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THE

AGORA
ATHENIAN
RESULTS OF EXCAVATIONS
CONDUCTED

THE AMERICAN

SCHOOL

BY

OF CLASSICAL

STUDIES

AT ATHENS

VOLUME XXI
GRAFFITI AND

DIPINTI

BY
MABEL

LANG

THE AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS


PRINCETON, NEW JERSEY
1976

PUBLISHED

WITH THE AID OF A GRANT

ALL RIGHTS

FROM MR. JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER,

RESERVED

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data


Lang, Mabel L
Graffiti and dipinti.

1917-

(The Athenian Agora; v. 21)


Bibliography: p.
1. Athens. Agora. 2. Graffiti-Athens.
3. Inscriptions, Greek-Athens. I. Title.
II. Series: American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The
Athenian Agora; v. 21.
938'.5s [938'.5] 75-40229
DF287.A23A5 vol. 21
ISBN 0-87661-221-4

PRINTED

IN GERMANY

at J.J. AUGUSTIN,

GLtCKSTADT

JR.

PREFACE
erhapsevenmorethanin othervolumesof theAthenianAgoraseriesthe materialpresentedherehas
hadthebenefitof muchtimeandthoughtovertheyearson thepartof a goodlynumberof excavators,
cataloguersand visitorsin the Agora. Everyoneenjoysverbalpuzzlesthat challengeone's powersof
reading(ancient)minds,andmanyhappynotionsaboutthesetextswereevolvedaroundthe tea tableso
that the 'onliebegetter'may have been lost in obscurity.
Dating of the materialhas also been a cooperativeeffort,so that the presentauthoris indebtednot
only to excavatorsbut also to the many scholarswhose study of particularkinds of materialfor
particularperiodshas broughtorderout of complicationand confusion.
Basicto this workwasfirsta completelistingof all graffitiand dipintifoundin the Agora,initiatedby
LucyTalcottand effectedby SuzanneYoung and a successionof helpfulvolunteers.Then,the foundations of this study'scategoriesA throughG werelaid in a preliminary
versionwrittenin the early1950's
A.
Stamires
and
far
more
limitedin scope and numberof
by George
EugeneVanderpool.Although
piecesstudiedthan this, that workhas on severaloccasionsprovidednot only the best readingbut also
the rightphrasesin whichto presentthe material.In the yearsfollowing,the presentauthorwas fortunatein beingableto consultwithEugeneVanderpoolandbenefitfromhis vastexperienceof all things
Greekand graphic.His wisdomand temperedjudgmentin consequencepervadethe whole work; the
infelicitiesand whaterrorstheremay be of commisssionor omissionare all my own.
Illustrationsof the graffitihavebeenlimitedto drawings.In the case of dipintiphotographshavebeen
preferredfor one category,becauseof the difficultiespresentedby a combinationof run-oncursiveforms
and the fugitivemedium.The drawingswere made by Hero Athanasiadesand Helene Besi who have
shownboth skill and firmnessin representing
whatwas actuallyvisibleratherthan being influencedby
the 'wishfulseeing'of the author.
P

'It is easy to read if you know what it says.' NOVEMBER,1974

EUGENE
VANDERPOOL
MABEL LANG

TABLE OF CONTENTS
V

PREFACE ........................................................................
....

LIST OF PLATES ............................................................

ix

ABBREVIATIONSAND BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................

.........
INTRODUCTION

................

.....................................

A. ABECEDARIA ...........................

.....

.................

11

................................

D. NAMESON SHERDS...................

...........

16

...................

NOTATIONS
ON SHERDS ..........................
E. NUMERICAL

21

...................

23
30

............................
F. OWNERS' MARKS .......................
F. PRIVATEOWNERSHIP ......................................................

51

FA. PUBLIC OWNERSHIP: DELTA-EPSILONLIGATURES ....................................

FB. PUBLICOWNERSHIP:
DELTA-ETA
LIGATURES ........

.........

........

INSCRIPTIONS
..............................
G. DEDICATIONSAND CONVIVIAL

............

HA. CAPACITY.......................
...............
HB. TARE .6.............................................................
HC. DATE ................................................................
HD. CONTENTS .......................................................
HE. COMBINATIONS
.......................................................
.........

.....................

72
75
82
87

K. MISCELLANEOUS
NOTATIONS
.........
.....

55
69

J. CHRISTIAN
INSCRIPTIONS............................................

M. PICTURES ............

52

64

...................................

88

...................................

L. UNCLASSIFIEDNOTATIONS
.................

52
55

NOTATIONS..........................................................
H. COMMERCIAL

I. TAX NOTATIONS .......

6
8

AND LISTS ......................................................


B. MESSAGES

C. LOVENAMESAND HATENAMES...........

viii

...................

...............
..........................

90
94

..............

DEPOSITS ................................................9...................96
CONCORDANCEOF INVENTORYAND CATALOGUENUMBERS ...................................

101

INDICES............................................

105

INDEX NOMINUM...........

..

.............................

. .....

. .......105

INDEX VERBORUM ...................................................................

110

INDEX NUMERORUM .................................................................

115

INDEX SIGILLORUM ..................................................................

116

LIST

OF

PLATES

PLATE

1 Abecedaria (A 1-11)
2-3 Lists and Messages (B 1-21)
4-6 Love Names and Hate Names (C 1-34)
7-9 Names on Sherds (D 1-44)
10 Numerical Notations on Sherds (E 1-16)
11-28 Owners' Marks (F 1-334)
29 Owners' Marks: De(mosion) Ligatures (Fa 1-26; Fb 1-3)
30-31 Dedications and Convivial Inscriptions (G 1-23)
32-36 Commercial Notations: Capacity (Ha 1-56)
37-38 CommercialNotations: Tare (Hb 1-31)
39-40 Commercial Notations: Date (Hc 1-26)
41-42 Commercial Notations: Contents (Hd 1-23)
42-47 CommercialNotations: Combinations (He 1-44)
48-53 Tax Notations (I 1-45)
53-54 Christian Inscriptions (J 1-12)
54-55 Miscellaneous (K 1-19)
56-59 Unclassified (L 1-56)
60-61 Pictures (M 1-23)
62 Actual State Plan of the Agora

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY


Agora

TheAthenianAgora,Resultsof Excavationsconductedby the AmericanSchool


of ClassicalStudiesat Athens
III

R. E. Wycherley, Literary and Epigraphical Testimonia, Princeton, 1957

IV

R. H. Howland, GreekLamps and their Survivals,Princeton, 1958 (see

(see below,Wycherley)
below, Howland)
V

H. S. Robinson, Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology,Princeton,

1959(see below,Robinson,Chronology)
VI C. Grandjouan, Terracottasof the Roman Period, Princeton, 1961
VII J. Perlzweig, Lamps of the Roman Period, Princeton, 1961
VIII E. T. H. Brann, Late Geometric and Protoattic Pottery, Princeton, 1962

(see below, Brann)


X
M. Lang and M. Crosby, Weights,Measures and Tokens, Princeton, 1964
XII B. A. Sparkes and L. Talcott, Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and

4th CenturiesB. C., Princeton,1970(see below, Sparkes-Talcott)


A. J.A1.
rio
Annual
Beazley, A. B. V.
Beazley, A. R. V.

Bechtel
Bickerman
Brann
B. S. A.
B. C.H.
C. I. L.
C.R.

Edmonds
Howland
I.G.
I. G. A.

AmericanJournalof Archaeology
Annuariodella (R.) Scuola archeologicadi Atene
J. D. Beazley, Attic Black-Figure Vase-Painters,Oxford, 1956
J. D. Beazley, Attic Red-FigureVase-Painters,second edition, Oxford, 1963
Fr. Bechtel, Die historischePersonennamendes Griechischen,Halle, 1917
E. J. Bickerman, Chronologyof the Ancient World,London, 1968
Late Geometricand Protoattic Pottery. Agora, VIII
Annualof the British School at Athens
Bulletin de correspondancehellenique
CorpusInscriptionumLatinarum,Paris, 1862-1963
Classical Review
J. M. Edmonds, The Fragmentsof Attic Comedy,Leiden, 1959-61
Greek Lamps and their Survivals.Agora, IV
InscriptionesGraecae,Editio minor, Berlin, 1924 Imagines InscriptionumGraecarumAntiquissimarum,third edition, H. Roehl,

Berlin,1907

LG. R.R.

Immerwahr

InscriptionesGraecaead Res Romanas Pertinentes,Paris, 1906-2/

H. R. Immerwahr,"Some Inscriptionson Attic Pottery," The James Sprunt


Studies in History and Political Science, XLVI, 1964, pp. 16-27

Jeffery, L. S. A. G.

Lillian H. Jeffery, The Local Scripts of Archaic Greece, Oxford, 1961

Kretschmer
Kubitschek
LSJ

P. Kretschmer,Die griechischenVaseninschriften,Giitersloh, 1894


W. Kubitschek, GrundriJ3fi
der antiken Zeitrechnung,Munich, 1928

Meisterhans2

H. G. Liddell,R. Scott, H. S. Jones,A Greek-English


Lexicon,Oxford,192540
K. Meisterhans, Grammatikder attischen Inschriften, second edition, Berlin,

1888

ABBREVIATIONS AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

Metrolog. Script.

MetrologicorumScriptorumReliquiae,Leipzig, 1864-1866

P. Oxy.

Oxyrhynchus
Papyri,B. P. Grenfelland A. S. Hunt, ed., London, 1898-

Pape

J. E. Pape, Worterbuchder griechischenEigennamen,third edition (G. Benseler),

Braunschweig,1884

J. E. Kirchner, ProsopographiaAttica, Berlin, 1901-03


Prosop. Att.
Robinson, Chronology Pottery of the Roman Period: Chronology.Agora, V
Robinsonand Fluck D. M. Robinson and E. J. Fluck, A Study of Greek Love-Names,Baltimore,

1937

Roehl

See I. G. A. above

S. E. G.

Sparkes-Talcott
Tolstoy

SupplementunEpigraphicumGraecum,Leyden, 1923
Black and Plain Pottery of the 6th, 5th and 4th CenturiesB.C. Agora, XII
J. Tolstoy, Grecheskie Graffiti drevnikh gorodov Severnogo Prichernomoreia,

Wycherley

Literary and EpigraphicalTestimonia.Agora, III

1953
Moskva-Leningrad,

INTRODUCTION
Informal inscriptions,incisedor painted,appearon over 3000 pieces (pottery,lamps,miscellaneous
clay) cataloguedin the Agora excavations.At least one-thirdof these consist of one or two letters
only, incisedon the bottom of smallvessels,perhapsas marksof ownership,or paintedon the necks
of unglazedamphoras,perhapsas somekindof commercialnotation.Thebrevityof thesetextsallowsso
that publicationwouldserveno usefulpurpose;it is sufficientto note
greata varietyof interpretations
the largenumberof suchcurtailedabbreviations.In additionto the completeinscriptionsof one or two
letterstherearemanybrokeninscriptionsconsistingof onlya fewletterswhichadmitof so manypossible
restorationsthat nothingcertaincan be learnedfrom them.This publicationthereforeis limitedto the
859 graffitiand dipintiwhichhave sufficientcontentto be meaningful,whetherthe meaningis clearor
not. The selectedpiecesrangein timefromthe late 8th centuryB.C.,whenlettersfirstappearon pottery,
to the 6th centuryof our era. Sincethe varietyof the materialis so great,otherspecificcriteriaemployed
in the selectioncan best be listedin connectionwiththe variouscategoriesof texts.
Certaintypes of inscriptionson potterydo not belongin this studyand will be more appropriately
dealtwith elsewhere:
1) Ostraka;
2) Artists' signatures,love names and other paintedinscriptionson black-figuredand red-figured
pottery;
3) Convivialinscriptionspaintedon Hellenisticpotteryand Late Romanmotto mugs, and all other
paintedinscriptionswhichare part of the decorationof the pot;
4) Stampedor moldedinscriptionssuchas amphorahandles,lampsignatures,Arretinestamps,etc.
Classification

Variousas the selectedmaterialis, themajorityof itemsfallsreadilyinto a comparatively


smallnumber
of categories:
A. Abecedaria
B. Messagesand Lists
C. Love Namesand Hate Names
D. Names on Sherds
E. NumericalNotationson Sherds
F. Owners'Marks
F. PrivateOwnership
Fa. Public Ownership,Delta-epsilonLigatures
Fb. Public Ownership,Delta-etaLigatures
G. Dedicationsand ConvivialInscriptions
H. CommercialNotations
Ha. Capacity
Hb. Tare
Hc. Date

INTRODUCTION

Hd. Contents
He. Combinations
I. Tax Notations
J. ChristianInscriptions
K. Miscellaneous
L. Unclassified
M. Pictures
An introductionto eachcategorydefinesthe type,indicatesspecialcharacteristics
and suggestsparallels,
etc.
purpose,
Dating and Provenience

Theremay be as manyas threekindsof evidencebearingon the date of any particularinscription:


1) form of the letters;2) date of the object on which the inscriptionwas written;3) date of the deposit in whichit was found. Sometimesall threeof these lines may give a result;sometimes,however,
the pot fragmentmaybe featureless,or the contextmaybe meaningless.
thewritingmaybe characterless,
the
of
the
date
inscriptionis whatwe haveto determine,it must most often be arrivedat by
Although
means of one of the other dates, since the chronology of letter forms is not as yet an exact science. The
context date will often be the most convenient. Where the date of the pot agrees closely with the context

date,it seemsunnecessaryto give a datefor the pot as well. Dates for the pots are includedtherefore
onlywherethe contextis meaninglessor wherethe pot is obviouslyearlierthanits context.For the most
part,threedateswillbe givenonlywhentheyaredifferent,as for examplefor a geometricsherdinscribed
in the 7th century B.C. and found in a 5th-centuryB.C. context.
The arrangementof inscriptionsin each categoryis chronological,but since there is considerable
differencein the degreeof accuracypossiblefor variousitems,the orderin somecasesis purelyconventional.Thusthose pieceswhichcan not be datedmorecloselythan to a centuryfollow those that have
beenassignedto a particularquarteror half of thatcenturyeventhoughtheymayindeedbe earlierthan
the second-halfor fourth-quarter
pieces.Even more vague are dates like EarlyRoman (roughly1stearly3rd centuriesafterChrist)or LateRoman(late 3rd-6thcenturies)whichcoverstill longerperiods
of time.
Whenthe sherdor pot comesfroma closeddeposit,the depositnumberon the Agoragridis given.A
list of the depositswithall piecesherepublishedfromeachwill be foundin the indexof Deposits.When
a piece comes in a fill predominantlyof one period,thoughnot a closed deposit,the context date is
given withouta depositnumber.Whenan item was found in an area whichprovidedno information
concerningits date, no mentionis madeof provenience.
PublicationReferences

Whena piece has alreadybeen eithernoted in a preliminaryreportor moreformallypublishedin a


specialstudyin Hesperiaor in an Agoravolume,the publicationreference(oftenonly the most recent)
is includedin the first paragraphof the cataloguedescription.This referencemay be in the form of
volumeand pagenumbersor expressedas an equationbetweenthe cataloguenumberhereassignedand
that givenin the otherpublication,e.g., "Ha 26 (P 9902).Round-mouthed
jug, Robinson,Chronology,
M 169" or "F 177 (L 4212).Black-glazedlamp(= Howland,no. 267)." Frequentlythe shapeand form
of a vesselis definedwith referenceto examplesalreadypublishedand datedeitherin Hesperiaor one
of the AthenianAgoravolumes.See list of Abbreviationsfor shortformsof reference.
Letter-shapesand Spelling

The varietyof shapeswhicheachlettermay takeis dependenton severalfactorsof whichchronology


is only one; othersarethe natureof the writingsurface,the natureof the writingimplement,the writing

INTRODUCTION

skill of the inscriber,and the amount of care which he has taken. Thus anything but the most painstaking
incision on (or through) good black glaze results in angular letters and straight lines where curves might
be expected. A very fine metal point is easier to control but seems not to have been used so often as some
blunter instrument.The older, softer fabrics lend themselvesmore to curved lines so that even the straight

uprightsof alphaanddeltaareoftencurved.A writerwhoknowshis letterswellproducesmorerecognizable shapes than one who drawseach line without much feeling for the appearanceof the letter as a whole.

Becauseof thesefactorsit is not practicableto see all differencesin letter-shapesas relevantto thedate
and development of the alphabet. For example, even though epsilons are known to develop from tailed
to untailed, a good black-glazed sherd of the 5th century B.C. may show a long-tailed epsilon while those
on a coarse pot of the 6th century B.C.are without a tail. One or more of a number of reasons may be

involved:the hardsurfaceof blackglazerequiresso muchpressurethatcompletecontroloverthe length


of line may be lost; the 5th-centurywriter may be an old man using the letter-shapesof his early youth;
the 6th-centurywriter may have been a careful person who had established a base line below which he

did not go, etc.


Spelling, and the use of Attic or Ionic alphabet, are also subjectto other influencesthan that of chronol-

ogy. Although in formalpublicinscriptionsthe Ionic alphabetwas not ordinarilyused until 403 B.C.,
individualsin Athenswere open to influencesof many sorts: citizensmay have been quickto pick up
the morepreciseIonic vowelsfor greaterclarity;meticsand slavesmay havebroughttheirown writing
habitswith them. In a time beforedictionaries,therecan have been no standardof spellingor even of
pronunciation,so that even with the best will in the worldspellingwill havebeenidiosyncratic.A good
example of the range and variety of both letter-shapesand spelling possible to individuals all writing at

the sametime may be the ostrakacast againstThemistoklesin the 480's:


Theta-square or round;crossbarredor dotted
Epsilon-bars horizontalor slanted;omittedat least once
Mu-last leg of equalor unequallength
Iota-sometimes omitted
Sigma-most often three-barred,occasionallyfour or more; sometimesdoubled, or reversed,or omitted

Tau-most often writtentheta,occasionallytau


Omicron-squareor round
Kappa-no variety
Lambda-alwaysAttic
Epsilon-see above; eithersingleor doubled;omittedat least once
Sigma-see above
The letters of Neokleous not already dealt with are only nu (last leg may be equal or unequal) and the
diphthong (most often omicron, occasionally omega). In Phrearriosthe phi may be square or round, the

rho'smaybe tailedor not, and the rho in the middlemay be singleor double,both withand withouteta
as the aspirate.
A close studyof letter-shapeshas beenincludedin the introductionto Owners'Marks(F), sincethis
category alone not only covers our whole time span from early 7th century B.C.to the 6th century of our
era but also provides a sufficientnumber of similar texts for statistical purposes. The conclusions arrived
at for that one group can here be tested on all categories; they appear generallyto hold true.
"A more or less standard old Attic alphabet(A or ABAAEIIH?IKLNMNOPP$TVOX
or +)lis used with
only a few exceptions and variant forms through the second quarter of the 5th century B.C."(p.23
below). Obviously these standard shapes will often only be approximatedby writerswho may be unskilled
or using intractable materials,but in addition there are real exceptions which may be tabulatedas follows:
Digamma is not used alphabeticallybut only numerically;koppa is used more exceptionallythan regularly;xi and psi are
regularlyindicatedby the combinationof chi and phi, respectively,with sigma.

INTRODUCTION

Norm Exceptions

r (B5; C24; F48)

A (A3,A4)
g (B1; F14)

H
?

B (B1; C1,C8; D6; F53; L3)


0 (A3; C3,C17, C 21; F12,F13, F 26)

X+

(D4,D5,D12,D18;
K2,K3)
(B2; C 7, C 13, C 15, C 20, C 24; D27, D 39; F56,F59, F 74)
(D35,D39; F53)
(B7; D35; F64; G4)
D (B1, B4; D l; F20,F23,F24,F39,F41;
(A2)
Hal)
D
D
D
F
39;
25,
37,
(B7; D6,
E3; F43, 61-63)
I (F2; K1) i (B1, B2, B4, B5; C15; D25-27; E3; F1, F16, F42, F44, F56,
F75, F77; L3)
Z (C2,C9,C 18; D1,D3,D7,D
10, D12, D14, D18, D23, D24; F6,F12, F13,F18,
F23; K4)
e (D15; F50) 0 (F43) lI (F66)
Y (F25, F65)

Q (A3; C24; F56,F75, F78)

A (E8)

D (F50)

ffi (F31)

9
A
5
O
q
R

!.
XI
O
P
S

(D

w (F72)

andreversedthree-barred)
Perhapsmost interestingis the use of the two exceptionalsigmas(four-barred
for special purposes like word-ends and to combine with chi for xi; see below in introduction to Names

on Sherds(D) (below,pp. 16-17). "Punctuation"in this periodis limited:a line dividingthe end from
the beginningof a text writtenin a circle(C 16; seen somewhatlater in F 83, F 92); dot punctuation
betweensome words(B 1, B 3; F 18, F 24; G 2); spacesbetweenwords(C 14).
"Withthemiddleof the [5th]century[B.C.]thebalanceshiftsso that theruleis a moreor less standard
Ionicalphabet(ABrAEIHOIKAMNsOPPTY(DXYQ)2
witha graduallydiminishingnumberof exceptions"
(p. 24 below).The exceptionsfor all categoriesmay be seen in the followingchart,whichis primarily
designedto show the transitionin the 5th and 4th centuriesB.C.from Attic to Ionic forms;the later
changesand introductionof cursiveformsare not for the most partindicated;only someof the earliest
examples of cursive letters are noted; it is understood that these became fairly general by the 1st century B.C.
Norm

Exceptions

A (F94,F 169)

A (F 157, F 183)

A (G 16)

E E (F 198,F 210; G 13)


I Z (F178; G19)

= +( (F85)
I (Ha 17)
i (K 13)
P P (F81, F84, F105)
C (F 165, F 182, F 196, F 202-204)
, (F 84, F 118, F 119, F 125; Ha 8)
C (Ha 17)
c (F 151,F211)
(D + (F 126, F 152)
X + (F 85; Ha2, Ha10; K7)
co (F 138, F 199, F 212; K 12)
Q 0 (B9; D41; G7)
2 Xi

with or without the center uprightoccurs indifferently;the tailed upsilon is not immediatelygeneraland can not always be
certainlydistinguishedin carelesswriting.

INTRODUCTION

For the use of the long vowelsalso the middleof the 5th centuryB.C.is a time of transition.In the
earlierperiodeta is used for the aspirate,and epsilonis used for both short and long vowel and for
epsilon-iota,with the followingexceptions:epsilon-iotafor epsilon-iota(B 2, B 6; C 7, C 10, C 19;
D 8, D 25, D 36; F 3, F 12, F 13; G 1, G 4); eta for the long vowel (B 7, B 8; C 18, C 23; D 35; F 15,
F 53); eta for the diphthongor shortvowel (C 8; F 55); no aspirate(B 7, B 8; C 8; D 13, D 16; F 54).
After the mid-5thcenturyB.C.thereis a change,and eta is used for the long vowel, exceptperhapsin
F 84, F 116,F 123 and G 6. In the earlierperiodomicronis used for both shortand long vowel and for
omicron-upsilon,with only two exceptions:the diphthongis writtenout in F 23; omegais writtenin
F 56, F 72, F 75, F 78. After the mid-5thcenturyB.C. omegais used for the long vowel exceptin F 85,
F 132,F 145, G 6 andG 7. Omicroncontinuesin use for omicron-upsilon
well into the 4th centuryB.C.
with only one exception(F 144); omicron-upsilon
becomesgeneralin the late 4th centuryB.C.
confusion
Some other
about vowelspersists:pEV&ofor live'o(C 2, C 14); iota for epsilon-iota(D 1,
D 25; G 8); eta for epsilon(B 14; D 35; F 127) or iota (D 42); epsilon-iotafor epsilon(C 33; F 65);
omegafor omicron(F 160). And frequentin latertimesis epsilonfor alpha-iota(Ha 25, Ha 32; I 18).
Other spelling "errors" less easily categorized include: delta for zeta (B 13 -rriTpacrri.lia;C 33 2amadlaI);
Hb 22
interchange of aspirated and unaspirated consonants (D 16 'Iqo7Oye;F 11 .SaSi F 184 MTrSIKi;
K 1 lrp&aTros);and others (D 34 AVVK[;
G 15 Trril;Ha 1 1*-erpio;Hd 1 oaXoS;
KOiTrov;119 Ovuicovos;
He 6 Atowo6iov; I 11 OiK[; 1 23 ME.9fvri).
C 9 'Eyr<( p)>arcs; D 1
Single letters are omitted as follows: B 2 Ka<I>vos; C 5 'OXU<
1> TO6viKoS;
F 46 MeXa<(y>K6CIa;
F 84 cl0<i(>3pES; Ha 15
ntlaa(<T>
pca-os; D 10 nlpacxx<i>v6;D 32 N?OK<A>ovsU;
Ha
23
L
8
The
iota
is
in
B
omitted
l>
rr<
v>T6.
17, B 18 and G21, and a
Kv< (ov);
<a-r>TrIs;
subscript

wholesyllablemayhave been omittedin B 6. The only casesin whichlettershavebeenaddedare where


a sigmabeforea dentalhas been doubled (F 26, F 77; He 31) and in C 19 ('AXXKato).For the most
part, however,double consonantsare writtenas singles:B 17; D 11, D 16, D 17, D 21, D 30, D 35;
F3, F 58,F62,F103,F138,F 168; 120.
The generalpracticefollowedin the directionof writingis also discussedin the introductionto
Owners'Marks(below,p. 23). Retrogradewritingand boustrophedonappearonly in categoriesA, D
and F, and the boustrophedonin D is most often a resultof followingthe edge of the sherd.As one
mightexpect,ligaturesandmonogramsarelimitedto the Owners'Markscategory.Abbreviationsare of
differentsorts: the variouslyshortenedforms of namesused to identifypropertyin particularcircumstances(below,pp. 26-28); standardizedformsof weights,measures,etc. which appearin commercial
notations(below,pp. 56-57).
Nothing more in the way of generalintroductionseemseithernecessaryor desirable.It is not even
possibleto pointto any parallelworkthatincludesthe variety,numberand scopeof textsthat mightbe
useful.One collection,that of J. Tolstoy, does cover much of the same groundas our earliermaterial
(A-G), but in all casesspecific parallelscan be most effectivelyquotedin connectionwiththe particular
categoriesor items.
CONVENTIONS
All dates before Christare so indicated.Dates not thus markedbelong to our era.
Inscriptionsin the Attic alphabetare transcribedas they are written. For the sake of clarityor
to indicateour interpretation,we sometimesgive a paralleltext in the Ionic alphabet.Otherwisea
name or word will appearin Ionic letters only in the appropriateindex.
Exceptwhere otherwisenoted, all drawingsare actual size. Since in the interestsof accuracythe
drawingswere made as faithfulrepresentationsof the inscriptionsratherthan as illustrationsof the
readings given here, they often include marks and lines which have seemed to us irrelevantand
immaterial.

A. ABECEDARIA

The Agora inventorynumberis given in parenthesesafter the presentcataloguenumber.A concordancein the order of the Agora numbersis given below.
The dimensionsof vesselsare for the most partgivenonly in those categories(Capacity,Tare,etc.)
wherethe size of the pot is relevantto its inscription.
1. = liter, m. = meter, H. = height, D. = diameter, P. = preserved.

A. ABECEDARIA
The elevenabecedariafoundin the Agoraare all now incomplete;only fivemay havebeen originally
complete(A 2, A 3 almost certainly;A 1, A 4, A 5 probably),but all the rest were fragmentaryin intention.The differenceis clearlya chronologicalone: throughthe early5thcenturyB.C. completealphabets werewrittenout, perhapsas modelsin the spreadof literacy,perhapsfrom the sheerpleasureof
exercisinga new skill; from the 4th centuryB.C. on only the beginningof the alphabetwas written,
perhapsfor magicalpurposes,perhapsas a proof of literacyor as a countingdevice.The chronological
range,as for all classesof informalepigraphyin the Agora,is wide,fromthe 8th centuryB.C. to the 4th
centuryof ourera,withmorethanhalfthe examplesin the 5thand4th centuriesB.C.
Letter-shapesare for the most part canonical.In the early examples(A 1-5) the forms of the old
Attic alphabetare constantwith only slight variations:the rectangulardigammaratherthan the Fshapeappearsin A 2, A 3; deltawith a dot substitutedfor its bottomstrokeis seenin A 3, A 4; the dotted thetaof A 3 combineswithits inclusionof omegato suggestforeigninfluence.In the laterexamples
(A 6-11) the only notablepointsare:an old Attic gammain A 6 whichis out of placein the 4th century
to be expected,a broken-barred
alphain A 10 and a lunateepsilonand ZB.C.; more chronologically
shapedzeta in A 11. The numberof lettersincludedin these fragmentaryabecedariais howeververy
fromothercategoriesof inscriptions.
limited,so thatwe mayexpectmuchmoreevidencefor letter-shapes
The scantinessand incompletenessof the abecedariaare most disappointingfor the studyof alphabeticorder,sinceno othertextsprovideevidencefor this. Of the two pointswhichshouldbe noted,one
is familiarandthe otheris withoutparallel:it was to be expectedthat the sixthplacewouldbe takenby
digammaonly in the earlyalphabets(A 1-3) and that the digammawoulddisappearlater,but the final
letter-orderof A 3 (chi, phi, omega)must be eithera mistakeor a reflectionof the orderin whichthe
non-Phoenicianletterswereaddedin some omega-usingenvironment.
Again,in the directionof writingmost of the abecedariaare seen to be typicalof theirtimes:A 1 as
the earliestpiece is not only retrogradein both lines with the two upsidedown to each otherbut also
showsat least two lettersreversed(epsilonand digamma);with one exceptionthe laterpiecesall read
from left to right(withonly one letterreversedin A 2). The peculiarityof A 5, whichreadsfirstfrom
bottomto top and then reverses,is more likelyto resultfrom lack of skill than to be an indicationof
date.
PreviouslyknownAtticabecedariaareneithernumerousnor particularlysignificant.Theyincludeone
piecepublishedin Bull.dell'Inst.di Corrisp.archeol.,1867,p. 75 whichseemsto be a numericalalphabet,
includingdigamma,koppa and sampi,and at least two examplesamongthe Hymettossherds(C. W.
Blegen,A.J.A., XXXVIII, 1934,pp. 10-28, no. 10: alpha, beta, gamma; R. S. Young, A.J.A., XLIV,
1940, pp. 1-9, no. 9: alpha, beta, gamma, delta), which belong to the 7th century B.C.As far as abece-

dariafromthe restof Greeceareconcernedthe latestgeneraltreatmentis thatin Jeffery,L.S.A.G.

A. ABECEDARIA

A 4 (P 13282). P1. 1. Fragment from the wall of a


small closed vase. Graffito scratched through
black
one
of
the
broad
faces
and
with
abecedariumon
glaze on outside. Context: early 5th

A 1 (MC 907). P1. 1. Pyramidal loomweight,


much worn at the edges, inscribed with an

a horse and rideron thebottom(M 1). Context:

century B.C. (H 12).

Hesperia,XXX, 1961,p. 146, R 22, pl. 23.

Early V cent. B.c. a [ y [


The delta appears to have been dotted, as in
A3.

late 8th-early 7th centuries B.C. (N 11:6).


VIII-VII cent. B.C. a py

. . KX
v.

(retrograde)
A 5 (P2707). P1.1. Fragment of black-glazed
All trace of theta, iota and the upperhalf of
cup-kotyle of early 5th-century B.C. type, like
kappaare lost as a resultof wear on the lower
Hesperia, XV, 1946, p. 293, no. 78, pl. 45.
edges. Surfacewear has obliteratedsome other
Context:early5thcenturyB.C.(G 6:3). Graffito
strokes: the lower crossbars of epsilon, the
on both upperand lowersurfaces.
crossbars of zeta and the slanting stroke of
lambda.The directionof writingis retrograde, Early V cent. B.C. (lower surface) K a [3y 5
The firstthreelettersof the alphabet,reading
but some lettersface in the oppositedirection:
the bottomup, arequiteclear.Abovethem
from
and
iota
and
Theta
must
digamma.
epsilon
a delta and an epsilon (reversedorientation)
have turnedthe corneron the now worn edge
can be made out. Below the alpha is a large
so that the secondline also readsfrom rightto
left and is upside down to the first line.
kappa. On the upper surface a few scratches
may representan even less successfulattempt.
A 2 (P 6074, P 3272). P1. 1. Two fragments from
the shoulder of a large amphora of 6th-century A 6 (L 3773). PI. 1. A fragmentof the body of a
B.C.type, like Hesperia, VII, 1938, p. 378, no. 9,
black-glazed lamp of the 4th century B.C.
(= Howland,no. 277, Type 25A). Graffitoon
fig. 14. The smallerfragmentwas found in a
layerof the 6thcenturyB.C.insidethe Hellenistic the outer wall. Context: mid-4th centuryB.C.
Metroon;the largerpiece was found besidethe
(F 19:2).
foundationsof the Metroonbut in association IV cent. B.C.(near the handle) q K 3 y P3a K
with7th-to 6th-centuryB.C.pottery.Graffitoon
a (<y>)
inside.The two fragmentsdo not join but evidently belong to the same alphabeticalexercise.
(at the nozzle) K[
VI cent. B.C. (a) a PyE
This should probably be regarded as an
a3py5E r .l
alphabeticexercise,perhapswith magicalsignii KX[
(b) ]
ficance,ratherthan as an abecedarium.
po[

From its location on the sherd,the first line A 7 (P 1504).P1.1. A fragmentpreservingsomeof


of (a) seemsto be an incorrectimitationrather the rim and body of a black-glazedfish-plateof
than a false start.For the rectangulardigamma, the 4th century B.C. Inscribed on the under
surface.
see .G., I2, 760 and Tod, B.S.A., XLV, 1950,
IV
cent. B.C. a y
p. 135; see also A3 below. Rho is the only
letterwrittenin reverse.
A 8 (P 22110).P1.1. A fragmentfrom the wall of
1.
of
A 3 (P 7247). P1. Fragment a black-glazed a black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon outside,upside
down to the pot. Context: 4th century B.C.
kylixbase of early5th-centuryB.C.type, related
Bloesch's
Forto
a Py 6E [
IV cent. B.C.
Acropolisgroup (H. Bloesch,
men attischer Schalen, Bern, 1940, pl. 39, 1).

Graffitoon uppersurface.

Early V cent. B.C. ] .y6? E F ri[

] Xc

A 9 (L 4414). P1.1. Lampfragment(= Howland,


no. 599, Type 46B). Graffitoon underside.
Mid-III cent. B.C. a P3y

Somewhatless than half the foot is preserved,


but it is clear from the arrangementof the A 10 (P 2145). P1.1. Part of a black-glazedbowl
of 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffito on floor.
lettersthat the alphabetwentall the way around
its
end
its
For
so that
the
a y
II cent. B.C.
overlaps beginning.
dotted delta, which is also found on ostraka of
the early 5th century B.C., see Kretschmer,p. 96
and Beazley, A.J.A., LII, 1948, p. 336. Theta is
also dotted. The order of the non-Phoenician
letters can not be paralleled.

A 11 (P 18248). P1. 1. Flat-bottomed jug of early


4th-century type, like Robinson, Chronology,
M 228. Graffito on shoulder.
a 3 y 8 EL
Early IV cent.

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS


B. MESSAGES AND LISTS

Messagesand lists were for the most part writtenon potsherds,which were used as we use scrap
paperfor casualnotes and notations.OnlyB 17 and B 18 werecertainlywrittenon the completevessel,
whichwas, in thesecases,the subjector objectof the message.
Themessages,whichrangein datefrommid-6thcenturyB.C. (B 1) to the 2nd-3rdcenturiesof our era
(B 18), includeboth notes urgingsome action (B 1, B 2, B 7) and whatmay best be thoughtof as tags
accompanyingand explainingvariousthingsdelivered(B 6, B 9, B 17, B 18). The lists, rangingin date
fromthe 4th-3rdcenturiesB.C. to the 5th centuryof our era, aremostlykitcheninventoriesor shopping
itemsandanother(B 21) to amounts
lists (B 12-16,B 20) withone (B 19)morelimitedto pharmaceutical
since
are
too
items
are
more
uncertain
to providecontinuoustexts:B 5
of wine.Other
they
fragmentary
11
B
8
and
B
be
a
list
of
men
in
various
be
might
relationships;
literaryquotations;B 10 couldbe
may
4
B
3
a
an informalcopy of contractor treaty; and B are completelyuncertain.
The lettersand dialectof B 1 are certainlyMegarianand so may best be comparedwith texts from
Megara(see, for example,Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,pp. 132ff.).The Attic texts earlierthan 403 B.C.(B 2-9)
show an irregularuse of late, unusualand Ionic formsand shapes:four-barredsigmain B 2, B 4, B 5
and B 9 comparedto the three-barred
sigmaof B 7; Ionic lambdaand/orgammain B 2, B 5 and B 9
as againstAttic formsin B 4, B 6 and B 7; tailedrho in B 7; epsilonfor eta exceptin B 7 and B 8; omicron for all o-soundsin all texts. The latertexts use the Ionic alphabetconsistently;stemmedupsilons
and dotted theta are also regular.One lunate sigma appearswith other four-barredforms in B 12;
lunate epsilon first appearsmuch later in B 17. As far as more specificallyorthographicodditiesare
concerned,we see the substitutionof deltafor zeta in B 13, a singlefor the moreproperlydoubledpi of
dativesingularwithoutthe iota subscriptin both B 17 andB 18.
B 17 anda second-declension
Parallelsfor textsof this sortmaybe notedin Tolstoy,Jefferyand Immerwahr.
B 1 (P 17824). P1.2. Base of a skyphos of CoF 13). The word ouB6s,whichis from the same
root as 660s, still retainsits roughbreathingin
rinthianshape, with rays above the foot, of a
be
which
dated
to
the
first
of
the
half
this earlyinscription.
may
type
6th century B.C. Graffito on the underside,
B 2 (P 1265).PI.2. Fragmentfrom the rim of a
obviously written on the sherd; the base has
red-figuredkylix of late 6th-centuryB.C. type.
beenmendedfromfourfragments,but partof it
Graffito on inside, obviously written on the
is missing. Context: 6th centuryB.C. (J 18:4).
sherd.
Context:beginningof 5th centuryB.C.
See Hesperia,XVII, 1948,p. 160, pl. 41, 2 for a
(G
6:3).
Hesperia,XV, 1946,p. 279, no. 32.
brief account of the circumstancesof finding
-rTl(aAa[vSoi]
Ca. 500 B.C. TrCa-,
and of some of the objectsfound in the same
&Aos
Ka<C>v65
YA[tvTp]
deposit.
as 96pEt
Mid-VIcent.B.C. [Oa;ve]ui:KxSE'S:hvnorTO hoBo
"Boy,bringothernewcouchesfor Phalanthos."
Tas $ipaS TOKTro : Trpfov(a)
The namePhalanthosand the wordfor couches
"Thamneus,put the saw underthe threshold are restoredexempligratia.The use of the Ionic
of the gardengate." A fragmentis missingfrom
lambdaand four-barredsigmaat this earlydate
the beginning of the inscription;we restore is exceptional;the omega is not used. For the
here the name Thamneus(of which a possible
omittediota see Meisterhans2,
pp. 24-25.
trace of the final upsilonis preserved)because
two vases belongingto Thamneus(F 12, F 13) B 3 (P 12225).P1.2. Fragmentfrom the wall of a
black-glazedkrater.Graffitoon outside,written
were found in the same pit. The letter forms
verticallyto the pot; obviouslywrittenon the
correspondwith those used in Megarain the
sherd, which was subsequently broken all
Archaic period: b-shaped epsilon, closed eta
around.
Context:early 5th centuryB.C.
as aspirate, triangularrho, and four-barred
ProbV
Early cent. B.C. ]E . [
sigma(cf. Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,pp. 132-138).
the
writer
was
a
]!PE:A[
ably, therefore,
Megarian.
Thamneushimselfwritesin Attic letters(F 12,
].OM[

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS


The punctuationsuggestsa fairlyextensivetext
like a messageor list.
B 4 (P 14131).PI. 2. Fragmentfromwall of lekane
of early 5th centuryB. c. Graffitoon outside,
obviously written on the sherd, which was
subsequentlybrokenall around.
Early V cent. B.C. ]N N ![

then broken at one side. Context:second half


5th century B.C. (C 19:5).
Second quarter V cent. B.C. oT-l TTa-rCaEK[

A long verticalstroke seems to separatethe


beginningof the text from the end. The text
does not seem to have been long enough to
allow for a reading which requiresan alternative, i.e., OrtL.

] I E[
]EPn[

B9 (P 2022). P1.2. Handle and immediately


adjacentpart of rim and wall of black-glazed
]onoOA[
skyphos. Graffitoon inside, obviouslywritten
on
the sherd. Context: fourth quarter 5th
B 5 (P 10511).P1.2. Fragmentfromwall of lekane
century B.C. (J 13-14:1).
of early 5th century B.C. Graffito on inside,
obviously written on the sherd, which was
Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. Zoo(veo(S)
subsequentlybrokenall around.
w?wa?EXE
]AMME[

rfAaVKOI
?s &Oarv
Ev8E?g9t(v)

Early V cent. B.C. ]EPFN[


]ANT IB[
]OONA[
]ANAOK[
]E!
[

"Sosineossenta bundleto Glaukosin town."


Tag or message?

