

190

steel piping

235

steel water heaters

349

Steele, Alfred

262

237

sterile areas
hospital sterile supply
areas
pharmaceutical plants

76
195

sterilization
pharmaceutical plants
requirements for dish-washing

195
48

sterilizers

75

Stevens, Kris

xx

92

95

storage. See also storage


tanks
general design principles

15

generation rate and capacity research

30

peak vs. average demand and

26

storage rooms

209

storage steam water heaters

333

storage tank electric water heaters


commercial and residential

297

dip tubes

300

elements

300

tank fittings

298

tanks

298

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

197

Index Terms

Links

storage tank feedback systems

335

storage tank gas water heaters


burners

319

defined

313

dip tubes

315

flues and heat exchangers

313

tank fittings

314

tanks

314

venting systems

321

318

318

storage tank indirect water


heaters

291

295

storage tanks
applications
apartment building
example

34

baseball team locker


room example

219

football stadium example

213

high school systems

57

hotel kitchens

66

hotels

62

industrial facilities
institutional dormitories

194
43

jail example

183

laundry requirements

222

multifamily buildings

26

prison example
student dormitories

63

185

186

41

corrosion

314

dip tubes

300

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

storage tanks (Cont.)


draining and cleaning

315

electric water heaters

298

expansion formulas

348

expansion tanks

343

fittings

298

gas water heaters

314

heat loss

252

heat pump water heaters

326

314

318

255

256

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks

311

linings

298

steam feedback systems

335

steam water heaters

333

stratification

16

tank draw efficiency

300

tank mounting collars

283

tank recirculation systems


vertical and horizontal tanks

314

42

44

16
207

stores
convenience stores

226

329

grocery stores

227

331

malls

228

supermarkets

226

329

330

strainers
for fixed orifices and venturis

245

heat pump systems

331

stratification in water tanks


eliminating

42

overview

16

44

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

stresses
on indirect fired water
heaters

293

on pipes

259

student dormitories

39

student toilets

46

studio apartments

26

suite hotels

61

summer season water de-mand

20

supermarkets

226

329

330

supplemental water heating


systems

17

supply. See incoming cold


water supply; incoming
hot water supply
supply pipes
check valves and

245

in circulation systems

239

insulation

260

risers in heat trace systems

276

surface-mounted high limit


safety devices

298

303

surface-mounted thermo-stats

298

303

surface temperature of piping

251

surgical patients

72

92

surgical suites
32-bed hospital example

95

300-bed hospital example

112

considerations

75

gathering information

97

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

surgical suites (Cont.)


usage factors
worksheet examples
worksheet totals
swimming pools

90
105

121

82

83

109

46

swing care wings in nursing


facilities

158

swiss showers

129

symbols in heat trace systems

273

system sizing. See names of


specific systems (i.e.,
laundries, hospitals)
system temperature range
Szydlowski, R.

278
38

T
T & P relief valves
tableware
tank draw efficiency

243
48
300

tank heaters. See gas water


heaters; indirect fired
water heaters; storage tank
electric water heaters
tank mounting collars

283

tank-within-a-tank indirect
fired water heaters

292

tankless coil systems


apartment building example

32

instantaneous indirect
water heaters

295

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

124

Index Terms

Links

tankless systems.
See instan-taneous systems
tanks. See storage tanks
tape in heat trace systems
Tarbutton, George B.

269
xx

tax credits

328

Taylor, H.

38

teachers lounges

46

teachers workrooms

46

49

tee/inline splice kits


in heat trace systems

269

plumbing drawing indicators

273

TEMA (Tubular Exchange


Manufacturers Association)

xxi

280

temperature
condensation and

15

delivered hot water temperatures

12

differential in heat recovery equations


equations
at fixture outlet

5
354
6

heat trace systems

266

large differences in

283

lime deposits and

294

mixed water temperatures

64

78

requirements
concrete
gathering requirements

198
47

heat trace maintenance temperature


table
hospital laundries

274
76

92

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Index Terms

Links

temperature (Cont.)
hospital user groups

72

78

hospital worksheets

81

84

86

hydrotherapy

74

92

136

156

138

222

jail and prison considerations

179

kitchens

137

187

laundries

76

92

nursing/intermediate
care laundries

138

prison kitchens

187

showers

210

special therapeutic
needs

128

sports arenas and


stadium fixtures

204

scalding

13

sterilization

76

206

93

system temperature
range

278

worksheets

140

temperature controlled steam


valves

335

temperature cross
defined

281

plate-type heat exchangers and

284

U-tube removable bundles

283

temperature differential
drops in system temperature range
in heat recovery equations