A possiblerestorationmightbe:
iTr]Ep rv[&9covos

6 8ETva]
'AvrTi3[(o
]oS 'Ova[cro
6 8eTva]'AvSoKfr6O

]El

B 6 (P 27850).P1.2. Fragmentfrom rim of blackglazed kylix. Graffito on inside, probably


writtenon the sherd.Context:early5th century
(H 13:5).
O
Early V cent. B.C. KA(i<Tro)>18

The omission of a syllable may have been


accidentalor it may be a form of abbreviation;
cf. Kleimenes and Kleitomenes. The dative
case suggeststhat the sherdwas used as a tag.
B 7 (P 15208).P1.2. Fragmentfrom wall of unglazedamphora.Graffitoon outside,obviously
written on the sherd. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C.
(F 19:4).
Second quarterV cent. B.C. EOEh,Xls
iK[e] | 6s
T'r6XoS
'ApKaipos
I

B 10 (P 16391).P1.2. Two non-joiningfragments


from the wall of a largeunglazedpot. Graffito
on outside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Of
the originalsherd,which appearsto have been
fairly large, two fragmentsare preserved;the
relationbetweenthe two is not evident. Context: mid-4th century B.C. (F 19:2).

Mid-IVcent. B.C. (a) ]vSov rQ9vreos


Ka[
] rTaUT.v XacraTo[
]tl&rcov'V E&v rrl[

] Kopiv.S.. ovyy?[
]v-ra 5'syEvrilS va[
]aPEv9S . OXUKEV[

]9OZO..... SO..[
] olKos 6vapia oarr[
]Xtpas vivvgpl[

]Y2QT....[
]2...A[
(b) ]s:E[
(only tracesof other letters)
The readingis neithercertainnor complete
enough to make a restoredtext possible, but
we may perhapsassumefrom the mention of

"Eumelis, come as quickly as you can.


Arkesimos." The cos -raxos was crowded in
later as an afterthought.Above the text is an
Corinth and such words as Xtou-ro that we
isolated gamma; below, an isolated epsilon.
have
a rough copy of some contractor treaty.
Note the use of eta as aspiratedlong vowel.
This feminineform of a commonname is not
attested;Arkesimosis knownin Eretria(Bechtel). B 11 (P 23690).P1.2. Wallfragmentof a Corcyrean
amphoraof the 4th century B.C. Graffitoon
B 8 (P 18325).P1.2. Base of lekythos of second
outside, obviouslywrittenon the sherd,which
was subsequentlychippedon the upper right.
quarter5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon underContext: 4th century B.C.
side, possibly writtenon the sherd, which was

B. MESSAGES AND LISTS

10
IV cent. B.C.

ort

'Acias

{TA}

XEyo[

{AMAX}

Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

XowTra8r

TAZATTETEMAI
OTI

The use of

OTt

'Aaias

is like that in excerpts from

literarytexts, but both sense and syntax are


obscure.

i.e., dish

IEydArl I

large 1

ffioTr(a) II
6]p3rcai : 11

half-size2
long loaves2

X]ICpTrr[s

papyrus roll?

Line 1: presumablyan alternateform for

Line 3: cf. Aesch., fr. 91 for /l[iorros: of


AoTrraS.
The next three items (B 12-14) are lists of vases
something small; Galen 13, 558 fio0Trov=fiotCu.
Line4: cf. B 12, line 2.
and culinary equipmentand may be thought of
as rough kitchen inventories or shopping lists. B 15
(P 23309).P1.3. Fragmentof small shallow
All come from the immediate vicinity of the
saucer with dull red glaze. Graffitoon floor.
Tholos and are undoubtedlylists of the kitchen
Context: 4th century B.C.
equipmentused in that building. They are menIV
cent. B.C.
El.[
tioned in Hesperia, SupplementIV, p. 135. For a
,uiXa i.e., half-choes
more formal inventory of Tholos equipmentsee
]i8ES
the inscriptionpublishedibid., pp. 144-147. B 15,
Line
2:
the
is
the
short
form of filwXoais found in
not
a
similar
list,
from
perhaps part of
XI
B
199
80.
Tholos area butfrom South Stoa I.
2,
LG.,

B 12 (P 10810).PI.2. Fragmentof a smallshallow B 16 (P 3289). P1.3. Fragmentof roof tile with


dull blackglaze on one side. Graffitoon glazed
saucer with dull red glaze. Graffitoon floor.
side, obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Context:
Context:late4th-early3rdcenturiesB.C.(H 12).
Hellenistic.
Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
Kap6]oTros
6]3peiai AA[

i.e., kneading-trough
long loaves 20+

AoTraw&a

dishes

TTivaKEs
pcaot i III
3aTravi(a) : [

platters
middle-sized 4
little dishes 5+

7roptcxpaI1[
AXiKuvos
fl,Jixouv
10 TpvJpXtov
poqpEaA[
]A1[

cups 2+
oil-flask
half-chous
bowl
? 10+

III-II cent. B.C

xio<u>

6oXiXouv
vlKat

Apparentlythe heading of an informallist


of victoriesin two events(the long raceand the
stone). It is also possiblethat the word in the
secondline is a verbratherthan a noun. In the
first line the last letter of the first word was
originallya sigma, which was correctedto an
upsilon. There was no room for a similar
correctionat the end of ?dSos.For the contests
involving a stone (weight-liftingand putting
the shot) see E. N. Gardiner,Athleticsin the

Ancient World, Oxford, 1930, pp. 54, 60, 154.


Line2: cf. 6opesiain I.G., II2, 1631, 409; 1672,
310; Hesperia,XXIV, 1955, pp. 80-81. Line 3: B 17
(P 9922). P1.3. Wheel-ridgedamphora(=
cf. Allen, Classical Studies presented to Edward
Robinson,
Chronology,M 104). Dipinto in
Capps, Princeton, 1936, pp. 1-2. Line 6: cf.
on
Context:second half 2nd cenblack
body.
Hesychios,s.v. Line 11: new word.
tury(M 17:1).
B 13 (P 3784). P1.3. Fragmentof small shallow
Secondhalf II cent. crT[&]vov
&rro6os
unglazed saucer. Graffito on floor. Context:
lhiTrrcAo
c)tl{nr1
second half of 4th century B.C.(F 12:3).
Second half IV cent. B.C.
i.e., pots
XVTpas

"Returnthe stamnos to Philippa'sbrother


Philip." For the absenceof the iota subscripts
Pill
lids 9
in the dativescompareMeisterhans2,
rTnSri,Ta(Ta)
pp. 52-53.
(traces)
B 18 (P 8341). P1.3. Shoulderfragmentof amtableware
TrriTpaTrrT6[a
phora (= Robinson, Chronology,J 52). Dipinto
Line 4: for a similarsubstitutionof delta for
in black.Context:mid-2ndto early3rdcenturies

zeta in a 4th-centuryB.C.graffito see C 33.

B 14 (P 4899). PI.3. Fragmentof small shallow


saucerwith dull red glaze, similarto B 12 but
with grooved rim. Graffitoon floor. Context:
F 12.

(C 12:1).
Mid-II-early III cent. ['I]EpoV[L]i.co
[Xp]norT as6ex9[~c]

[ira]pa [&]8Ap[q5v]
[Orr]y.vos

11

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES


"A stamnosfor our good brotherHieronymos from his brothers." See B 17 for the
omissionof the iota subscriptin the dativecase.

Late Roman
KcbvCc[V

ywpcoic[v

of fish or relish
peaches?
of freightcharges?
of fish or relish
6Oap?i(ou)
for wine
is olvov [
Line 1: cf. Ath., II, 57b. Line4: cf. 6ouoAacx

6cap?i(ou)
6o(pca.a)
rrEpcarf
vauOou

B 19 (P 8046).P1.3. Fragmentfrom side of bowl.


Graffitiinside(a) and out (b), obviouslywritten
on the sherd.Context:late Roman.
Late Roman (a) vrrepa
(b)

9oIvou

O6Trovo(U)y(Kiat)L['

i.e., of pine-cones
of buns

Line 7: is for Els, see Meisterhans2,


71TpoCKa.

pp. 38-39.
B 21 (P 2004). P1.3. Wall fragmentof micaceous
v]opJ.r [
water jar. Graffito on outside. Context: 5th
The "pestles"of (a) may have been required century(Q 13:3).
to preparethe drugs of (b): 47 ounces of the
V cent.
]cQiP
K(ontXat)iy'
CKU( ) o(O)y(Klai) U'

juice of the red poppy; 7 ounces of acorn (OKuAoS)

or of a seed which,mixedwith whitewine, was


Dioscorides,
goodfor scorpionbites(&cKvuXcbvlov,
III, 100); some quantityof strychnine(vopurl).

B20 (P 11763). P1.3. Fragment from wall of


unglazedclosed pot. Graffitoon outside, obviously written on the sherd. Context: mixed
to Late Roman.

E'
K(OTrCAal)
PEv]a&ppi(ov)
K(o-nXai) 5'
]A

Smallpoints(for omicrons)in the upperpart


of the kappas combine with the numbers
following to suggestan abbreviationlike that
which is restored.The item in the second line
has been tentativelyrestoredas a kind of wine;
perhaps the inscriptionrecordedthe mixture
withinthe jar.

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES


This categoryis rathera mixedbag. Besidesa few love namesand vilificationsof a standardsexual
type we have includedseveralotherpieceswith inscriptionsof a highlypersonalor emotionalnature.
Love namespaintedon figuredvasesare not includedheresincethey are moreproperlystudiedin connectionwith the vases on whichthey appear.
The 14 kalos-name inscriptionscataloguedbelowlrangein time from the mid-6thcenturyto the end
of the 5th centuryB.C.and in contentfromthe simpleand anonymouso6rrcasKcaos (C 4) to the full and
o Kia6oSOKEI'Iav.98[ (C 10). The admirersare not namedin ten cases (seven masexplicitAUKo6IaXO
culine objects, two feminine, one both), but it is apparently not possible to assume that the writer (or
admirer) was always masculine, since the dative MECAiT(to whom Alkaios seems beautiful) in C 19 is

most probably feminine. Of the named admirers (C 3, C 7, C 10, C 19) two lack endings and so might

conceivablybe eithergender,althoughit is likelythat the admirerof Antheme(C 3) is Aischinesor Aischeas2and that Lykomachos'admirer(C 10) is lanthis ratherthan Ianthides.These probableheterosexualpairsarematchedby a clearlyhomosexualone in C 7, whereMenekratesis beautifuland dearto
Lysikles.
Parallelsfor these kalos-namesare most convenientlygatheredtogetherin Robinson and Fluck,
Greek Love Names, and in Beazley, A.R. V. and A.B. V.

Sexualinsultplaysa partin 15 of the textsbelow.3Themost commonterm(eighttimes)is KalTctruycov


(or Truyacos),ordinarilyappearingwith masculinenames but occurringonce in abbreviatedformKaTaTruy(aiva)-witha feminine name (C 27). Certainlycomparableare the epithetsXaKKo6TpcoKToS
(C 23)
1 C 3, C 4, C 7, C 1O, C 11, C 13, C 1S-17, C 19, C 21, C 28, C 29, C 31.
2 Feminine names with these initial letters are very rare.

8 C 1, C 2, C 5, C 8, C 12, C 14, C 18, C 22-27, C 33, C 34.

12

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES

and AacKaorpia
of C 1. Fourtexts (C 2, C 8, C 14, C 33) use various
(C 34) and perhapsalso the JliIOT-rTO
verbsto describesexualproficiencyand relationships.Parallelsfor hate namesof this generalsort may
be foundin Hesperia,XXII, 1953,pp. 215-224.
The five remainingtexts are miscellaneous:a love-pledge(C 6), namesof men admiredor insultedin
othertexts (C 9, C 20), pictureandpet nameof the maleorgan(C 30), and nameswrittenbackwardsfor
somepresumablyfell purpose(C 32).
Sincemost of thesefrankexpressionsof admirationand distastedate from beforethe end of the 5th
centuryB.C.,the forms of writingand spellingare for the most part old Attic. That is, for the pieces
through C 29, it will be easiest to state a general practice and then to note exceptions: general are Attic

lambdaandgamma,three-barredsigmas,crossbarredtheta,chi-sigmafor xi, eta openandusedonlyfor


the aspirate;exceptionalare Ionic lambda and/or gammain C 7 (part),C 13, C 15, C 24, C 27-29,
four-barredsigmain C 26-28, dottedthetain C 3, C 17, C 21, omegain C 24, closedeta in C 1 and C 8,
eta for both aspirateand long vowel in C 18 and C 23, eta for the long vowel in C 29 and for epsiloniota in C 8. Other spelling odditiesinclude: 'OAu<H
(C 19).
>Tri6VIKOS
(C 5); pEVECo(C 2, C 14); 'AAAKcxlTo
Afterthe end of the 5th centuryB.C. the generalruleis Ioniclettersincludingeta and omegafor the long
a
vowels,but still omicron-upsiloncontinuesto be writtenomicron.SpellingodditiesincludeOeilooo1
and XataLK5Ei(C 33). As far as "punctuation" is concerned, only two pieces provide evidence: C 14

leavesspacesbetweenwords;C 16 showsa strokebetweenend andbeginningof a circulartext.


C 1 (P 26452). P1.4. Fragmentfrom rim of cup
similar to Hesperia, Suppl.II, p. 157, C 55.
Graffitoon outsidebelow flaringrim. Context:

Late VI cent. B.C.


T{rTa 'OXAv<>)7r6vv[i]K.os
KcrraTjyov

"Titasthe Olympicvictor is a lewd fellow."


second quarter 7th century B.C. (R 17:5).
The name is not otherwiseattested, and the
Hesperia,XXX, 1961,p. 377, S 18.
victory is presumablyfigurative, to suggest
ho Tra[s
Titas'championshipstatus.
Second quarter VII cent. B.C. ICETro5
"Theboy is lewd."
C 6 (P 7690). P1.4. Fragmentfrom floor of redfigured kylix with courting scene inside and
C 2 (P 13322).P1.4. Wall fragmentfrom closed
palaestraoutside,dated by Beazleyto 500 B.C.
vase. Graffitoon outside. Context: early 6th
or a little earlier. Graffito on inside beside
B.C.
century
figures.B.S.A., XLVI, 1951,pl. 16, c.
Early VI cent. B.C.

]oS pEV[ET

For the verbsee C 14.


C 3 (P 23693).P1.4. Fragmentfromthe bottomof
a black-glazedalabastronof mid-6th century

Ca. 500 B.C.

(qn?]oTrilov

i.e., loving-cup

Fortheuseof thewordcf. Aristoph.,Lys.,203.


The endinghere suggestseithera neutervessel
understoodor a masculineone in the accusative
B.C. type. Graffito on outside.
case (as the objectof an understoodverb).
Mid-VI cent. B.C. 'AvS3xEKcaX[8O]KE1
AaIX[
C 7 (P 20787). P1.4. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
"Antheme appears beautiful to Aisch ...."
kylix of whichmost of lowerpartof cup is preCf. C 10. The femininename is known from
served. Graffito around lower outside wall,
Eretria(Bechtel).
upside down to pot. Context: late 6th-early
5th century B.C.(R 12:1).
C 4 (P 17827). P1.4. Rim and wall fragmentof
Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
black-glazedskyphos.Graffitoon outside,upside
down to pot. Context: mid-6th century B.C.
[K]aXosKO'ipiAosAviiuAEI
M[eVE]KparEs
(J 18:4).
"Menekrates
is beautifulanddearto Lysikles."
Mid-VI cent. B.C. ho Tra[csKaX6s
The Ionic lambdasin the last two wordscombine with smaller letters to suggest that the
An upsilon at lower left may be the end of
threewordswere addedby a secondhand.
last
this inscription.
C 5 (P 24910). P1.4. Plain hydria. Graffito around
top of rim. Context: ca. 520-480 B.C. (R 12:4).
Hesperia, XXV, 1956, p. 63, pl. 22, c, f. Cf.

no. 1594.
Sparkes-Talcott,

(In the drawing the piece with -Kprr5s is slightly

misplaced.)
C 8 (P 15555).PI.4. Rim fragmentof unglazed
bowl. Graffitoon inside, obviouslywrittenon

13

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES


the sherd.Hesperia,Suppl.VIII, p. 399, pl. 58,
Cf. Sparkes10, a (withdifferentinterpretation).
Talcott,no. 1892.
Early V cent. B.C.

'Eyoprpacros

450 B.C. with much earlier material (C9:6).

Hesperia,Suppl.V, p. 143,fig. 71, 35.

Second quarter V cent. B.C. ]oS Kacih[


]oaaKai X[
]fov ep3s[vvTro

,oi ioynrI
"Hegestratoslies with me." Eta is not used
for the aspiratebut as the epsilon-iotaof the
thirdsingularverb.Whetherthe activevoice of
this verb can be used with a suppressedobject
to convey the meaning usually expressedby
the middleor passiveseems uncertain.

der Akropolis, II, Berlin, 1925-33, no. 256):


PEvETat,which Peek (ibid., p. 131, "Epigraphische

5th century B.C. Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, p. 399,


fig. 4.
Early V cent. B.C. 'EyEo(T<p>aTos

Second quarter V cent. B.C. ]os NIK[


KcOA6[s

]PE6VT[o

Cf. Acropolisgraffito(Graef-Langlotz,Vasen

Nachtrage") takes as equivalent to pivErat.


Cf. also Hillervon Gaertringen,Inschriftenvon
Priene,Berlin,1906,no. 317.
C 9 (P 15379).P1.4. Wall fragmentof large pot C 15 (P 27698). P1.4. Half of hemispherical
of non-Atticfabric. Graffitoon outside. Conblack-glazedstand. Incised before glazing and
text: pottery rangingfrom Geometricto early
firing.Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
p. 180, note 2.
For the pictureon this piece see M 9.
This piece is included here because it was C16 (P5128). P1.4. Black-glazedkylix base.
found about 15 metersfrom C 8 and may be a
Graffitoon underside.Context:secondquarter
similarreferenceto the sameman.
5th century B.C. (H6:5). Hesperia, V, 1936,
no. 436.
p. 347. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
C 10 (P 14710). P1.4. Base fragment of small
Koi6S
black-glazedkylix. Graffito on upper surface. Second quarterV cent. B.C. Tui6XCEvos
Context:late 6th-early5th centuriesB.C.
A long line separatesthe end of the writing
from
the beginning.
Early V cent. B.C. AuxK6Ia)C[oS
KC1a6s]
From
this same well (H 6:5) came the next six
'cavSf8[
[8]oKeT
"Lykomachosappearsbeautiful to Ianthi..."

pieces (C 17-22). All share the second quarter


5th-century B.C. context and all were first
published in Hesperia, V, 1936, pp. 347ff. See
also Robinsonand Fluck.

The spacingis just about rightfor the lengthof


the supplement.Lykomachosis not knownbut
appears to be an acceptablecompound.The
name Ianthe (not Ianthis which might be the C 17 (P 5144).P1.5. Fragmentary
base of skyphos
feminine patronymic from the following) is
of Corinthiantype. Graffitoon underside.Cf.
known in Athens (I.G., II2, 3799) and Ianthos
Sparkes-Talcott,no. 314.
elsewhere(Pape).
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
o-rTTIEUS
Ka[A6S
C 11 (P 14943). P1.4. Fragmentof black-glazed C 18 (P 5157). P1.5. Small lekane (= SparkesB.c. type. Graffito Talcott, no. 1794).Graffitoon underside.Heskylixfoot of early5th-century
on underside.
peria, XXII, 1953, p. 218; Beazley, Potter and
Early V cent. B.C. 'Aypo]SiroaKca[]
Cf. Beazley, A.R.V., p. 944 for two other

instancesof the love nameAphrodisia.

C 12 (P 410). P1.4. Wall fragment of blackglazedcup. Graffitoon outside.


Early V cent. B.C.

]EsTuy[aIoS

C 13 (P 27848). P1.4. Rim fragmentfrom blackglazed mug. Graffito on outside below lip.
Context: early 5th century B.C.(H 13:5).
Early V cent. B.C. K]aX6S [

C 14 (P9482). PI. 5. Wall fragment of lekane


with dull red glaze inside. Graffitoon outside,
verticalto pot. Context: pottery down to ca.

Painter in Ancient Athens, London, 1946,


p. 20; Richter, Attic Red Figure Vases, New

Haven, 1958,p. 57.

Second quarterV cent. B.C.


locriaS KcrraTryov

h6osprlcvho ypacpras
Althoughit has been suggestedthat a name
was obliteratedbefore rcnoiv,
it seemsunlikely,
since both paint and surface are preserved.
"Thus says the writer" (cs 91rnav)seems right.

Note open eta for both long voweland aspirate.


C 19 (P 5160). P1.5. Lekane(= Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 1792).Graffitoinside,upsidedownto pot (a),
on the underside(b), and outside,upsidedown
to pot (c).

14

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES

Second quarterV cent. B.C.

Second quarterV cent. B.C.

KaX6[s
(a) TTuS68opos
KaCOS
(b) 'AX<X>Ka1os

Note the Ionic letters.

TO SOK1EMAr1T

EAi[qi]
S KTaTro
"ycpv

(c) PhOpE
C 25 (P 10779). P1.6. Base fragmentof lekane.
Graffitoon underside.Context:secondquarter
(b) 2: T6 seems to be TcO;for the form see
LSJ, s.v. -rT. (c): the third letter was originally
5th century B.C.
read as theta, but compare other theta-like
Second quarter V cent. B.C.

phi's: D 15, F43. For the name Melis, cf.

Mv[

S.E.G., XXII, 237.

C 20 (P 5167). P1.5. Base of lekane (= SparkesTalcott,no. 1795).Graffitoon underside.


Second quarter V cent. B.C.

KaTa]TrOyo[v]

C26 (P 5449). P1.6. Base fragment of blackglazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside.Context:


ca. 470-425 B.C.(E 13:1). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,

p. 220, no. 6, fig. 2, left.

'AXKai(ov)

Third quarterV cent. B.C. Ka]TaTr.y[cov


This may well be an owner's name but is
includedhere as being undoubtedlythe same
'ApIlaolp[vES
is
in
as
C
19
and
C
22.
praised
person
C 27 (P 17123).P1.6. Baseand lowerpartof body
of black-glazedskyphoswith rays above foot.
C 21 (P 5164). P1.5. Large lekane. Graffito on
on underside.Context: third quarter
Graffito
underside,which was marked off in squares.
B.C. Hesperia, XXII, 1953, p. 220,
5th
century
Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 1797.
no. 7, fig. 2, right,pl. 66, b.
Second quarter V cent. B.C. $Eoi GEpltKE

Third quarterV cent. B.C.

Ssoi
lViroXovos
QEoT
1n6).XCTOVOS
TV'.ao0vos
KaXos

XappliSES
KcO6Ao

iKuAaKacaTnuy(alva)

The writerfirstwroteKarrv,then correctedit

to KacTaTry(

) but finally left the word un-

finished,perhapsfrom lack of space, perhaps


in doubtas to the feminineform(see the discussion thereofin Hesperia,XXII, 1953, pp. 216217).

The name in line 3, whichshouldperhapsbe


read as np(<a)cov,is most probably genitive
and gives the paternity,whether physical or C 28 (P 19403).P1.6. Fragmentof roof tile with
figurative,of Therikles.
dullredto blackglazeon concaveuppersurface.
Graffitoon glazed side, writtenafter tile had
C22 (P 5169). P1.5. Fragment of lekane base
beenbroken.Context:late 5th centuryB.C.
(= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 1796). Graffito on
Late V cent. B.C.
[ ]rrpa-ro
underside.
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
'AX]KoaosKaTcrcaT[yov

For the restorednamesee C 19, C 20.


C 23 (P 18499).P1.5. Rim fragmentfrom lekane.
Graffito on inside. Context: second quarter
5th century B.C.(C 18:7).

Second quarter V cent. B.C.

[Ka]A6s

Considerationsof spacesuggesta shortname


suchas Sostratos.
C 29 (P 10618).P1.6. Fragmentof convex cover
tile with flakybrownglaze on outside.Graffito
on glazed side. Context:potteryrangingfrom
late 5th centuryto 3rdcenturyB.C.
Late V cent. B.C. ]XhrKahi1

ETArXl
AawKKO6p[o]cros

C 30 (L 2450). P1.6. Nozzles and parts of rim of


black-glazedlamp (= Howland,no. 176, Type
First line mostly erased.Whetherthe verb is
21C). Graffito on top of nozzle. Context:
activeor passivein senseis uncertain.The name
potteryto near end of 4th centuryB.C.(E 6:3).
is unknown.
Late V-early IV cent. B.C. KOK
KiA(oi)
C 24 (P 15225).P1.5. Fragmentsof roof tile with
of
(drawing phallus)(See M 13)
black glaze on top surface.Graffitoon glazed
ho Eubp6oiaXos

side. Context: ca. 490-450 B.C. (F 19:4). Hes-

peria,XXII, 1953,pp. 219-220.

like K6mOKo,
could be
Presumably KOKKC6Ao,

used for testicles, but it is also possible that

C. LOVE NAMES AND HATE NAMES


this is an abbreviationof the name Kokkaline
(Demosth.,LIX, 35, 120, 124).
C 31 (P 23837). P1.6. Rim fragmentof unglazed
lid. Graffitoon either side, obviously written
on the sherd.Context:ca. 420-390B.C.(Q 15:2).
Ca. 400-390 B.c.

KoAXin
(inside) TTpoorooca
rTavrTaAcov
KlJaA6
KaXo
TTav-rTcacov
|
(outside)
ocria
Kac[if
Tnpo
lro

15

presumablyput on at the samefestival:Euboulos' Prosousia and Theopompos' Pantaleon. If

it did (andthe possibilityseemsno moreremote


than the unprecedentedpairing of male and
female names with Kcxs6and Ka?i), it would
provide a definitecross referencebetweentwo
comic poets and a far closerabsolutedate than
the scantyfragmentsof the playsallow.

C 32 (L 5298).PI. 6. Black-glazedlamp, similarto


Howland,no. 267, Type 25A. Graffitoon top
Note the way in whichthe two omittedletters
in the lastlinewereaddedbelow.BothPantaleon of nozzle and rim. Context: 4th centuryB.C.
Hesperia,XXVII, 1958,p. 159,pl. 46.
and Prosousiaare known as personalnames,
Mid-IV cent. B.C.
'AVTriKAEISr
but the peculiarincidenceof Prosousiashould
-patias
be consideredin combinationwith the fact
'ApKEaicaS
that both namesare also titles of comediesand
'AAKfcas
that the well in which this sherd was found
'Av-rTIPnrSl
also produced several coarse pitchers with
(iA65rl6lpos
comicscenes(Hesperia,XXIV, 1955,pp. 76-84).
That is, Prosousiaseems to be limitedto midThe names are written backwards, not
4th-century B.C. tombstones (.G., II2, 8769,
retrograde.Since some magic seems to be
12533-5), suggesting that something at the
involved, the piece is included here under
"hate names." Of the six names all but one
beginningof the centurygave rise to this rash
of an otherwiseunattestedname. Could Eu(Antimedes)were borne by two or more 4thboulos' play Prosousia (or The Swan), which
centuryB.C. Athenians,so that identificationof
presumablytook its first name from a "Pres- this particulargroup is unlikely.The fact that
ence" (whetherfemalecharacterorabstraction), three mid-4th-centuryB.C. men bearingthree
have been responsible?The play is tentatively of these names (Antikleides,Arkesilas,Philodated by Edmonds (The Fragments of Attic
demos) have naval connectionsand belong to
the Erechtheidphyle is more likely to be a
Comedy, II, p. 641) to 385-380 B.C., but a case
function of the nature of our sources than a
might well be made for a date closer to the
context date of this sherd: Edmondsassumed clue to the identityof this group.
that the two titles may refer to Diogenes
Laertius'story (3,5) that Socrates,after dream- C33 (P6153). P1.6. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
skyphos. Graffito on outside, just below lip,
ing of a cygnet in his lap which later flew
startingnear one handle and runningaround
awaywitha pleasantcry,identifiedthe birdwith
under
the other (a), and on opposite side (b).
Plato, who came to him (prosousia)as a pupil
Context:
mid-4th century B.C. (D 15:3). Hesthe next day; Edmondsfurtherassumedthat
peria,XXII, 1953,p. 221, note 5a.
the play wouldnot have been relevanttill Plato
Mid-IV cent. B.C. (a) OEIoSocrlaCatiKa'E[] 6Ei
beganteachingin the Academyin 386 B.C., but
it is hardto imaginethat this was the firsttime
(b) A(aiKaorrpra)
his voice had been heard.
The last letters of the verb, and hence its
Theopompos' play Pantaleon presumably exact form, are doubtful, but the root and
had as its chief characterthe pranksterof the
thereforethe meaningare certain.For another
same name (Athen.,XIV, 616a).4If this Pantainstanceof delta used insteadof zeta in a 4thleon is the older brother of the speaker of
century B.C. graffito see B 13. Theodosia's
Lysias X and the defendant in Lysias KcrTaTTav- namehas been crossedout. For the supplement
rcaXsovToS(frags. 210, 211; Prosop. Att., no.
in (b), cf. C 34.
11599),he could have been about 27 years old
in 400 B.C.and full of the kind of deviousness C 34 (MC483). P1.6. Black-glazedspindlewhorl
of a type found in 5th-4th centuriesB.C.,like
that might lend itself to comic treatment.Even
if that identificationis uncertain,Theopompos' Hesperia, Suppl. VII, pp. 94-96, no. 9. The
graffitoruns all the way around the whorl at
productivelife (415-362 B.C.)allows the possithe lowerpart of the side.
bility that our sherd representsapplause or
favorable critical judgment of two plays,
IV cent. B.C.
KoaiXatKc-rptia
4 See Edmonds' note
(op. cit., I, p. 864,d): "It is thought possible that this man, by giving his name to his profession,originated
the stock characterof mediaevalItalian comedyfrom whose dresscomes our word pantaloon,now in its shortenedform 'pants'... "

16

D. NAMES ON SHERDS
D. NAMES ON SHERDS

The criterionfor admissionto this categoryis that the nameor namesshallhave been writtenon the
sherd,not on the completevase.Althoughobviouslyit is not alwayspossibleto be absolutelycertainon
this point,it maybe saidthatthe writingwasdefinitelydone on the sherdwhenit eitherturnsto follow
the edge of the sherd or continues in the next line on reaching the edge, or when it was done on the

insideof a fragmentfroma closedpot. It maybe saidprobablyif not certainlyto havebeendoneon the


sherdwhenit is alignedwith one edge of the sherdor neatlycenteredon it.
Sherdswith a nameincisedon themhavebeenfoundin considerablenumbersat the Agoraand elsewherein Athens.The greatmajorityof them can be datedin the 5th centuryB.C., and the namesthey
bear are frequentlythose of personswell known in Athenianhistory.These sherdsare ostraka,the
ballots used by the Atheniansin votingat an ostrakophoria.The law on ostracismmay well havebeen
partof Kleisthenes'constitutionandprobablydatesfromthe last decadeof the 6th centuryB.C.although
it was not applieduntil488/7B.c.1 It was invokedat intervalsfor the next seventyyearsuntil418/7B.C.
whenHyperboloswas ostracizedundersuch scandalouscircumstances
that the institutionwas thrown
the
never
had
recourse
it.
to Therefore,any sherdwith an incised
into disrepute,and
Athenians
again
namethat can be datedin the 5th centuryB.C.has an a prioriclaimto be consideredan ostrakon.There
are now about 6500 sherdswhichhave been identifiedas ostraka,2and the identificationmay be consideredcertainin all but a veryfew cases.
But how shallwe interpreta sherdwith a nameon it whichmustbe datedeitherearlieror laterthan
the periodwhenostracismwas practiced?Thereis quitea groupof them,mostlyof the 6th centuryB.C.,
witha few as earlyas the 7th or late 8th centuriesB.C. In Hesperia,Suppl.VIII,pp. 405-408a sherdwith
the name Peisistratos(D 1 below) was publishedand along with it four sherdsfrom 6th-centuryB.C.
contexts(D 6, D 8, D 14, D 22), eachwith a nameincisedon it. In the case of the Peisistratossherdand
one of the othermes
which bears the name Aristion the suggestion was tentatively put forward that they
may have been used by the Council of the Areopagos as ballots on the occasion of Peisistratos'first exile.

For the otherpiecesno definiteinterpretationwas offeredother than the generalsuggestionthat they


may have been the work of school childrenor of idlerswritingtheir own namesor the name of some
friend, acquaintanceor lover. It is also possible that the sherds may have served in some way as tags to

accompanygoods or parcels,or to identifyindividualbelongings.It is likely that no single interpretation will suit all these early sherds, especially as some of them have women's names, others have two

namestogether,and still otherswereinscribedon both sides,sometimeswithdifferentnames.Theywere


no doubtwrittenon variousoccasionsand for variousreasons.
Parallels may be quoted from elsewhere in Greece: Amyklai, Lakonia (A.J.A., LXI, 1957, p. 168);
Phaistos, Crete (Annuario,XIV-XVI, 1952-1954, pp. 167-173); see also Jeffery,L.S.A.G., p. 314.

Generallyin D 1-39 (late8th centurythroughthe secondquarterof the 5th centuryB.C.), we see pretty
or X). The exceptions
consistentuse of a standardold Attic alphabet(ABAAEIH IKL-MNOPP$TV0+
are:Ioniclambdain D 27, D 39; closedeta in D 6; tailedrho in D 6, D 25, D 37, D 39; xi in D 35, D 39;
sigmain
phi with horizontalcrossbarin D 15; four-barredsigmain D 25-27 and reversedthree-barred
D 1, D 3, D 7, D 10, D 12, D 14, D 18, D 23, D 24. Theuse of thesetwo aberrantsigmasis suchthatthey
fromregularsigmathe sigmathat comesat wordalmostcertainlyrepresenttwo effortsto differentiate
endsor combineswithchi to makexi. Thatis, all threeuses of four-barredsigmacomeat word-ends;of
the nineoccurrencesof the reversedsigmasevencome eitherat word-endsor with chi; only one of the
1 For the

argumentsconcerningthe dateof the origin of ostracismsee K.J. Dover, Cl.Rev.,XIII, 1963,pp. 256-257withbibliography
and J. T. Keaney, Historia, XIX, 1970, pp. 1-11. For a general account see E. Vanderpool, "Ostracismat Athens," Lecturesin
Memoryof Louise Taft Semple,second series, no. 4, Cincinnati,1970.
2 The previouscount of ca. 1500 (see Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, pp. 408-411) has recentlybeen greatly augmentedby an estimated
4000 found in the Kerameikos(cf. B.C.H., XCII, 1968, pp. 732-733;AE-r., XXIII, 1968,XpovIKa,pp. 24-32; S.E.G., XXIV, 1969,
no. 74, pp. 29f.).

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

17

two reversedsigmasin D 1 and that in D 23 are not in thesespecialpositions.This samepatternmay be


seenin the use of four-barredand reversedsigmasin the earlyexamplesof Owners'Marks.Butwhether
the effortto differentiatewas motivatedby a "heard"differenceor by a desirefor visualaid is unclear,
as is the reasonwhy the effortwas so comparativelyshort-lived.3
Spellingpracticein thesesameitems(D 1-39) is as follows:epsilonfor eta exceptin D 35 (andin D 36
whereepsilon-iotaseemsto substitutefor eta); epsilon-iotaspelledout exceptfor D 1 (only iota), D 9
(only epsilon)andD 25 (only iota in two cases,but the diphthongonce); eta for the aspirateexceptin
D 13 (but this name is attested elsewherewithout the aspirate),and perhapsD 16; omicronfor all
o-sounds;koppainsteadof kappabeforeo- and u-sounds;properlydoubledconsonantsare regularly
singleexceptin D 37; thenasalsoundin D 34 is represented
by nu-kappa.As faras mistakesareconcerned
all that can be detectedin the fragmentarystateand natureof the materialare threeomissionsof single
letters(D 1, D 10, D 32).
Sevenof the namesare writtenretrograde(D 1, D 6, D 13, D 15, D 23, D 31, D 36); five are in some
formof boustrophedon(D 11, D 14, D 16, D 24, D 32). Thereis no indicationof punctuation.
In the five pieces which date from after the middleof the 5th centuryB.C. the generalrule is Ionic
letters,four-barredsigmas,eta andomegaas long vowels;D 42 exceptionallysubstituteseta for iota.
Identificationof the personbearinga particularnamecan be attemptedonly rarely.Nameswhichare
attestedelsewherein Atheniansourcesare in the majorityand are not so noted. Whena nameis not
knownin Attica, note is made.
D 1 (P 3629). P1.7. Fragmentfrom foot of large
glaze outside. Graffito on outside, probably
late Geometric vase, decorated outside with
writtenon the sherd.Context:7th centuryB.C.
tooth pattern.Graffitoon inside, upside down
(F-G 12:1). Hesperia,Suppl.II, pp. 126, 226;
to pot; certainlywritten on the sherd. For a
B 56.
full discussion of this graffito, see Hesperia,
Second half VII cent. B.C. TprrriS
Suppl.VIII, pp. 405-408 (Vanderpool).See also
9iJo[s
Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,p. 70, pl. 2, no. 9e.
The convivial sense of the inscriptionsugLate VIII-early VII cent. B.C. Tnla<<Tr>paTos
gested in the originalpublicationseems to us
(dateof vesselonly)
(retrograde)
unlikely.We suggestinstead two names, both
D 2 (P 6578). PI.7. Fragmentfrom wall of very
attestedelsewhere,the first in the nominative,
largelate Geometricvase, decoratedwith a row
the second probably in the nominative but
of hatchedtrianglesbetweenbands.Graffitoon
possiblyin the genitive.
outside, obviously written on the sherd. Context: well of early 6th centuryB.C. with much D 5 (P 3534). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
potteryof the 7th centuryB.C. (F 12:5).
plain amphora.Graffitoon outside, diagonal
with respect to the pot; probably but not
Late VIII-earlyVII cent. B.C. ME]vEsSoi
written on the sherd. Context: late
certainly
Perhaps a tag accompanyinga parcel ad6th
centuries B.C.
7th-early
dressedto a woman named MevsoScb
(assumed
feminineform of Menestheus).
Late VII-early VI cent. B.C. ]e8tS9o
D 3 (P 13655).P1.7. Fragmentfromwall of coarse
We may restoresome name such as Archedikos.
pot, preservingthe stub of a handle on the
outside.Graffitoon inside,verticalwith respect
to the pot; obviously written on the sherd. D 6 (P 2030). P1.7. Fragmentof light roof tile
with dull reddishglaze on concave side. GrafContext:firsthalf 7th centuryB.C.(T 19:3).
fito
on the glazedside, obviouslywrittenon the
First half VII cent. B.C. 'AvEprros
sherd.Context:early6th centuryB.C.Hesperia,
On the rarenameAneritossee Bechtel,p. 195.
Suppl.VIII, p. 407, pl. 60, d.
D 4 (P 4664). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
Early VI cent. B.C.
7th-centuryB.C. amphora, with streaky red
ropyiasho .ucpelos
(retrograde)
3 It is unlikely that this differentiationis in any way related to the later
developmentof two sigmas, one initial or medial and the
other final; that is almost certainlya result of cursivewriting.Comparableusage in the early period may be seen on the Dipylon Jug
and in the Nikandrainscription(cf. Jeffery,L.S.A.G., pp. 68, 291).

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

18

This reading of the mother's name seems


given in the
preferableto the reading flp3aKio
originalpublication.
D7 (P 27741). P1.7. Base fragmentfrom large
amphoraof early6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito
on inside of base ring, upside down. Context:
first half 6th century B.C. (I 10:1).
Early VI cent. B.C. ETrrpaXais

D 8 (P 4794). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large


coarse pithos. Graffito on outside, obviously
writtenon the sherd.Context:early6th century
(F 12:5). Hesperia, Suppl. VIII, p. 406.
Early VI cent. B.C. AEtvLceia
ATlileveiawould be the Attic feminine form of

B.C.

of uncertainprovenience(Diod., XIV,
Aai'invrls,
53,5).

D9 (P 13333). P1.7. Fragment from neck of


coarse unglazedwaterjar. Graffitoon outside,
verticalwith respectto the pot; certainlywritten
on the sherd. Context: early 6th centuryB.C.
Early VI cent. B.C.

The interpretationis uncertain. Read as a


a
single word, it would be nTvpoSovptiSris,
name otherwiseunattested.Sir John Beazley
i.e., patronymic
Oovupia&qs,
suggested rTOppou
and name. Anotherpossibilitymightbe Huppcb
i.e., two names, a woman's and a
OoupiaBrlS,
man's.Thouriadesis not attested,but Thourios
is knownoutsideof Attica.
D 12 (P 14693). P1.7. Fragment from wall of
large unglazedpot. Graffitiinside and outside,
obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Context: first
quarter 6th century B.C.(S 21:2).

FirstquarterVI cent. B.C. (outside).E.vSuivss


(inside)

9uv68paX[os

On the outside severalheavy strokesin the


upper left corner have partiallyobscuredthe
first two letters, but the reading seems fairly
sure. On the inside much of the surfacebelow
the namehas flakedaway,and the endingof the
name is not preserved.It might equally well
have been genitive,as a patronymic,or dative,
as an addressee.

TTEpalab[

This sherdmay have been a tag accompany- D 13 (P 18271).P1.7. Part of flat handleof large
Protoatticpot, with wavy lines downthe outer
ing a parcelbeing sent to Peiraieus:TTFipaiaBE.face. Incised
on the inner face, verticallywith
It is also possible that the name T1EipaiaSrln
the
to
handle,and almost certainlyon
respect
(unattested)was written.
the sherd.Context:secondquarter6th century
D 10 (P 18342). P1.7. Fragment from wall of
B.C.(A 17:1). Cf. Hesperia, XXX, 1961, p. 323,
F2.
large amphorawith streakyglaze on outside,
of 7th- to 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on
First half VI cent. B.C. 'E6opT[1o (retrograde)
outside,verticalwith respectto the pot, almost
Note the absenceof the aspirate,as in the
certainlywritten on the sherd. Context: first
name in .G., I2, 579. The surfaceafter
same
quarter 6th century B.C.(B 18:10).
the tau is almostcompletelydestroyed.
First quarter VI cent. B.C. (a) Eu.pUTr
(b) TTpaXcr<i>v D 14 (P 6067).P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
pot with dull brown glaze outside. Graffitoon
The first graffito,which was writtenalong one
inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context:
edge of the sherd, seems to have been delibmid-6th
century B.C. (19:1). Hesperia, Suppl.
erately trimmed off, so that only the lower
406.
VIII,
p.
parts of the lettersremain.The sherdwas then
turned around, and the second graffito was
First half VI cent. B.C.AEPt6pi?XOS
(boustrophedon)
written.Euryteis a mythologicalname;Praxine
would be the Attic feminineform of Prexinos, D 15 (P 12212). P1.7. Fragment from wall of
large amphora,with dull streakyglaze outside,
knownoutsideAttica.
of 7th-or early 6th-centuryB.C.fabric.Graffito
D 11 (P 14687).P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of a
on inside, written vertically to the pot and
Protogeometricpot. Graffito on inside, obskipping over a wheelmade groove. Context:
on
first
written
the
Context:
sherd.
down to mid-6th century B.C.
viously
quarter 6th century B.C. (S 21:2).
FirstquarterVI cent. B.C.

THYPOGOPIAAEE(boustrophedon)
Since the potteryfrom this well is consistently
early 6th centuryB.C. in date, we assumethat
the writingon the sherd dates from the same
with the sherd.
period,and is not contemporary

First half VI cent. B.C. E(<9>po[ (retrograde)

The originalsherdis brokenat the left and


chippedat upperright. The third letter, which

is perfectly clearly preserved, consists of an

oval with a horizontalline across it. This is


perhapsan incompletetheta, whichwould give
a namelike Euthronor Euthronios.Sinceboth

19

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

of these are rare (for the latter cf. F 43), it D 20 (P 24745).PI. 8. Fragmentof verylargevase
with thin black glaze on outside, of 7th- or
seems preferableto read the third letter as phi
and restore some more common name like
early6th-centuryB.C.fabric.Graffitoon outside,
written on the sherd. Context: third
Phi's
of
this
form
or
are
certainly
Euphronios.
Euphron
to be found on certain early 5th-centuryB.C.
quarter 6th century B.C.(with D 21).
ostraka, e.g., one of ThemistoklesPhrearrios Mid-VI cent. B.C. Aucias I Mup-r6
(Agora inv. no. P 17682 - unpublished);see
Thefinalsigmaof Lysiaswassqueezedaround
also below,F 50. It occursoccasionallyeven on
the
corneronto the secondline.
stone, e.g., the Kallimachosepigram(I.G., I2,
D21 (P 24746). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
609); see also I.G., I2, 487.
unglazed pot. Graffito on outside, probably
D 16 (P 13). P1.7. Fragmentfrom wall of large
writtenon the sherd,of which the upperright
closed pot with thin streakyglaze outside, of
cornerhas been broken.Context:thirdquarter
7th- and early 6th-centuryB.C. fabric.Graffito 6th century B.C.(with D 20).
on the outside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd,
Mid-VI cent. B.C. riupoS
which has been broken on the left. Context:
mid-6th century B.C.
D22 (P 10159). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
large amphorawith streakyglaze on outside,
First half VI cent. B.C. ]papErT
of 7th-to
B.C.type.Graffitoon
'I9poTjyE
(boustrophedon) outside, early6th-century
certainlywritten on the sherd, which
Probablytwo women'snames.Thefirstmaybe
appearsto have been trimmedto a moreor less
circularshape.Context: 7th-6th centuriesB.C.
Timarete,Demareteor the like. In the second
line the letters, which are perfectlyclear, read
Hesperia,Suppl.VIII, p. 406.
Ipholuge. This strange name is not attested.
Mid-VI cent. B.C.
'AplICTrov

Perhaps the writer intended 'ITrTroAuyr(also

not attested,but less strange),writingphi for pi D 23 (P 26539). P1.8. Wall fragmentfrom large
closed pot, with thin, flaky, rather metallic
as was done in the name hlpoXp&Tos
on an
ostrakon (Hesperia,Suppl. VIII, p. 403), and
glaze on the outside, perhaps Geometric.
Graffito on inside, obviously written on the
the
inadvertentlyomitting
rough breathing(or
which is chippedbelow. Context:midsherd,
it
with
the
exchanging
aspiratedpi).
D 17 (P 26618). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
coarse unglazed pot. Graffito on outside,
obviously written on the sherd, which has a
small fragmentmissing at the right. Context:

6th century B.C.(T 18:3).

Mid-VI cent. B.C.

'Apti7Ts-r(ES)

(retrograde)

The inscription was left unfinished. The


fillingin whichthis sherdwas foundis too early
for it to be consideredan ostrakonof Aristeides.
first half 6th century B.C.
D 24 (P2041). P1.8. Fragment from neck of
Firsthalf VI cent. B.C. Ka&ovi i.e., K&.XcovL
unglazed water jar. Graffiti inside and out,
Perhaps a tag accompanyinga parcel to
obviouslywrittenon the sherd,whichwas then
Kallon.
brokenat one end.Context:mid-6thcenturyB.C.
Mid-VI cent. B.C.
D 18 (P 13360).PI. 8. Fragmentfrom wall of an
(outside) ]EISES
water
Graffito
on
(boustrophedon)
unglazedporous
jar.
outside,
(inside) ]Ev
almost certainlywrittenon the sherd.Context:
mid-6th century B.C. (H 10:2).
Like D 23 this may have readAristeides.The
circumstances
of finding, however, make the
Mid-VI cent. B.C.
of this sherd as an ostrakon
interpretation
K]?XrisA69po
i.e., iKAjfls A6Kpou
impossible.
Perhapsan invitationor summonsof a man
D 25 (P 15664). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
namedLokros.
largeopenbowlwithbandof dullredglazeboth
D 19 (P 1993).PI. 8. Fragmentfrombase of blackinside and out. Graffition both sides, certainly
writtenon the sherd,of whicha pieceis missing
glazedskyphos,of a type commonin the second
6th
B.C.
Graffito
on one side.
on
floor
quarter
century
inside, almost certainly written on the sherd
VI cent. B.C. (outside) 'ApyEi[8es
becausethe cup was small and deep. Context:
'Ap]yi(8<?(s)
Q 13:2.
Mid-VI cent. B.C.

(inside)

'O]v.Eoip[os

'ApyiSEs

]. oCTOV

20

D. NAMES ON SHERDS

Each name is writtenalong one edge of the D 32 (P 4627). P1.9. Fragmentof pan tile, glazed
on uppersurface.Graffitoon the undersurface,
sherd; also various scratchings. Three are
of
the
same
which
name, Argeides,
repetitions
obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context: 6thseems not to have been reportedhithertobut
early 5th centuries B.C. Hesperia, Suppl. II,
derive
from
which
is
known
in
may
Argeios,
pp. 121-122,226, no. B 47; Suppl.VIII, p. 400,
Attica.Thefourthnamewill havebeenMneson,
note 20.
Tlesonor the like.
Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
D 26 (P 13248). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
NEoK<A>Eo(S)
(boustrophedon)
MEAaviSs
largepot with tracesof dull black glaze on the
outside, probablyGeometric.Graffition both
Althoughit is possible that the sherd is an
sides, obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Context:
abortiveostrakon,as suggestedin Supplement
second half 6th century B.C.
VIII,it seemspreferableto readtwo names,one
of a man in the genitiveand one of a womanin
VI cent. B.C. (inside)
TJauvias
the
TIPAI
nominative. The man's name (probably
(outside)
Neokles)wasleft incomplete;thewoman'sname
Note the two formsof the lettersigmain the
is
not attested.
name Pausias. An incompletename or word
appearson the outside.
D 33 (P 14130). P1.9. Fragmentfrom base of
lekane,preservingpart of foot and lower wall,
D 27 (P 13251). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
of late 6th-to early5th-centurytype. Graffitoon
of
dull
with
two
bands
glaze outside,
largepot,
wall
outsideand upsidedown to pot, probably
on
the
Geometric.
Graffito
inside,
probably
written
on the sherd.
on
the
sherd.
Context:
late
written
obviously
6th century B.C.
VI cent. B.C.

Late VI-early V cent. B.C.


Alia-rEhE

A]iocx(av

The reasonfor the accusativecase is obscure.


The nameis not known.
D 34 (P 10717). P1.9. Fragment from rim of
D 28 (P 16812).P1.8. Fragmentfrom wall of very
lekane, of late 6th- to early 5th-centuryB.C.
a
Graffito
large unglazedpot, probably pithos.
type. Graffitoon outside, probablywrittenon
on inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd.Conthe sherd, which seems to be broken at the
text: end of 6th centuryB.C.(G 15:1).
lowerright.
VI cent. B.C.
Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
OpOvov
Avv[
of
from
wall
8.
P1.
D 29 (P 15693).
from Larisa(LG.,IX2,568,18).
Cf. A[O]vKos
large
Fragment
heavy pot or pithos, probably prehistoric, D 35
(P 4696).P1.9. Fragmentfrom wall of large
roughlycut into a rounddisc. Graffitoon outclosed
pot, glazed on outside. Graffitoon inside, centeredon disc.
side, obviouslywrittenon the sherd,whichhas
BA6avU
VI cent. B.C.
been brokenat left. Context:early 5th century
The only evidencefor the date is the archaic B.C.
letterforms.The nameis not known.
]E NO[
Early V cent. B.C.
D 30 (P 15694). P1.8. Fragment from wall of
]AKInO[
large closed pot. Graffitoon inside, obviously
Ionic letters. No likely names suggestthemwrittenon the sherd, which is broken on the
selves unlesserrorsare assumed,e.g., -Evocov,
right.Context:6th centuryB.C.
"AXKiTrrroS.
VI cent. B.C.
i.e., Kiaclos D 36
Kiaco[s
(P 19287). P1.9. Fragment from rim of
The nameis knownonly as an ethnic.
lekaneof late 6th-to early5th-centuryB.C.type.
Graffitoon inside,upsidedown and then vertiD 31 (A 2498).P1.8. Fragmentfrom light roofing
to the pot, obviouslywrittenon the sherd.
cally
tile of Laconiantype. Inscribedthroughglaze
Context:
5th century B.C.
written
on
the
on uppersurface;probably
sherd,
which was later chippedon the left. Context:
Early V cent. B.C.
thirdquarter4th centuryB.C.
]K6io5[ (drawingupsidedown)
VI cent. B.C.
Aaleja[s
(retrograde) D37 (P 10809). P1.9. Fragment from rim of
Becauseof the directionof writingwe assume
black-glazedkylix of early 5th-centuryB.C.
that the sherd is considerablyolder than the
type. Graffitioutsideand in, obviouslywritten
on the sherd,whichhas beenbrokenat one end.
found.
it
was
which
in
deposit

E. NUMERICALNOTATIONSON SHERDS
Early V cent. B.C. (outside) MeAa[

nupp[
]6Es

(inside)

Assumingthat the same pair of names was


writtenboth insideand out, we may restore,for
example,Melanippidesand Pyrronides;neither
of these has been reportedfrom Attica.

21

date.Graffitoon inside,upsidedownto the pot;


obviously written on the sherd, of which the
upperrightcorer has brokenoff.
LateV cent. B.C. Ki],iov
O]caTIs

Presumablya list of three names which we

have restored exempli gratia.

D38 (P 27844). P1.9. Wall fragment of large


unglazedvessel. Graffitoon outside, certainly D 42 (P 16865). P1.9. Fragment from base of
black-glazedbowl of late 5th-centuryB.C.type.
writtenafterthe sherdwasmuchworn.Context:
Graffitoon inside, almost certainlywrittenon
early 5th century B.C.(H 13:5).
the sherd, which is broken above and at the
Early V cent. B.C.
'ETrTmyVES
right.
D 39 (P 15209). P1.9. Fragment from wall of
Late V cent. B.C. ]..X
unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, ob'AprloroT[AXrs
viously written on the sherd. Context: ca. 490For possibleconfusionbetweeneta and iota,
450 B.C. (F 19:4).
compare the inscriptions found in Plato's
Second quarter V cent. B.C. MEVESEo5S
Academy(Epyov, 1958,pp. 12ff.;A.J.A.,LXIII,
cxapfat
Xapias
1959,p. 279).
-avSeS

D 43 (P 6799). P1.9. Fragmentof cover tile with


dull red glaze on the convex surface.Graffito
on the glazed side, obviously written on the
sherd. Context: second half 4th century B.C.
KcAio-TpaT'
(D-E 8-9:1).
Note the mixture of Attic and Ionic letter
forms. Xanthes and Amphibouloshave not
Second half IV cent. B.C.
rTp&'rcov
been reportedfrom Attica; for Pentaristesee
D44 (P 10775). P1.9. Fragment from wall of
A.J.A., LI, 1947,p. 368.
unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside, obD40 (P 21583). P1.9. Fragment from wall of
viously writtenon the sherd. Context:Roman
large unglazedpot. Graffitoon outside, prob(G 11:2 dump).
ably written on the sherd, which is certainly II cent.
KuSoaSTvaiEvs5
'EvriyovosIlh7tXiovos
broken at the left. Context: second half 5th
Two
of
this
name
are recorded,
persons
century B.C.
a
and
a
The
apparently
grandfather
grandson.
Late V cent. B.C. ]. lAIA
formerappearsas an ephebe in the year A.D.
]AIEE
118/9(I.G.,II2, 2030,10),the latteras an ephebe
D 41 (P 4791). P1.9. Fragmentfrom wall of large
in about A.D. 180 (I.G., II2, 2107, 10). Whichof
open red-figuredpot of early 5th-centuryB.C. these two is named on our sherdis uncertain.
'AIpgipoXos

TTpoTapXos
VTEVTapio'TE

E. NUMERICAL NOTATIONS ON SHERDS


The criterionfor admissionto this categoryis that the notationshallhave beenwrittenon the sherd,
not on the complete vase. Although obviously it is not always possible to be absolutely certain on this

point, in the case of numberswhichcould have borneno relation(of price,capacityor weight)to the
pot of which the sherdwas originallya part, it may be said probablyif not certainlythat they were
writtenon the sherd.
The sherds here presented are only representativepieces, several of which were published in "Numeri-

cal Notations on GreekVases," Hesperia,XXV, 1956,pp. 19-24. For other examplessee that publication.

22

E. NUMERICAL NOTATIONS ON SHERDS

The numbersused on these sherds,which except for one later and uncertainexample(E 16) date
from the 5th and 4th centuriesB.C., are acrophonicwith one exception(mu as the numberof weight
drachmason E 15).Theyincludemu for myriad,pi-chifor 5000,chi for 1000,pi-etafor 500,eta for 100,
pi-deltafor 50, deltafor 10, pi for 5 (alsopi-sigmafor 5 staters),andeitherthe drachmasignor a simple
uprightstrokefor the unit. For fractionsof the drachmaa simplestrokeservesfor the obol (ordinarily
uprightbut once apparentlyhorizontalon E 4), a C-formfor the half-oboland a tau for the quarterobol. The only oddityin letter-shapesis the dotteddeltaof E 8.
The namesor words,mostlyabbreviated,whichon some sherdsaccompanythe numbers,presentno
unusualfeaturesin letter-shapesor spelling.Sincetheir significanceand interpretationare so various,
they can best be treatedindividuallyin the cataloguedescriptions.
E 1 (P 12214). P1.10. Fragment fron1 wall of
Probably a tag indicating the number of
on
inside.
Graffito
inside,
pots or tiles ratherthan the price; the handle
large krater,glazed
makesit particularlyconvenientto attach.
6thwritten
on
the
sherd.
Con
[text:
obviously
KAp.
5th centuries B.C. Hesperia, XXV, 1' JVu,

no. 86.

Early V cent. B.C.

!PXXXX

')

'V,

i.e., 9975

PHHHH

r^AAP

E 6 (P 12317). P1. 10. Fragment of roofing tile

with glaze on concave surface. Graffito, on


glazed surface,probablywrittenon the sherd,
which was brokenat the left. Context:fourth
quarter 5th century B.C. (O 19:4). Hesperia,

zed kylix.
E 2 (P 5133). P1.10. Foot of black-gla
Graffitoon underside,probablywrittten on the
sherd.Context:secondquarter5th centuryB.C.
(H 6:5). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
p. 88, noite2.

XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 79.


Late V cent. B.C.

P FIC T

Partof an informalabacus,with the symbols


servingas headingsfor theplacementof pebbles:
5 (drachmas),1 (drachma),1 (obol), ? (obol),
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
MXH (retrograde) 4 (obol).
I.e.,
(uiplioi)X(ito1) h(EKacTrv)
E 7 (P 4909). P1.10. Fragment from foot of
E 3 (P 226). PI. 10. Foot of a Corinthian-type black-glazedbowl of late 5th-centuryB.C.type.
Graffito on underside,inside foot, probably
skyphosof the secondquarter5th centuryB.C.
written
on the sherd.
Graffitoon bottom,probablywrittenon sherd.
Second quarter V cent. B.C.

AiaXea

mr

Late V cent. B.C.

AAHtF[

~p ~
Perhaps a price tag, since the units are
drachmas.
Perhapsa tag accompanyinga colnsignment
(weighingfive staters), belonging to Aischeas E 8 (P 9177). P1.10. Fragmentfrom lower part
and perhaps certifiedby Nikanor. It is also
of black-glazedskyphos of Attic type of late
5th centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside,within
possible that only one person is involved,
the foot. Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 16, no. 69.
namelyNikanor,son of Aischeas.
Late V cent. B.C.
E 4 (P 27694).P1.10. Wall fragmentfroim lekane.
AA111[
Graffito on inside, obviously written on the
Since the units are simple strokes, the resherd,whichwas later brokenat the left. Con- ferenceis to somethingotherthandrachmas.
text: second quarter 5th century B.C. (P 14:3).
E 9 (P 25886). PI. 10. Fragment from wall of
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
plain storagejar. Graffitoon outside,obviously
i.e., 4 dr., 1 3/4 ob.
<T>
]a FFF-IC
writtenon the sherd.Context:5th centuryB.C.
~(?)
ob.
3
1
F
i.e., dr.,
]
18:).
(Mll
The writing of obol strokes hcrizonta
V cent. B.C. ]io0v ---FFFF
insteadof verticallyis not usual.
] P-H
E 5 (P 16981).P1.10. FragmentfromrimI of black]AAAPF
glazedskyphos,preservingone handle Graffito
Perhapsthe sherd representsthe tallying of
on inside,obviouslywrittenon the sherd. Condrachmas (6paXi&ov)from different sources.
text: late 5th century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1).
The fact that the six drachmasof the first line
Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 82.
have not been resolvedinto PF suggestssome
kind of tallying.
Late V cent. B.C.
AAAAInf[
KEpa&pOS
NiKavof

F. OWNERS' MARKS

23

Thejug seemsto havebeen usedas a tag on a


E 10 (P 23873).PI. 10. Baseof lekane(= SparkesTalcott,no. 1810).Graffitoin centeron undershipmentof 60 pieces;the singledrachmaseems
to be price, whetherof the whole shipmentor
side, probablywritten on the sherd. Context:
some part. Perhapsthe shipmentwas pots of
ca. 420-390B.C. (Q 15:2).
which
the tag was the visiblesample.
EarlyIV cent. B.C..P
The graffitois repeatedin smallerformat one E 14 (P 6876). PI. 10. Fragmentfrom floor of
black-glazed bowl or plate, with stamped
edge.
on the floor, of the 4th centuryB.C.
palmettes
E 11 (P 14622).PI. 10. Fragmentfrom lower part
Graffitoon floor, almost certainlywritten on
of black-glazedskyphos of early 4th-century the sherd.
Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 19, no. 81.
B.C. type. Graffito on underside,within ring
IV cent. B.C.
APFFF
foot; probablywrittenon the sherd.
Niy( ) HHA[
E15 (P25983). P1.10. Lower part of blackEarlyIV cent. B.C.
glazed kantharosof late 4th-centuryB.C. type.
Perhapsa tag?or an I O U?
Graffito on underside,within foot, probably
E 12 (P 18610).P1.10. Fragmentfrom lower part
writtenon the sherd.Context:3rd centuryB.C.
of small black-glazedolpe. Graffitoon under(Q 19:2).
side, probablywritten on the sherd. Context:
first half 4th century B.C. (C 19:5).
Mi ( ) AA
Firsthalf IV cent. B.C.

Late IV cent. B.C.


Aio ( ) 6xK(at) i'

i.e., 40 dr. (weight)


It is likely that the first three letters are an
abbreviatedname ratherthan a commodity.

E 13 (P 3512). P1.10. Small black-glazedringhandledjug. Graffito on underside.Context:


secondhalf 4th centuryB.C.(F 11:2). Hesperia, E 16 (P 6349). P1.10. Lower part of Pergamene
XXV, 1956, p. 16, no. 68, pl. 3. Cf. Sparkes- bowl of the late 1st centuryB.C. Graffitoon
underside,perhapswrittenon the sherd. ConTalcott,no. 1192.
1st century B.C. (E 14:1).
text:
FPA
Third quarter IV cent. B.C.
k
Late I cent. B.C.
6p (aXlpat) AAAAA

F. OWNERS' MARKS
The large numberof what seem almost certainlyto be marksof ownershipinscribedon complete
vessels makes possible some useful statistics1of various sorts: changesin letter-shapesand spelling
throughoutthe rangefromearly7th centuryB.C. to the 6th centuryof our era; natureof identification,
rangingfrom simpleinitialof the nameto a completesentenceassertingownership(withconsideration
of the numberand kinds of abbreviations);locationof the markson varioustypes of vessels;andthe
natureof the writing,whethergraffitoor dipinto.
A more or less standardold Attic alphabet2(A or ABAASlIH?IK.MNOPPJTVO+or X) is used with
only a few exceptionsandvariantformsthroughthe secondquarterof the 5thcenturyB.C.: Ioniclambda
or gammaappearsonly in F 56, F 59 andF 74; variantsfor thetaincludethreedotted(F 12, F 13, F 26)
and one square(F 31); variantsfor rho includefive apparentlystemless(F 20, F 23, F 24, F 39, F 41) and
writerswere probably responsiblefor the one
four with tails (F43, F 61-63). "Foreign-educated"
the
two
of
a
examplesof psi-shapedchi (F 25, F 65), one combination
B-shapedepsilon(F 14),
example
of closed eta as a vowel with Ionic xi (F 53), and four cases (F 56, F 72 cursive,F 75, F 78) in which
omegais used. Othervariantsare most likelyto be due to the difficultyof incisingand lack of skill of
the writer: misformed phi's (F 43, F 50 with almost horizontal crossbar,F 66 square), square omicron
1 Although the numbermay be sufficientfor statistical purposes, it is still true that the extremebrevity of the texts and relative
rarity of some letters and forms decreasedthe value of the results.
2 Digamma is not used alphabeticallybut only numerically;no opportunityfor psi arisesin these texts; xi is indicatedby a combination of chi and sigma.

24

F. OWNERS' MARKS

(F 64), and curveddelta (F 50). Most interestingis the variationin sigmas;althoughthe four-barred
form is mostly the resultof sporadicforeigninfluence(F 16, F 44 with stemmedupsilon,F 56 with
omega and Ionic lambda,F 75 with omega,F 77 in a Cretanname),the role of the earliestexample
(F 1) is perhapsbest explainedas an alternateto the reversedsigmawhich seemsmost often to have
been used as a specialform markingthe end of the word (see above in introductionto Names on
Sherds,pp. 16-17).So herethe four-barredsigmaat theends of F 1 and thefive-barredsigmaat the end
of F 2 combinewith the reversedthree-barred
sigmasat the endsof F 12, F 13,F 18 andF 23 to suggesta
gropingfor a significantvariantfor this specialpurpose;the only otherreversedsigmadoes occurin
the middle of a name (F 6) and may indicateeitherindividualidiosyncracyor the still fluid state of
experimentation.
With the middleof the centurythe balanceshifts so that the rule is a more or less standardIonic
with a graduallydiminishingnumber of exceptions.
alphabet(ABFAEIHOIKAMNEOnlP(TY(DXYQ)3
Attic lambdaor gammaoccursin no singleexample;thereare threetailedrho's (F 81, F 84, F 105)and
one that is more likely influencedby the Latin form (F 219). The most persistentof the older lettershapesis the three-barredsigma(F 84, F 118, F 119, F 125) whichoccurseven with omegaand eta as
long vowels.Exceptfor triangularand otherodd phi's (F 126,F 151,F 152,F 161,F 211) and a unique
broken-barred
alphain F 157,thereis littlechangeafterthe 5th centuryB.C. untilthe gradualinfiltration
of cursiveformsbeginningin the late 4th-early3rdcenturiesB.C.:cursivezeta in F 178; lunatesigmain
F 182 and F 209; lunate epsilon in F 210; cursive omega in F 212, F 213.4From the end of the 3rd century

the non-cursiveforms(at least of certainletters)areexceptional:alphacontinuesuncial,showinga


brokenbar or otherodditiesin F 254, F 271,F 280,F 299, F 302, and is cursiveonly in F 292, F 295 and
B.C.

mostly thereafter,particularlyin dipinti; square epsilon occurs only in F 220, F 221, F 228, F 231, F 247,

F 249,F 277, F 333,F 334; pi continuesto be uncialfor the most part,with the developedcursiveform
only in F 318; the four-barredsigmaoccursonly in F 222 andF 225, but thereis an angularlunateform
in F 301 and a rectangularform in F 319; omega is uncial only in F 220 and F 231. Cursiveligatures also

in F 330. The Latinletters,whichoccuron F 228,


beginto occur:epsilon-iotain F 276, omicron-upsilon
F 251,F 277,F 283,F 288,F 298,F 313 andF 328, aretoo few to showanynotabledevelopment.
As mightbe expected,if we makeallowancefor the informalityof thesenotationsand the largeand
variednumberof theirwriterscomparedto the formalstoneinscriptionsandtheirfew inscribers(selected
in the earlyperiodis remarkably
presumablyfor theirskill),the changeanddevelopmentof letter-shapes
similar. For the later period such a comparison is not possible since stone-cuttingis much less conducive
to cursive forms even than scratchingin fired clay and a completely differentworld from that of dipinti.
Here a comparison may be made with texts written in ink on papyri; and again there is a remarkable
similarityin letter-shapesbetween pots and paper, without so great a differencebetween our casual owner-

scribesandthewritersof casuallettersandaccountsas betweenthe formerandprofessionalstone-cutters.


As far as spelling is concerned, the first point to be considered, because of its close association with
letter-shapesand the Ionic alphabet, is the use of eta as "h" and of both eta and omega as long vowels.
No eta appearsas "h" afterthe secondquarterof the 5th centuryB.C., and even beforethat time it is

omittedonce(F 54).Theearliestuse of eta as a vowelis late 6th centuryB.C. (F 15);in the firsthalf of the
5th centuryB.C. it appears sporadicallyand in texts which show other foreign influences(F 53, where it is
combined with an Ionic xi, F 55, where it is misused for epsilon or the diphthong). After the middle of the
centuryepsilonas eta is the exception(F 84, wherethe likelygenitivesingularin -es shouldnot be the

Attic form after a rho, F 116, wherethe initial vowel of Hegesanderis writtenas eta but the second
is not certain).Theoppositemistake,
vowelis writtenepsilon,andpossiblyF 123wherethe interpretation
for
which
reflect
eta
a
confused
and
effortto use the "new" vowel,
over-zealous
epsilon,
may
writing
8 Xi with or without the centeruprightoccurs indifferently;the tailed upsilon is not immediatelygeneraland can not always be
certainlydistinguishedin carelesswriting;
4 The hourglasssigma, if such it is, of F 183 must be foreign or idiosyncratic?

F. OWNERS' MARKS

25

occursin F 127. A comparableconfusionbetweenthe o-soundsis seenin F 160 wherean omegais used


for an omicron.Generally,in the earlierperiodomegaappearsfor the long vowel only in F 56, F 72,
F 78 and for eithershortor long in F 75. Afterthe middleof the 5th centuryB.C. the long vowelis consistentlywrittenas omegaexceptin F 85, F 132,F 145 andpossiblyF 123.Lessconsistencyis apparentin
the treatmentof the diphthongsepsilon-iotaand omicron-upsilon.Einmiis writtenwith epsilon-iota
except twice (F 63, F 65); in the latter case the confusionis confoundedby the writingof Aischeas'
epsilonas a diphthong,but this is probablya Boiotian hand. The use of simpleomicronfor omicronupsilon(ordinarilyin the masculinegenitivesingular)continuesfrom earliesttimes(F 3, F 5, F 9, F 58,
F 63-65, F 77, F 92, F 94, F 104, F 107, F 115, F 125, F 127, F 131, F 132, F 136, F 143, F 146) to well
beyondthe 5th centuryB.C. with only two exceptions(F 23, F 144); only from the late 4th centuryB.C.
does the diphthongomicron-upsiloncome to be generallywritten(F 177, F 180, F 198, F 201, F 203,
F 209, F 212, etc.).
Single letters standing for doubled consonants are standardin the early period (F 3, F 58, F 62, F 103)
and even occur sporadicallyin the 4th century B.C.(F 138, F 168) when the usual practice is to write both
consonants (F 124, F 131, F 146, F 198, F 201, F 205, F 214, F 217, etc.). The reverse situation, where a
single letter is doubled, occurs only in the case of sigma precedinga dental (F 26, F 77) and so may reflect
a felt differenceof pronunciationmore than uncertaintyor confusion. Another reflectionof pronunciation
and F 84 (itoCu< > ppEs).One
may be seen in the cases where letters are omitted: F 46 (MeAa<y>K6Oa)

insertionof an originallyomittedletter also exists:Gogias correctedto Gorgias(F 64). Metathesisof


for MrXTIXTI),
perhapsas a reflectionof pronunaspirationalmostcertainlyoccursonce (F 184 Mr1.9fKn
if
in F 11 (SaSi for TraTi)is an interwe
assume
the
substitution
of
theta
for
tau
and
ciation,
only
may
pretationof that owner'smarkpossible.
With regardto the way in whichthe lettersof the namesare arrangedwe shouldnote both how the
directionof writingis relatedto the chronologyandhowandwhenlettersarejoinedtogetherin ligatures
or monograms.The retrogradeinscriptions(F 1, F 4, F 5, F 18, F 35) continueinto the early5th century
B.C. and the only later example (second quarterof the 5thcentury B.C.)is also unique in every other way,
being writtenin the Cypriotesyllabary(F 67). No true boustrophedonarrangementappears,but the
crampedconditionsof a small circularbase sometimesproducea kind of false boustrophedon,as in
F 76, F 91. Ligaturesandmonogramsrepresenta morefrequentdeparturefromthe normallinearwriting
fromleft to right;moreover,theypersistsporadicallyfromthe 6th centuryB.C.to the 6th centuryof our
era. A ligature,for our presentpurposes,may be definedas the joining(often by a commonstrokeor
strokes)of two or moreletters,whethersideby sideor aboveandbelow,thusleavingthe termmonogram
for those cases in whichall the lettersof a name(abbreviatedor in full) are interlacedand combined.
The earliestcases are mostlymonogramsof three-letterabbreviations
(F 14,F 15, F 19, F 27, F 45, F 48,
F 52, F 69)or of two letters(F 73, F 89). Onlyone case survivesfromthis periodof a two-letterligature
as part of a whole name (F 46). Later examplesare more various:a probablyfour-lettermonogram
(F 129); four cases of two joined letters in a longer text (F 162, F 193, F 224, F 314) ;5 two monograms of
three-letterabbreviations(F 190, F 221); one monogram of a five-letter abbreviation (F 241) and one of
a complete name of seven letters (F 214).
Punctuation is rare in these short texts: two or three dots vertically arrangedoccur between words on
two early pieces (F 18, F 24); a long line marking off the end from the beginning of inscriptions that
circle around on themselves appears on two later examples (F 83, F 92).
Mention has already been made in passing of the non-Greek scripts which are included in this collection: one Greek name written in the Cypriote syllabary(F 67); and several Latin names written in Latin
letters (F 228, F 251, F 283, F 288, F 298, F 313, F 328) as well as one which is apparently given in both
Latin and Greek letters. Two other pieces seem to be non-Greek (F 99, F 100).
6 Not includedhere are the cursivejoints, as for example betweenthe letters of the diphthongsepsilon-iota(F 276) and omicronupsilon (F 330).

26

F. OWNERS' MARKS

The variouswaysin whichownersexpresstheirclaimmay be categorizedas follows,startingwiththe


shortestand simplestand workingup to the most elaborate:
Name abbreviated(rangingfrom 1 to 8 letters) 148
Name in nominativecase
51
72
Name in genitivecase
4
Name in dativecase
21
Moreelaboratestatementof ownership
46
Incompleteor obscure
3426

The abbreviationsare especiallyto be noted sincewe have from no othersourcesuch abundantevidencefor abbreviationsin the earlyperiod.Of the 152 abbreviationsoccurringon 148 pots (fourhave
morethanone abbreviation)the lengthsandchronologicalrangesareas follows:
Numberof
letters Number7 Dates

Late4th-early3rdcenturiesB.C.

From mid-5th into 4th century B.C.

13

From secondquarter5th centuryB.C.into Late Romanperiod

47

From 6th century B.C. into Late Roman period

3
2

70
13

Fromfourthquarter6th centuryB.C. to 5th-6thcenturies


Fromfourthquarter6th centuryB.C. to mid-3rdcentury

From early 5th century B.C.to 1st century B.C.

152
The comparative scarcity of one and-two-letter abbreviations results from our criteria of selection (see
Introduction, p. 1) and is not at all a reflection of the actual state of affairs.There are vast numbers of

is so wide they
pots or fragmentswith only one or two letters,but becausethe scopefor interpretation
can give us little or no information.Of the four one-letterabbreviationswhichare includedthreehave
not only the initialbut also the full name(F 163,F 185,F 245) and the other(F 40), althoughit has only
the initial,is one of a groupof pots all apparentlymarkedby the sameownerin variousways. Of the
one (F 39) belongsto this samegroup,another(F 213) was also foundin the
13two-letterabbreviations,
samecontextwith a completename,six occurtogetherin pairson threepots (F 89, F 112,F 228), one
(F 28) representsfive differentjars all markedin the sameway, one (F 73) is a uniquemonogram,one
(F 127) shows the full name as well as the abbreviation,and the last two (F 242,F 296) seemedsufficientlyunlikeany otherinscribedpots of the periodto be interesting.8
6 This total exceeds the number of catalogueditems by eight because so many both have abbreviationsand belong to another
category:F 91, F 127, F 152, F 163, F 180, F 185, F 245, F 323.
7 Eight letters: F 181
Six letters:F 80, F 145, F 167, F 308
Five letters:F 59, F 79, F 97, F 108, F 119, F 147, F 153, F 193, F 237, F 241, F 320, F 326, F 331
Four letters: F 20, F 49, F 51, F 54, F 66, F 68, F 71, F 81, F 88, F 90, F 91, F 95, F98, F 110, F 114, F 121, F 129, F 137, F 148,
F 151, F 152, F 162, F 163, F 166,F 180, F 186,F 189,
F 195, F 200, F 206, F 211, F 217, F 222, F 227, F 229, F 236, F 240, F 244, F 254,
F 255, F 261, F 271, F 278, F 299, F 317, F 327, F 334
Three letters: F 14, F 15, F 17, F 19, F 21, F 22, F 25, F 27, F 2931, F 33-37, F 41, F 42, F 45, F 47, F 48, F , F 53, F 57, F 60,
133, F 155,F 156, F 159, F 173-175, F 178, F 190,
F 61, F 69, F 70, F 74, F 87, F 102, F 105, F 106, F 109, F 111, F 120, F
F2
F 194, F 196, F 197, F 207, F 208, F 210, F 219, F 221, F 235, F 239, F 247, F 248, F 260 F 265,
,

F 293, F 294, F 303, F 314, F 323


Two letters:F 28, F 39, F 73, F 89 (2), F 112 (2), F 127, F 213, F 228 (2), F 242, F 296
One letter: F 40, F 163, F 185, F 245.

F277,F

F
281,

F 283,

8 Actually this two-letter abbreviation could as well refer to contents or give a date or other number and so serves as an example of

these abbreviations'elusiveness.

F. OWNERS' MARKS

27

With the 71 three-letterabbreviationswe are on somewhatfirmerground,sincethe majorityof them


could not be numbers and all can be more easily interpretedas names than as common nouns. This is

not to saythatmostof themcanbe identifiedwithone particularname,sinceit is obviousfromthemakeup of personalGreeknamesthat initialcombinationslike Eur-,Kri-,Men-,Nik-, and Phil- may easily
standfor a greatvarietyof names.How abbreviationsso potentiallyambiguousservedany purposeat
all is obviouslythe next question.The most likely answeris one whichsuggeststhat this collectionof
owners'marksmay have sociologicalas well as epigraphicand alphabeticimplications:the groupsin
whichabbreviationsof one, two, three,four and evenfive lettersmightbe usefulmustnecessarilyhave
beensmall,andwiththe tendencyfor the sameor similarnamesto be usedrepeatedlywithina particular
family,it is unlikelythat the groupsin questionwerefamilies.Clubssuggestthemselvesas a possibility,
with the membersmarkingtheirown vessels,whetherfor drinkingor pouring;anotherpossibilityis a
groupof customersof one smallshop who left vesselsto be filled.Perhapsothersuchgroupsmightbe
thoughtof, dependingon the kindof vesselsmarked.Thatthe make-upof the groupsometimesrequired
moreexplicitor longerabbreviationsis obviousfromthe varietyof lengthswhichwe actuallyfind,e.g.,
Ar (F 112), A (F
(( 21,

Aris

81), Arist (F
153),

risti (F
F 80). These pieces did not, obviously, belong to

one group,but the varietysuggeststhat therewas a tendencyto cut one's nameto fit the circumstances.
If, for instance, Aristogeiton was the founder of his club he might well have marked his drinkingcup Ar,
while subsequent joiners named Aristotle, Aristeides, Ariston and Aristippos would have arrogated to
themselves respectivelythe abbreviations Ari, Aris, Arist and Aristi.

The four-letterabbreviationsare not for the most part much more particularizing
than those with
but
the
of
those
made
of
five
or
more
letters
almost
certain
identification
with a
three,
majority
up
give
particularname.
As wasnotedabove,six of the abbreviatednamesareaccompaniedby whatmustbe the samenamesin
full: Dexio and De (F 127); Diphilou and Diphi (F 152); Menonos, Meno and M (F 163); Theon and Th
(F 185); Nikolaou and N (F 245); Eukarpos and Euk (F 323). This range of one, two, three and fourletter abbreviations alongside full names confirms us in our interpretation of the abbreviations as

owners'namesbut still leavesus puzzledas to why these six ownerssaw fit to identifytheirproperty
by both forms.
Whatever may be imagined as the intended grammaticalcase of the abbreviations,the variety among
the names that are complete allows considerable choice: nominative 40%; genitive 57 %; dative 3 %.9
Since the nominative may always be considered as the subject of an understood verb of owning with the
object inscribed as the understood object, and since both genitive and dative can express possession, the
usage may depend on individual preference. The choice of case seems not to have been dictated by

changingfashion,sinceit is apparentthat nominativeand genitive,at any rate, wereboth used pretty


consistentlyfrom the beginningto the end of our period.
A few of the owners'namesin the nominativeand genitiveare accompaniedby additionalidentification:the father'sname appearscertainin F 231, F 304 (also grandfather),F 316, and possiblyin
F 117 and F 118; tradename, title or epithet appearsin F 262, F 304 and F 316. Whethertwo names
apparentlyin the samecasesuggestjoint ownershipor somekindof relationshipperhapsvariesaccording
to the situation(F 150, F 165, F 180, F 332). More uncertainor incompleteare the additionsin F 103,
F 183,F 284,285.Most frequentis the presenceof one or two (or three)lettersapparentlyusedas numer9 Nominative:F 1, F 6-8, F 11, F 16, F 24, F 44, F 46, F 62, F 72, F 76, F 78, F 83, F 85, F 93, F 117,F 135,F 138,F 150, F 164,F 168,
F 170, F 176, F 183-185, F 187, F 188, F 204, F 214, F 224, F 225, F 231, F 238, F 250, F 252, F 257, F 274, F 282, F 285, F 287, F 290,
F 291, F 309-311, F 316, F 318, F 322, F 323, F 329.
Genitive: F 2, F 4, F 9, F 23, F 64, F 67, F 77, F 84, F 86, F 92, F 104, F 113, F 118, F 125, F 127, F 136, F 140-143, F 146, F 152,
F 157, F 158, F 163, F 165, F 179, F 180, F 182, F 198, F 201-203, F 212, F 216, F 223, F 230, F 233, F 234, F 243, F 245, F 246, F 251,
F 256, F 258, F 259, F 262-264, F 267-270, F 273, F 275, F 276, F 279, F 286, F 292, F 295, F 297, F 301, F 304, F 306-308, F 312,
F 321, F 325, F 330, F 332.
Dative: F 50, F 284, F 288, F 298.