278
5

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

Temperature Limits in Service


Hot Water Systems

262

temperature relief valves


heat pump systems
standards
storage tanks
temperature rise
temperature sensing bulbs

332
15
298

315

5
335

tempered water. See mixed


water temperatures
tempering valves
temples

69
225

tenants. See populations


termination
cable end termination in
heat trace systems

269

electrical terminals on
immersion elements

300

end termination

273

plumbing drawing indicators

273

terminology
heat exchangers

280

self-regulating heat trace


systems

278

testing laboratories.
See laboratories
thawing food
fast-food restaurants

228

grocery stores

227

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

therapy services
calculating demand

130

hot water requirements

128

spas, pools, health clubs,


and athletic centers

128

sports arenas and stadium fixtures

206

therapy tubs

73

91

Thermal and Water Vapor


Transmission Data
thermal efficiency (R factor)

261
4

260

thermal expansion
allowing for

15

indirect fired water heaters

293

piping

259

refrigerant liquids

326

tank materials

348

U-tube removable bundles

283

thermal expansion tanks. See


expansion tanks
thermal insulation.
See insulation
thermal stress in indirect
fired water heaters

293

thermodynamic properties of
water

347

thermostatic aquastat controls

258

thermostatic capillary systems

336

thermostatic capsules

339

thermostatic mixing valves

74

112

209

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

thermostats
electric water heaters

303

gas water heaters

316

heat pump systems

332

storage tank fittings

315

storage tanks

298

thirty mA ground fault equipment

317

318

267

Thrasher, W. H.

38

57

threaded nipples

298

314

339

340

ticket booths

204

209

time clock controls

259

time-delay sequencers

306

three-way thermostatic
capsules (diverting valves)

time delays. See delays in hot


water
time length. See duration
time of day, peak flows and

26

time periods for showers

48

time rates for heat transfer

time to tap. See delays in hot


water
timed-control valves

180

titanium

285

To Combine or Not to Combine

262

toilets
fast-food restaurants

229

grocery stores

227

industrial facilities

191

prisons

184

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

toilets (Cont.)
public

42

religious facilities

226

shopping malls

228

special school facilities

46

staff toilets

73

training rooms

204

trauma rooms

113

travelers hotels
tray cleaning

60

43

209

61

227

triple compartment sinks. See


3-compartment sinks
troubleshooting
multifamily building sizing

36

problems with inadequate


hot water systems

233

recirculating hot water


systems

233

sports arena design

206

truck tanks, concrete


tub rooms

243

199
94

tube failures in heat exchangers

284

tube-in-tube heat exchangers

281

tube-on-tube heat exchangers

281

tube velocity

282

tubes, weight of

235

111

157

284

tubs. See bathtubs; hydro-therapy


tubs; laundry tubs
Tubular Exchange Manufacturers
Association (TEMA)

xxi

280

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

turbulence
in heat exchangers

286

instantaneous indirect
water heaters
turnaround time for showers

295
210

two bedroom apartments. See


2-bedroom apartments

U
U-tube bayonet-type heat
exchangers

335

U-tube double-wall heat ex-changers

284

U-tube removable bundles

282

UL. See Underwriters


Labo-ratories, Inc. (UL)
uncirculated hot water
branches

234

Underwriters Laboratories, Inc. (UL)

xxi

electrical components listing

16

heat trace systems

267

unheated distances in heat


trace systems

278

Uniform Plumbing Code Il-lustrated


Training Manual

262

uniforms
blood on

188

laundries and

188

uninsulated hot water


branches
unions in heat pump systems

234
331

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Index Terms
units of measurement in formulas
university steam water systems
unrecirculated tanks

Links
3
333
16

untraced piping

278

updrafts, gas venting systems and

321

upfeed hot water systems

239

urban hotels
U.S. Food and Drug Administration

240

61
194

user groups
hospitals. See also under
specific groups (i.e., nurses
stations, surgical suites)
32-bed hospital
example

93

300-bed example

124

300-bed hospital example

111

109

defined

72

gathering information

72

91

laundries

75

92

98

total worksheets

81

109

124

usage factors

88

worksheet examples

84

worksheets

78

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes. See also under
specific groups (i.e., nurses
stations, patient areas)
48-bed facility example