28

F. OWNERS' MARKS

als: alpha(1) in F 87, F 170; gamma(3) in F 317; delta (4) in F 162,F 282; epsilon(5) in F 98; stigmazeta (6-7) i
04; kappa(2 in F 73; kappa-alpha(21) in F 297; nu (50) or pi-delta(50) or both in
F 130,F 206,F 252; andepsilon-iota-rho
(115)in F 315 andkappa-theta-tau
(329)in F 250. The numbers
need not all be used similarlyand could not be expectedto be so over so greata lapse of time and on
such differenttypes of vessels.It is possiblethat the smallernumbersmight referto qualityor age of
contents,that any of the numbersmightindicatethe particularvessel'splacein a series,or giveeithera
date or taahe
capacityon he basis of some era or unit taken for granted.Finally,one vessel(F 198) on
whichthe capacityis spelledout is cataloguedhere ratherthan underHa (Capacity)becausethe first
item in the inscriptionis the owner'sname.
In additionto a few unexplainedmarksthat are not evencertainlylettersor numberson severalpots,
the chi-rhosymbolor the
namesaccompaniedby
thereis one smallclassof someinterest,that is,either,
cross:F 322, F 323 (on whichthe additionaliota-epsilonmightbe eithera numberor the abbreviation
for "priest"or "sacred"),F 324.
The most frequentformulaamong the more elaboratestatementsof ownershipmakes the vessel
." This simpleform occurs 13 times (althoughsome
assert,"I am (the property)of
texts are incomplete and so may have included more): F 5, F 12, F 13, F 18, F 32, F 56, F58, F 63, F 65,
F 107, F 115, F 144, F 177. One variant adds a predicate (F 3); another uses the adverb dikaios (F 94,
F 131, F 132, F 139, F 154). F 103 may name itself as the property of Philippe; F 199 appears to record a

conversation:"(Thisis the property)of Agathonthe thief." "Cheapat a chalkous!"Two of these


inscriptionsalso haveadditionalinformation:F 65 maygivethe owner'sethnic;F 131 may add a prohibition to the assertionof ownership- "I am really(the property)of Andriskos;[let not] anyoneelse
[touch]."F 63 may indicatejoint ownership.
The 46 incompleteor obscuretexts can not profitablybe treatedas a group,since the uncertainties
involvedare so various.Most are nameslackingcase-endings(or more);10thereare a few wherethe
names themselves are uncertain, if indeed they are names;u and two texts are literally illegible because

they employnon-Greekletters(F 99, F 100).


Sincethe kind of vesselsand the locationof the inscriptionsthereonaremost often related,it will be
convenient to consider these two matters together. For our purposes the vessels do not need to (and
often can not because of theirfragmentarystate) be separatedinto many individual categories of shape. It
is sufficient (and often only possible) to distinguish open vessels (like cups, bowls, basins, plates) from
closed (like amphoras, pitchers,jugs). In addition there are lamps and lids and one disc-stand, as well as
three unexplained objects of clay.
The vast majority (73 %) of open vessels12are inscribed underneath,on the base; on 19% the inscription appears on the side wall; the locations of the other 8% are various, with only a few examples of
each: inside (often on floor), top of rim (of basins), top of foot or stem (kylix), handle. Two of the sidewall inscriptions are upside down to the vessel (F 6, F 25), and one runs vertically (F 203). For the great
number of inscriptions underneaththe orientation is obviously a matter of indifference.
10F 10, F 26, F
F,1
38, F 43, F 55, F 75, F 10, F 116 F

F
F 134, F 149,F 160, F 161,F 169,F 172, F 205, F 215, F 218,
1230,
F
128,
F 220, F 226, F 232, F249, F253, F266 F 289, F 300, F 302, F 305,F 315, F 319, F 324, F 328, F 333.
" F 82, F 91, F 96, F 122, F 123, F 171, F 191, F 192, F 209.

12 Thereare 183
examples,of which threeare inscribedin two places,so the percentagesare basedon 186inscriptions.Underbase:
F
8, F50, F 51, F 53, F 54,
10O, F 11, F14,F15,F17,F18,F21-23,F26,F27,F30,F31,F33,F34,F36,F37,F39,F41,F43,,
F 56, F 59, F 62-64, F 66, F 67, F 69, F 74-77, F 79, F 80, F 82-86 (also foot-top of F 86), F 87, F 89, F 90, F 91 (also inside), F 92,
F 94-96, F 98, F 104, F 105, F107, F108, F 110, F112, F 117, F 119, F 120, F 122, F 123, F 125, F 126, F 128, F 133-135, F 137,
F 159162 F 164 F 167, F 168, F
F 173 F 174 F 176, F179
F 139, F 40, F 143-14716
F 149-151, F 15170,
180, F 182, F 184,
F 186-195, F 200, F 206 (also outside wall), F 208, F 210, F 213, F 215, F 221, F 222, F 226, F 227, F 229, F 230 (also inside), F 234F 236, F 237, F 24, FF245 (also inside), F 246-249, F 254-256, F 264, F 265, F 301, F 302, F 334. Outside wall: F 1-6, F 25, F 32,
F 169, F 172 F 181, F 201,2F326
F 45, F 46, F 57 F 68, F 78, F 99-101, F 109, F 115, F 118, F 124 F 154,
(F206 also underneath),F 207, F 209, F 223, F 225, F 231 (also inside), F 232, F 330. Inside:F 70, F 91 (also underneath),F 116, F 138,F 1, F 156,
F 220, F 230 (also underneath),F 231 (also outside), F 245 (also underneath).Stem or top of foot: F 24, F86 (also underneath),
F 158. Tip of rim: F 88, F 106, F 132. Handle: F 219.

F. OWNERS' MARKS

29

Inscriptionson closed vessels13occur most often on the shoulderor side (67%) or neck to mouth
(17%), less often underneath,on the base (9+ %), and on the handle (6+ %). Only one inscription
(F 97) is upsidedown to the vessel,but three(F 9, F 65, F 298) run vertically.Handleinscriptionsseem
to readindifferentlyup or down.
If thereis anychronologicalconclusionto be drawnfromthesefigures,it is onlythe sameone thatmay
be derivedfrom a generalsurveyof the potteryof the Agora: that there are more examplesof open
shapesin the Greekperiodthan in the Romanperiod.
The inscribedlamps number15; four are inscribedon the nozzle (F 113, F 152, F 178, F 185); four
underneath,on the base(F 42, F 93, F 197,F 214);threeon top or aroundthe rim(F 103,F 183,F 212);
threeon the side-wall(F 129,F 177,F 211); oneis inscribedon top, on the nozzleandon one side(F 163).
All lids (F 49, F 58, F 121,F 157,F 216) and one disc-stand(F 8) are inscribedon the top surface.The
miscellaneousclay objects(F 165,F 166,F 240) are inscribedon any convenientsurface.
Becausethere are more fine waresinscribedin the Greekperiodand more coarse ones in Roman
times,graffitipreponderategreatlyin the centuriesbeforeChristand are not even quitematchedin frequencyby dipintiin our era. Thatis, glazedwarecan be most visiblymarkedby scratchingthroughthe
glaze;unglazedwarenot only lendsitselfmoreto paintbut makespaintmorevisible.Theseproportions
applyonly to this category,sinceit is obviousthatthe graffitois a morehome-mademethodof marking
and that variouscommercialnotationswill have been made14less laboriouslyand moreprofessionally
with a brush.Of our 334 owners'marks289 (86%) are graffitiand only 45 (14%) are dipinti.l5Six
of the graffitiwere incisedin the clay while it was still soft (F 216, F 259, F 261,F 288,F 306,F 318).
One dipintoowner'smark(F 252) was supplemented
with a graffitonumber.
We come finallyto the namesthemselvesand a considerationof the prosopographical
value,if any,
of these inscriptions.Actual identificationof individualownerswith knownpersonsis not, exceptin
very specialcircumstances,possible;nor would it be usefulto know, for example,that a man whose
only "claimto fame" was servicein the Boule in a particularyear had scratchedhis name on a pot.
Onlywherethereis moreinformationthanthe name,or wherethe nameis veryrareindeedmay identificationbe possible.For the restourchiefconcernwillbe the nameratherthanthe person,thatis, whether it is known(1) fromAthens,or (2) elsewhere,either(3) roughlycontemporaneously
with its appearance on the pot, or (4) some othertime. Sincemost of the completenamesbelongto the firstcategory
(known at Athens) and also to the third (roughlycontemporary)it will save space in the catalogue
descriptionsif this is assumedto be the case unlessthe contraryis noted.Thatis, a nameis noticedonly
if a roughlycontemporaryAthenianis not knownfromProsop.Att., I. G., or S. E. G. For the abbreviated names,it will be most often sufficientto indicateexamplesof possibleAtheniannamesin the few
caseswherethesearenot obvious;onlywherenonesuchexistwillfurtherdiscussionbe required.
Of the completeGreeknames(and the sufficientlycompleteabbreviations)only 19 are not attested
anywhereat all as names:two of these (F 150, F 325) are known in somewhatdifferentforms; eight
(F 11, F 84, F 93, F 104, F 169, F 230, F 301, F 330) are knownas commonnouns and seem hereto be
usedas nicknamesor titles;only nine(F 1, F 4, F 76, F 155,F 171,F 178,F 271,F 273,F 276)arewithout
parallel.A fairnumberof namesareattestednot for Athensbut elsewhere;16
a few areattestedat Athens
18 There are 127 examples.Shoulderor side: F 7, F 9, F 12, F 13, F 16, F 19, F 29, F 52, F 55, F 60, F 61, F 65, F 97, F 127, F 130,
F 131 (also handle), F 171, F 196, F 198, F 217, F 224, F 233, F 235, F 241, F 243, F 244, F 251-253, F 257, F 258, F 260-262, F 266279, F 282-285, F 287-289, F 291-296, F 298-300, F 303-309, F 311-313, F 315-319, F 321-323, F 325-327, F 331. Neck to mouth:
F 28, F , FF 38, F 142, F 218, F 228, F 239, F 250, F 263, F 280, F 281, F 286, F 290, F 297, F 310, F 314, F 320, F 324, F 328, F 329,
F 332, F 333. Under base: F 40, F 44, F 47, F 71-73, F 81, F 136,F 155, F 175, F 202, F 259. Handle:F 20, F 102, F 111, F 114,F 131
(also side), F 148, F 199, F 238.
14 Just as the somewhatdifferentcommercialnotations of the Greek
period were made by stampsimpressedin the soft clay, as on
amphorahandles.
15 For brevity'ssake only the dipinti numbersare herelisted: F 198, F 211, F 217, F 218, F 228, F 233, F 235, F 241, F 250, F 252,
F 257, F 258, F 263, F 266, F 267, F 276, F 277, F 280-282, F 284-287, F 290, F 292-298, F 304, F 305, F 308, F 310-312, F 316, F 317,
F 322, F 324, F 328, F 331, F 332.
16F 12, F 13, F 24, F 43, F 46, F 67, F 88, F 108, F 117, F 118, F 123, F 166, F 176, F 184, F 206, F 224, F 239, F 240, F 284, 285,
F 297, F 306, F 310, F 326.

30

F. OWNERS' MARKS

for a differentperiodfromthe one hererepresented


(F 10,F 49, F 87,F 235,F 262).Therearealso several
ethnics(F 44,F 62,F 63,F 77,F 170,F 203,F 257),someof whichhavenot previouslyappearedin Attica;
some of thesemay be slavenames.17
As far as sex is concerned,the predominanceof the male, whetherin termsof possessionor in the
expressionthereof(literacy),is clear:127namesareprettyclearlymasculine;only 19 arefairlycertainly
areobviouslyuncertain.
feminine,withan additionalsix thatcouldbe eithersex;18mostabbreviations
PRIVATEOWNERSHIP(F)
F 1 (P 10151). Pl. 11. Fragmentaryone-handled
cupwithplainrim,concavesidesandflatbottom
(= Brann, no. 194). Dull streakyblack glaze
inside and out; bottom reserved.Graffitoon
the side. Context: first half 7th century B.C.
(T 19:3).

F6 (P 17380). P1.11. Skyphos with offset lip,


reservedhandlezone and small spreadingfoot.
Graffitoon lowerpart of body, upsidedown to
pot. Context: second half 7th century B.C.
(M 11:3). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, p. 366, H25,
pls. 78, 89.
Second half VII cent. B.C.

O6oov

F 7 (P 14691).PI. 11. Upper part of amphoraof


(retrograde) 7th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on shoulder.
Context:firstquarter6th centuryB.C.(S 21:2).
PerhapsElatichos(not known),but possibly
Cf. Brann,p. 33.
third declension genitive rather than second
Late VII cent. B.C.
declensionnominative.If the chi is writtenfor
ATrp]616Tr[o]
more
numerous.
become
the
kappa, possibilities
F 8 (P989). PI. 11. Black-glazed disc stand.
Graffitoon upper surface. Context: first half
F2 (P26420). PI. 11. One-handled cup with
6th centuryB.C. (116:4). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
on
Graffito
flat
bottom.
and
upper
flaringlip
wall. Context:second quarter7th centuryB.C. no. 1323.
(R 17:5). Hesperia,XXX, 1961, p. 377, S 17,
(Oav*Ae
Firsthalf VI cent. B.C.
pl. 87.
F 9 (P 195).P1.11. Fragmentfrom upperbody of
Second quarter VII cent. B.C.
Ot(Iovos
black-figuredolpe or small amphora, of the
first half 6th century B.C. On reservedpanel
F 3 (P 4663). P1.11. Skyphoswith offset lip and
outlinedby a single glazed line, the tail of an
low ring foot. Graffitoon the side, just below
level of handle. Context: 7th-6th centuries animal. Graffito beside panel vertical with
B.C.(F-G 12:1). Hesperia,Suppl. II, pp. 124respectto the pot.
125,figs. 89, 90. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
p. 7.
First half VI cent. B.C.
Av]cainlo
First quarter VII cent. B.C.
]X.
&nXOS

Mid-VII cent. B.C.

Eapio sljil -roTfplov

The restorationis one of severalpossibilities,


probablythe most likely for 6th-centuryB.C.
F 4 (P 22709).P1.11. One-handledcup with offset
Athens.
lip (= Brann,no. 184).Graffitoon upperwall.
Context:thirdquarter7thcenturyB.C.(0 12:1). F 10 (P 2029). P1.11. Fragmentfrom base of
Third quarter VII cent. B.C.
open bowl, glazedinsideand out, exceptunder
foot.
Graffitoon bottom. Context:6th century
'ATxoraTas
(retrograde)
B.C.
The name is not known;compareTataieon
First half VI cent. B.C.
a lekythosfrom Cumaein the BritishMuseum
EOTr[
no.
3, pl. 47).
(Jeffery,L.S.A.G.,p. 240,
No such name is attested till the Roman
period.
F 5 (P 23452).Pl. 11. Fragmentfromwall of cup.
Graffito on outside. Context: third quarter F 11 (P 24727). P1.11. Fragmentfrom base of
7th centuryB.C. (R 8:2). Hesperia,XXX, 1961,
skyphos,of a type commonin second quarter
p. 353, G 33, pls. 81, 89.
6th century B.C., with red band above foot.
Graffito on bottom. Context: fourth quarter
Third quarter VII cent. B.C.
(retrograde) 6th century B.C.(R 12:3).
]MAoE[IPt
17Strabo VII, 304 I
tj

&Aov TOS-r
otK'ra,
cs AvS6v Katl2Opov, q TOTS
v y&p Ko4?iLro, tl 'oTs BVEatv KEivois6pOvitovs
ous
bmrroA&Louvav
thi 6v61saoi rpocry6pvov, &S M6vnv A^Ti6av T6v Oprya, Tiplov 8 Trv naorXay6va.
Crtainy fem ne: F 4, F 8, F 11, F 24, F 79, F 84, F 103, F 117, F 158, F 165, F 176, F 184, 230, F 257, F 255, F 306, F 311,
F 322, F329. Eithersex: F46, F 113, F 182, F 183, F 188, F224.

31

F. OWNERS' MARKS

Second quarter VI cent. B.C. Oa0{ i.e. TaTf? F 19 (P 24882). P1.11. Glaze-bandedamphora

Perhapsthe "mistress'cup", inscribedby a


servant of the house. An abbreviationis less
likely, since names beginningthus are much
later.

of 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffitoon shoulder.


Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Q 12:3). Cf. Sparkes-

Talcott,no. 1502.
VI cent. B.C.
ZUI ( )
(monogram)
ThemostlikelyAtheniannameis Symmachos.

F 12 (P 17825). P1.11. Small black-glazedolpe


with high-swunghandle and large spreading F20 (P 25922). P1.11. Handle from unglazed
foot (=Sparkes-Talcott,no. 251). Graffitoon
amphora.Graffitoon outsideof handle,written
side. Context: mid-6th century B.C. (J 18:4).
from bottom up. Context:6th centuryB.C.
Mid-VI cent. B.C.
Oaluv?o5?ei.i
VI cent. B.C.
'Aypu( )
Name attested for Carian from Ialysos
A demotic('AypvXAss)
or a name(unattested)
(Ath., VI, 262).
derivedfrom &ypuTrv4co?
F 13 (P 17826). P1.11. Unglazed oinochoe with
trefoil mouth. Graffito on side. Context: F 21 (P 16585). P. 11. Black-glazedkylix base.
mid-6th century B.C. (J 18:4). Cf. Sparkes- Graffito on underside.Context: 6th-5th centuries B.C.
Talcott,no. 1637.
Early V cent. B.C.
'Aya( )
Mid-VIcent. B.C.
eOavEos Eil.i
F 14 (P 8813). P1.12. Black-glazedstemmeddish F22 (P 16869). PI. 11. Black-glazedkylix foot.
Graffito on underside.Context: 6th-5th cenno. 966).Graffitoon under(= Sparkes-Talcott,
turies
B.C.
side. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C.(E
14:5).
Ca. 525 B.C. (a) At ( ) (monogram)

Early V cent. B.C.

'Eop( )

(b) N
(fragmentary
letter) F23 (P2610). P1.11. Base of small skyphos.
Since At3( ) gives no reasonable Greek
Graffitoon underside.Context:early 5th cenname, we assume the alphabetto be a nontury B.C. (G 6:3). Hesperia, XV, 1946, p. 277,
Attic one in which t equals E or H, such as
no. 19.
Megarianor Corinthian.
EarlyV cent. B.C.
21iKpivov
F 15 (P 8826). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix. Graffito
Too earlyfor Sophocles'contemporary
(Ath.,
on underside of foot. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C.
XIII, 592b)?
(E 14:5).
F24
P1.11. Black-glazedkylix stem,
Late VI cent. B.C.
Kpr( )
(monogram) with(P2759). raised
slightly
ring at lower end, marked
F 16 (P 1206).PI. 11.Shoulderfragmentfromlarge
off above and belowby an incisedline. Graffito
non-Atticamphora.Light buff clay, micaceous carefully spaced around stem on this band,
and hardbaked,with red bandat base of neck,
with punctuationbetweenlast and first letters.
turningdownwardat its right end. Graffitoon
Context: early 5th century B.C. (G 6:3). Hesshoulder. Context: late 6th centuryB.C.(G 15: 1).
peria,XV, 1946,p. 277, no. 18.
Late VI cent. B.C.
'Apaiorov
Early V cent. B.C.
i
Xapia[v]0e

F 17 (P 5206). P1.11. Base of kylix with short


The nearest attested name is from Thasos:
thick stem; raised ring with added red; of
Xa]piav0EOrs
(.G. XII, 8, 285, 6).
late 6th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on inner
F 25 (P 4232). P1.12. Lower body of skyphos.
face of foot.
Graffitooutside,upsidedown to pot. Context:
Late VI cent. B.C.
BM( )
late 6th to early5th centuriesB.C.
F 18 (P 9055). P1.11. Base fragment of blackEarly V cent. B.C. Xoi( ) e.g., Xot(pf?ou)
glazed bowl with torus ring foot. Graffitoon
Note the use of the non-Atticchi.
underside.
F 26 (P 4666). P1.12. Fragmentfrom bottom of
Late VI cent. B.C. ]oros: E[I1t
(retrograde) black-glazed
cup kotyle of late 6th- to early
Thereare not many nameswith genitivesin
5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon underside.
-coroS;amongthem are TTrlaSpcos,
an Athenian
Early V cent. B.C.
'A]lKi(c<a>)[voS
vase-painter of mid-6th century B.C. (Hesperia,
IX, 1940, pp. 225-226), and 'Apapcbs(Prosop. F 27 (P 6173).P1.12.
Kylixfoot, reservedbeneath.
Att., no. 1575).
Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th

32

F. OWNERS' MARKS

century B.C. (E 15:6). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott, F 34 (P 20788).Foot of black-glazedkylix.Graffito


no. 439.
on underside.
Early V cent. B.C.

Early V cent. B.C.

Opa(

lau( ) rTa ( )
(two monograms)
F 35 (P 20790). Fragmentfrom mouth of pelike.
On another base (Agora inv. no. P6633)
Graffitoon outside.
from the same well is a fragmentarygraffito
Early V cent. B.C.
(retrograde)
Opa( )
whichmay be read lI]au ( ).
F 28 (P 24668,P 24911,P 24912,P 24922,P 24923). F 36 (P 20761). Small black-glazedstemmeddish
no. 986).Graffitoon under(= Sparkes-Talcott,
P1.11. Five unglazedkadoi; P 24668=Sparkesside of foot.
Talcott,no. 1601.On neck of each, a graffitoof
two letters,presumablythe abbreviationof the
Early V cent. B.C.
epa(
)
owner's name. Context: ca. 520-480 B.C.(R 12:4).
F 37 (P 20768).Black-glazedsaltcellar.Graffitoon
Early V cent. B.C.
Au( )
underside.
Opa( )
F29 (P 24917). P1.11. Fragmentaryunglazed Early V cent. B.C.
amphora. Graffito on shoulder. Context: ca. F 38 (P 20785). Black-glazedpelike. Graffitoon
520-480 B.C. (R 12:4).
neck,brokenat right.
Early V cent. B.C.

KAE( )

Early V cent. B.C.

[pa (

F 30 (P 13462). P1.12. Black-glazedsaltcellar. F39 (P 20789). Foot of black-glazed kylix.


Graffitoon underside.Context:early 5th cenGraffitoon underside.
tury B.C.(N-P 20:1).
Early V cent. B.C.

Early V cent. B.C.

ep( )

Tnau( )

F 40 (P 20791). Fragmentfrom foot of blackglazedpelike.Graffitoon underside.


F 31 (P 14950). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix foot.
0 ( )
Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th
Early V cent. B.C.
19:
B.C.
century
(F
5).
F 41 (P 20792).PI. 12. Foot of black-glazedkylix.
V
cent.
B.C.
Tie( )
Early
Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th
B.C.

century
(R 12:1).
F 32-40. P1.12. In a well of the late 6th-early
Early V cent. B.C.
Aep( )
5th centuryB.C. (R 12:1) were found no fewer
invases
than eight
and fragments(F 33-40)
The rho, though misshapen,resemblessome
scribedwith the letters theta-rho-alpha,thetaof the rho's on the "Thra"vases which come
from the samewell.
rho, or theta. In a dumpedfilling of the same
period a short distanceto the south (Q 13:2) F 42
(L 1096). PI. 12. Lamp (= Howland, p. 33,
was found the neck of a vase (F32) which
no.
103). Graffitoon underside.Context:early
appearsto have been inscribedwith the same
5th
century B.C.(H 5-6:1).
name written out in full, but unfortunately
now incomplete.The owner of the house or
Xaa( )
Early V cent. B.C.
to
his
was
evidentlygiven marking prop- F 43
shop
(P8). P1.12. Fragment of black-glazed
erty.
saltcellarof early5th-centuryB.c. type. Graffito
on underside.
F 32 (P 11392).Fragmentfrom wall of deep cup
on
on
the
Graffito
with reservedband
outside.
Early V cent. B.c.
E]OepovUI[o
outside.
The name Euthronis known from the Dalmatiancoast (Pape,s.v.), but perhapshere too
Opa[
Early V cent. B.C.
the theta standsfor phi; cf. D 15.
?t]mt
Since the second line appearsto read etli, F 44 (P 137). P1.12. Base of lekythos of early
we assumethat the name is writtenout in full
5th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on underside.
genitiveformin the firstline.
Early V cent. B.C.

F 33 (P 20757). Black-glazed kylix (= Sparkes-

Talcott,no. 404). Graffitoon undersideof foot.


Early V cent. B.C.

Opa (

Tupcrav6o

The name, attestedonly as an ethnic adjective, as wellas the non-Atticletterforms(alpha,


sigma, upsilon),seems to indicatea foreigner.

33

F. OWNERS' MARKS
F 45 (P 5012). PI. 12. Wall fragmentfrom blackglazed cup. Graffito on outside. Context:

Early V cent. B.C.

'EQ1( )
Note combinationof Ionic xi and closed eta
early 5th century B.C.
used as a vowel. Presumablythe writer was
not an Athenian.
KeS
V
cent.
B.C.
( )
(monogram)
Early
names beginning AEK- F 54 (P 24274). PI. 12. Black-glazedkylix base.
Perhaps KArl(covos);
do not seemto be so early.
Graffitoon underside.
F 46 (P 5009). PI. 12. Fragmentfrom lower part
Early V cent. B.C.
'Epa ( )
and bottomof red-figured
All names derived from Hephaistos have
mug. Graffitoon the
side, partly on the glaze, partly on the figured rough breathing;no other names begin thus.
scene. Context: early 5th centuryB.C.Beazley,
Thewriterwasthereforepsilotic,but not Ionian.
A.R.V.,p. 152.
F 55 (P 24735).P1.12. Shoulderfragmentof redEarly V cent. B.C.
MXa<y>K6Cia
figured oinochoe. Graffito on outside below
at
of
and
mu
Ligature
epsilon
beginning. bandof leaf pattern.
of
the
the
masculine
name,
Probably
genitive
Early V cent. B.C. OrIoyi[Tovos]or Orloi[Trou]
which has been reported outside of Attica
Note combinationof crossbarredtheta with
(Pape,s.v.; Bechtel,p. 303).
eta for eitherepsilon-iotaor epsilonalone.
F 47 (P 26180). P1.12. Part of spreadingfoot of
F56 (P 17677). P1.13. Fragmentary skyphos
black-glazedoinochoe. Graffitoon inner face
(= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 339). Graffitoon botof foot. Context:early 5th centuryB.C.
tom. Context: first and second quarters 5th
AEV( )
Early V cent. B.C.
century B.C.(A 18-19:1).
F 48 (P 26179). P1.12. Fragmentof black-glazed Early V cent. B.C.
Eiit
MiAcovos
foot.
on
underside.
Context:
Graffito
kylix
Since only one Milon is known in Athens
early 5th century B.C.
beforethe 4th centuryB.C., this ownermay well
be the grown-upversionof that darlingwhose
Early V cent. B.C.
'Aya ( )
(monogram)
was noted on a late cup of Oltosa genebeauty
F 49 (P 26192). P1.12. Lid of small black-glazed rationearlier
(Naples,no. 2617).
pyxis. Graffitoon top. Context: late 6th-early
F 57 (P 15224). P1.13. Black-glazedone-handler
5th centuriesB.C.
(= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 745). Graffito on lip
V
cent.
B.C.
Early
'Op-rv( )
betweenattachmentsof handle. Context:490Ortygion is attested in Eretria in the late
450 B.c.
4th century B.C.; Ortyx is known from Athens

in the Late Romanperiod(I.G.,III, 1163).

(F 19:4).
cent.
V
B.C.
Early

hecr( )

SeeF 68.
F 50 (P 20089). P1.12. Black-glazedbase, probably from column krater. Graffito on inner F 58 (P 5453). P1.14. Black-glazedpyxis lid with
face of foot. Context:early5th centuryB.C.Cf.
reserved, pierced knob (= Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 44). Graffitoaround outer edge of top.
no. 54.
Sparkes-Talcott,
Early V cent. B.C.

$tDioSplOt

Context: 470-425 B.C. (E 13:1).


E1ti
'ATroXoSopo
Early V cent. B.C.

Presumablya dativeof possession.


F 51 (P 20422). P1.12. Black-glazedkylix foot. F 59 (P 5137).PI.13. Black-glazedstemlesskylix.
Graffitoon undersideof base. Context:second
Graffito on underside. Context: early 5th
quarter 5th century B.C. (H 6:5). Hesperia, V,
century B.C.(C 18:11).
no. 456.
1936,pp. 339, 352. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
Early V cent. B.C.

iXo (

Second quarter V cent. B.C.

'OqAp (

F 52 (P 24126). PI. 12. Large unglazedamphora, F 60


(P 5174).PI. 13. Unglazedamphora.Graffito
of apparently non-Attic clay. Graffito on
on shoulder. Context: second quarter 5th
shoulder. Context: ca. 520-490 B.C. (Q 12:3).
century B.C. (H 6:5). Hesperia,V, 1936, pp. 345,
V
cent.
B.C.
352.
Early
'A-w( ) or
ArT( )
(monogram) Second quarter V cent. B.C.
'Aua ( )
F 53 (P 7058). P1.12. Half of black-glazedkylix
Names beginningwith these letters seem to
foot of type commonin early 5th centuryB.C.
be either heroic or later than the 5th century
Graffitoon underside.
B.C., e.g., Amadokos, Amarantos.

34

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 61 (P 5175).P1.13. Unglazedamphora.Graffito F 67 (P 17463).P1.13. Fragmentof black-glazed


on shoulder. Context: second quarter 5th
kylix foot of second quarter 5th-centuryB.C.
century B.C.(H 6:5). Hesperia,V, 1936, pp. 345,
type. Graffitoon underside.
352.
Second quarterV cent. B.C.
Second quarter V cent. B.c.
Xap( )
ku-po-ro-ta-mo,i.e., Kurrpobgaio
(signsof Cypriotesyllabary,retrograde)
F 62 (P 5168).P1.13. Fragmentary
base of lekane.
Graffitoon underside.Context:second quarter F 68 (P 15990).P1.13. Black-glazedskyphoswith
5th century B.C. (H 6:5).
one vertical and one horizontal handle (=
no. 361).Graffition lip between
Second quarterV cent. B.C.
Sparkes-Talcott,
Tpip3.aos
of
attachments
horizontal handle (a) and
A Thracianslave's name?It appearslater in
between
of vertical handle (b).
attachments
inscriptions (I.G., II2, 4199, 959c). A long stroke
Context:
ca.
B.C.
490-450
(F 19:4).
(betweentau and rho on one side and between
omicron and sigma on the other) divides the
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
(a) HE
base in half.
(b) ZT
The two graffitiare apparentlyto be taken
F 63 (P 7140). P1.13. Fragmentof skyphosfoot
of secondquarter5th-century
B.C. type,approxtogetherand read as h-cr( ). Cf. F 57 from
imately like Agora inv. no. P 5145 (Hesperia, the same well. The man's name will have been
V, 1936,pp. 340f., fig.8). Graffitoon underside. Hestiaiosor the like.
SecondquarterV cent. B.C.
ix[i{] F 69 (P 16024). P1.13. Small black-glazedbowl.
[A]rrmpo
]Ias E[pt]
Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 490-450
B.C.
(F 19:4). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 855.
Onlyone Athenianso namedis knownto us:
the fatherof a man who died beforethe middle
Second quarter V cent B.C.
of the 4th century B.C. (I.G., IP, 12136/7). Do
Inap( )
(monogram)
the two names(?)indicatejoint ownership?
F 70 (P 27690).P1.13.Miniatureone-handled
bowl.
F64 (P 10805). P1.13. Kylix foot of second
Graffito on inside. Context: second quarter
quarter 5th-centuryB.C. type, approximately 5th century B.C. (P 14:3).
like Agora inv. no. P 5116 (Hesperia,V, 1936,
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
ZKI( )
pp. 336f., fig. 4). Graffitoon underside.Context: late 6th-early5th centuryB.C.
Names beginningwith these three lettersare
rare enough for us to imaginethat this might
Second quarterV cent. B.C.
Fopyio
have been a childhoodpossessionof Skironides,
The rho was apparently omitted at first
the general of 412 B.C.
writingand insertedafterwards.
F 65 (P 15347, P 15348). P1.13. Unglazed am- F 71 (P 27692). P1.13. Base fragmentof banded
oinochoe. Graffito on underside. Context:
phoraof non-Atticfabric.Graffition body: (a)
secondquarter5th centuryB.C.(P 14:3).
underone handle,verticallywith respectto the
Second quarterV cent. B.C.
Tllo ( )
pot; (b) and (c) on shoulder. Context: ca.
490-450 B.C. (F 19:4).
F72 (P 15867). P1.13. Lekythos base in two
Second quarter V cent. B.C.

(a) Aitosio Eii

(b) BOI nE
(c) B
Note the non-Atticchi; if it is Boiotian, we

should perhaps read Boi (cbTov) as a reference

to the vessel or its contents and take HEas a


numberindicatingcapacity,e.g., Tr(vTrE)E(taiO).
F 66 (P 15218).P1.13. Kylix foot similarto F 64.
Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 490-450

degrees, as in Haspels, Athenian Black-Figured

Lekythoi,Paris, 1936, p. 48, 3-5. Graffitoon


underside.Context:mid-5thcenturyB.C.(C 9:6).
Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 142, fig.70, a; 71, 38.
Second quarterV cent. B.C.

MiKIov

Note the use of omega, which makes it


temptingto suppose that the writer was the
Mikion who was praisedby Lysitheos(I.G., I2,
924) and that he learnedhis letters from his
B.C. (F 19:4).
admirer.Thatis, Lysitheosspellswithan omega
retainsepsilonfor long e.
but
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
KEqt( )
Presumably Kriclnos (e.g., Prosop. Att., F 73 (P 15868).P1.13. Bottom of small olpe with
no. 8286)or some one of the severalcompound disc foot of second quarter 5th-centuryB.C.
namesbeginningKephiso-.
type. Graffitoon underside.Context:mid-5th

F. OWNERS'MARKS
century B.C.(C 9:6). Hesperia, Suppl. V, p. 143,

fig. 71, 37.

35

B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no.

135.
Mid-Vcent. B.C.

iKuva( )
Ke( )
(monogram)
an ethnic known from
Probably imKca(tva),
exists in 5thelsewhere
Ke
Sincethe namemaybe either ( ) or Kl ( ),
(Pape, s.v.); mOerhs
B.C.
Athens.
the possibilitiesare too numerousto be usecentury
fully suggested.
F 80 (P 21374).P1.13. Base of black-glazedbowl.
Graffitoon underside.Context:ca. 460-440B.C.
F 74 (P 15707). P1.13. Black-glazed skyphos.
Graffitounder foot. Context: 5th centuryB.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia,XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no. 132.
no. 359.
Mid-Vcent. B.C.
(G 18:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
'Apori( )
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
KAe( )
After the iota a sort of dot has been incised,
perhapsthe startof the next letter.
F 75 (P 10466). P1.13. Base fragmentof blackglazed kylix of type common in the second F 81 (P 21400). P1.13. Base of semi-glazedoinoquarter5th centuryB.C. Graffitoon underside. choe. Graffito on underside. Context: ca.
460-440 B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
NIKCCa[
pl. 38, no. 133. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 152.
The name might be a feminineNK<'caa
with
Mid-V cent. B.C.
'Aplti(T )
omega used correctly, but some masculine
Note combinationof tailed rho and fourname with omicron (e.g., Nikosthenes,Nikobarred sigma. Presumablythe same name as
stratos)is perhapsmorelikely.
F 80, fromthe samewell.
F 76 (P 18337). P1.13. Base of a one-handler.
Graffitoon underside.Context: first half 5th F 82 (P 21373). P1.13. Fragment of base of
lekane. Graffito on underside. Context: ca.
century B.C. (C 18:4).
Second quarter V cent. B.C.

Second quarter V cent. B.C.

Kspiov

460-440 B.C. (N7:3).

pl. 38, no. 136.

Hesperia, XXII, 1953,

Note changein directionof writing.Namenot


IN
Mid-V cent. B.C.
]ovroS
known. Although the sherd might have been
convenientas a kleros (lot), the diminutiveis F83 (P 21404). P1. 13. Base and lowerwall of
not attestedin this sense.
black-glazedskyphos. Graffito on underside.
F 77 (P 21290). P1.14. Black-glazedskyphos of
Attic type. Graffito on underside. Context:
460-440 B.C. (N 7:3). Hesperia, XXII, 1953,

no. 342.
pl. 38, no. 134. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
SecondquarterV cent. B.C.
O(Dacc<'>Tio
Note doubled sigma (four-barred)and early
form of alpha. This name in the form of an
ethnicadjectivehas not previouslybeen reported from Attica.

Context: ca. 460-440 B.C. (N7:3).

Hesperia,

XXII, 1953, pl. 38, no. 137. Cf. SparkesTalcott,no. 343.


Mid-V cent. B.C.

Kotvai

If the word is complete, it must be nominativefemininepluraland referperhapsto a set


of cups which were common property.A long
line separatesthe end of the word from the
beginning.

F 84 (P 5109).P1.14. Fragmentof base of blackF 78 (P 17898,P 17971).P1.14. Red-figuredmug


glazed bowl. Graffito on underside.Context:
second half 5th century B.C.
with running Hermes, in the vicinity of the
Alkimachos painter. Graffito on upper wall
Mid-V cent. B.C.
2]tOv<(>ppES
opposite figure. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,no. 195.
The eta (written as epsilon) following rho
MiScov
Second quarter V cent. B.C.
suggests a foreigner.The nearest parallel for
this name is liacu4pptov, (nick)name for an
Perhaps this is the father (or teacher) of
hetaira in Theophilos' Flute-lover(Edmonds,
Lamproklesmentionedin Schol.Ar., Nub.,968,
after whom Alexis' Midon (Ath., XI, 491c)
II, p. 575, fr. 11).
may have been named? The four vertical F 85 (P772). P1.14.
Skyphos foot of mid-5th
strokesbeneaththe nameare unexplained.
B.C.
on underside.ConGraffito
century
type.
text:
third
5th
quarter
century B.C. (117:1).
F 79 (P 21399). P1.13. Base of semi-glazedbowl.
Graffito on underside.Context: ca. 460-440
Mid-V cent. B.C.
'EXaOcKO

36

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 86 (P 22998). P1.14. Foot of black-glazed


kylix of second quarter5th-centuryB.C.type.
Graffition top and bottom. Context: 5th-4th
centuries B.C. Hesperia, XXIII, 1954, p. 54.

Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 438.

Mid-V cent. B.C.

(top)

ipcovos

XVIII, 1949, p. 330, fig. 6, pl. 93. Cf. SparkesTalcott,no. 935.


Fourth quarter V cent. B.C.

(a) Ztuv (

(b) nAPAMYNQTO0
CompareF 180 for directionsof writing.

(bottom) MQNO
F 92 (P 10803).PI. 14. Small black-glazedbowl.
Graffitoon underside.Context:fourth quarter
A quantity of hobnails found in the same
5th century B.C.(H 12:6).
area with this sherd suggeststhat this Simon
may be the cobblerwho was friendto Perikles FourthquarterV cent. B.C.
MvrlalCoiXo
and Sokrates(Diog. Laert.,II, 122).The letters
The writingexactlyfills the circleof the base,
on the undersideare almost certainlyanother
and
an incised line separatesthe end of the
versionof the name whichappearson the top.
name
from the beginning.At least two men of
Why the first two letterswere omittedis puzzlived in Athens at this time (Prosop.
this
name
ling. Perhapsthe writerstartedby using paint,
nos.
10333-4).
then thought it might rub off and continued Att.,
with a sharpinstrument,forgettingto go over
F 93 (L 3088).P1.14. Black-glazedlamp(= Howthe first two letters. Perhapsthe letters now
land, no. 175, Type 21C). Graffitoon undervisible were all that were ever written and
side. Context:fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.
representthe last part of the name used as a
(H 12:6).
nickname.
Fourth

V cent. B.C.

Apa-CTrrI

quarter
F 87 (P24698). P1.14. Base of black-glazed
of a slave (?), perhapsone who
name
The
stemlessbowl. Graffitoon underside.Context:
to
came
Athens
as a deserteror refugee?
thirdquarter5th centuryB.C.
ThirdquarterV cent. B.C. A Map( )
F 94 (P 12030). PI. 14. Fragmentfrom base of
black-glazed stemless cup. Graffito on inner
The first alpha may or may not belong to
face of foot. Context:fourth quarter5th centhe name. Athenian names beginning Marseem to be Hellenisticand later (e.g., Marsyas, tury B.C.(N-P 20:1).
Fourth quarterV cent. B.C. ]aro SIK[aicosEli
Maron,Markos).
F 88 (P 21694).P1.14. Largeunglazedbasin with F 95
(P 13099).P1.14. Base of black-glazedbowl.
projectingflat-toppedrim, steep sides and ring
Graffitoon underside.Context:fourth quarter
no. 1840).Graffitoon
foot (= Sparkes-Talcott,
5th century B.C.(O 19:4).
Context:
third
of
rim.
quarter5th century
top
B.C.(07:10).
Third quarterV cent. B.C.

Fourth quarterV cent. B.C.

Aiin (

KXta(pTros)

F 96 (P 15217).P1.14. Black-glazedone-handler.
Graffitounderfoot. Context: 5th centuryB.C.
No other restorationsuggestsitself. A Klia(G 18:1).
retos is known from Orchomenos(Pape, s.v.).
. .PKE
Fourth
quarterV cent. B.C.
F 89 (P 23283). P1.14. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
skyphos. Graffition underside.Context:third F 97 (P 18620). P1.15. Part of shoulder of unquarter 5th century B.C.(O 16:1-2).
glazed amphora.Graffitoon top of shoulder,
ThirdquarterV cent.B.C. E0( ) (monogram) upside down to pot. Context: fourth quarter
Au( ) (monogram) 5th century B.C.(C 19:9).
Fourth quarterV cent. B.C.
Both monogramsare partially erased with
'AvSpi(rKou)
thin fine scratches.
F 98 (P 12510).P1.15. Fragmentfrom bottom of
F 90 (P 17961). P1.14. Black-glazedbolsal (=
black-glazedone-handlerof late 5th-century
Sparkes-Talcott,no. 540). Graffito on under- B.C. type. Graffito on underside. Context:
side. Context: 430-410 B.C. (B 19:7).
thXo( )
Fourth quarterV cent. B.C.

F91 (P 10537). P1.14. Black-glazedsaltcellar.


Graffition inside (a) and outside(b). Context:
fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.(B 15:1). Hesperia,

late 5th-4th centuries B.C.


E
Late V cent. B.C.
MEI( )

PerhapsMeli(io),Meia(ia8o)or the like. Various such names are known in Athens from
early in the 4th century B.C.

F. OWNERS' MARKS
F 99 (P 16903).P1.15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
no. 754). Grafone-handler(= Sparkes-Talcott,
fito on outside lower wall. Context: late 5th
century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1).
(see drawing)
Late V cent. B.C.

37

Late V cent. B.C.


KEp( )
The odd spacing results from the writer's
avoidanceof the black-glazedot and circle in
the center. Another scratchto the right does
not seemto be a letter.

Perhapsnon-Greek?
F 106 (P 24774). P1.15. Rim fragmentof lekane.
Graffito on top of rim. Context: latest 5th
F 100 (P 16904). P1.15. Wall fragment from
B.C.
outside.
on
Graffito
century
black-glazed skyphos.
Context:late 5th centuryB.C. (A-B 21-22:1).
_av ( )
Latest V cent. B.C.
Late V cent. B.C.
(see drawing)
F 107 (P 103). P1.15. Fragmentof straight-sided
Second and third letters appearto be nonblack-glazedsaltcellarof a type found chiefly
Greek?CompareF 99.
in second half 5th centuryB.C.; compare,for
F 101 (P 16905).PI. 15. Rim fragmentof blackexample, Hesperia, IV, 1935, p. 508, no. 48.
Graffitoon underside.
Context:
on
outside.
Graffito
glazed skyphos.
late 5th century B.C. (A-B 21-22:1).
Late V cent. B.C.
KEKpo[

Second half V cent. B.C.

S(ho
Eiii

Compare Kekropidon of the mid-4th cen- F 108 (P 1870). P1.15. Black-glazed saltcellar
with flat bottom and slightlyincurvingwalls of
F 102 (P 26424). PI. 15. Lower part of amphora a type common in later 5th century B.C.;
handle with thumbprintimpression. Graffito compareHesperia,XVIII, 1949,p. 330, no. 69.
Graffitoon underside.
on outside, running vertically from bottom.
Context:late 5th centuryB.C.
Secondhalf V cent. B.C.
'E].rrS( )
Fva( )
Names beginningthus seem generallyvery
Late V cent. B.C.
late (Romanperiod)or non-Athenian.
F 103 (L 2653). PI. 15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
lamp(= Howland,no. 215, Type23A). Graffiti F 109 (P3736). P1.15. Rim fragmentof blackon rim (a) and nozzle(b).
glazedbowl. Graffitoon outside.
Late V cent. B.C.
(a) Ka[uovrilp]lti{rrnls
5av ( )
Second half V cent. B.C.
(b) AN
Note combination of Ionic xi with slantOne expects kappa-alphato begin a word
barredalpha.
for lamp, but kandelionis too late. The word
restored above is one possibility; another is F 110 (P 19555).PI. 15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
one-handler.Graffito on underside.Context:
that kappa-alphabegins the name of a child
second half 5th century B.C. (C 19:5).
of Philippein the nominativecase servingas
subjectof &v(erlK?).
Second half V cent. B.C.
'Etry ( )
of
F 104 (P 27314).P1.15. Black-glazedsaltcellar
111 (P 24265).P1.15. Black-glazedhandlefrom
late 5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon under- F
small oinochoe, triangularin section. Graffito
side, within ring foot. Context: last quarter on outside,
runningdown vertically.Context:
5th century B.C. (S 16:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
half
5th
second
centuryB.C.(Q 8:1).
p. 135, note 5. Hesperia,XXXV, 1966, p. 83.
tury B.C. (Prosop. Att., no. 8264).

Late V cent. B.C.

TpoXiXo

Second half V cent. B.C.

AEv( )

We know several 5th-centuryB.C. Athenian


names beginningwith these letters, e.g., Leukades,Leukaios,Leukippos.Cf. also F 47.
name, dated by Edmonds to ca. 411 B.C. (Edmonds, I, p. 915, fr. 4; p. 997). More lightly F 112 (P 24691).P1.15. Base of semi-glazedonescratchedin center of foot two numeralsmay
handler.Graffitoon underside.Context:second
be distinguished:s- , i.e., 6 and 7.
half 5th century B.C.

This nicknamemay derivefrom the bird or


from the comedy of Heniochos of the same

F 105 (P 27353).P1.15. Fragmentaryblack-glazed


bowl of late 5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon
underside, within ring foot. Context: last
quarter 5th century B.C.(S 16:1).

Secondhalf V cent. B.C.

'Ap(
Mo(
Mo(
Mo(

)
)
)
)

(ligature)

F. OWNERS' MARKS

38

Two crossing lines divide the circle inside F 122 (P 20019). P1.16. Base fragmentof blackfoot into four sections;the ligatureoccupiesone
glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside.
of these, and two of the thrice repeated two
V cent. B.C.
)
]ayu(
lettersoccupytwo others.
F113 (L 3269). P1.15. Nozzle of black-glazed F 123 (P 21220).PI. 16. Base and part of wall of
small stemless black-glazedcup. Graffito on
lamp(= Howland,no. 220, Type23A). Graffito underside. Context:
late 5th century B.C.
on top of nozzle.
(Q
10:4).
2aT |Ipas
Second half V cent. B.C.
KOE
V cent. B.C.
Probablyfemininegenitive.The Satyrawho
See drawing.PerhapsKcbq(s) ?
was hetaira to Themistokles (Ath., XIII,
no
was
but
the
576c)
longer alive,
probably
F124 (P 25822). P1.16. Black-glazedrim fragnamewas an appropriateone for the trade.
ment,probablyof mug. Graffitooutside.
F 114 (P 26866). P1.15. Upper part of handle of
V cent. B.C.
]aXtIa[
no.
black-glazedoinochoe (= Sparkes-Talcott,
PerhapsK]cAXkor K]aZXia[Sou.
116). Graffitoat mouth attachment.

rXav( )

Late V cent. B.C.

F 125 (P 25892).PI. 16. Fragmentof black-glazed


kylix base. Graffitoon underside.
F 115 (P 5203). P1.15. Lower wall fragmentof
V cent. B.C.
black-glazedcup. Graffitooutside.
:evio[
V cent. B.C.
]E{iS Eii[i
F 126 (P 83). P1.16. Base fragment of blackglazedbowl (?). Graffitoon underside.
F 116 (P 7254). PI. 15. Fragmentfrom bottom of
semi-glazed one-handler (?). Graffito inside,
V cent. B.C.
OIt ( )
almostcertainlywrittenon the wholepot.
F 127 (P2841). P1.16. Black-glazed oinochoe
V cent. B.C.
'Hyearcv[5pou
with ring foot and trefoil mouth. Graffition
F 117 (P 8120). P1.16. Part of bottom of redshoulder. Context: ca. 410-390 B.C. (H 12:11).
figured skyphos with ring foot. Graffito on
Ca. 410-390 B.C.
An ( ) Ant{o
underside.
CompareF 136.
V cent. B.C.

]arrairl

F 128 (P 18952).P1.16. Partof bottomof bowl or


cup with ringfoot, glazedblackto red. Graffito
(not known in Athens);
Perhaps 'EKaTralcr
on underside.Context:late 5th-early4th cennon-Atticbecauseof eta followingiota?
]S

F 118 (P 10512).P1.16. Fragmentaryblack-glazed


saltcellarwith concave sides and flat bottom.
Graffitoon outsidewall.
V cent. B.C.
Tloi]*iKTropos
]Cro

turies B.C. (C 19:9).


Late V-early IV cent. B.C.

AEco[

Beautifullettersworthyof major epigraphy.


Many names beginningin this way are known
in 5th-centuryB.C.Athens:Leobotes,Leogoras,
Leodamas,Leon, etc.

The suggested name is heroic and nonF 129 (L 4134). P1.16. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
Athenian.
lamp(= Howland,no. 258,Type24C). Graffito
F 119 (P 14938).PI. 16. Base fragmentof blackon side.
glazedkylix. Graffitoon underside.
Late V-early IV cent. B.C.
V cent. B.C.
AicX ( )
MEIK
( ) or Mei ( )? (monogram)
F 120 (P 17139). P1.16. Base of black-glazed
Perhaps for a name like Meixiades, etc.,
stemlesscup of 5th-centuryB.C.type. Graffito beforethe letterxi was obligatory.
on underside.
F 130 (P 17059).P1.16. Fragmentfrom shoulder
V cent. B.C.
Ep ( )
of unglazed amphora. Graffito on outside.
Context:5th-4thcenturiesB.C.Hesperia,XXV,
F 121 (P 19958).P1.16. Black-glazedpyxis lid of
1956,p. 23, no. 103.
5th-centuryB.C. type. Graffito on top. Cf.
no.
1307.
Sparkes-Talcott,
V-IV cent. B.C.
AIoxr[
V cent. B.C.

NIKr
r(

39

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 131 (P 23821).P1.16. Fragmentaryblack-glazed F 139 (P 24024). P1.17. Base fragmentof blackoinochoe with ring foot and trefoil mouth.
glazedskyphosof Corinthiantype. Graffitoon
underside.Context: first quarter 4th century
Graffition handle(a) and on wall (b). Context:
ca. 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2).
Ca. 400-390 B.C.
(a) 'AvSpaoxodll 8iiKawco

B.C.(G 13:5).
First quarterIV cent. B.C.

TOUSvEav?dit 5i]KalcoS
(b) ]?os
For the assertion of ownership compare F 140 (P 3721).P1.17. Fragmentary
base of plastic
vase with traces of figureattachment.Graffito
Hesperia, Suppl.VII, p. 31 and also F 132
below. Another black-glazedfragment (Agora
on underside. Context: second quarter 4th
inv. no. P 26389) from this deposit has part of
centuryB.C.(H 7:3). Hesperia,VI, 1937,p. 89,
what is probablythe same name: ]ioxo[.
fig. 46, f.

F 132 (P 23835). P1. 17. Fragmentary lekane with

Second quarter IV cent. B.C.

]filovoS

flat-toppedrim. Graffitoon top of rim. Context: F 141 (P 12396). P1.17. Small roughly made
ca. 400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2).
saucerwith thin glaze. Graffitoon floor. ConCa. 400-390 B.C.
i]Kla(io'A[vS]pfioo [ei[]
text: secondquarter4th centuryB.C. (G 12:23).
Note use of omicronin the adverb,as comEv6opa
Second quarterIV cent. B.C.
vTOS
paredwith omegain F 131. (Partof the lekane
couldnot be foundwhenthe finaldrawingswere
F 142 (P 14636).P1.17. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
made,so that it was necessaryto copy the -Katos
oinochoe. Graffito on neck. Context: second
from the drawingon the cataloguecard; the
4th century B.C.(E 2:3).
quarter
letterswhichwere neverfound are dottedin to
Second quarter IV cent. B.C.
show the spacingand hence presumedorder.)
Fripvos
F 133 (P 23872).PI. 16. Fragmentarybolsal, glaze F 143 (P 14644). P1.17. One-handledbowl of a
fired red all over. Graffitoon underside.Contype commonin the first half 4th centuryB.C.;
cf. D. M. Robinson, Olynthus,V, Mosaics,
text: ca. 400-390 B.C.(Q 15:2).
Vases and Lamps, Baltimore, 1933, pl. 180,
TlT ( )
Ca. 400-390 B.C.
no. 923. Graffitoon underside.Context:second
F 134 (P 23874).P1.16. Basefragmentof unglazed quarter4th century B.C.(E 2:3).
pot with ring foot. Graffito on underside. Second quarterIV cent. B.C.
XCOTrpaTO
Context:ca. 400-390 B.C.(Q 15:2).
F 144 (P 14658).P1.17. Base fragmentof blackCa. 400-390 B.C.
2cool[
glazedskyphosof Attictype. Graffitoon underF 135 (P 7977). P1.16. Part of base of blackside. Context:second quarter4th centuryB.C.
glazed skyphos of early 4th-centuryB.C.type.
(E 2:3).
Graffito on underside. Context: 4th century Second
]6aiou il[pi
quarter IV cent. B.C.
B.C.(E 6:3).
Early IV cent. B.C.

F 145 (P 11798).PI. 17. Fragmentaryblack-glazed


no. 759). Grafone-handler(= Sparkes-Talcott,
F 136 (P 8621). P1.16. Part of base of oinochoe
fito on underside.Context:firsthalf4th century
like F 127. Graffito on underside. Context:
B.C. (BB 17:1).
AEiviaS

4th century B.C.(E 6:3).


AEsio[
Early IV cent. B.C.

First half IV cent. B.C.

CompareF 127.
F 137 (P 23272).P1.16. Part of bottom of blackglazed one-handler(?). Graffitoon underside.
Context:latest5th to 4th centuriesB.C.
Early IV cent. B.C.

Aaca (

-EvoTO(vTos)

F 146 (P 18003). P1.17. Base of black-glazed


skyphos of a type common in first half 4th
centuryB.C.;cf. D. M. Robinson,Olynthus,V,
pl. 85. Graffito on underside. Context: first
half 4th century B.C.(C 19:5).
'AXKih
First half IV cent. B.C.
rTO

F 138 (P 27566).P1.16. Base of black-glazedbowl F 147 (P 1444). P1.17. Base of black-glazed


of early 4th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon inkantharos with rouletting on floor; mid-4th
side. Context:late 5th-early4th centuriesB.C.
century B.C. type, approximately like Hesperia,
(I 16:7).
VI, 1937,pp. 88-89, fig. 46,c. Graffitoon underside, insidefoot.
rlupcov
Early IV cent. B.C.
Note angular form of omega.

Mid-IV cent. B.C.

Tfav6l( )

40

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 148 (P 1458). P1.17. Handle of black-glazed F 156 (P 20987).P1.18. Small black-glazedbowl.


Graffitoinside on floor. Context:thirdquarter
oinochoe, triangularin section. Graffitonear
4th century B.C.
top, runningdown from above. Context:mid4th century B.C. (H 17:5).
Mid-IV cent. B.C.
'ApTn( )

F149 (P 7502). PI. 17. Base fragmentof blackglazed bowl. Graffito on underside, within
foot. Context: mid-4th century B.C. (C 12:2).
Mid-IV cent. B.C.
'Apia-u[

F 150 (P 14705).PI. 17. Baseof black-glazedbowl,


with stampedpalmetteson floor, of mid-4th
centuryB.C. type. Graffitoon underside.Context: 4th century B.C.(F 20:1).
Mid-IV cent. B.C.
Alovi0aio
wcoqpovas

Do the two names perhaps representjoint


owners?The first is not attested either as a
masculinenominativeor femininegenitive.

Third quarter IV cent. B.C.

Noy ( )

F157 (P 22218). P1.18. Black-glazedpyxis lid


with groove around outer part of top and
aroundouteredge(= Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 1317).
Graffito on top. Context: third quarter 4th
century B.C.
Third quarter IV cent. B.C.

'EXwepariSa

(Seedrawingfor othersymbols.)Note brokenbarred alpha; cf. so-called Darius vase, A.


Furtwangler and K. Reichhold, Gr. Vasenmalerei,II, Miinchen,1909,p. 146.
F 158 (P 22116). P1.18. Black-glazedstem of
multiplekernos.Graffitoaroundstem.Context:
to third quarter 4th century B.C. (J 11:1). Cf.

no. 1364.
Sparkes-Talcott,

AvauiTp[6]Ths
F 151 (P 19956). P1.17. Foot of black-glazed Third quarter IV cent. B.C.
kantharosof mid-4thcenturyB.C.type. Graffito F159 (P 26945). P1.18. Ring foot of blackon underside,withinfoot.
glazed bowl of Hellenistictype. Graffito on
underside.Context: third quarter4th century
Mid-IV cent. B.C.
'ATpo( )
B.C. (I15:2).
It seemsmore likely that the secondletteris
Third quarterIV cent. B.C.
'Apr ( )
an incompletetriangularphi than eithertau or
chi.
The third letter is smallerand more bluntly
incised; perhapsit is an addition by another
F 152 (L 535). P1.17. Black-glazedlamp (=
hand.
Howland,no. 283, Type 25A). Graffition left
side of nozzle, unfinishedbecause of lack of F 160 (P 266). PI. 18. Base fragment of blackglazed plate with roulettingand stampedpalspace (a), and on right side, upside down to
Graffito on underside, within foot.
mettes.
Context:
mid-4th
B.C.
century (G 14:2).
lamp(b).
Context:fourthquarter4th centuryB.C. (H 6:9).
Mid-IV cent. B.C.

(a) Aipit(Aou)

(b) AiplXou

Fourth quarterIV cent. B.C.

T]iicoiv[ou

Note use of omega.


F 153 (P22914). P1.17. Black-glazedsaltcellar
with incurving rim and small ring foot (= F 161 (P 6889). P1.18. Base fragmentof blackglazed plate with roulettingon floor, of late
Sparkes-Talcott,no. 947). Graffito on underside.
4th-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffitoon underside.
Late IV cent. B.C.
Mid-IV cent. B.C.
KEpa[
'Apo-r ( )
F 154 (P 18619).P1.17. Walland basefragmentof F 162 (P 15446).PI.18.Black-glazedsmallstamped
plate of late 4th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon
smallblack-glazedpyxis with moldedringfoot.
Graffitooutsideon wall. Context:thirdquarter underside.
A
Late IV cent. B.C. Kapa( )
4th century B.C. (B 18:7).
Third quarter IV cent. B.C.
Readingvery uncertain;first alpha and rho
in
8aev
EIltU1
i]Kaico[s]
ligature.The two attestedAtheniannames
[TroU
(Karaichosand Karaios) belong to the 2nd
F 155 (P 20283). P1.17. Base fragmentof blackcenturyB.C. More temptingis the 4th-century
glazed closed pot. Graffito on underside. B.C. orator Kallimedonwhose nicknamewas
Context:third quarter4th centuryB.C.
Karabos(Plut.,Dem.,27).
'Ecov( )
Third quarter IV cent. B.C.
F 163 (L 3042).PI. 18. Red-glazedlamp (= HowNo name beginningthus is attested.
land, no. 372, Type 26B). Graffition right side

F. OWNERS' MARKS
of body (a), on top of nozzle(b), and on rim(c).

Context: late 4th centuryB.C.(B 13:8). Hesperia,


XXXVIIIT
A
A
*^ % /Y'? n.
T JU-*A 19609
f 390
LL *

41

No such nameis known.Perhapsa label for


something"rotten"?

F 170 (P7670). P1.18. Bottom of black-glazed


skyphos of same type as F 168. Graffito on
(b) Mvco(vos)
underside.Context:2nd-4thcenturies(C 13:2).
(c) M(ivcovos)
A
IV cent. B.C.
7i:pos
kanthaof
PI.
18.
Base
F 164 (P 897).
black-glazed
Probablya slave'sname?or a metic's?
ros. Graffitoon underside,insidefoot. Context:
secondhalf 4th centuryB.C. (F 16:1).
F 171 (P9645). P1.18. Shoulderfragmentfrom
coarse amphora. Graffito outside. Context:
Mkvcov
Second half IV cent. B.C.
4th century B.C.and late Roman.
Mentioned in Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 317
]. O H T .[
whereothergraffitiwhichmay be abbreviations IV cent. B.C.
refer
the
to
same
]MriTTtyE
of the samenameand perhaps
personare cited. Comparealso F 163, whichis
is
not
known, but there seems to
Metigenes
contemporaryand was foundnot far away.
be no reasonagainstsuch a compound.
F 165 (MC 216). P1. 18. Black-glazedterracotta F 172 (P 17794). P1.18. Rim fragment from
object, beehive-shapedand verticallypierced, black-glazedlidded bowl of 4th-centuryB.C.
with neck on top and flat bottom. Graffiti fabric.Graffitooutsidejust below flange.
aroundbody (a) and on underside(b). Context:
NlKta[
IV cent. B.C.
4th to early 3rd centuries B.C. (D-E 8-9:1).
F 173 (P 17902).P1.18. Base fragmentof blackSecond half IV cent. B.C.
(a) Arlqrlrpias
glazedbowl of 4th-centuryB.C.fabric.Graffito
(b) Eurruv[as
on underside.
(b) is perhapsmorelikelyas a wordthanas a
K
IV cent. B.C.
name.
TXa( )
Late IV cent. B.C.

(a) Mivcovos

F166 (MC224). P1.18. Red-glazed terracotta F 174 (P 20846). P1.19. Base fragmentof blackglazed plate with roulettingon floor, of 4thobject with rounded bottom, concave top,
centralcollar aroundverticalhole. Graffitoon
centuryB.C.fabric.Graffitoon underside.
top. Context: 4th to early 3rd centuriesB.C.
IV cent. B.C.
Xat( )
(D-E 8-9:1).
F175 (P 22104). P1.19. Base of black-glazed
Second half IV cent. B.C.
Kapm( )
olpe of 4th-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon underNames beginningthus are both late and too
side.
foreignto be likely. Possibilitiesare: Kamireus
IV cent. B.C.
M.( )
(man of Kamiros);kamineus(kilnmaster).But
perhapstwo lambdashave run togetherand it F 176 (P 24859). P1.19. Base of black-glazed
shouldbe read KaAli(as).
bowl. Graffito on underside.Context: 5th4th
centuries B.C.
F 167 (P 133). P1.18. Base fragment of blackKaXOKr
glazedplate with rouletting,of 4th-centuryB.C. IV cent. B.C.
type. Graffitoon underside,within ring foot.
The name is borne by various mythical
IV cent. B.C.
TT]oXu6u(KTou)
persons (Pape, s.v.) including the heroine of
Stesichoros'poem of that name (from which
F 168 (P 199).P1.18. Baseof black-glazedskyphos
derivedthe name of a song, Aristox., Fr.
was
of 4th-centuryB.C. type, as in D. M. Robinson,
Hist., 72); also a memberof Lysistrata'sconOlynthus,V, p. 185. Graffito on underside.
spiracyin Aristophanes'play (Lys., 322).
IV cent. B.C.

'Hyfictr(oS)

lamp(= HowScratcheson the rim suggest an attemptat F 177(L 4212).P1.19.Black-glazed


on side (a),
no.
Graffiti
land,
267, Type 25A).
a final sigma.
on otherside, upsidedown to lamp (b), and on
F 169 (P 6903). P1.18. Rim fragment of semitop of nozzle(c).
outside
rim.
Graffito
saucer
with
plain
glazed
(a) AItoKAouV
IV-early III cent. B.C.
just below rim. Context:5th-4th centuriesB.C.
(b) Eili
IV cent. B.C.
(c) EM
Ecarrpa[

42

F. OWNERS' MARKS

The drawingof a boukranionon this same


piece is catalogued below as M 14. On the
bottomis an unidentifiedmark.
F 178(L 3653).P1.19.Black-glazed
lamp(= Howland, no. 276, Type 25A). Graffition top (a)
and on eitherside of nozzle(b,c).
(a) Eac( )
IV-earlyIII cent. B.C.
(b) Eax( )
(c) CEa( )

A foreign name? None such is attested, to


our knowledge.
F 179 (P 580). P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl
with moldedfoot. Graffitoon underside,within
foot. Context: late 4th to early 3rd centuries
B.C.

(H 16:3, Group B, Hesperia, III, 1934,

of Euboulosin the first half of the 4th century

B.C.(Ath., XIII, 567d).

F 185 (L2019). P1.19. Nozzle of black-glazed


lamp(= Howland,no. 315, Type25B). Graffiti
on side (a) and top (b). Context:3rd-2ndcenturiesB.C. (D 10:2).
Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

(a) O&ov
(andligature)
(b) 0
See drawingfor ligature.Theta used as an
initial on top makes the personalname Theon
morelikelythan 6oov.
F 186 (P 14960).PI. 19. Base fragmentof blackglazedbowl (?). Graffitoon underside.Context:
late 4th to 3rdcenturiesB.C.

Late IV-early III cent. B.C.


Eipi(ou)
pp. 330ff.).
LateIV-earlyIII cent. B.C.
'Aya0oKvA9[u]s F 187 (P 15397).P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl
of late 4th- or 3rd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffito
F 180 (P 633). PI. 19. Base of black-glazedbowl
with molded foot. Graffito on underside, on underside.
Late IV-III cent. B.C.
An9lqtXnos
within foot. Context: late 4th-early 3rd centuries B.C. (H 16:3, Group B, Hesperia, III,
The lettersare crowdedtogethertowardsthe
1934,pp. 330ff.).
end, with the sigma writtenover the omicron.
aTru( )
Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
F 188 (P 18625).P1.19. Floor fragmentof blackMi6ou
glazed plate with stampedpalmettesand rouTwo names, of successiveor joint owners? letting.Graffitoon underside.
For arrangementof letters compareF 91 and
IV-III cent. B.C.
NIKCO
L 12.

F 181 (P 1493, P 1538). P1.19. Rim fragmentof


hlrk. l.r1a7r

kIntharnc

nf

earlv

Or it could be an abbreviationof a longer


name.

ellen1nticr.

F 189 (P 136). PI. 19. Base of small glazed bowl of


-v__,
type. Graffitoon upperwall ou.'C"tside *tside.
early 3rd-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon underLate IV-early III cent. B.C.
D]Et8oo-Tp(aTro)side, withinfoot.
F 182 (P 7740).P1.19. Base of bl ack-glazedbowl.
Early III cent. B.C.
Ait6(ou)
Graffitoon underside.Context late 4th-early
The two ligaturesof delta with a stroke at
3rd centuries B.C.(E 3:1).
the side (see drawing)may give a namesuch as
Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
the above. It is also possiblethat the first two
ActlfaS X
lettersof a namewerewrittentwice (cf. F 112).
H (= HowF 183 (L 2229). P1.19. Unglazedlamplap
(=
land, no. 296, Type 25A'). ( jraffito on top. F 190 (P 119). P1.19. Base of open bowl with
Context:late4th-early3rdcentiuriesB.C.(E3:1).
brownishblack glaze and ring foot, similarto
tmae'Hqa
)
C
It hardlyseemspossiblethat the second word

Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

F 189. Graffito on underside, within ring foot.

Context:to mid-2ndcenturyB.C.(H 6:9).


EarlyIII cent. B.C. Mev( )
(monogram)
is an abbreviationfor the god.
Athenian names beginningthus in the third
F 184 (P 18009).P1.19. Disc base o b of blacd
B.C.rangefrom Menaichmosto Menon.
century
3 on lnackrgazed
underside.
bowl or stemless cup. Graffit<
Context: late 4th-early 3rd centuries B.C. F 191 (P 416). P1.19. Molded ring base from
black-glazed cup of early 3rd-centuryB.C.
(A 18:6).
type. Graffito on underside, within foot.
Late IV-early III cent. B.C. IMVTeiK1i
HQ E
with a shiift of aspirates? EarlyIII cent. B.C.
PerhapsMqrTiX)l,
F
same
The only Meticheknownto us is the courtesan
192,
Compare
type of base, same
40
to
a
found
about
metersaway.
who gavehernickname(Klepsy<
comedy
dra)
inscription,

F. OWNERS' MARKS

43

F 192 (P 19170). P1.19. Molded ring base from F 199 (P 5820, P 5925). P1.20. Flat handle from
black-glazedcup of early 3rd-centuryB.C. type.
large unglazed amphora or pitcher. Graffito
Graffitoon underside,withinfoot.
on outside,runningfrom bottom up. Context:
3rd century B.C.(E 14:1).
HQ E
Early III cent. B.C.
III cent. B.C.
'Ayt6covosKiMTrr[ov]
F 193 (P 7607). P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl
CbvfXCAKC
with moldedring foot of early 3rd-centuryB.C.
That is, "(the property)of Agathon,a thief;
type. Graffitoon underside.Context: Hellena bargainfor a penny."The writingmay be in
istic (C 14:1).
two differenthands,as if afterAgathonlabeled
Early III cent. B.C.
nlapE ( )
the jar he himselfwas labeleda thief and reThe firsttwo lettersform a ligature.
spondedwith an assertionof the pot's worthF 194 (P 20216).P1.19. Fragmentaryblack-glazed lessness.
plate with linked palmettesand roulettingon F 200 (P 5838). P1.20. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
floor, of early 3rd-centuryB.C.shape. Graffito fish-plate. Graffito on underside. Context:
on underside.
3rd century B.C. (E 14:1).
III
cent.
B.C.
Early
NIKI( )
(retrograde) III cent. B.C.
'Apo( )

]. N

F 195 (P 20848).P1.19. Base of black-glazedbowl


with stampedlinked palmettesand rouletting
on floor. Graffitoon underside.Context:early
3rd century B.C.(D 17:3).

F 201 (P 5918). PI.20. Rim fragmentof a West


Slope kantharoswith offset lip; 3rd-century
B.C.fabric.Graffitoon outsideof lip. Context:
Hellenistic.
III cent. B.C.
Xpyvr[[]Tnrov

MIKa
( )
EarlyIII cent. B.C.
F 202 (P 8037). PI.20. Fragmentof base of unAn abbreviationof some namelike Mikalion
glazed pot. Graffito on underside. Context:
or Mikalos has been assumed, but the four
3rd century B.C. (B 13:1).
lettersmay be the completenominativeof the
III cent. B.C.
r-roS
MevJ
femininename Mika; six women of this name
wereburiedin Athensbetweenthe late 5th and F 203 (P 11202).P1.20. FragmentaryWest Slope
kantharosof 3rd-centuryB.C.type. Graffitoon
early 3rd centuries B.C. (I.G., IF2,12126-12131).
lower
body, runningdownward.Context: 3rd
F 196 (P 16295).P1.19. Shoulderfragmentfrom
century B.C. (B 13:1).
unglazedpitcher.Graffitoon outside. Context:
III cent. B.C.
XOpou
3rd century B.C. (N 21:4).
The name appearsin Athenianrecords(e.g.,
SecondquarterIII cent. B.C.
Nrc ( )
I.G., II, Add. 834b, c; 959c 16; II, Suppl.
The abbreviatedname is framed by a car4114b) but may well be a slave's name. Comtouche; see drawing.Nesiotes or Nesokles are
F 170.
pare
possiblenames;no exampleof eitheris known
to us from this generaltime, with the possible F 204 (P 20191). P1.20. Rim fragment from
Megarianbowl. Graffitoon outside,just under
exception of a restored Nesiotes in S.E.G.,
lip. Context:late 4th-3rdcenturiesB.C.
XXI, 330.5 (307/6 B.C.).
III cent. B.C.
Mus
F 197 (L 3293). P1.19. Black-glazedlamp base
The name may be complete, or it may be
(= Howland,no. 553, Type 43C). Graffitoon
underside. Context: second half 3rd century
abbreviatedfrom Mustion, Mustichides,etc.
B.C. (N 20:7).
F 205 (P 20329). P1.20. Rim and wall fragment
Late III cent. B.C.
of black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon outsidejust
Kpi( )
above
base. Context:3rdcenturyB.C.
F 198 (P 24935).P1.20. Unglazedtall-neckedjug.
III cent. B.C.
Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:second
'A]pXiTrrTo[u
half 3rd century B.C. (O 16:3).
F 206 (P 25998). P1.20. Black-glazedbowl with
Second half III cent. B.C.
stamped palmettes and rouletting on floor.
ia'
'Epil'Irou X(6S) j3'K(o6'rXat)
Graffition underside(a) and on outsidewall(b).
Context: 3rd century B.C. (F 17:3).
The capacityis 10.200liters to the lip. Two
choes and elevenkotyles(35 kotyles),basedon
III cent. B.C.
(a) Amyv( )
a kotyleof 0.273 1., wouldbe 9.555 1.
(b) N

F. OWNERS' MARKS

44

If this is a name, Dimnos is a possibility


F 215 (P 1881). P1.20. Fragmentfrom base of
not knownin Athens,but a friendof Alexander deep black-glazedbowl of 3rd-to 2nd-centuries
the Great(Diod. Sic., XVII, 79).
B.C. fabric. Graffito on underside. Context:
Hellenisticfilling of the MiddleStoa, so probF 207 (P 26004). P1.20. West Slope kantharos. ablynot laterthanmid-2ndcenturyB.C.
Graffito outside on wall below lip. Context:
III-II cent. B.C.
'Ovrloi[[ou
3rd century B.C. (F 17:3).
III cent. B.C.
Aac ( )

PossibleAtheniannames include Laios (4th


century B.C., Prosop. Att., no. 8961) and Lais-

podias (5th century B.C., Prosop. Att., nos.

8962,8963).

F 208 (P 26262).P1.20. Fragmentaryblack-glazed


fish-plate.Graffitoon underside.Context: ca.
200 B.C.(M 18:10).
'AoK( )
Ca. 200 B.C.

F 216 (P 3163).PI.20. Fragmentof coarsepot lid.


Lettersincisedin soft clay. Context:Hellenistic.
III-II cent. B.C.

]ioTri6ou

F 217 (P 3285). P1.20. Shoulder fragment of


large coarse amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: Hellenistic.
III-II cent. B.C.

'lTrra ( )

F 218 (P 3446). P1.20. Neck fragmentof coarse


amphora.Dipinto in red. Context:Hellenistic.
III-II cent. B.C.
'IpoK[

F 209 (P 6128). P1.20. Fragment from rim of


Megarianbowl of 3rd-to early 2nd-centuries F 219 (P 3788). P1.20. Small black-glazedhandle
from cup. Graffitoon outside, runningdown
B.C. type. Graffitooutside.Context:Hellenistic.
fromabove. Context:Hellenistic.
III-early II cent. B.C.

]s Alowviou .[

III-II cent. B.C.

'Apt( )

Not certainly an owner's name. Perhaps


F 220 (P 12200). P1.20. Base fragmentof small
genitiveis father'sname.
bowl of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon floor.
F 210 (P 10729).P1.20. Fragmentaryblack-glazed III-II cent. B.C.
OeoyeT-co[v
bowl. Graffitoon underside.Context:3rd-2nd
F 221 (P 14566). P1.20. Base fragmentof large
centuries B.C. (F 5:1).
black-glazedplate of Hellenisticfabric.Graffito
Late III-early II cent. B.C. rEv( )
on underside.
F 211 (L 2122). P1.20. Unglazedlamp (= HowIII-II cent. B.C.
ipe ( )
(monogram)
land, no. 464, Type 34 Var.). Dipinto in black F 222
(P 17425).P1.20. Base of largeblack-glazed
on side.
bowl or plate of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon
Late III-early II cent. B.C. O?ix ( )
underside.
III-II cent. B.C.
Trpa( )
F 212 (L 4194).P1.20. Black-glazedlamp(= Howland, no. 430, Type 32). Graffito on rim. F 223 (P 18264).PI.20. Rim fragmentof bowl of
Context: late 3rd-early 2nd centuries B.C.
3rd-to 2nd-centuryB.C.type, with West Slope
(M21:1).
decorationinside; for the shape, cf. Hesperia,
III, 1934, pp. 348ff., C7, D 14, D 15, D28.
Late III-early II cent. B.C.
Kcblov
Graffitooutsidejust belowlip.
CompareF 213 from samecistern.
III-II cent. B.C.

'ETrmyvous

F 213 (P 18756). P1.20. Base of black-glazed


F 224 (P 22836). PI.20. Shoulderfragmentfrom
mug or bowl of Hellenisticfabric.Graffitoon
underside.Context:late 3rd-early2nd centuries coarse amphora.Graffitoon outside. Context:
Hellenistic.
B.C.
(M 21:l).
Late III-early II cent. B.C.

Kcb(uou)

III-II cent. B.C.

]v rlhav'r!Tio

The next to last lettermay be eithera ligature


of iota-omicronor eta. If this is a name it is
not attested,but Planetiadesexistsas an epithet
F 214 (L 3077).P1.20. Black-glazed
lamp(= Howon
no.
Graffito
underside. of the CynicDidymos(Plut.,def. or., 7).
land, 445, Type34A).
F 225 (P 23523). PI.20. Wall fragmentof West
Late III-II cent. B.C.
Slopeware.Graffitoon outside.
See drawingfor monogram,probablyto be
SeeF 212 for the restoredname.

resolved thus:

Kafcasr

III-II cent. B.C.

OXtinrroSH[

45

F. OWNERS' MARKS

on shoulder. Context: late 2nd to early 1st


F 226 (P 5828). P1.20. Base fragmentof blackB.C.(B 11:1).
centuries
underside.
on
glazedplateor bowl. Graffito
Late II-earlyI cent. B.C. Alovuriov B
Hellenistic 'Epupo[
F 227 (P 17043).P1.20. Basefragmentof lekaneof F 234 (P 6864).P1.21. Fragmentpreservingabout
a quarter of a very large gray-wareplate.
Hellenisticfabric. Graffitoon underside.ConGraffitoon underside.Context:mixedHellenistext: first half of 2nd century B.C. (B20:2).
tic to earlyRoman(D 12:2).
First half II cent B.C.
'Appco( )

Late

I cent. B.C.

]1iv&8o

II-early
This may be not an abbreviationof a longer
masculinenamebut a completefemininename: F 235 (P 6717). P1.21. Neck and shoulderfragment of unglazed amphora. Dipinto in red.
'Appcb.
Context:Hellenistic.
F 228 (P 6867). P1.21. Neck fragment of large
Romanamphora,similarto Robinson,Chronol- II-I cent. B.C. Niy ( )
All names beginningwith these letters seem
ogy, M 14. Dipinto in red. Context:late 2nd
to
be Latinin originand belongto the Roman
B.C.
century
(C 9:7).
periodin Athens.
CO ( )
Late II cent. B.C.
SE( )
F 236 (P 23163). P1.21. Base fragmentof blackSincethis abbreviationmay standfor co(hors) glazedbowl with stampedpalmettesand rouletting, of 2nd- to lst-centuriesB.C.type. Graffito
se(cundus),we may wonder if this is a Latin
on underside.
owner's mark.
II-I cent. B.C.

Eiurlp(pov)
F 229 (P 526). P1.21. Base of black-glazedplate
21.
Base fragment of blackF
with stampedpalmettesand rouletting.Graffito 237 (23227). P1.
bowl
with
on underside,withinfoot. Context:4th to 2nd
roulettingon floor; 2nd- to
glazed
B.C.
Ist-centuries
type. Graffitoon underside.
century B.C. (G 14:2).
II cent. B.C.

Euvo( )

II-I cent. B.C.

'AvSpi( )

F 238 (P 6873).P1.21. Handleof coarseamphora.


ProbablyEunomos.
Graffitoon outside,runningdown from above.
F 230 (P 5738). P1.21. Base of large black-glazed
Hellenistic 'Apicrrcov
Late
plate of 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric. Graffiti on
underside(a) and on floor (b). Context: 2nd- F239 (P 20361). P1.21. Neck fragment from
early 1st centuries B.C. (E 15:3).
coarseamphora.Graffitoon outside,in shieldshapedframe.
II cent. B.C.
(a) FaXfis
X
Late Hellenistic Fov( )
(b)
The name Goneus is reportedfrom Samos
Gales is not knownas a name. Couldit be a
nickname-"female skunk"-in the genitive in the 3rd century B.C.(Bechtel).
case?
F240 (P 25816). P1.21. Small terracotta base.
Graffito on side opposite notch for support
F 231 (P 6034). P1.21. Fragmentof small blackof
tenon.
B.C.
fabric.
Graffiti
bowl
2nd-century
glazed
outside(a) and inside(b).
Late Hellenistic Xail ( )
II cent. B.C.
(a) Opaoivcov
The second and fourth letters are uncertain
OEoEvov(s)
and might be lambda and nu respectively.In
(b) eoo<E)>
any case no Atheniannameis known.
on
if
written
a
For
the
sherd; so, tag.
Perhaps
F 241 (P 13386).P1.21. Shoulderfragmentfrom
the name Thrasunon see S.E.G., XII, 123, 47
amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: second
(2nd century B.C.).

quarter 1st century B.C.(T 27:1).