158

defined

134

gathering information

134

161

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

113

Index Terms

Links

user groups (Cont.)


total worksheets

144

usage factors

152

worksheet examples

147

worksheets

140

176

165

users. See populations


utensil sinks
utensil washers

225

227

228

50

utilities
laundries

222

rebates

328

sports arenas and stadiums

205

utility plants

190

197

V
vapor barriers in heat trace
systems
vapor compression

269
325

vegetable sinks
demand

87

high school kitchens

55

kitchen requirements

151

prison kitchens

187

school kitchens

50

52

53

velocity
erosion

244

in recirculating systems

244

vent caps

321

vent pipe connections

321

323

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Index Terms

Links

vents
gas water heaters

316

pipe connections

323

317

storage tank gas water


heaters

321

venturi flow meters

245

vertical draft hoods

322

323

vertical drilled ports case


burners

320

vertical-to-horizontal draft
hoods

322

vertical water tanks


storage capacity
stratification
Vichy showers
Vine, E.

207
16
128

129

38

visiting team locker rooms

203

viton

286

217

voltage
electric water heaters

207

resistance of elements

302

volumes
of materials

354

of water

346

volumetric expansion

354

349

W
waiting for hot water. See
delays in hot water
Ward, John R.

xx

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms
wards in hospitals
warehouses

Links
72
190

197

warm air sources for heat


pumps
warming kitchens

325
48

wash cycles
averages

222

dormitory laundries

40

loads per hour

75

number per hour

222

wash down activities

227

wash fountains
baseball team locker room
examples

214

example

193

sports arenas and stadiums

211

215

218

wash rooms. See lavatories


wash stations
group wash fountains

192

industrial facilities

191

193

washing disinfectors. See


disinfectors
wasting energy. See energy
conservation
wasting water. See water conservation
water
expansion formulas

348

as heating medium

280

volume of

346

wastage. See water con-servation


This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

water (Cont.)
weight of

346

266

270

217

218

water conservation
delays in hot water and

238

energy conservation

234

heat trace systems and

265

laws
wastage tables

37
271

water expansion formulas

346

water hammer

336

water heaters
applications
baseball team locker
room examples

215

football stadium example

212

industrial facilities

192

institutional dormitories

43

jail example

183

distances to fixtures

233

expansion

348

types
electric water heaters

297

heat exchangers

279

heat pump water


heaters

325

indirect fired water


heaters

291

instantaneous gas
heaters with
separate tanks

311

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

water heaters (Cont.)


instantaneous point
of use heaters

242

recirculating domestic
hot water systems

233

residential and commercial

297

self-regulating heat
trace systems

265

steam water heaters

333

storage tank gas water


heaters

313

water lines. See piping


water paths (ankle therapy)

129

water quality
hospital sterilization

93

instantaneous gas heaters


with separate tanks
for sterilization equipment
water treatment plants

312
76
190

198

water velocities in
recirculating systems

244

wattage, resistance of elements and

302

weapons, hot water as

180

weather, insulation and

260

weekday water demand


flow patterns

21

multifamily buildings

19

weekend water demand


flow patterns

21

monitoring demand

28

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Index Terms

Links

weekend water demand (Cont.)


multifamily buildings

19

seasonal demand

20

weeping in plate and frame


units

289

weight
of heated water
of piping or tubes

346

235

welded connections in heat


exchangers

286

welded plates in steam


storage water heaters
Wen-Yung, W. Chan

334
262

Wentz, Thomas A.

xx

Werden, R. G.

38

wet vacuum equipment

195

whirlpool baths
baseball team locker room
examples

214

football stadium example

212

hotel demand
sports arenas and stadiums
Whitworth, Patrick L.

217

61
209

211

xx

Wilcox, Greg

262

Windsor, Tod

262

winter season
monitoring demand during

28

water demand

20

wiring circuits for


electric water heaters

305

This page has been reformatted by Knovel to provide easier navigation.

Index Terms

Links

work-release programs in
prisons

186

work shifts. See shift changes


workforce clients at spas
working tenants in multifamily buildings

130
22

worksheets
hospitals
32-bed hospital examples

100

109

300-bed examples

115

124

user group examples

84

user group work-sheets

78

worksheet totals

81

nursing/intermediate care/retirement
homes
48-bed examples

164

user group examples

147

worksheet totals

144

worksheets

140

retirement home examples

173

wraparound elements

300

Y
year-round sports arenas

205

Z
Zamboni machines

205

zinc plating

303

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