EarlyI cent. B.C. W"Apaa(Tro) (monogram)

F 232 (P 23045). PI. 21. Rim fragmentof blackglazed plate of Hellenistic type. Graffito on F 242
(P 12100).P1.21. Base of red-glazedplate
outside.
withflaring,moldedfoot. Graffitoon underside.
II cent. B.C. AioyE[
Context:secondquarter1st centuryB.C.(N 20:
F 233 (P 7082). P1.21. Part of neck and shoulder 4).
of large unglazedamphora.Dipinto in black
Second quarterI cent. B.C.
Ku( )

46

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 243 (P 5726). PI.21. Small, partly glazed jug F 252 (P 20719). P1.22. Upper part of amphora.
with angular shoulder. Graffito on top of
Dipinto in black on shoulder and graffito
shoulder.Context:mid-istcenturyB.C.(E 14:3).
above. Context:early 1st century(R 10:1).
Mid-I cent. B.C.
EarlyI cent.
(dipinto) NEiKCov
Xprlovo
(graffito) Fr N
F244 (P4723). P1.21. One-handledjar similar
The spellingof this very commonnamewith
to Robinson, Chronology,F 65. Graffito on
the diphthonginsteadof simpleiota is frequent
shoulderbelowhandle.
from the 1st centuryB.C. on. Since both signs
in the graffitostand for 50, this seemsto be a
I cent. B.C.
Xprlcr( )
"bilingual",but it is uncertainwhether the
F 245 (P 4915). P1.21. Base of small Pergamene number refers to price, capacity, or the fact
bowl. Graffition underside(a) and on floor (b).
that the jar is fiftiethin some series.
I cent. B.C.
NKoXaouv
(a)
F 253 (P 21777).PI.22. Ovoid amphorawith tall
(b) N
neck, offset shoulderand pointed toe. Graffito
on shoulder.Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).
At least two men of this name are known
from Athensin this century(Prosop.Att., nos.
EarlyI cent.
'Epp[
10925,10927).
F254 (P 7957). P1.22. Shallow bowl with wide
F 246 (P 10634).P1.21. Base fragmentof glazed
ring foot. Graffito on underside. Context:
plate, of Hellenistictype. Graffitoon underside. firsthalf 1st century(R 13:1).
'AKv( )
Firsthalf I cent.
I cent. B.C.
OtIi9u
CompareF 320. Akindunosoccursin Roman
F 247 (P 13307).P1.21. Fragmentaryblack-glazed Athens.
plate. Graffito on underside. Context: 1st
century B.C. Hesperia,Suppl. IV, p. 121, fig. F 255 (P 11249). P1.22. Small Samian A bowl
with illegible stamp. Graffito on underside.
90, a.
Context:secondhalf 1st century(B 14:3).
I cent. B.C.
'Epco( )
Secondhalf I cent.
TTpoo( )
F 248 (P 16594).P1.21. Base fragmentof black- F 256
(P 11256).P1.22. Fragmentof shallowbowl.
glazed plate. Graffitoon underside.Context:
Graffito on underside.Context: second half
late Hellenistic.
1st century(B 14:3).
I cent. B.C.
Tpco( )
Secondhalf I cent. FpaqmKoi
F 249 (P 2272).P1.21. Fragmentof smallArretine F 257 (P 18435).PI.22. Upper part of amphora
bowl with stamp on floor (L. Titius). Graffito with tall neck, sloping shoulder and vertical
on underside.
handles.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:
secondhalf 1st century(C 18:2).
I cent. B.C.
'ETrrtTE
Secondhalf I cent.
"EqEa
F 250 (P 18284).P1.21. Fragmentfrom neck of
MasculineEphesiosexistsin RomanAthens.
amphora.Dipinto in red. Context: 1st century
B.C. to 1st century (B 19:9).
F 258 (P 10712). P1.22. Amphora with body
taperingto flatbase.Dipintoin redon shoulder.
KOT
I cent. B.C.-I cent.
Context:late 1st century(E 14:2).
A]Ir'Orros
The numbermight be a date on the Seleucid LateI cent. Mrapia
era (from 312/1 B.C.): 329 Secleucid = A.D. 17.
Comparethe Christianuse of this name in
F 322.
F 251 (P 3143). PI.21. Shoulder fragment of
amphora. Graffito on outside. Context: 1st F 259 (P 7994). P1.22. Flat base of coarse pot.
Incised on undersidein soft clay. Context:
century B.C.-lst century (E 15:1).
1stcentury(E 11:2).
Marini
I cent. B.C.-I cent.
I cent.
OEtoScop86ou
In the same channelwas the upperpart of a
largeamphorawith the sameinscription(Agora F 260 (P9878). P1.22. Narrow-mouthedhighinv. no. P 3144).The name appearsas Mapelvos neckedjugwithovoidbody.Graffitoon shouldr.
Context:1st century(K 18:1).
in Greek.

F. OWNERS' MARKS
I cent.

47

F269 (P 11142). P1.23. High-neckedjug with


'AKU()
globularbody and twistedhandle. Graffitoon
PerhapsAquila; in Roman Athens various
shoulder.Context:late 1st to late 2nd centuries
relatednamesexist: Akulanos,Akulas,etc.
(B 14:2).
F261 (P 10032). P1.22. Small amphora with
LateI-mid-IIcent. 'OvrltpOpoU
body taperingto small flat base. Incised on
shoulder in soft clay. Context: 1st century F 270 (P 15296).PI.23. Unglazedjug with round
(K 18:1).
mouth, profiledlip, cylindricalneck, somewhat
like Robinson, Chronology,M 43, but with
I cent.
Aqro( )
twisted handle, round body and ring foot.
F 262 (P 10035).P1.22. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Graffito on shoulder. Context: mid-Ist to
closed pot. Incised on outside. Context: 1st
mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
century(K 18:1).
Late I-mid-II cent.
'EpPaiou
I cent.
KiKKou
iEpfios
F 271 (P 15302). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
Note archaizingIonic genitive. The name
Graffitoon shoulder.Context:mid-ist to midmay be an epithet, since the word kikkos is
2nd centuries(N 17:2).
variouslydefinedby Hesychios(LSJ, s.v.). But
Late I-mid-IIcent.
M&ita(0os)
related names do exist in an earlier period:
Kikos (I.G., XII 9, 222, 1-3rd century B.C.);
The name is incised over an earliergraffito:
Kikon (I.G., II2, 1953, 9-4th century B.C.);
'AyaOeas.For the name cf. FI274,F 278. We
Kikkon (I.G., IV, 926, 45-4th century B.C.).
havefound no evidencefor this name.
F 263 (P 14623). PI.22. Fragmentfrom neck of F272 (P 15303). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
Graffito on shoulder. Context: mid-lst to
plain amphora. Dipinto in black. Context:
1st century.
mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
I cent.
Late I-mid-IIcent. Evy( )
'PoOPou
F 264 (P 17005).PI.22. Fragmentfrom floor of
CompareF 275.
gray-wareplate. Graffitoon underside,within F 273 (P
15304). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
ringfoot.
Graffitoon lower part of body. Context:midI cent.
]Acoviou
1st to mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
Late I-mid-II cent.
F265 (P 19007). P1.22. Base of Samian bowl
TTaciTnlKou
with foot stampon floor. Graffitoon underside.
Thereis no evidencefor this as eithernameor
word.
I cent. 'EKX
( )
F 274 (P 15305). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270,
PerhapsEklektos.
exceptthat handleis ridgedratherthan twisted.
F 266 (P 25245).P1.22. Amphorawith ovoid body
and flat bottom similarto Robinson,Chronol- Graffitoaround shoulder.Context:mid-lst to
mid-2ndcenturies(N 17:2).
ogy, M 50. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Context:1st century(Q 17:4).
Late I-mid-IIcent. MalaOos
I cent. Eurro[
F 275 (P 15307). P1.23. Jug similar to F 270.
Graffitoon shoulder.Context:mid-lst to midF 267 (P 17144).P1.22. Amphorawith tall cylin2nd
centuries(N 17:2).
drical neck, verticalhandlesand body tapering
to small concave base. Dipinto in black on
Late I-mid-IIcent.
Ei'v6oou
shoulder.Context: 1st century(B 20:1).
F276 (P 10447). P1.23. Upper part of ovoid
I cent.
Auoviov
amphora with narrow neck and flaring rim.
in black on shoulder. Context: late
Dipinto
F268 (P 4498). P1.23. Narrow-mouthedhigh1st
to
2nd
centuries(B 14:2).
necked jug like Robinson, Chronology,M 43,
but with narrowerneck and twisted handle.
Late I-II cent.
EiXEifo
Graffitocarefullyincised on shoulderopposite
PerhapsIlios, whichis not, however,attested
handle.Context:1stand 2nd centuries(F 11:1).
as a personalname.
I cent.
'Ovrola9popo
F 277 (P 9513). P1.24. Upper half of large amFor the namecompareF 269 andF 279.
phora with wide neck and vertical handles.

48

F. OWNERS' MARKS

Dipinto in red in large letters on shoulder. F286 (P964). P1.24. Small wheel-ridgedamContext: lst-2nd centuries(M 18:1).
phora with ring foot. Dipinto in red on neck.
Context:late 2nd-early 3rd centuries(I 16:1).
I-II cent.
FEL( )
1[TlA
( )
Late II cent.
KapTrou
Bilingual,perhapsfor Felix?
But compareHe 17 wherethis wordrefersto
F 278 (P 13602).P1.24. Shoulderof round-bodied contents.The nameis veryfrequentat this time.
pot. Graffito on outside. Context: latter 1st F287
(P 16704). P1.24. Amphora like F267.
and earlier2nd centuries(N 19:2).
Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: 2nd
I-II cent.
Mala(eos)
century(N 21:1).
Cf. F 271,F 274.
II cent.
'Eriyovos
F
288
(P 770). P1.25. Shoulderfragmentof large
F279 (P 22234). P1.24. Shoulder fragment of
amphora.Lettersincisedin soft clay. Context:
round-bodiedjug withnarrowneck.Graffitoon
2nd
centuryB.C.with later intrusions(I16:5).
shoulder.
II-III cent.
CN ( )
I-II cent. 'Ov]ril9copov
TITIO[
F280 (P9835). P1.24. Neck of large amphora F 289
P1.
25. Small wall fragmentof
(P7063).
with evertedrim and verticalhandles.Dipinto
small
coarse
with
thin black wash outside.
pot
in red. Context:firsthalf 2nd century(M 19:1).
Graffitoon outside.
'Aao( )
EarlyII cent.
II-III cent. ].<pcovo[s
Asmenos.
Perhaps
F 290 (P 25224).P1.25. Amphorawith elongated
ovoid body and horned handles. Dipinto in
F 281 (P 9925). P1.24. Neck of amphorasimilar
on neck. Context: late 2nd-early 3rd
black
to F280. Dipinto in red. Context: first half
centuries
(Q 17:4).
2nd century(M 19:1).
III cent. 'AvrTia.cXos
Late
II-early
'Apr ( )
EarlyII cent.
F291 (P 10778). P1.25. Two non-joiningfragF 282 (P 12459).PI.24. Ovoid amphorawith flat
ments of neck and shoulder of plain jug.
bottom. Dipinto in black on upperwall. ConGraffitoon shoulder.Context:early3rdcentury
text: early2nd century(N 20:5).
(G 11:2).
'E-r]fyovos 8'
EarlyII cent.
EarlyIII cent. Etlr[6]copos
F 283 (P 17133).P1.24. Jug with cylindricalneck F 292 (P 12352).P1.25. Tall narrow-bodiedamand pear-shapedbody on ring foot. Graffition
phora with wide mouth and vertical handles,
shoulder(a) and neck (b). Context: first half
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 177. Di2nd century(B 20:1).
pinto in red on shoulder.Context: early 3rd
Firsthalf II cent.
century(N 20:5).
(a) DOM( )
(b) (illegible)
'E-rryacio0
EarlyIII cent.
F284 (P 21393). P1.24. Shoulder fragment of F 293 (P 12354).P1.25. Amphorasimilarto F 292.
large plain amphora(=Robinson, Chronology, Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: early
3rdcentury(N 20:5).
H33). Dipinto in black. Context: first half
2nd century(P 8:1).
'AXE( )
EarlyIII cent.
Firsthalf II cent.
nTpi(pcp
F294 (P 12357). P1.25. Amphora similar to
EOpupl[
F 292. Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:
Bechtelnotes a Periphosfrom Naxos under
early3rdcentury(N 20:5).
Periphanes.
'HpK( )
Early III cent.
F 285 (P 10040).PI.24. Amphora(= Robinson,
Perhaps Fl. Herklanos (ephebe in I.G., II2,
M 94). Dipintoin red on shoulder. 2239,241 of A.D.238/9-243/4), sincethis is the
Chronology,
Context:secondhalf 2nd century(M 17:1).
only namewe findbeginningthus.
Secondhalf II cent.
F 295 (P 13615). P1.25. Amphora with slender
Ka[
rnoiSe
ovoid body on base ring. Dipinto in black on
shoulder.Context:firsthalf3rdcentury(P 19:1).
is
PerhapsPudens?Outside Athens TToOSiri
Firsthalf III cent.
attested(S.E.G.,XV, 214).
EuTtrXIavoO

F. OWNERS' MARKS

49

F 296 (P 19203). P1.25. Neck and shoulder of F 306 (P 25475). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of
largeamphora.Lettersincisedbeforefiring.
amphorawith flaringrim. Dipinto in black on
shoulder.Context:mid-3rdcentury(B 17:1).
Kapyivfas[
EarlyRoman
Av ( )
Mid-IIIcent.
Comparea Roman lady in Spain (C.I.G.,
III,
6644); also Karphinas(Prosop.Att., no.
F 297 (P 26410). P1.25. Amphoraneck and part
8261-4th
century B.C.).
of shoulder.Dipinto in red on neck. Context:
potteryof mid-3rdcentury.
F 307 (P 10613).P1.26. Flat-bottomedjug similar
KA
to Robinson, Chronology,L46. Graffito on
Mid-IIIcent.
EivrvXiov
shoulder. Context: third quarter 3rd century
The name is not attestedin Athens. Kappa(G 11:2).
alphamay be a number:21.
ThirdquarterIII cent. Zcooitou
F 298 (P 8040). P1.25. Shoulder fragment of
Note branchfollowingname.
amphora.Dipinto in black runningdown wall.
Context:thirdquarter3rdcentury(C 14:2).
F 308 (P 12257). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of
Mid-IIIcent.
] GEMMIANO
smallamphora.Dipintoin black.
LateIII cent.
'louvio ( )
F 299 (P 26127). P1.25. Small jug with narrow
neck and ovoid body. Graffito on shoulder.
Presumablyonly the upsilon of the genitive
Context:mid-3rdcentury(Q 19:1).
is omitted.
'AKe( )
Mid-IIIcent.
F 309 (P 14024).P1.26. Smallamphorasimilarto
L 3. Graffitoon shoulder.
PerhapsAlketes.
Robinson,Chronology,
3rdcentury(M 18:4).
Context:
F300 (P2228). P1.25. Wall fragment of small
III cent.
Z[bcr[]
l os
jug. Graffitoon outside.
OIArnT[
EarlyRoman
F 310 (P 11196). P1.26. Neck and shoulder
fragmentof small amphora.Dipinto in black
F301 (P 3549). P1.25. Base of small bowl of
at base of neck. Context: late 3rd-early 4th
yellow clay once glazed red (Pergamene?). centuries
(C 14:4).
Graffitoon underside,withinringfoot.
'AAXicov
LateIII-earlyIV cent.
EarlyRoman ExKOv
The name is known (Pape, s.v.) but not in
Sakos is not attested;perhapsforeign.Or a
Athens.
nicknamefrom the commonnoun?
F 302 (P 3671). P1.25. Base fragment of red- F 311 (P 16360).P1.26. Amphorapreservedonly
up to shoulder (=Robinson, Chronology,
glazedbowl. Graffitoon underside.
L 32). Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context:
EarlyRoman
'AyEp[
early4th century(F 19:1).
PerhapsAgerros.
EarlyIV cent. ]aaoli. .a
F 303 (P 6992). P1.26. Shoulderfragmentfrom F312 (P9794). P1.26. One-handledjar (=
large amphora.Graffitoon outside. Context:
Robinson, Chronology,M279). Dipinto in
mixed Hellenistic to early Roman (D 11:4).
black underhandle. Context:late 4th century
Roman
(M 17:1).
Early
Ei9p( )
ZCOTIKOi
Late IV cent.
F304 (P 15719). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of
small coarseamphora.Dipinto in black.
F 313 (P 13130).P1.26. Shoulderfragmentfrom
iepoerTou Atoykv9[u]sTOU
Early Roman
large plain pot. Graffito on outside. Found
with late 4th-centurycoins.
ODXpoKcpa[o]vs
'Ep.oScbpou
PASINI
Some letters were no longer visible when
Late IV cent.
finaldrawingwas made.
F 314 (P 2281). P1.26. Rim fragmentfrom small
F 305 (P 18255). P1.26. Shoulder fragment of
jug. Graffitoon outside. Found with 4th-centurylamps.
wheel-ridgedamphora.Dipintoin red.
IV cent. E*p( )
(ligature)
EarlyRoman
'HpaoKe7l[

50

F. OWNERS' MARKS

F 315 (P 12306).P1.26. Wallfragmentof amphora.


Graffito on outside. Context: 4th century
(N 20:3).

IV cent.

'IEpcov[

LateV-VI cent.
(Cross) EOKapTos (Cross) En ( )
IE
Theiota-epsilonmaybeeitheranabbreviation,
perhapsfor lepe5s,or a number:15.

EIP
SeeM 20 for picture.Thelettersin the second F 324 (P 25940).P1.28. Neck of amphorasimilar
line could be a number:115.
to Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Dipinto in
red on side of neck.
F 316 (P 15576).P1.27. Shoulderfragmentfrom
V-VI cent.
(Cross)
amphora. Dipinto in black. Context: 4th
'Av-nr[
century(U 22:1).
F 325 (P 26090). P1.28. Shoulder fragment of
IV cent.
AiArav6o
one-handledjar similarto Robinson, ChronoApOiou
TroaXatIos
logy, M 315. Graffito on outside. Context:
5th-6thcenturies(Q 19:1).
F 317 (P 12836).P1.27. Amphorawith elongated
McAihKov
V-VI cent.
ovoid body and low ring foot, similarto RobThe name M&?AiKos
is knownin 5th-and4thinson, Chronology,M 302. Dipinto in black on
centuriesB.C.Athens(S.E.G.,X, 424, I; Prosop.
shoulder.Context:4th century(O 19:1).
Att., no. 9661).
IV cent.
Eprl( )
r
F326 (P 13365). P1.27. Wheel-ridgedjug with
flat bottom and trefoil mouth. Graffito on
Severus?Gammamay be number:3.
shoulder. Context: second half 6th century
F 318 (P 12842). P1.27. Bell-mouthedjug with
(S 19:6).
twisted handle and pear-shapedbody on high
Secondhalf VI cent.
Ttypt( )
ring foot. Graffito on shoulder in soft clay.
Neither Tigris nor Tigrios is attested in
Context:4th century(O 19:1).
Athens.
IV cent.
'Erriyovos
F327 (P26595). P1.27. Amphora with ovoid
F319 (P 27211). PI.27. Upper part of Roman
body and rounded bottom. Graffito below
jug. Graffitoon shoulder.Context:4th century handle.Context:6th century(Q 17:7).
(E 29:5).
VI cent.
'Hla ( )
IV cent.
STpaTco[
In this period the biblical Elias may be
F 320 (P 11569). P1.27. Small cylindrical ammost likely, although Elianax (Prosop. Att.,
M
GrafRobinson,
no. 6403) and Eliades (I.G., II, 1986) are
307).
Chronology,
phora(=
fito on neck.Context:early5thcentury(M 17:1).
knownearlier.
'AKIV.
( )
EarlyV cent.
F 328 (P 22162). PI.28. Neck fragment of amF
254.
phora.Dipintoin red.
Compare
Q( ) L( ) FUND[
F 321 (P 12351).P1.27. Upper part of amphora Late Roman
PAT[
with short neck and sloping handles. Graffito
(traces)
on shoulder.
Line 2: patronus?Line 3: tracesmay be part
V-VI cent.
'AvBPEa
of a Romannumeral,since thereis one X and
F 322 (P 13149). P1.27. Wheel-ridgedamphora perhapsanother.
with ovoid body on ring foot. Dipinti on
F329 (P 12158). P1.28. Rim fragmentof large
shoulders,red on one side (a), black on the
other (b). Context: late 5th-6th centuries pot. Graffitojust belowrim.
Late Roman
(0 18:1).
'Eprrivea
LateV-VI cent.
Only Herpinikosis attestedin Athens (I.G.,
(a) chi-rho Mapfa
III, 1202,3526).
(b) chi-rho Mapfa
F323 (P 13466). P1.27. Amphora similar to F 330 (P 10181).PI.28. Fragmentof small bowl
with flat bottom and keeld rim. Graffitoon
M 328. Graffition upper
Robinson,Chronology,
outside.
wall. Context:late 5th-6th centuries(P 19:1).

51

F. OWNERS' MARKS
Late Roman
Mayfpou X[
The name is not known to us, but the common noun may well have been used as a proper
name,nicknameor title.

Late Roman

Ei.orat{ou

M
'HpaK7ias
Joint ownership?or producerand city?
F333 (P1992). P1.28. Shoulder fragment of
F331 (P5028). P1.28. Shoulderfragmentfrom
largejar. Graffitoat base of neck.
largeamphora.Dipintoin red.
Late Roman
'Epriq[
Late Roman
EuKap
( )
F334 (P2095). P1.28. Shallow bowl with flat
bottom.Graffitoon underside.
F 332 (P 1850). P1.28. Neck fragment of large
Late Roman
coarseamphora.Dipintoin red.
EOxa( )
INTRODUCTIONTO PUBLIC OWNERSHIP(Fa, Fb)
Except for the two pieces (Fa 25, Fa 26) which were found in late Roman fill, the finding places of the
delta-epsilon pots may be considered significant. Fifteen (Fa 2-15, Fa 24) came from under the Stoa of

Zeus; sevenothers(Fa 16-21, Fa 23) camefrom the Tholos area;the othertwo camefrom wells about
40 meters(Fa 22) and about70 meters(Fa 1) southwestof the Tholos.
Since both the Tholos and the Stoa Basileios (which presumablyused the well under the Stoa of Zeus

beforethat stoa was built)were seats of governmentalactivity,it is not surprisingthat vesselsmarked


as public property should be practically limited to their neighborhood. (There are also about a dozen
vessels of the 5th or 4th century B. c. which are marked with the two letters delta-epsilon not in ligature.

These come from variousplaces in the Agora and are thereforemore probablyto be interpretedas
abbreviationsof personalnamesbeginningthus.)
Threelater pieces with the ligaturedelta-etashouldbe listed, since de(mosion)would be so written
after the introduction of the Ionic alphabet. All three come from the neighborhood of the Hephaisteion.
(Four pieces inscribed with delta-eta, not in ligature, come from this neighborhood or the Tholos area,
but may again be abbreviations of personal names.)

Fa 1 (P 6139). P1.29. Base fragmentfrom large Fa 5 (P 5121).Graffitoon floor:


open bowl with thin blackglazeinside.Graffito
6(5Gitoiov)
on underside,within ring foot. Context:early
Fa 6 (P 5123). Graffito on floor:
5th century B.C.(E 15:6).
Early V cent. B.C.

s8E(6'cov)

E(pO6cnov)

8E(P6C7Iov)

Fa 4 (P 5120).Graffitoon floor:
68E(I6cov)

(ligature)

(ligature)

Fa 7 (P 5125).Graffitoon floor:
Elevenblack-glazedkylikes or fragments(PI.29),
6E(Oi6cov)
all inscribedwith the delta-epsilonligature,were
Fa 8 (P 7575).Graffitoon floor:
found in the wellunderthe Stoa of Zeus (H6:5),
6E(g6C1ov)
which producedmany other inscribedpots (see
List of Deposits).The date of bothpots and con- Fa 9 (P 5116).Graffitounderfoot:
text is 470-460 B.c. Hesperia,V, 1936,pp. 333ff.
6E(i.6o'ov)
Fa 2=Sparkes-Talcott,no. 436; mentionedthere
also are Fa 3-7, Fa 12, Fa 16-19; Fa 11 is referred Fa 10 (P 5119).Graffitounderfoot:
6E(i6o'ov)
to underno. 413.
Fa 2 (P 5117). Graffition floor and undersideof Fa 11 (P 5122).Graffitounderfoot:
E(P.o6alov)
foot:
6E(0C16oov)
(ligature)
6E(Vi6aiov)
(ligature) Fa 12 (P 5124). Graffito under foot:
Fa 3 (P 5118).Graffitoon floor:

(ligature)

(ligature)
(ligature)
(ligature)
(ligature)
(ligature)

(ligature)
(ligature) As will be seenfrom the drawings,morethan half
of the examplesuse the continuedleft stroke of
the delta as the top stroke of the epsilon (Fa 2,
(ligature) Fa 4, Fa 7-9, Fa 11, Fa 12).
SE(6oalov)

52

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS

Fa 13 (P 5140). P1.29. Partlyglazed one-handler.


Graffitoon floor. Context: 470460 B.C. (H 6:5).

Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 740.
Ca. 470-460 B.C.

SE(Coalov)

side. Context:second quarter5th centuryB.C.


(nearTholos).
Second quarterV cent. B.C.

(ligature)

Theligaturehereis madeup of severalstrokes


so that part of the epsilonappearsto be within
the delta.

E(QOClnov)
(ligature)

Fa22 (P 10616). P1.29. Half of black-glazed


saltcellar.Graffitoon underside.Context:mid5th century B.C.(near Tholos).
Mid-V cent. B.C.
8E((6Ci1ov)

(ligature)
Fa 14 (P 5158). P1.29. Small lekane. Graffitoon
underside,within ring foot. Context: 470-460 Fa 23 (P 5458). P1.29. Half of black-glazedsaltcellar. Graffitoon floor. Context:ca. 470-425
B.C. (H 6:5).
B.C.
no. 912.
(E 13:1). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
Ca. 470-460 B.C.
SE(i6Craov)SE(p6oiov)6E(LO6atov)

(ligatures)

Mid-V cent. B.C.

6&(6o'iov)

(ligature)

The thricerepeatedligatureappearsin over- Fa 24


(P 13227).PI.29. Base of black-glazedbowl
lappingconfusion.
or stemlesscup. Graffitoon floor. Context:to
late 5thcenturyB.C. (underStoaof Zeus).
Fa 15 (P 5181). PI.29. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Graffito
on
sideoutside,
amphora.
unglazed
V cent. B.C.
5E(IO6aiov)
(ligature)

ways to pot. Context: ca. 470-460 B.C. (H 6:5).


Ca. 470-460 B.C.
&E(l6aiov)
(ligature) Fa 25 (P 10422).PI.29. Wall fragmentof black-

glazedkylix.Graffitooutside.

Floor fragments of four black-glazed kylikes


V cent. B.C.
8E(p6caov)
(ligature)
of the same type as Fa 2 and all inscribedwith
the delta-epsilonligature (Pl. 29), werefound in Fa26 (P5595). P1.29. Base fragment of small
a rubbishheapfrom the Tholoskitchen (G 12:22).
black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon underside.
Graffiti are in each case on the floor. Context:
V cent. B.C.
SE(Cio6'ov)
(ligature)
470-460 B.C.

Fa 16 (P 10813).
Fa 17 (P 10814).

8E(6o0OV)

Fa 18 (P 10815).

6E(p6rtov)
8E(oL6o'iov)
8E(6cnlov)

Fa 19 (P 10816).

6?(goi6aiov)

(ligature) Fb 1 (P 8600). PI.29. Base fragment of blackglazed bolsal. Graffitoon underside.Context:


(ligature) 4th century B.C.(E 6:3).
(ligature)

IV cent. B.C.

8rl(cr6cov)

(ligature)

(ligature) Fb 2 (P 8611). P1.29. Black-glazedone-handler.


Graffito on underside.Context: 4th century
Fa 20 (P 10838).P1.29. Floor fragmentof blackB.C. (E 6:3).
glazed kylix similarto Fa 2. Graffitoon floor.
Context: second quarter5th centuryB.c.(near IV cent. B.C.
86rn(i.6clov)
(ligature)
Tholos).
Fb 3 (P 6825). P1.29. Neck fragmentfrom unSecondquarterV cent.B.C.8E(i06nov)(ligature) glazed amphora.Ligatureincised in wet clay.
Context:1st century B.C.
Fa 21 (P 10839).P1.29. Foot fragmentof blackI cent. B.C.?
6rn(p6oiov)
glazedkylix similarto Fa 2. Graffitoon under(ligature)

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS


The smallnumberof graffitodedicationsis rathersurprisingin viewof the manysanctuariesknownto
have been locatedin and aroundthe Agora (see Wycherley,pp. 48-125). Besidesthe piecespublished
here there are only a few fragmentson which part of the word aViSTjKE
can be read. Parallelsfor informal

pot-dedicationsof this sort may be found in most sanctuaries;see particularlyE. A. Gardner,Naucratis,London, 1886-88,I, pp. 54-64; II, pp. 62-69; C. Waldstein,The ArgiveHeraeum,Boston and
New York, 1902-1905,II, pp. 185-187; P. Woltersand G. Bruns,Das Kabirenheiligtum
bei Theben,
Berlin, 1940-, I, pp. 43-79; B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen,

Berlin,1909,II, pp. 114-124;C. Roebuck,Corinth,XIV, TheAsklepieionand Lerna,Princeton,1951,

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS

53

pp. 131-136; Ch. Dugas, Delos, X, Les Vases de l'Heraion, Paris, 1928; R. M. Dawkins, The Sanctuary
of Artemis Orthia, London, 1929, pp. 371-382.
Drinking cups of the Hellenistic period are not infrequently inscribed with the name of some deity
or some abstract idea, illustrating the banqueting practice attested by Athenaios (XV, 692e) of naming
successive mixings of wine after various gods (presumably in the genitive case; see G 9-11). For some
examples, see Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 339 and the bibliography cited there; also Hesperia, XVI, 1947,
probablycamefromthe potter'sshopwith theirinp. 240. The greatmajorityof ypaan-iKa KTrcbLaCrTa
scriptions already painted; these belong to the study of Hellenistic pottery. Only the graffiti, or homemade versions, are included here.
The four pieces (G 1-4) which are dated before the middle of the 5th century B. C. show letters typical
of a standard old Attic alphabet (see above, p. 16) with eta as the aspirate, epsilon used for eta and
omicron for omega. In the later pieces the regular Ionic alphabet is used, but in G 6 and G 7 omicron

is still usedfor omegawhilein G 6 (but not in G 7) epsilonis still usedfor eta. A lunateepsilonappears
alreadyin G 13 (late 4th-early3rd centuriesB. C.); lunatesigmaas well as epsilonand cursiveomega
appearon G 21 (2nd-lst centuriesB. c.). An attemptat serifs is made on G 16, and broken-barred
alphasappearon G 22 and G 23.
Odditiesin spellinginclude:one of the manyvarietiesof Eileithuia in G 8; an absenceof iota subscriptin G 15 and G 21. Punctuation(threedots arrangedvertically)appearsonly on G 17, but thereis a
word-dividerin G 7.
G 1 (P 12629). P1.30. Fragment from edge of G 3 (P 13754).P1.30. Partof clay ring. Letterson
heavy flat unglazedtile. Graffitoon top, obtop in blackglaze(a); graffitoon underside(b).
Context:
third
Context: late 6th century B.C.(U 23:2).
written
on
the
sherd.
viously
B.C.
6th
century
(Q 18:1). Hesperia, Late VI cent. B.C.
quarter
]KOV
(a)
VIII, 1939,p. 259, fig. 15 (no. 9).
(b) EiXE[
Third quarter VI cent. B.C.

hEpiEi

Compare G 2. The motto could be: qpECry

KcaK6v
'CayaXpa
'T.The graffitois perhapsthe owner's name.
(The drawingis upsidedown.)
An informal label on a dedication: "To
Hermes (someone dedicated) me, a pleasing G 4
(P 24062).P1.30. Small black-glazedkanthagift." The inscriptionis complete, so that it
ros (= Sparkes-Talcott,no. 627). Graffitoon
looks as if the writer,findingno room for his
outerface of one handle.Context:ca. 520-490
name, abandonedthis attemptand looked for
B.C.(Q 12:3).
a largerpiece of tile; thus the sherdwas found
hEpETi
"out of context,as far as Hermesis concerned." LateVI-earlyV cent. B.C. 'E'roCvaoos
This interpretationis closest to that of Jeffery
The nameis not known.
(L.S.A.G.,p.78,no. 33);forothersseetheHesperia G5
(P 14676). P1.30. Fragmentaryred-figured
referenceabove and H. R. Immerwahr,"Some
pyxis lid. Graffitoon top, aroundglazed band
Inscriptions on Attic Pottery," The James
between central tongue and dot pattern and
SpruntStudiesin Historyand PoliticalScience,
outeregg pattern.
XLVI, 1964,pp. 16-19.
Second half V cent. B.C.
'A]V[C]K.oiv
K[cAias
G 2 (P 9634). P1.30. Part of flat clay ring. Letters
The
of
name
the
dedicator
is
in black glaze on top.
suppliedexempli
gratia.
LateVI cent. B.C.
ri8sev]
Oyav
G 6 (P 12336). P1.30. Base fragment of blackCompareG 3. Thesetwo piecesare included,
glazedpyxis of a type found in the secondhalf
even thoughas paintedinscriptionsthey do not
5th century B.C. Graffiti on underside: on
reallybelong, becausethey seem to be unique,
projecting flange (a); within ring foot (b).
do not fit with any other studyand shouldnot
Graffitoon floor (c).
go unnoticed. It is assumed here that they
servedsome purpose at the festal board (pot
Second half V cent. B.C.
stands?)and were inscribedwith appropriate
(a) v]eTOvAfa Kai TV
'bVA[rr6AMova
maxims.
]Eoi'TEaalTO

54

G. DEDICATIONS AND CONVIVIAL INSCRIPTIONS


G 11 (P 22484). P1.31. Upper wall fragmentof
black-glazedkantharos,similar to G 9. Graffito on outside, going around body. Context:

(b) KalTov[
VETo[s SA?os

0E6[s
O
(C) ]K.

late 4th century B.C.

Compare B. Graef and E. Langlotz, Die

Late IV cent. B.C.

antiken Vasen von der Akropolis zu Athen, II,

'App[oSiTlsItp]as

no. 1445. The oath of the first line of (a) may G 12 (P 27040).P1.31. Neck fragmentfrom blackhave includedone or two other deities;it must
glazedmug. Graffitoon outside.
have been followed by a wish that a certain IV cent. B.C.
]TpcoyovT[
person might be avenged or punished. The
Since
this
can
only be a participlefrom the
second inscription (b) was then added to
verb
"to
it
seems
eat,"
likelythat it is convivial
includeone more nameddeity and the rest of
in
or
a
nature,
perhaps maxim suitableto the
the Olympiangods. This inscriptionis included
feast.
CompareXenophanes,fr. 18 D, line 3:
here becauseit has the gods in common with
yXuKuvolvov, vrroTpcbyovTr'PEPivGous.
TrfvovrTa
the convivialand dedicatorytexts.
G 7 (P 12011). P1.30. Rim fragmentfrom large G 13 (P 20424). PI.31. Lower wall fragmentof
open black-glazedbowl of 5th-centuryB.C. largeWestSlopekantharos.Graffitoon outside,
going around body. Context: late 4th-early
fabric.Graffitoon outside,just belowrim.
Late V cent. B.C. 6 8EivarTo'Hqaicr]
rol &vaOKEv

3rd centuries B.C.


Late IV-early III cent. B.C.

rT]av

8Ea[tv

The proposed restorationis not the only


possibleone, but comparethe roof tile (Agora G 14 (P 16236). P1.31. Rim fragment of West
inv. no. A 891) with a painted dedicationto
Slopekantharos.Graffitoon outsidebelowrim.
20
found
meters
which
was
about
Context:
3rd century B.C.(N 21:4).
Hephaistos
away (Hesperia,VIII, 1939,pp. 214-215).
III cent. B.C.
piMAi
G 8 (P 19694).PI. 30. Rim and wall fragmentof G 15
(P 18340).PI.31. Fragmentfrom rim and
decoration.
lebesgamikosstandwithred-figured
upperbody of West Slope kantharos.Graffito
Graffitoon outsidebelow rim.
Context: 3rd
below
B.C.
Early IV cent. B.C.

ivy garland.

'iXuv i[

Dependingon the case restoredthis may be


eithera dedicationor a "toast."
G9 (P 7360). PI.30. Fragmentaryblack-glazed
kantharosof a type found in the latterpart of
the 4th century B.C., approximately like Hes-

III cent. B.C.

century

TrTi KaOKo8Otaiov

Perhapshortatorysubjunctive:"let the evilspiritedone drink."This requiresthat the iota


have been omitted, but it is easier than assuming a second person singular imperative
(ris) with the adjectivein the vocativecase. An
attempthas been made to erase some of the
letters.

peria, III, 1934, p. 320, fig. 5, A 27, A 28.


Graffitoon upper part of body; apparentlyit
ran all aroundthe vase, passingunderexisting G 16 (L 3918). P1.31. Black-glazedlamp
handleand probablystartingand endingat the
Howland, no. 626, Type 48A). Graffito on
handle not preserved.Context: late 4th-early
eitherside of nozzleand body.
3rd centuries B.C.(E 3:1).
Late IV cent. B.C.
AtovWiaou
Ati6SXcoT[fpos
pin]Xas

'A[y]aefisT<X[ril
'AyaeoOA]afliov[os]
G 10 (P 22483). P1.30. Rim fragmentof blackglazed kantharos,similarto G 9. Graffitoon
upperpart of body, startingto right of handle
and ending behind handle. Context: late 4th
century B.C.
Late IV cent. B.C.

Ai[ovwo'ou Kal 'AqpoSirqs i]spas

CompareG 11.

Late III-II cent. B.C.

ispos 'ApTErli8os

It is not possibleto say in whichof the many


sanctuariesof Artemisthis lamp was dedicated.
Its findingplace (some 75 meterssouth of the
Tholos) might indicate Artemis Boulaia (in
the Tholos precinct:Hesperia,Suppl.IV, pp.
139ff.), but the sanctuaryof Eukleia(thought
by someto be ArtemisEukleia)was also in this
von
generalpart of town (Judeich,Topographie
Athen,2nd ed., Munich, 1931, p. 399). It is to
be noted that G 21, dedicatedto Dionysos and
Artemis,was found only a few metersto the
west of the spot wherethe lampwas discovered.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

55

G 17 (P 12664). P1.31. Base fragmentof black- G21 (P 6878). P1.31. Large West Slope krater
with figured scene: hunting near sanctuary.
glazed bowl of 3rd- to 2nd-centuryB.C. fabric.
Graffito below painted scene. Context: late
Graffitoon underside.
III-II cent. B.C.

'Ayop]a(ouv'Epioui

2nd-early 1st centuries B.C. (D 12:2). Hesperia,

VI, 1937, p. 374, fig. 39. Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,


p. 24, note 51.
Late II-early I cent. B.C.

The use of punctuation at this period is


unusual.The findingplace is just south of the
Altar of the Twelve Gods. See Wycherley,
AtovOaco
Koa'ApT-p8I
MEvoiAyfs
pp. 102-103 for the ancient testimoniaabout
the shrineof HermesAgoraios.
CompareG 16.
G18 (P 23205). P1.31. Wall fragmentof West
G22 (P 19179). P1.31. Shoulder fragment of
Slopeopenvase. Graffitobelowbandof painted
small unglazed pot of double conical shape.
checkerboardand crosshatching.Context:3rdGraffitoabove angle at shoulder,going around
2nd centuries B.C.
pot. Context:latestHellenistic(D 17:11).
III-II cent. B.C.
]as
'ApTr4[lt8t

The ending is presumablythat of the dedicator'sname.


G 19 (P 605). P1.31. Hemisphericalred-glazed
bowl (= Hesperia, III, 1934, p. 371, D 14).
Graffito on outside wall. Context: mid-2nd

I cent. B.C.

]Eupa Aiov[oCrcp

Found in the same general area as G 16


and G 21, perhaps pointing to a shrine of
Dionysos and Artemisjust off the southwest
cornerof the Agora.

century B.C.(H 16:4).


Mid-II cent. B.C.
ZEUs

G 23 (P 17585). P1.31. Shoulderfragmentfrom


unglazedround-bodiedpot. Graffitoon outside.
Context:secondhalf 1st century(B 20:1).
G20 (P21454). P1.31. Wall fragment of West
Secondhalf I cent. 'A]&eva
Slopekantharos.Graffitooutside.
II-I cent. B.C.

iEpov[

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS
This groupis dividedinto five sub-groups,of which the first four includevesselswith only one notation of this sort:capacity(Ha), tare(Hb),date(Hc) andcontents(Hd).Thefifthsub-group(He) includes
vesselswhichcombinetwo or more of thesenotations.In orderto facilitatecomparisonamonginscriptions of one kind,referencesaregivenin the firstfour sub-groups'introductionsto relatednotationsnot
only in He but also in any othercategorylike that of Tax Notations(I).
Dimensionsare includedonly when the vessel preserveseither diameteror height, since no other
measurementsare meaningful.Weightand capacityare noted whererelevantand available.In giving
modern equivalents of ancient weights and measures it has seemed right to use the time-honored and
generally accepted figures like 0.546 1. for the xestes (sextarius) and 327 gm. for the litra (libra), since
variations from these, although developed with much subtlety,are far smaller than the variations immanent in the ancient standardsof capacity and weight as exemplifiedin these common vessels of clay.

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF CAPACITY(Ha)


Notationsof capacityhereincludenot only those whichshow both a unit of capacityand a number
but also those with only a number where the size of the vessel makes that number significantin terms of
some obvious unit. Generally speaking, the notations of capacity may refer either to the amount which
was in the jar at a particulartime or to what it could hold. It is not thereforeright to deduce the size of a

unit by dividingthe measuredcapacityof a vesselby the numbermarkedon it, sincethe notationmay


have beenmadeto recordeithera knownamountbeingpouredin (withoutfillingthe jar) or whatwas
left aftera knownamountwas decantedfroman understoodoriginaltotal.Therefore,onlyif at leasttwo

56

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

jars (preferablymore) seem to requirea certainsize xestes, for example,will it be right to assumea
differentstandard;otherwise,it is morelikelythatthe notationrefersto somethingless thanfull capacity.
Not includedhere are the followingcategories:(1) many vessels, mostly from the Greek period,
alreadypublishedin Hesperia,XXV, 1956,pp. 1-24; (2) manyvesselswhich show inscriptionssimilar
to the ones presentedhere but which are not measurableand so can add nothing; (3) many vessels which

are include in otherclassesbecauseof othernotations(F 198; Hd 6, Hd 10; He 1-11, He 13, He 14,


He 16, He,17 HeHe,
He2, 26, He 29, He 30, He 32-37, He39-44; 5, 10, 12, 18, I 21, 23,
22,
I 24, I 26, I 32). These last are included in the present discussion. For other possible notations of capa-

city, see Hd 1, Hd 5, Hd 15 andHd 16 for singleletterswhichmayindicateeitherquantityor quality.


Except where noted, the capacity was measured to the rim and so is excessive, at least in pots where
restoration with modern plaster has not thickened the walls. The rim provides the only consistent upper

limitfor fillingsincenecksare of variouslengthsand the transitionfrom shoulderto neckis oftenhard


to define. What may have been the upper limit for filling in the ancient measurementscan occasionally be

determined:in Ha 9 the capacityto the rim is 2.150 1.; the sevenand one-halfkotylesmarkedthereon
should be 2.047 1. or about 95% of the up-to-rim capacity. It would however be too much to expect
consistency from the various measurersover the centuries representedhere.
In the Greek period, that is, before Christ, numbers may be expressed by simple tallying strokes

(Ha 3-7, Ha 11), or by acrophonicnumeralsin the 5th and 4th centuries(Ha 5, Ha 6, Ha 9; He 1-3)
and by alphabeticnumeralsboth in the 5th century(Ha 7) and later(F 198; Ha 14; He 4). Wherechous
and kotyle are counted as units (also staters and mnas), their initial letter is used instead of the simple

strokein acrophonicnumerals(Ha 6, Ha 7, Ha 9; He 1, He 3); similarlyboth 'nliovand es arerecorded


acrophonically( 6, Ha 7, Ha 9, Ha 10; He 2).
Chous is abbreviatedas X (F 198; Ha 2, Ha 6, Ha 10; He 1, He 2) or o( ) (Ha 14), or it is
writtenout as Xos(Ha 8), Xoi<s>(Ha 25) or xo6s (Ha 31). Kotyle is abbreviatedas K (F 198; Ha 7,
Ha 9, Ha 10, Ha 35; He 1) or KO( ) (Ha 29, Ha 40; He 17); other words used for the same unit
may be pE(Tpa)(Ha 19) and Trav(Tava)(He 21). Both units (kotyle and chous) continue to be used

occasionallyin the Romanperiod;on the otherhand, the Romanmodiusbeginsto appearin the 1st
centuryB. C. (He 4). Capacityis also measuredby the mna-weightof the contents(He 3; see also He 5
for mna-weight in the Roman period).
The vessels of the Greek period, largely fragmentary,provide only scanty evidence for the size of the

chousand kotyle,but whatthereis can be reconciledwith the standardkotyleof 0.273 1. and chousof
3.276 1. (F 198; Ha 9), even the "new chous" of Ha 2, whichis only slightlyundersizeand is more
likelyto be a joke than an officialstandard.
In the Romanperiod,exceptfor some tallying(He 16, He 17, He 33),numbersare mostlyalphabetic
(Ha 18, Ha 19, Ha 21, Ha 22, Ha 24-26, Ha 29-31, Ha 33-52, Ha 54-56; He 5-11, He 13, He 14,
He 17, He 21, He 22, He 25, He 26, He 29, He 30, He 32, He 33, He 35-37, He 39, He 42-44; 1 5, I 10,
I 12, I 18, 1 21, I 23, I 26, I 32) with < or c as one-halfand 8" as one-quarter.A few Romannumerals
are also used(He 19, He 20, He 41).
The most frequent unit of capacity in this period is the xestes, which appears both written out in full

(Ha 17, Ha 20, Ha 23, Ha 28) and abbreviatedin variousways:


| (Ha 30, Ha 56)
(Ha37; He36, He44; I5,1I26; K 13)
X (Ha 38, Ha 43, Ha 45, Ha 46, Ha 48, Ha 50-52; He 41; 1 18, I 21, I 23, 45)
Xestes is defined as a sixth (sextarius) of the Roman chous (congius) and thus the equivalent of two

kotylesor heminai.2The standardxestesof the firsttwo centuriesof our era seemsto havebeen0.546 1.3
1
2

Compare Metrolog. Script., II, xxx.


'Hpiva, the alternate word for kotyle in this period, appears only once (Ha 54).

3 Called Roman or Italic in Metrolog.Script.,I, 208. Such a xestes of wine weighed20 ounces (546 gm.).

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

57

or twice the old standard kotyle of 0.273 1.: Ha 21, Ha 22. In the third and following centuriesthe most
frequent xestes is one which is larger by one-third, i. e., 0.728 1.: Ha 23, Ha 24, Ha 27, Ha 30, Ha 32,

Ha 34, Ha 45, Ha 50; He 30; I 18. Thisis presumablythe xestesknownas the Hellenicoil xestes(Metrolog. Script.,I, 208, 213; calledAlexandrine,I, 264) whichhad 24 ouncesor two litrai(654gm.).As long
as wineis beingmeasured,two litrairequirea capacityof 0.654 1., whichis largerthanthe old xestesby
only one-fifth.But sincethe weightof oil is only 9/10 that of wine or water,the new 6/5 wine xestesof
0.654 1. had to be multipliedby 1019to get an oil xestesweighingtwo litrai,whichin capacityhad to be
4/3 theoriginal0.546 1., thatis, 0.7281. Wemayimaginethatthe old winexestesmayhavebeenincreased
by one-fifthfor the sakeof easyconversionto litrai(1 xestes=2 litrai),butit is interestingthatthe number
of our vessels which seem to employ a xestes of 0.654 1. (Ha 47, Ha 52)4 are far fewer than the vessels

basedon its companionoil xestes whichweighedthe samebut was 1/9largerin capacity(Ha 23, Ha 24,
Ha 27, Ha 30, Ha 32, Ha 34, Ha 45, Ha 50; He 30; 18).
Furthermore, the smaller standard xestes (0.546 1.) seems to continue in use (Ha 44, Ha 45, Ha 48;

He 36, He 39, He 41; 1 5) in the 4th, 5th and 6th centuries.Onejar (Ha 45) even seemsto providea
double standard,giving the number of both the 0.546 1. xestai (24 1/2) and that of the 0.728 1. xestai (19).
The apparentlycontemporaneous use of all three xestai is complicated by the fact that the one which the

metrologicalwritersspecificallylabelan oil xestesis the veryone whichourpot-notationsdesignateas a


wine-measure: not only does the jug (Ha 27) labeled olvnpos8iKoaoshold 0.728 l., but also He 30 holds

18suchxestaiof something"honeyed"whichis almostcertainlywine.Thusthe applicationanddefinition


of standardsseemto be in confusion,but we must rememberhow very scantyour evidenceis and how
large a role chance plays in what has survived.There may have been well-understoodconventions
about the use of differentxestai for differentcommoditiesor in differentkinds of tradingat different
times.And in additionwe are at the mercyof any sharpoperatorwho wishedto cheator any wag who
wishedto fool his neighborby labelinghis oil-measureas a wine-measure.
Thisbringsus to the threevesselswhichappearto be basedon still otherstandardxestai.In the case
of Ha 28, which is labeled O-Trrs
8iKcaos,are we to take the word of some ancientscribblerwhose
motivesareunknownand solemnlyassumea still largerxestes,becauseits measuredcapacityis 0.890 1.?
Orcan we say thathereis a cunningcustomerwho likedto takehis ownjug to the shopsand set his own
standards?Luckily,we have some other evidence:one kotyle is defined(Metrolog.Script.,I, 236) as
being three-fourthsof a standardxestes or 0.409 1.; if anotherxestes was based on such an outsize
kotyle,it wouldbe 0.818 1. andfit reasonablyinto Ha 28. A sextariusof 2/2 litraior 30 ounces(0.8181.)
is also mentionedby one of the Romanwriters(Metrolog.Script.,II, 128).Also, only if the 15 xestaiof
1 21 wereof this size (15x0.818 1. = 12.2701.) wouldtheyfit the measuredcapacityof 12.7501. No one
of these bits of evidenceis particularlyconvincingby itself, but it may be that all togetherallow us to
presumea xestesof 0.818 1. Still one otherxestes,basedon the 71/2ouncekotyle(Metrolog.Script.,I,
216, 235) is 0.409 1. (2 x 712x 27.3 gm. = 0.409 1.) or one-halfof the 0.818 1. xestes.This seemsto be
exemplifiedin Ha 43, which is markedas holding 27/2 (xestai);its measuredcapacityis 11.500 1.,
while27/2 x 0.409 1. = 11.2471. CompareHa 35, whichmayuse this same7'/2 ouncekotyle.
The next most frequentmeasureused in our capacitynotationsof the Romanperiodis the modius,
alwaysabbreviatedto the firsttwo letters(Ha 16, Ha 44, Ha 53; He 4, He 8-11; I 24). Onlyfour of the
nine vessels thus markedare sufficientlypreservedto providemeasurablecapacities,but these give
evidenceof two differentmodii. The firstis the regularRomanequivalentof the Greekhekteus(8 choinikes or 32 kotyles)whichis defined(Metrolog.Script.,I, 203, 205, 258) as both 16 sextariiand onethirdof a Romancubicfoot, i. e., 8.736 1.; the vesselsbasedon this modiusareHa 53 (witha measured
capacityof 9.250 1.) and He 8-11, all of which are labeledas holdingthreemodii (that is, one cubic
4 Actually these two vessels could be interpretedas based on the 0.728 1. xestes since the measured
capacity is in both casesless
than 6% under the capacitycalculatedwith the largerunit. But since it is difficultto explain the oil xestes except throughthe wine
xestes, it seems reasonableto see the wine xestes exemplifiedwhereit fits more easily than does the oil xestes.

58

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

foot) and arecloselysimilarin size and shape;the one measurableone (He 10) is 27.3201. or just about
4% over the calculated3 x 8.736 1. = 26.208 1.
The secondmodiusis the Cypriotemodius,whichis said (Metrolog.Script.,I, 261, 272)to contain17
and a fractionxestai.Thatthe fractionmaybe morecloselydefinedas two-thirdsis shownby one of our
andiL'p";its measuredcapacityis 9.8001. or less than1%
vessels(Ha 44)whichis labeledboth io6(5tos)
over the calculated 172/3x 0.546 1. = 9.646 1. Ha 16 has only the modius label, but its capacity of
10.2001. suggeststhat it too is Cypriote.Two otherfragmentsof jars similarin fabricto Ha 44 are also
markedas containing17213 xestai(Ha 36, Ha 42). He 39, also similarin fabric, is marked171/2 and has
a capacityof 9.800 1. Thatthesejars weremadein Cypruson a local standardseemslikely; sincethey
wereto be exported,for example,to Athens,theyweremarkedwiththeirequivalenton a moregenerally
acceptedstandard.We may assumethat in the Cypriotemetrologicalsystemthe xesteswas 1/16of the
modius(9.646 1.) or 0.603 1., that is, about 1/10greaterthan the normalxestes.
It will be noted that both the regularmodiusand the Cypriotemodiuswere based on the 0.546 1.
xestes. It is likely thereforethat Ha 50 with its inscriptionof 171/2(xestai)and capacityof 12.930 1.
(17/2 x 0.728 1. = 12.740 1.) is not a Cypriote modius, especially since the fabric is differentfrom that

of Ha 36, Ha 42, Ha 44 and He 39.


Otherpossiblemeasuresalso are noted on our vessels.Stamnos,variouslyabbreviated,appearson
threejars (Ha54; He 14, He 39), only the last of whichhas a measurablecapacity(9.800 1.); but since
this same vesselis marked171/2and is like the Cypriotemodii noted above in fabricit only confuses
themetrologicalvalueof the stamnos,whichis elsewheredefinedbothas ten andas fourxestai(Metrolog.
Script.,I, 277; II, 102).A possibleknidionis exemplifiedby Ha 15 witha measuredcapacityof 8.400 1.,
which appearon these vesselsthere is no evidenceas to the
but for the other threemeasure-names
vessels'capacity:keramion(Ha 18, Ha 56); hydria(Ha 18); medimnos(Ha 55).
The capacity of a vessel was often defined not by the number of standard units it could hold but by

the net weightof the particularcontents.Thatthis practicewas fairlygeneralmay be assumedfromthe


careful way in which the metrological writers (passim) defined the comparative weights of wine (or

water),oil and honey:i.e., the 0.546 1. xestesof wine weighs20 Romanounceswhilethe sameamount
of oil weighs 18 Roman ounces, and the same amount of honey weighs 27 Roman ounces. Thus the
weight of oil is to that of wine as 9:10, and the weight of honey is to that of wine as 13'/2:10. Net weight
is noted on ten of our vessels,twice(He 22; I 32) with an abbreviationof KacSapos,6
presumablyin the
sense of net weight, just as ocrrpaKouindicates the weight of the vessel or tare. Of the other eight, four
indicate the nature of the contents: oil in He 7; honey in He 29, He 33 and He 34. Two of the remaining

four (He 26, He 40) give tare weightin additionto net weight,but in the case of the last two (Ha 26;
He 32) thereis no indicationof whatthe weightrefersto, althoughit is fairlyeasy to guessby hefting
the jar or measuringits capacity.For example,Ha 26 is markedsimply"eightlitrai";6 8 x 327 gm. =
2.616kg. or 2.6161. of wineor water,whichis the measuredcapacityof thejug if the remnantof modern
plasterleft from restorationis discounted.He 32 is marked"ninelitrai"; 9 x 327 gm. = 2.943 kg. or
2.943 1. of wine or water; but because the jar's capacity is ca. 3.300 1. it seems clear that the contents

is oil: 10/9 x 2.943 1. = 3.270 1.7 Thus, in He 7 where the contents is specifiedas 20 litraiand 5 ounces of
oil, the calculatedweightis 20 5/12 x 327gm. = 6.676kg.; to get oil capacitytheformulais 10/9x 6.676 =
7.420 1., which compares neatly with the measured capacity of the vessel (7.400 1.). For further discussion of net weight, particularlyin connection with honey pots, see the introduction to Tare Notations
below.
6 KOSXapo is writtenin full on Hd 10, which was includedin the Notations of Contentscategoryas a descriptionof the contents,
althoughit is obvious that the litrai which follow give the weight of those contents or net weight.
6 Litrais the Greek form of libra or
pound; the weight is 327 gm. or twelve Roman ounces.
7
CompareHd 6, whichis includedin the Contentscategorybecauseits net weightindicatesthe natureof the contents.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

59

Ha 1 (P 8842). P1.32. Small black-glazedolpe Ha 5 (P 27517). P1.32. Neck and handles of


Chian (?) amphora. Graffito and dipinto on
of late 6th- and early 5th-centuryB.C. type.
Graffitoon shoulder.Context:ca. 520-490B.C. one side, with latter spreadingbeyond handle.
Contextas of Ha 3.
(E 14: 5). Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,p. 78, note 12.
H. 0.105 m.; D. 0.059 m.
1111
Late V cent. B.C. (graffito) r1Tv(-rT)
.ArF
V
B.C.
cent.
Early
Brl-rTpto
(dipinto)
The graffitoseems to be tally strokes with
For the eta-epsilon combination compare
I.G., I2, 623, 710; Lejeune,Revue des etudes summation(5) of what the ownerhad poured
anciennes,LI, 1949, pp. llf. For a similar in or out, althoughit is conceivablethat, after
a five-unitmeasurehad been poured in and
graffito,see ClaraRhodos,III, 1929,111.
recordedas such, five additionalsingle units
The capacity of the jug is 0.110 1. As the
inscription suggests, this is not a measure were counted. In the dipinto a fragment of
some sign precedesthe numeral,which may
(urTpov),but a middle-sizedvessel (irplov).
well give the price of the amphora with its
The well depositin whichit was found contains
original contents of seven or eight choes.
many examplesof olpes whichmay be roughly
dividedinto three sizes, of whichthis is indeed
Compare the seven-chousChian jar costing
14 drachmas(He 3 below).
the middle. There is a possibility, however,
that it is the contents that are designatedas Ha 6
(P 27525). PI. 32. Fragmentaryupper part
"medium" rather than strong or weak, or
of Mendean (?) amphora. Graffiti on upper
heavilyseasonedor unseasoned.
shoulder,both sides (a and b). Context as of
Ha 3.
Ha2 (P21553). P1.32. Black-glazedoinochoe
with trefoil mouth. Graffitoon neck. Context:
LateV cent. B.C. (a) 1!!iilil
thirdto fourthquarter5th centuryB.C. (P 8:2).
(b) rXXXH
H. 0.24 m.; D. 0.175 m.
AE
Fourth quarter V cent. B.C. Kaivi X(ous)
The tally strokes of (a) are presumably
recordedformallyin (b), with the additionof a
The capacity of the oinochoe filled to the
rim is 3.200 1., somewhatless than the standard final half-chous: -Tr(v'rE)X(6Es)X(oC0)X(oiS)
X(o0s) i(liaov).This looks like a permanent
chous of 3.276 1. So the chous it could reasonrecordof the jar's capacity(eight and one-half
hold
while
carried
not
be
ably
being
might
choes), made probably by the owner, whose
more than 3.100 1. and so might have been
"new"-whether in all metrologicalseriousness name may be abbreviatedin the two letters
scratchedbelow:AE( ) or r( ).
or as a cynicaljoke; see Agora,X, p. 48.
Ha 3 (P 27513). P1.32. Neck and shoulder of Ha 7 (P 26070).P1.32. Amphorahandle.Graffito
on outerface, fromtop down.
Chian amphora. Graffito on neck. Context:
E KK
V cent. B.C.
fourth quarter5th centuryB.C. (S 16:1).
]II1111II
The seven strokeswith summationby means
Late V cent. B.C. 1111
of
the letter zeta (7) representthe numberof
Four tally strokespresumablycountedmeaschoes
which the jar would hold. The fractions
ures as they were poured in. Since Chian
of
an
eighthchousarerepresented
by epsilonfor
amphoras ordinarily held more than four
two
for
two
and
aivau
kappas
kotyles.For the
choes, this might not be a permanentrecord
use
of
for
eta
epsilon
aspirated compareC 8.
of total capacitybut a temporarynote about
For
similar
capacityinscriptionswith tallying,
a smallerquantityput in (or takenout).
see Hesperia,XXV, 1956,p. 5.
Ha 4 (P 27515).P1.32. Neck of Chian(?)amphora.
Graffiti on side: (a) vertical; (b) horizontal. Ha 8 (P 26181). P1.32. Fragmentfrom neck and
rim of partly glazed chous of late 5th-century
Contextas of Ha 3.
B.C.

type. Graffito on neck.

= 11(irregularly
LateV cent.B.C. (a) 111
arranged) Late V cent. B.C. X6s
1111111
(b)
Note the three-barredsigma and omicron
Thesemay be two stagesof tallying,the one
for
contractedomicron-upsilon.
(a) rough and casual as choes (?) were poured
in, the other (b) a neat permanentrecord.Both Ha 9 (P 18609). P1.32. Small plain amphora
add up to the seven choes to be expected;see
with ring foot and ovoid body (= SparkesHa 5.
Talcott, no. 1463). Graffitoon neck. Context:

60

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

firsthalf 4th centuryB.C. (C 19:5). H. 0.222m.;


be used to catch all the water. Comparethe
D. 0.16 m. Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 11, no. 47,
klepsydrawhich is markedX X for two choes
pls. 2, 6.
(Hesperia,VIII, 1939,pp. 274ff.).
Firsthalf IV cent. B.C. F KKH
Ha 14 (P 25474).PI. 33. Fragmentfrom neck and
shoulder of amphora. Graffito on shoulder.
The presentcapacityto the rim is 2.150 1.
Seven and one-half kotyles, 1rr(?VT)K(o-raai)
Hellenistic
x6(s) P'
K( ) K( ) tl(plaov),of 0.273 1. wouldbe 2.047 1.
or about 95% of the capacityto the rim. We Ha 15 (P 16723). PI. 33. Amphorawith profiled
mouth and deep ovoid body. Dipinto in black
may wish to use this percentageelsewhereto
on shoulder.Context:early1stcentury(N 21:1).
give us the proportionof our up-to-rimcapH.
0.465 m.; D. 0.24 m.
acitythat was used by the originalmeasurers.
EarlyI cent.
Kv<i>81(ov)
Ha 10 (P 24760). PI. 32. Neck of amphora of
The readingis doubtful.The capacityof the
Mendean type. Graffiti on neck (a) and on
is 8.400 1., which is very nearlya modius
jar
Context:
third
shoulder
quarter
(b).
opposite
(8.7361.). The knidionwas knownas a measure
4th century B.C.(O 16:4).
but the only indicationof its size (P. Oxy., XV,
TI0
Third quarterIV cent. B.C. (a)
1896, 22; 1951) suggests that it held eight
(b) XXHK[
xestai (4.368 1.) or half a modius. Perhapsa
betafor "two"has disappeared.
(a) may be a number:89; (b) may be read:
x(o0s)x(o0s) (viov)K(OT0*X).
Ha 16 (P 14117). P1.33. Wide-neckedamphora
Ha 11 (P 25742). P1.32. Neck of large amphora of Ist-centurytype. Dipinto, in red, on neck.
Context: second half 1st century (0 17:1).
of Naxian type (?). Graffitoon neck. Context:
PH. 0.62 m.; D. 0.27m.
third quarter4th century B.C.(A 16:1).
o ( ) / ]lriil
Secondhalf I cent.
Third quarter IV cent. B.C. M 11=
The capacityof the jar is 10.2001., presumSince vertical and horizontal strokes may
units
different
of
Hesably a Cypriotemodius;see above, p. 58. The
capacity (cf.
represent
in
second line may give the producer'sname or
or
as
peria,XXV, 1956,pp. 4-6) differentiate
the
contentsin abbreviatedform; easiestwould
tens
between
and
units,
Mycenaeancounting
be f]mrip(viov), i.e., monthly (ration or offering).
arepossible,e.g.:
severalinterpretations
See three other jars of this same shape with
p(rTpa):2 large,2 small;
chi-rhoand phi dipinti(L 28).
1 I(ETrpirls),2 (x6&),2(KorTAa);
22 (as eithernet weightor tare).
ji(vaT)
Ha 17 (P 11258). PI.33. Fragmentaryroundbodied jug, similar to Robinson, Chronology,
Ha 12 (P 27367). PI.32. Upper part of blackG 182. Graffitoon lower body, upside down
glazed oinochoe handle of 4th-centuryB.C.
to pot. Context: second half 1st century
fabric.Graffitoon outerpart of top.
(B 14:3).
IV cent. B.C.
irTpi(ov)
Secondhalf I cent. <(>tor[rls
CompareHa 1.
Ha 13 (P 20903). PI. 32. Fragmentfrom profiled
foot of a large open bowl. Dipinto underfoot.
Context:down to 200 B.C. (Q 8-9).
III cent. B.C.

TrTp]oX)(OVV

There is no way of judging the capacityof


the bowl from the foot, but the restoration
above seems most likely. Since the fragment
was found in a layer over the floor of the
SquarePeristyle,which presumablycontinued
the law-courtfunction of its predecessor,it is
likely that the bowl was used to receive the
waterfroma klepsydra.So thattherewouldnot
be wastage or mess, bowls whose capacity
could not alwaysbe known at a glancewould
be markedso that a large enough one would

8fK[maos

Note zeta-formof xi. For restorationcompare Ha 28. The jug is too fragmentaryto be
measured.
Ha 18 (P 19491).P1.33. Fragmentfrom shoulder
of large amphorawith inset neck. Dipinti in
red on shoulder.
I cent. a)
]~
b) vSpiati p' f4(itav) i.e., 45? hydrias
[
KEp&Wia

? keramia

It is likely that the inscriptionrecordsthe


amountof a whole shipment,of whichthis jar
was one, sincethe hydriais reported(Metrolog.
Script.,I, 323) to be half an Attic metretesor
six choes (i.e., 19.6561.). The keramion,which

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

61

is the Romanamphoraof eightchoes(26.6161.),


xestes of this size, we must presumea change
must here be used as an alternate(or transin standard;see above,p. 57.
lated) summation. The number of keramia Ha 24
(P 9919).PI. 33. Smallamphora,Robinson,
should then have been somethingover 34.
Chronology,M 123. Faint dipinto,in black, on
Ha 19 (P 12458).P1.33. Amphorawith cylindrical neck. Context: early 3rd century (M 17:1).
neck and cone-shapedbody. Dipinto, in red,
H. 0.336 m.; D. 0.187 m.
on shoulder.Context: late lst-early 2nd cens'
EarlyIII cent.
turies(N 20:5). PH. 0.48 m.; D. 0.253m.
The capacityof the amphorais 4.350 1. Six
Aa'
Late I-early II cent.
(-r(Tpa)
xestaiof 0.728 1. (see Ha 23) make4.368 1.
The capacity of the jar, which lacks upper
neck and mouth, is 8.000 1. Thirty-onekotyles Ha 25 (P 14917).P1.33. High-neckedjug, similar
to Robinson, Chronology,M 120. Graffitoon
of 0.273 1. would be 8.463 1. Evidencefor the
neck. Context: mid-3rd century (N 17:1). H.
use of metronas kotyle is not known to me.
0.336m.; D. 0.24 m.
This jar may have been intendedas a modius
Mid-IIIcent. @'xoO8h<si.e., Xo5(S)8(K<ai>(os)
(32 kotyles)and was markedto show its variation fromthe standard.
The capacity of the jug is 6.400 1., almost
twice
the old standardchous of 3.276 1.
Ha 20 (P 17130). P1.33. Fragment from the
shoulderof an amphora.Dipinto, in black, on Ha 26 (P 9902).P1.33. Round-mouthed
jug, Robshoulder.Context:early 2nd century(B 20:1).
inson, Chronology,M 169. Dipinti, in black,
on neck (a) and underfoot (b). Context:mideo-ras
EarlyII cent.
[
3rd century (M 17:1). H. 0.256 m.; D. 0.171 m.
The numberof xestai is not preserved,nor is
Mid-III cent.
it clearwhy the formis accusative.
(a) Ai(rpat) rl'
n'
(b) A(Trpai)
Ha 21 (P 19400).P1.33. Amphorawith cylindrical
The
1. (i.e., 2.500
of
is
the
2.500
capacity
jug
body, similarto Robinson, Chronology,G 197.
of
wine
or
Roman
water).
Eight
pounds
kg.
Dipinto, in black, on neck. Context: early
of
327
be
of
would
2.616
Some
(litrai)
gm.
kg.
2nd century (E 17:1). H. 0.445m.; D. 0.26 m.
the
which
the
was
with
restored
plaster
jug
EarlyII cent.
K'<
was not smoothedaway on the inside and so
The capacityof the jar is 11.070 1. Twenty
accountsfor the discrepancyof 116 gm. (From
andone-halfxestaiof 0.546 1. wouldbe 11.1931.
the same context there is another similarjug
Some plaster remaining inside from recon[Robinson,Chronology,M 170] with the same
structionexplainsthe scantnessof the present
dipintounderthe foot.)
capacity.
Ha 27 (P 928). P1.33. Small wheel-ridgedjug of
Ha 22 (P 15682).P1.33. Wide-neckedsmall ammid-3rdcenturytype, like Robinson,ChronolM 77.
phora,similarto Robinson,Chronology,
ogy, M 151. Graffito on shoulder. Context:
Dipinti, in black, on either side of neck. Conmid-3rdcentury(I 16:1). H. 0.15 m.; D. 0.12 m.
text:secondhalf2ndcentury(S 21:3). H. 0.23m.;
Mid-IIIcent. o[l]vrlp6s
5iKaio[s] i.e., honest
D. 0.17 m.
Secondhalf II cent.

(a) 8'<
(b) (illegible)
The capacityof the jar is 2.500 1. Four and
one-halfxestaiof 0.546 1. amountto 2.457 1.
Ha 23 (P 7860).P1.33. High-necked,round-bodied
jug on small ring foot. Graffitoon shoulder.
Context:late 2nd-early3rd centuries(D 12:1).

wine-measure

The capacityof the jug is 0.760 1. Oivrpos6,


as an adjective,requiresthat a masculinenoun
be understood.The inscriptionand comparable shapeand capacityof Ha 23 make it clear
that the wordto be suppliedhereis xestes. For
a xestes of this size see p. 57. Note also that
the labeling of this vessel as a wine-measure
might suggest that it would otherwise be
H. 0.155 m.; D. 0.125 m.
of as somethingelse; see above,p. 57.
thought
Late II-earlyIII cent. E<Wa>xs
jug, similar
The capacity of the jug is 0.760 1. This is Ha 28 (P 17499).P1.34. Round-bodied
to
M
150.
on
Graffito
Robinson,
Chronology,
largerby some0.200 1. thanthe regular0.546 1.
shoulder.
Context:
mid-3rd
century
(J
18:1).
xestes, perhaps representingan increase by
H. 0.145 m.; D. 0.132 m. Illustratedin Hesperia,
one-third(from 0.546 1. to 0.728 1., which is
XVII,
1948,p. 191,pl. LXIX, 2.
approximately95 % of the up-to-rimcapacity).
Since severallater inscribedjars also requirea
Mid-IIIcent. {orrnsBSKOaOS

62

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The capacityof thejug is 0.890 1. to the rim.


To explain a xestes so large both absolutely
and relativelyto the old standardof 0.546 1.
and to the preservedcontemporaryexamples
holding 0.760 1. (Ha 23, Ha 27) requires
invoking the so-called "georgic" standardof
Metrolog. Script., I, 236 to authorize a xestes

of
that is twicethe kotyle that is three-quarters
the regular xestes: 2x3/4 (0.546) is 0.818 1.
See above,p. 57.

text: 4th century (C 13:2). H.0.54m.; D.


0.357 m.

As'
IV cent.
i.e., 35 (xestai)
The capacityof the jar is 27.040 1. The most
likely xestes will be that of 0.728 1., giving a
total of 25.480 1., but it is also possiblethat the
dipinto does not recordthe total capacitybut
merely the amount that was currentlyinside.
In this lattercasethe xestescouldbe smaller.

Ha 29 (P 4914). P1.34. Fragmentfrom rim and Ha 35 (P638). P1.34. Small gouged jug like
Robinson, Chronology, M 293. Graffito on
neck of a closed pot. Graffitoon neck. Found
H. 0.175m.; D. 0.125m.
neck.
in a layerof the 3rd century.
8'
III cent. Ko(rXaat)Alr'< i.e., 38/2 kotyles
EarlyV cent. K5[ i.e., K(oTXAai)
The capacityof the jug is ca. 0.800 1., sugHa 30 (P 17867). P1.34. Micaceouspointed jug
gesting the 71 ounce kotyle (0.204 1.) of
similarto Robinson,Chronology,M 240. GrafScript., I, 235. The dipinto may,
Metrolog.
fito on shoulder.Context:3rdcentury(M 20:2).
be a single number(i.e., 24) with a
however,
PH. 0.44 m.; D. 0.20 m.
For example,
varietyof possibleinterpretations.
III cent.
24 weightounces(24x27.3 gm. is 0.655 kg.) of
F(orrai) r'T
oil would requirea capacityof 10/9 the same
Filled to the mouth, the jug holds 6.300 1.
of wine, or 0.728 1.
weight
Eight xestai of 0.728 1. would be 5.824 1. and
leave a reasonablemarginfor air and a stopper.
Ha 36 (P 5671). P1.34. Shoulderfragmentfrom
wheel-ridgedamphoraof same type as RobinHa 31 (P 9672). P1.34. Fragmentfrom neck and
son, Chronology,M 333. Dipinto, in red.
shoulderof a smallamphora.Dipinto,in black,
on shoulder.Context: late 3rd-early 5th cenLate V cent. qppcoil'1" "I carry 17%" (xestai)
turies(N 18:5).
Apparentlya Cypriote modius. Cf. Ha 44
Late III-earlyIV cent. X6ess' i.e., 6- choes
and above, p. 58. Beta with a stroke is the
regularsymbol for the fraction 2/3 (Metrolog.
Ha 32 (P 10556).P1.34. Wheel-ridged
jug, similar
Script., I, 174).
to Robinson, Chronology,M 219. Graffitoon
neck.Context:firsthalf of 4th century(B 14:4). Ha 37 (P 8050). P1.34. Fragmentfrom shoulder
H. 0.16 m.; D. 0.112 m.
of largeamphora.Graffitonear handle.Found
Firsthalf IV cent. 68fKo[i.e., 8fK<ai>o[sorrias] with coins of late 4th and 5th centuries.
V cent.
i.e., 31 xestai
The capacityof the jug is 0.760 1. Cf. Ha 23,
(o-rai) Xa'
Ha 27.
Ha 38 (P 12010).P1.34. Top of storageamphora,
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 302. DiHa 33 (P 11579). P1.34. Wheel-ridged,roundbottomed amphora, Robinson, Chronology, pinto, in red, on shoulder.
M 273. Graffito on shoulder. Context: late
V cent.
i.e., 24 xestai
(orrai) K8'
4th century(M 17:1). H. 0.59m.; D. 0.335m.
Ha 39 (P 21310).P1.34. Fragmentfromthe shoulLate IV cent.
i.e., 372 (xestai)
l'<
der of an amphora.Dipinto, in red. Context:
The capacityof the jar is 25.740 1., but some
5th century(P 7:4).
plaster remaininginside from the restoration
V cent.
i.e., 293/4 (xestai)
K9s'<8"
probablymakes the difference(less than 6 %)
between the present measurementand the
Thejar may well have been of a size to hold
so manyxestai.
presumedoriginal 27.300 1. (37%x0.728 1.).
It shouldbe noted that 37% xestai of this size
are equalto 50 xestaiof the 0.546 1. size, which Ha 40 (P 469).P1.34. Fragmentfromthe shoulder
of a smalljar of 5th-to 6th-centuryfabric.Red
may explainthe ratherodd numberhere. But
dipinto.
see above,p. 57.
10'
V-VI cent. ]you Ko(r*tXaC)
Ha 34 (P 21840). PI. 34. Cylindricalamphora,
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 273. Coni.e., 19 kotylesof [contents]

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

63

Becauseof its weakstatethisjar couldnot be


Ha 41 (P 13150).P1.34. Upper part of amphora,
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 328. Dimeasured;see Ha 45, whichis slightlylarger.
pinti in red on neck (a) and shoulder(b).
Ha 47 (P 11558).PI.35. Storageamphora,RobinContext: late 5th to 6th centuries (O 18:1).
son, Chronology,M 327. Dipinto, in red, on
LateV-VI cent. (a) 1S' 3"i.e., 14% (xestai)
shoulder.Context:early 6th century(M 17:1).
PH. 0.42 m.; D. 0.262m.
(b) i8' 3"
See Ha 36 for the fraction.
i.e., 183/4
Early VI cent.
ITI' 8'
The jar is preservedonly to the beginningof
Ha 42 (P 13152).P1.35. Upper part of amphora
the
neck and has a presentcapacityof about
of sametype as Ha 41. Dipinti,in red, on neck
12
Since 183/4 xestai of 0.546 1. are
liters.
(a) and shoulder(b). Context:late 5th to 6th
to only 10.2381., the unit heremust
equivalent
centuries(0 18:1).
be a largerxestes, perhaps0.654 1. (x183/4 =
Late V-VI cent. (a) tL' 3" i.e., 17% (xestai)
12.2621.). But see above,p. 57.
(b) it' ("
Ha 48 (P 9784). PI.35. Small storage amphora,
Cf. Ha 36, Ha 41.
M 324.Dipinti,in black,
Robinson,Chronology,
on
down
to the pot. Context:
shoulder,
upside
Ha 43 (P 13164). PI. 35. Wheel-ridgedamphora,
6th
H. 0.38 m.; D.
early
century
(M
17:1).
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Dim.
0.215
pinto, in red, on shoulder. Context: late 5th
to 6thcenturies(O18:1).H. 0.49m.; D. 0.253m.
EarlyVI cent. ~(oarat)e'< i.e., 9? xestai
The capacityof the jar is 5.150 1. Nine and
LateV-VI cent. (Eorrat)
KL'< i.e., 27/2 xestai
one-half
xestai of 0.546 1. are 5.187 1. The
The capacityof the jar is 11.500 1. Twentyin its orientationto the pot,
drawing
appears
seven and one-halfxestai of 0.409 1. would be
hence
down.
upside
11.247 1. Cf. Ha 35, and see above, p. 57.
A graffitoalpha may be interpretedvariously. Ha 49 (P 3044). PI. 36. Fragmentfrom shoulder
of early6th-century
jar, like Robinson,ChronolHa 44 (P 13463). P1.35. Wheel-ridgedamphora, ogy, M 328. Dipinto,
in red.
similarto Ha 43. Dipinti, in red, on shoulder.
Early VI cent. K8' < 8" i.e., 243/4
Context: late 5th to 6th centuries (P 19:1).
The capacityof similarcompletejars of this
H. 0.463 m.; D. 0.235 m.
typemakesit clearthatthe numberhererecords
Late V-VI cent. (a)
..]
the jar's capacityin xestai.
a-rt]
at'p'
Ha 50 (P 12695). P1.36. Wheel-ridgedamphora
(b) IJ6(5ios)
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 328. DiThe capacity of the jar is 9.800 1., a good
in red, on shoulder.Context:early 6th
pinto,
Cypriote modius of 17% xestai (172/3x0.546 1.=
century
(O 19:1). H. 0.545m.; D. 0.258m.
9.646 1.). Cf. Ha 36, Ha 42.
Early VI cent. (Eo-rai)t' < i.e., 17? xestai
Ha 45 (P 26598). PI. 35. Amphora, similar to
The capacityof the jar is 12.9301. Seventeen
Robinson, Chronology,M 327. Dipinti, in red,
and one-halfxestaiof 0.728 1. are 12.7401.
on neck (a) and in black, on shoulder (b).
Context: early 6th century (Q 17:7). H. 0.55 m.; Ha 51 (P 12157).P1.36. Fragmentfrom shoulder
D. 0.282m.
of a closed pot. Dipinto, in black. Context:
VI
cent.
xestai
O-Q 18-19.
Early
(a) ~(4orrct)K8'<i.e., 2412
iO'
before
(b)
(faded
drawing) VI cent. ~(korai)K.U i.e., 27 xestai
The capacityis ca. 14 1. The two inscriptions Ha 52
(P 14055). P1.36. Wheel-ridgedamphora,
suggestthat this vessel was used in a time of
similar
to Ha 43. Dipinto, in red, on shoulder.
double standards:241/2x0.5461. = 13.377 1.;
Context:
6th century (Q 18:2). H. 0.51m.;
19x0.728 1. = 13.832 1.
D. 0.31 m.
Ha 46 (P 26693). P1.35. Amphora, similar to
VI cent.
o(-rai) KE' i.e., 25 xestai
Robinson, Chronology,M 327. Dipinto, in
The capacityof the jar is 17.580 1. Twentyred, on shoulder. Context: early 6th century
five xestai of 0.728 1. are 18.2001.; twenty-five
(Q 17:7). H. 0.54 m.; D. 0.282 m.
xestaiof 0.654 1. are 16.3501. See above,p. 57.
EarlyVI cent.
(chi-rho)
(The drawing shows only the faded remnant
(crTrat) Ka' 8"

i.e., 21 ? xestai

of the original letters.)

64

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Ha 53 (P 22512). PI. 36. Fragmentaryamphora, Late Roman orr& (vot) s-' ft(ivat) y'
lackingneck. Dipinto,in black,at base of neck
i.e., 6 stamnoi,3 heminai
(a) and below one handle(b). Context:6th-7th
The stamnos is variously defined as equal
centuries(Q 17:1). PH. 0.40 m.; D. 0.22 m.
to fouror tenxestai(heminai)(Metrolog.Script.,
VI-VII cent. (a) illegible
I, 277; II, 102).
(b) v6(b6os)
The capacityof the jar (up to the neck) is Ha 55 (P 9318). P1.36. Fragmentfrom rim of a
9.250 1., so that it mightbe eitherthe ordinary verylargepithos.Graffitoon top of rim.
ta'
modius (16 xestai = 8.736 1.) or the Cypriote Late Roman .iE(S6wvot)
modius (172/3 xestai = 9.646 1.). It is not the
The abbreviationmightalso be completedas
same clay as the Cypriotemodii above (Ha 36,
E(TpTrrai).
Ha 39, Ha 42, Ha 44).
Ha 54 (P 5663). PI. 36. Fragmentfrom neck and Ha 56 (P 9322).PI. 36. Fragmentfromthe shoulder
of a very largeamphora.Graffitoon shoulder.
shoulderof largeclosedpot. Graffitoat junction
of neckand shoulder.
LateRoman K(s)p(&(ata)
pY' (orai) 8' <

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF TARE (Hb)


Tare,or the weightof the emptyvessel,is inscribedon pots presumablyfor the sake of determining
quicklyand easilythe net weightof contentsfromthe total weightof the filledjar. Thiswouldbe useful
both at the time of the originalsale and in laterre-useof the jar whenit was takento be refilled.These
two differentuses are perhapsreflectedin the two differentkindsof inscription,the dipintotare being
writtenby the merchantand the graffitomorecasuallyinscribedby the householder.In both casesthe
presenceof the tarenotationmakesit evidentthatthe liquidswhichthejarsheldweresoldby weight.
In additionto the 31 tare notationsclassifiedhere,thereare 19 morewhichhave been includedwith
the He group(Combinationsof CommercialNotations)and one morewiththe I group(TaxNotations)
becausethey are only one part of texts whichcombinetwo or more items: He 3, He 5, He 6, He 12,
He 13, He 17, He 22, He 25, He 26, He 28, He 29, He 31, He 33, He 34, He 37-40, He 43; I 7). The
presentdiscussionis basedon these20 as well as on the 31 numberedHb below.
thanthosefromthe Roman
Tarenotationsfromthe Greekperiodarebothfewerandless standardized
net
tare
and
is
be
both
Earliest
He
3
with
what
is
most
to
weight,since this is the only
likely
period.
whichuse mu as the acrophonic
of two numbers,one precededby aji((popE*S),
reasonableinterpretation
is Hb l's graffitoof acrophonic
also
tare
20
is:
that
12
mnas.Probably
mnas;( )
unit,
am(phora)
numeralswith simpleuprightstrokesas units. Hb 2 and Hb 3 are completelydifferent,the one being
labeled "100 drachmas"and the other "20 ounces," both using alphabeticnumerals.The 650 gm.
notation,if we mayinvokethe emporicmna of
weightof Hb 2 probablyconfirmsthe hundred-drachma
654 gm. And Hb 3's use of Romanouncesis paralleledby the appearanceof at least one lead weight
basedon the Romanstandardin a contemporarycontext.Hb 4 introducesfor the firsttime in Athens8
one of the tare-formulas(cf. He 5, He 22) of the Roman period: oxKcoa == "jar", with the weight
specified.
In the Romanperiodtare notationsare of threegeneralkinds: 1) a worddesignatingthe emptyjar,
often in the genitivecase, followedby a weight-unitsymboland a number;2) simpleverticalstrokes
whichseem to be a tally of the numberof weight-units;3) weight-unitword or symbolfollowedby a
number.The first kind declaresthat it is tare. The secondkind is provedto be so in variousways:
Hb 15 andHe 33 both havetheirtalliesreinforcedby notationsof the "emptyjar" sortwiththe number
8 But see pots from the Hellenisticperiod found in Corinthwhich have dipintirecordingsakomafollowed by a ligatureof mu and
nu (certainlythe abbreviationof mna) and so giving tare weight (Hesperia,XVIII, 1949,p. 152, pl. 16).

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

65

of weight-unitsagreeing;of the ten vesselswith tallies that are completeenough to weigh (Hb8-10,
Hb16,Hb19,Hb24, Hb25, Hb31; He 17, He 33) only three(Hb16,Hb24, Hb31)haveweightswhichdo
not substantially
agreewiththetallystrokes,9twoperhapsbecauseof incrustationinside,theotherbecause
the last strokewas inadvertently
sevenof thse jarswithtallies(Hb9, Hb 15, Hb 16,
finaally, omitted;and
Hb 24, Hb 25, Hb 31; He 33) areof the samegeneralshape,whichtheysharewithfive of the vesselswith
"emptyjar" weight(Hb14, Hb 21, Hb 22; He 34, He 37), and wereprobablyusedin a similarway over
manygenerations.The thirdkind includesa varietyof texts so that the reasonsfor interpretingthemas
tarediffer:someare obviouslytareweightbecausethey arecoupledwithnotationsof net weight(He 26,
He 29); othersarecompletelyunaccompanied
butmustbe tarebecausetheyareconfirmedby the present
of
the
vessel
Hb
Hb
He
18,
29;
weight
(Hb5,
39); othersare uncertainbut seemmorelikelyto be tare
than anythingelse (He 6, He 12, He 13, He 38; I 7).
Tarenotationsof the firstkind use five differentwordsfor the emptyjar: 1) twelve vessels have 6aeitherwrittenin full(Hb12, Hb 14, Hb15, Hb21,
Tp&Kou
(includingone oarparis and one 6aoc-rpaKou)
Hb 23, Hb 26; He 31, He 34) or abbreviatedto five or six letters(Hb7, Hb 30; He 33; He 37 is incomplete); 2) on five vessels the adjectiveKoipiou or its abbreviationKouv( ) appears (Hib22; Hb 11, Hb 28;
He 25, He 28); 3) two show abbreviationsof mKTcbuaaTos
of eithertwo or five letters(He 5, He 22); 4)

anothertwo may perhapsbe read


as
He
40read
as,crit(b2
(He
40,He 43); and 5) one jar is almostcertainlyto be
readas wpinou(Hb6). Althoughthis last occursin the 2nd centuryand the Hellenisticsekomawe have
alreadynoted has its parallelsin the 1st and 3rd centuries,there is no real chronologicaldistinction
among the termsused; for example,ostrakouappearsin the 2nd, 4th, 5th and 6th centuries;kouphou
occursin the 3rdto 6th centuries.The numbersusedin theseinscriptionsare all of the Greekalphabetic
sort; occasionallythe symbolfor theweight-unitis omitted(Hb 15, Hb 30; He 40). The greatmajority
of theseinscriptionsare dipinti;only threeare graffiti(Hb23; He 31, He 43).
Tare notations that are made up of tally strokes,alwaysscratchedand neverpainted,appearon
fifteenvessels(Hb8-10, I-lb13, Hb 15-17, Hb 19, Hb 20, Hb 24, Hb 25, Hb 27, Hb 31; He 17, He 33),of
whichtwo (Hb15; He 33) also have "emptyjar" notations.Twelveof these have only simpleupright
strokes,with occasionallya half strokeor a horizontalstrokefor a fractionalunit, but the othlerthree
(Hb 10, Hb 17, Hb 19) used the Roman sign for "ten." Since these threeare the only ones wherethe
weightis over ten litrai,we shouldperhapsthink that all the tallyingwas done on the Romansystem.
This would be reasonablesince the Greek alphabeticsymbolfor "ten" was a simpleuprightstroke
fromthe "ones."'10
The Roman"ten" also suggeststhat a ten-litraweightwas firstput
indistinguishable
on the balanceand notedas such beforethe single-litraweightswereadded.This kind of notationcontinuesfromthe 2nd centuryforward.
Tarenotationswithsimplenumbersappearon the following:Hb 5, Hb 18, Hb 29; He 6, He 12, He 13,
He 25, He 26, He 29, He 38, He 39; 17. The chronologicalrangeis from the firstto the sixthcentury,
and the numbersare all on the Greekalphabeticsystem.
In all the taretextswhereit appearsthe litra is abbreviatedeitherto a simplelambdaor to a lambda
witha diagonalstroke(variouslyplaced)whichmaysometimesbe thoughtof as the followingiota. Ounce
(ouiyKia)appearsas eithergammaenclosingomicron(e. g. Hb 3; He 22, He 39) or omicronsurmounted
by upsilon(Hb22).
9It is understood that the weight-unitis the Roman litra since the only two mna-weightsbelong to the early part of the first
century (Hb 5; He 5).
10In the capacitynotations of the Greek
period the acrophonicnumbersystem allowed tallyingof this sort (with delta for "ten")
for a differentpurpose. The whole shift in the use of tallyingfrom measuresto weights is interestingand suggeststhat commodities
began to be sold more and more by weight.

66

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Hb 1 (P 9753). PI. 37. Neck of coarse amphora. pinto, in red, on neck. Context:early 1st cenGraffitoon neck. Context: late 4th-early 3rd
tury(G 8:1).
centuriesB.C. (B 13:8). Hesperia, XXV, 1956,
i.e., 11 mnas
EarlyI cent. pv(ac)ia'
p. 17, no. 73.
The jar at present weighs 8.150 kg. and must
IV-III cent. B.C. AA111III i.e., 26 (mnas)
originally have weighed somewhat more. The
For the interpretationsee He 5; 26 mnas
mna used heremust be that of 150 coin drachare less than 11 kg. and a reasonableweight
mas, that is, the commercial mna of 654 gm.;
for such an amphora.Tare seems to be the
cf. Hb 2 above. Eleven such mnas are 8.194 kg.
right interpretationon two grounds:weightof
contents is comparativelyuseless except in Hb 6 (P 17129). P1.37. Upper part of unglazed
amphoraof 2nd-centurytype, like Robinson,
conjunctionwith tare; a capacityof 26 choes is
Chronology, G 197. Dipinto, in black, on
not possible.
shoulder.Context:late Ist-early2nd centuries
Hb 2 (P 5792). P1.37. Small amphora. Graffito (B 20:1).
on shoulder.Context:3rdcenturyB.C.(E 14:1).
ei'
PH. 0.315 m.; D. 0.157 m.
III cent. B.C. 6X(Kal)p' i.e., 100 drachmas

Early II cent.

priwovX(iT-rpa)

i.e., (weight)of empty:15litrai


The fragmentarystate of the jar makes its
presentweightirrelevant.

The present weight of the amphora,which


lacks one handle and the rim, is 650 gm. The
completejar may have been equal to a mna Hb 7 (P 23389). PI.37. Fragmentfrom the wall
(100 drachmas, like Pernice, Gr. Gewichte, of a closed pot. Dipinto, in black. Found with
Berlin, 1894, nos. 598, 599, 605) on the compotteryof the 1st and 2nd centuries.
mercial standardwhich made up a mna of
II cent. 6]o-rp(KOU)A(iTpaI) 0'
150 coin drachmas(150x4.36gm. - 654 gin.).
i.e., (weight)of jar: 9 litrai
See also Agora, X, pp. 19f. This commercial
mna is not, however,attestedbefore the 2nd Hb 8 (P 10469). P1.37. Small wheel-ridgedamcenturyB.C.
phora; handles, mouth and some wall pieces
and most of neckmissing.Graffitoon shoulder.
Hb 3 (P 5929).P1.37. Shoulderand neck of small
Context:mid-3rdcentury(M 18:4).PH. 0.24 m.;
amphora. Graffito beside base of handle.
D.
0.19m.
Context:3rdcenturyB.C. (E 14:1).
Mid-IIIcent. I1111- i.e., 5 (litrai),1 (ounce)
III cent. B.C. K' o(*)y(Kiai) i.e., 20 ounces
The weightof the jar in its presentfragmenThe use of the Roman ounce at this period
tary state is 1.235 kg. The recordedweight is
in Athensmay also be seen in Agora,X, p. 31,
no. 70. It is impossibleto tell from the graffito 1.662kg.
itselfwhetherit refersto capacity(20 ounces= 1 Hb 9 (P 26602). P1.37. Small amphora, intact,
xestes) or to the weight of the jar, but the
like Robinson,Chronology,M 238, but earlier.
presenceof a tarenotationon Hb 2 in the same
Graffitoon shoulder.Context:early4th century
deposit suggests that it might be the latter.
(Q 17:7). H. 0.425m.; D. 0.20 m.
Althoughonly a small part of the jar survives,
EarlyIV cent. (a) Ai (written in soft clay
comparison for size with Hb 2 suggests a
with bluntinstrument)
possibleweightof about 546 gm. or 20 ounces.
i.e., 9 (litrai)
(b) 111111111
Hb 4 (P 16404). P1.37. Rim and wall fragment
(a) may be either number or abbreviation.
of wide-mouthedcoarsejar. Dipinto, in black,
(b) The jar weighs 3.065 kg., about 4% over
justbelowlip. Context:1stcenturyB.C. (F 19:3).
the 2.943 kg. recorded.A non-solubledeposit
inside
I cent. B.C.
may account for the discrepancy.(The
oCXKCOp[
of
first
the tally-strokesis shorterthan the rest
For sekoma(sakomain Doric) as weight of
somewhat
and
separatedfrom them.)
the vessel,cf. He 5, He 22, and also pots from
Corinth(Hesperia,XVIII, 1949, p. 152, pl. 16, Hb 10 (P 9881).PI. 37. Amphorawithlip andsome
15-17) where the writingis very similar.The
M 232.
of neck missing,Robinson,Chronology,
meaning"jar"is attestedin P. Oxy.,XVI, 1896,
Graffitoon shoulder.Context:early4th century
19.

Hb 5 (P 3467). PI.37. Early Roman amphora,


lacking much of mouth and one handle. Di-

(M 17:1). PH. 0.452 m.; D. 0.298 m.

EarlyIV cent.

=
XIII111
16
i.e., (litrai),2 (ounces)

67

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS
The present weight of the jar, without the
lip and part of the neck, is 5.030 kg. The recordedweightis 5.287kg.
Hb 11 (P 10267).PI. 37. Unglazedamphora,missing handlesand lip, of early 4th-centurytype,
like Robinson, Chronology,L 31. Dipinto, in
black, on shoulder.Context:early 4th century
(M 18:4). PH. 0.46 m.; D. 0.257 m.
Early IV cent. K.[oU]qp(ou)
W(i-rpat)
ty'

i.e., (weight)of empty:13litrai


The presentweightof thejar, withouthandles
and lip, is 3.935 kg. The recordedweight is
4.251 kg.
Hb 12 (P 25170). PI. 37. Amphora with narrow
neck,verticalhandlesand a bodylike Robinson,
Chronology,M 236. Dipinto, in black, on
shoulder. Context: Q 17:4. H. 0.54 m.; D.
0.195m.
EarlyIV cent. 6ocrpaK'ns
<0'>
XA(Tpac)
i.e., (weight)of jar: 9 litrai
The present weight of the completejar is
2.870 kg.; the recorded weight is 2.943 kg.
The number,which must be taken as theta,
looks like a rectangularepsilon, which is most
unlikelyto occurat thisperiod.Theform6o'rp&Ki
is not attested.

s'
EarlyIV cent. (dipinto) oo-rpaKou
i.e., (weight)of jar: 6 (litrai)
(graffito) '11111
Five strokes tallying for the first five litrai,
with a sixthstrokeslantwise.
Hb 16 (P 12825). PI. 37. Wheel-ridgedamphora
of late 4th-centurytype, between Robinson,
Chronology,M 238 and M 305. Graffito on
shoulder.Context: late 4th century (O 19:1).
H. 0.308 m.; D. 0.214 m.

Late IV cent.
111111 i.e., 6 (litrai)
The jar, which lacks only a part of the lip,
now weighs 2.180 kg. or 10% more than six
litrai(1.962kg.). It is possiblethatit wasmarked
underweightby a merchant who wished to
give shortweighton the contents.Or theremay
be a considerabledepositinside.
Hb 17 (P 7884). PI. 37. Fragmentfrom neck of
amphora.Graffitoon neck. Found in a layer
withpotteryand coins of the 4th century.
<
IV cent.
X!I!i111
i.e., 17/2 (litrai)
Hb 18 (P 14110).P1.38. Smallamphoraof earlier
date but same type as Robinson, Chronology,
M 324, M 325. Graffitoon shoulder.Context:
4th century (O 19:1). PH. 0.40 m.; D. 0.22 m.
IV cent.

Xr(Tpat) U'

i.e., 7 litrai

The presentweightof the jar, which lacks a


Hb 13 (P 11193).P1.37. Upper part of amphora,
mouth
and is partly restored in plaster, is
of a type related to Robinson, Chronology,
2.075
sevenlitraiare 2.289kg.
kg.;
L 31. Graffito on shoulder. Context: early
4th century(C 14:4).
Hb 19 (P 14113).P1.38. Amphoraof 4th-century
M 230. Graffito
type,like Robinson,Chronology,
111111 i.e., 6 (litrai)
EarlyIV cent.
on
shoulder.
Context:
4th
century
(O 19:1).
The jar is too fragmentaryfor its present
PH. 0.46 m.; D. 0.28 m.
weight to be significant.Others of this type
IV cent.
]XI1111< i.e., 15/2 (litrai)
weighabout six litrai.
The presentweight of the jar, which lacks a
Hb 14 (P 11194). P1.37. Upper part of wheelmouth and has been partlyrestoredin plaster,
ridged amphora of 4th-century type, like
is 4.750 kg.; 15/2 litrai are 5.068 kg.
Robinson, Chronology,L 55 and M 238. Dipinto, in black, on shoulder,very faint. Con- Hb 20 (P 26114). P1.38. Amphora top, comtext: early 4th century(C 14:4). PH. 0.299m.;
L 54. Graffito
parableto Robinson,Chronology,
D. 0.224m.
on shoulder.Context:Q 19:1.
IV cent.
11111111 i.e., 8 (litrai)
EarlyIV cent. OtaKKOU X(iTpai) U
i.e., (weight)of jar: 7 litrai
The fragmentarystate of the jar makes its
The preservedupper two thirds of the jar
presentweightirrelevant.
weigh 1.710 kg.; seven litrai are 2.289 kg. Hb 21
(P 10710). P1.38. Wheel-ridgedamphora,
(Some letters had faded completelybefore the
neck and handles,of 4th-centurytype,
missing
finaldrawing.)
like Robinson,Chronology,
L 55, M 238. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th-5th
Hb 15 (P 11197). PI. 37. Shoulder fragment of
centuries (E 15:5). PH. 0.34 m.; D. 0.20 m.
small wheel-ridgedamphora like Hb 14. Diin
and
on
pinto, black,
IV cent. 6O]rTpaKouX(irpai) U'
graffito shoulder.Context: early4th century(C 14:4).
i.e., (weight)of jar: 7 litrai

68

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The presentweightof thejar withouthandles


and lip is 2.025 kg.; sevenlitrai are 2.289 kg.

V cent.

oCrpOKovXi(Tpat)ip3'

i.e., (weight)of jar: 12 litrai


The present weight of the jar, with several
pieces missing, is 3.410 kg.; twelve litrai are
3.924kg.

Hb 22 (P 16079). PI.38. Small amphoraof 4thM 238.


centurytype,like Robinson,Chronology,
Dipinto, in black, on shoulder.Context: 4th
century (F 15:1). PH. 0.38 m.; D. 0.215m. Hb 27 (P 14016). P1.38. Small amphoratop of
IV cent. KoV<Kp>ou
X(Trpal)s'/ oO(yKiai)y'
5th-to 6th-centuryfabric.Graffitoon shoulder.
i.e., (weight)of empty:6 litrai,3 ounces
Context:3rd to 6th centuries(M 18:4).
The present weight of the jar, which lacks
V-VI cent.
111111 i.e., 6 (litrai)
mouth,one handleand has beenpartlyrestored
The fragmentarystate of the jar makes its
in plaster,is 1.910kg.; six litraiandthreeounces
irrelevant.
are 2.043kg. The use of pi for phi was in earlier presentweight
times a barbarism; in the Roman period, Hb 28 (P 12914). P1.38. Narrow-bodiedjug of
and 'Aqpiav6sfor Sulspellingslike oAXixKios
6th-centurytype, like Robinson, Chronology,
p. 60) sugpicius and Appianus(Meisterhans2,
M 315.Dipinto,in veryfaintblack,on shoulder.
gest that therewere some individualsto whom
Context:5th-6thcenturies(P 18:1).H. 0.595m.;
phi and pi soundedalike. Comparewhat seems
D. 0.203m.
to be the reverseconfusionon 1 19.
VI cent.

Hb 23 (P 26699).P1.38. Fragmentfrom shoulder


of small ribbedamphora.Graffitoand dipinto,
black.Context:4th century(Q 17:7).
IV cent.

(graffito)

KO.Ip(ov)A(iTpai)i'

i.e., (weight)of empty: 10 litrai


The weightof jug, completeexceptfor minor
fractures,is 3.120 kg.; ten litrai are 3.272 kg.

AX(Tpai)0'
6cr]TpaKou

Hb 29 (P 12936).PI. 38. Amphoraof 6th-century


M 325.Dipinto
type,like Robinson,Chronology,
in black, on shoulder.Context: 5th-6th cenHb 24 (P 11355). PI.38. Wheel-ridgedamphora turies(P 18:1). H. 0.451m.; D. 0.205m.
of early 5th-century type, like Robinson,
VI cent.
i.e., 9 litrai
A(iTpal) e'
Chronology,M 305. Graffitoon shoulder.ConThe completejar weighs2.935 kg.; nine litrai
text: 4th-5th centuries(E 15:5). H. 0.396m.;
2.943 kg. (Sincethe dipintohad completely
are
D. 0.216m.
faded beforethe final drawing,this was copied
111111 i.e., 6 (litrai)
EarlyV cent.
from the original reading, which bears little
relationto whatwas seenby me in 1960.)
Restoredwith plasterand with some plaster
2.315
now
more
than
the
inside, jar
weighs
kg.,
one litramorethanthe recorded1.962kg. Com- Hb 30 (P 13464). PI. 38. Body of amphora,
lackingmost of shoulder,neck and handles,of
pare Hb 16; but here it is possiblethat as each
6th-centurytype, like Robinson, Chronology,
litra weightwas addedto the balancea stroke
M 325. Dipinto,in black,on shoulder.Context:
was made on the jar until the last, which was
5th-6thcenturies(P 19:1).
forgotten in the bustle of removing weights
andjar alike.
VI cent.
oaTpaxK
(ou) s'
i.e., (weight)of jar, 9 litrai
(dipinto)illegible

of

i.e., (weight) jar: (litrai)


Hb 25 (P 13472).P1.38. Small amphoraof 5thThe jar is too fragmentaryfor its present
M 305.
centurytype,like Robinson,Chronology,
to be of significance.
weight
5th-6th
on
shoulder.
Context:
centuGraffito
ries (P 19:1). H. 0.333m.; D. 0.173m.
Hb 31 (P 14056). PI. 38. Amphora of the 6th
11111
V cent.
i.e., 5 (litrai)
century,a later exampleof the type of M 305,
M 306 in Robinson, Chronology.Graffitoon
The present weight of the jar, with some
neck.
Context: 5th-6th centuries (Q 18:2).
is
1.615
five
litrai
are
kg.;
plasterrestoration,
H. 0.44 m.; D. 0.23 m.
1.635kg.
11111111 i.e., 8 (litrai)
VI cent.
Hb 26 (P 13477).PI. 38. Amphora,lackingmouth,
The present weight of the completejar is
one handle and wall pieces, of 5th-century
3.330 kg.; eight litrai are 2.616 kg. See Hb 16
type, like Robinson, Chronology,M 302. Diand Hb24 for possible explanationsof the
pinto, in black, on shoulder.Context:5th-6th
centuries (P 19:1). H. 0.505 m.; D. 0.26 m.
discrepancy.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

69

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF DATE (He)


Of all the categoriesof commercialnotationsdates are the least satisfactoryand convincing,largely
becausethey are far more relativeto and dependenton a temporalcontextthan are the notationsof
on
capacity,tare and contents.Indicationsof time appearon the 26 vesselsincludedin this category,"1
sevenwhichare classifiedwith CombinedNotations(He 4, He 18, He 23, He 24, He 37, He 41, He 42),
and on one with Owner'sMarks(F 250), and on three(I 17, I 23, I 44) of the Tax Notations,over and
above the indictiondateswhich appearregularlyin that series.Nineteenof these 37 give datesby era;
12 dateby magistratesor emperors;fivegivemonthdates;the one remainingis a possibleindictiondate.
Greek alphabeticnumeralsare used throughout,but in some consulardates the Latin languageand
alphabettake the place of Greek.
Most of the datesby era consistof simplya number;the particularera is a matterof interpretation.
Eight examplesmay be assignedwith a fair degreeof certaintyto the Actian era: Hc 10-14, He 16,
He 18, Hc 19. Four of these (H 10, H 16,
16, H 18, H 19) are on wheel-ridged
jars of darkmicaceous
clay with one handleand high-collaredringfoot like the 25 examplespublishedas "DatedJarsof Early
ImperialTimes" (Hesperia, XXIV, 1955,pp. 277-285).Only Hc 19 has any remnantof the era designationwhichappearedon two of the piecespublishedearlier:
but all four have numbers
(eTOS) Ni(Kms),
whichgive datesin the Actianera that fit well into the largergroup.The otherfour notationswhichare
hereinterpretedas Actianera datesaremorevarious:two dipinti(He 11, He 12) andtwo graffiti(He 13,
He 14). In the case of all four thereseemsto be no othereasyexplanationfor the number;for two of the
vessels (He 11, He 12) the ceramicdate agreeswith the assumedActiandate; the othertwo are fragmentstoo smallto be assigneda dateon ceramicgrounds,andtheyhaveno datedcontext.
Of the 11 otherdatesby era, three(F 250; He 17, He 25) seemto be Seleucid,four may be basedon
Diocletian'saccession(He 22, He 23; He 37; I 44), one appearsto be Christian(He 24) and threeare
uncertain(Hc 26; He 23, He 24). Thebasesfor theseassignmentsareoutlinedin the individualcatalogue
descriptions.
The 12 dates by magistratesor emperorsincludetwo of the Greekperiod(He 1, He 2), six consular
dates(He 3, He 4, He 6-8; He 4), two imperial(He 5, He 15)andtwo uncertain(He 20, He 21). Ordinarily in the Greekperiodjars weredatedby stampson the handles;thesetwo, withincisionin the soft clay
on one and dipintoon the other, are unusual.Jarswith consulardatesin both Greekand Latinhave
long been knownin Pompeiiand Rome (C.L.L.,IV, 2551ff.,5510ff.,9313ff.;XV, 3636ff.).Of the two
which use Touvs,one continuesin Greek(He 4) with the abbreviatedname of Gaius Cassius,while
the otherseemsto continue,althoughmuchis lost, in Latin,endingwith the regularLatinabbreviation
for consuls(He 7). Both of these, like three of the four purelyLatin texts, are dipinti.The exception
(He 6), being lightlyand casuallyscratchedjust below the handle,may well have been the work of an
Athenianownerratherthana foreignshipperor seller:Druso et Crispino(9 B.C.).He 3 andHe 8 can not
be readwellenoughto givedefinitedates,but He 4 is clearlyassignableto 17B.C.(C. Furnio).
The two imperialdates are given as the sixth (year)of Augustus(He 5) and the fourteenthyear of
Hadrian(Hc 15).12The two uncertaindatesof this sort (He20, He 21) are incomplete,one usingthe Erii
formula, the other

?TOS.

The five month dates are as follows: July (He 9), nones of August (He 18), June 17 (He 41), first
month(I 17), and the sixthday of the sixthmonth(I 23). Possiblereferencesto months also occur on
He 5 and He 11. The one possibleindictiondate seems to combinea day "beforethe Ides" with an
indictionyear(He 42).
11All textsidentifiable(even

tentatively)as datesare included,even whenthe magistrateor era on whichthey are basedis not clear.
12Or the fourteenth year from the visit of Hadrian to Athens. Cf. P. Graindor,Athines soIus Hadrien,Cairo, 1934, pp. 15ff.;
Kubitschek,Real-Encyclopadie,
Suppl. III.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

70

areconcernedthe usagewithregardto etos shouldbe noted:of nineexamples,


As far as abbreviations
He
the four (Hc 4,
7, He 15, He 21) which are dated earlierthan the late 3rd centuryshow the word
writtenin full; the five datedto the late 3rdcenturyand laterabbreviatethe wordto its firsttwo letters
(Hc 22-24; He 23, He 24). Thewordfor month(li'v) is abbreviatedeitheras p( ) (Hc 9; 1 17) or Upj( )
(He 41; 123).

He 1 (P 7699). PI.39. Toe of plain amphora, He 5 (P 9670).P1.39. Chianamphora(= Robinneatly profiled. Letters incised on underside son, Chronology,F 92). Dipinto in black on
shoulder. Context: 1st century B.C. (N 19:1).
while clay was soft. Context:late 4th to early
PH. 0.86 m.; D. 0.309 m.
3rdcenturies B.C. (E 3:1).
Late IV-early III cent.B.C. irr 'A.woroo5cbp(ou) I cent. B.C. Avyoicr(Tou) S'
[.(rjv6s)'ApT(Eepuoou)
The writingis crampedand changesorientaThe sixth year of Augustuswould be 21 B.C.
tion. An archonof this name servedin Athens
The readingof the secondline is uncertain.
in the year 319/18B.C.,but eitheranotherprovenienceor anothermagistracyis a possibility. Hc 6
(P 16206). P1.39. Micaceous one-handled
The fact that the inscriptionwas made before
jar, similar to Robinson, Chronology,F65.
firingsuggeststhat this date servedone of the
Graffitounderhandle.Context:firsthalf of 1st
purposesof the stampusuallyfoundon handles.
century(N 20:1). PH. 0.47 m.; D. 0.265m.
He 2 (P 9754, P 9755). P1.39. Chian amphora. Firsthalf I cent.
DRUSO ET CRISPINO
inside
and
on
shoulder
in
black
(a)
B.C.
That
9
Dipinti
is,
handle(b). Context:late 4th-early3rdcenturies
Hc 7 (P21791). PI.39. Ovoid amphora with
B.C. (B 13:8). PH. 0.79 m.; D. 0.355 m.
shortwide neck, hornedhandlesand shorttoe.
Late IV-early III cent. B.C.
Dipinti in black on shoulder. Context: early
/ [&]pXovros
(a) nIrlNIK'rTOV
1st century (R 10:1). H. 0.533m.; D. 0.28 m.
(b) ToAXuvoio
N
EarlyI cent.
If the archon is Athenian, there are two
e1Tous[ ]BA ( ) COSS
possible years: 332/1 or 225/4 B.C.The name
Perhaps6 B.C.:D. LaeliusBalbus,C. Antistius
underthe handlemaybe thatof potter,producer
Or A.D. 22: D. Haterius Agrippa, C.
Vetus.
of contents,middlemanor even owner.
SulpiciusGalba.
He 3 (P 8108). P1.39. Amphoraof Roman type.
39. Micaceous one-handled
Dipinto in red on neck. Context: late 2nd He 8 (P 16199). PI.
jar, similar to Robinson, Chronology,F 66.
centuryB.C. (C9:7). H. 1.017m.; D. 0.291m.
Dipinto in black below handle. Context:
COS [
Late II cent. B.C.
first half of 1st century(N 20:1). H. 0.46 m.;
D. 0.245m.
Obviously a date by consulship, but the
NERONEBO..
EarlyI cent.
dipintois now too fadedto be drawn.Another
(traces)
jar of this type (Agora inv. no. P 8105) found
If this is datingby consul, the possibledates
in the same context has an inscriptionwhich
13 B.C. (Ti. ClaudiusNero, P. Quinctilius
are:
immeless
but
better
has surviveda little
gives
9 B.C. (Nero Claudius Drusus, T.
Varus);
abbreviated
an
B-C
diate sense: ]
[ (presumably
name endingin "b" followedby the abbrevia- Quinctinus Crispinus); 7 B.C. (Ti. Claudius
Nero II, Cn. CalpurniusPiso). The word
tion for consul).
begining "bo. ." is uncertain both in reading

Hc 4 (P 3215).P1.39. Shoulderfragmentof small


and interpretation.
jar. Dipinto in brown. Found with much He 9
(P 15559). P1.39. Upper part of amphora
Hellenisticmaterialand a littleLate Roman.
with collaredrim.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.
I cent. B.C. 'T0oS F(aciou)Kacaa(ou)
Context:1stcentury(R 21:2).
(illegible)

I cent.

'IovuMov

1i.(rlv6,)
A Gaius Cassiuswas consul in 124, 96 and
73 B.C. Sincethe colleagueis not herepreserved, He 10 (P 24853). P. 39. Shoulder fragment of
brown micaceous jar, similar to Robinson,
it is impossible to determinewhich is meant.

71

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Chronology,M 125. Graffito below handle He 16 (P 25464).P1.40. Upper part of micaceous


one-handledjar similarto Robinson,Chronolattachment.Context:late 1st century(B 13:2).
ogy, M 125. Graffitobelowhandle.
pKa'
Late I cent.
II cent.
pop'
Year 121 of Actian era = A.D.91.
Year 172of Actianera = A.D. 142.
He 11 (P 10048).P1.40. Upper part of amphora
(- Robinson, Chronology,M 102). Dipinti He 17 (P 13599). PI.40. Upper part of onehandled jar. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
in black on shoulder(a) and underone handle
Context: second half of 1st century to 2nd
(b). Context: second half of 2nd century
century(N 19:2).
(M 17:1).
II cent.
IIcent.
(a) EP( ) i'
SE]XWK( ) pB'
Year 502 of Seleucidera (from 312/1 B.C.)
(b) o'oS
would be ca. A.D. 190, perhapstoo late for this
context.
Year 139 of Actian era = A.D. 109, whichis
perfectlysuitableto the jar itself, which finds Hc 18
(P 21631).P1.40. Fragmentfrom shoulder
its nearestparallelsin late 1st and early 2nd
of
micaceous
one-handledjar similarto Robcenturies(Robinson,Chronology,G 197, H 20).
M 125.Graffitoon outside.
inson,
Chronology,
Its later context date is unexpectedbut not
Context: 2nd to early 3rd centuries(U 22:1).
impossible.The firstpart of (a) might be interce'
pretedin two ways: as a monthdate (Hermaios II-earlyIII cent.
15)or as tare(ipilou 15). (b) The jar is sound?
Year 229 of the Actian era = A.D. 199.
He 12 (P 5774). P1.39. Neck and shoulder of He 19 (P 22211). P1.40. Fragment from the
small amphora. Dipinto in red on shoulder. shoulder of a micaceous one-handled jar,
Context: second half of 1st century to 2nd
similarto Robinson,Chronology,M 125. Grafcentury(F 13:2).
fito on outside.
II cent.
pv
III cent.
TrosN] i(Krls)apIa'
ATO2[
Year 241 of the Actian era = A.D. 211.
The number is likely to be a date in the
He 20 (P 7785). P1.40. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Actianera, i.e., A.D. 120.
largeplainamphora.Dipintoin black.
He 13 (P 11545).P1.39. Wall fragmentof closed
rTriZauX[
Roman
vessel.Graffitoon outside.
Roman
pV?'
Year 155 of Actian era would be
The nu is writtenin reverse.

AIATTA[

A.D.

125.

What magistrateof what city is here used


for datingis obscure,as is the word or phrase
in the secondline.

He 14 (P 2518). P1.39. Shoulderfragmentfrom He 21 (P 11752). P1.40. Top of amphora. Dia large unglazedvessel. Graffitoon outside.
pinto in black on shoulder.Context:3rd century(K 18:3).
pv[
EarlyRoman
III cent.
a[
Presumablyan Actian date, ca. A.D. 120-130.
He 15 (P 7583). P1.39. Amphora(= Robinson,
J 5). Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Chronology,
mid-2nd
Context:
century (C 12:1). PH.
0.549 m.; D. 0.295 m.
Mid-II cent. ETousSt' 'ASpiavoO
Eviaucrtiaov

Whetherthe date was based on Hadrian's


accessionor his firstvisit to Athensis uncertain;
cf. Kubitschek, Real-Encyclopadie,Suppl. III,

cols. 28-29. The word in the secondline presumablyrefersto the age of the contents, probably wine.

The incompletenessof the inscriptionmakes


any conjectureof emperoror era difficult.
He 22 (P 3140). P1.40. Shoulder fragment of
largeamphora.Dipintoin red.
Late Roman
ET(Os)

(chi-rho)
Ka[

Year 21 based on the era of Diocletian


would be A.D. 305. Ginzel (Handbuch der
mathematischen und technischen Chronologie,

72

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

A.D. 532 and known to be in use before this


II, Leipzig, 1906, pp. 229-231) notes that this
time (Bickerman,pp. 74, 81).
era was used in private documentsin Egypt
throughoutthe 4th and 5th centuries.But the Hc 25 (P 25054). P1.40. Small
jug with gouged
kappa-alphamay begin a word like Kaisaros. decoration similar to Robinson,
Chronology,
Context:
M
near
handle.
on
wall
361.
Graffito
Hc 23 (P 14093). P1.40. Round-bottomedcylinH.
0.175
m.;
6th
17:4).
century
(Q
(-7th?)
drical amphora (= Robinson, Chronology,
m.
0.13
D.
M 333). Dipinti in red on shoulder.Context:
'
VII cent.
t,5th-6th centuries (P 18:1). H. 0.495m.; D.
0.211m.
The year 964 of the Seleucidera is A.D.642.
(The Seleucidera continuedin use in various
V-VI cent. 'rT(os)
placestill nearmoderntimes;cf. Ginzel,op.cit.,
pv'
I, p. 263.) The context date need not militate
TA
againstthe assignmentto A.D.642 sincethe jug
Perhapsyear 150 of the era of Diocletian
wasfoundnearthe top of a wellwhichcontinued
(A.D. 434)?
into the 8th century.
Hc 24 (P 9660). P1.40. Round-bottomedam- Hc 26 (P 3457). P1.40. Shoulderfragmentfrom
phora (- Robinson, Chronology,M 372). Diamphora.Dipintoin red on neck,insidehandle.
6th
late
Context:
on
shoulder.
black
in
Context:6th-7thcenturies(L 14:2).
pinto
m.
D.
0.148
H.
0.467
m.;
17:1).
(M
century
VI-VII cent. Xp(O6vos)
1i'[
LateVI cent.
ET(OS)
Trp( )[
e<os)
What era or emperorthe year refers to is
not worth conjecturing.The abbrevianumber
perhaps
one
If only
(from alpha through
secondline may be eitheran addition
tion
in
the
be
58?
this
the
at
lost
is
may
beginning,
theta)
or someotherkindof notation.
date
the
to
in
"invented"
was
which
Christian
in the
era,

INTRODUCTIONTO NOTATIONSOF CONTENTS(Hd)


In additionto the 23 texts groupedtogetherhere, contentsis specifiedin the followingnotations
classifiedelsewhere:one in Dates (He 15); 19 in CombinedNotations (He 7, He 13, He 15, He 17,
He 18, He 21, He 23, He 24, He 26, He 27, He 29, He 30, He 32-34, He 36, He 40, He 41, He 44); and 12
in Tax Notations(I 10-12, I 16, I 19, 120, 125, I 29, 14042, I 45). The presentdiscussionconcernsall
55 texts.
Wineis apparentlythe most importantsinglecommoditysincereferenceis madeto it on 27 vessels,
whichcan perhaps
if we includethe nine occurencesin Tax Notationsof one abbreviatedword(a&pivv)
is
used
without
only once (Hd 13),
modification,
best be interpretedas a kind of wine.13OTvosalone,
perhapsto distinguishthe winejug fromjugs used for othercommoditiesand not necessarilywashed
in betweenor perhapsto indicatethat this was a winemeasureratherthanan oil or honeymeasure(see
Thatthis notationis graffitoratherthandipintois an indicationof its informal
Ha 27: oivpos 8SIKcoS).
natureand incidentalpurpose.All otherwine notationsindicateparticularkindsof wine and all except
one (Hd 23) are dipinti and may be thoughtof as labelingthe originalcontents.The kinds of wine
rangefrom a cheapo6os(vinordinaire)of the 5th centuryB.C. (Hd 1) to the wine madefrom the finest
Aminnaeangrapes(Pliny, N. H., XIV, 4, 21, PrincipatusdaturAminaeisfirmitatemproptersenioque
vinieiusutiquevitam.)of the 5th and6th centuriesof our era(1 10,1 16, etc.). Mostfrequent
proficientem
in appearance,afterthe Aminnaean,if abbreviationsare correctlyinterpreted,is -rrcaaov(raisinwine):
Hd 9 (writtenin full); Hd 12 (abbreviatedto firstthreeletters);He 13, He 40 (firsttwo letters).Next in
is Pramnianwine:Hd 5 (writtenin full); Hd 17,
frequency,with the sameprovisoaboutabbreviations,
13Since the tax-notationpots all seem to serve the same purpose, the conclusion that some held a specifickind of wine makes it
likely that all held wine but that only specialkinds werenoted "on the label." See Introductionto Tax Notations below.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

73

He 26 (first three letters). Honeyed wine is noted twice: olvovupenT-iVOv (He 21); (IiArIT( ) (He 30).
Falernianappearsonce (He 27). Threeother kinds of wine may be indicatedby three abbreviations:
(Hd 7); &pco(iaaT-Tis)(Hd 15); Spiv(Si-ms)(Hd 23).
Kav(-SapiThs)
Wine is described in somewhat differentterms on four other vessels: Kasapou as an indication of net
(Hc 15), and iTep(uariv6s)
(Hd 20) seemto indicatethe
weightratherthan of purity(Hd 10); Fviaucaaiov

seemsto indicateuse (?) and provenience


age of the wine; vin(um)saec( ) car ( ) vil(la?)Terg(estina?)
also
below
for
miscellaneous
and
See
uncertain
contents
whichmightbe wines.
(He 18).
Four of the above wine notationsare accompaniedby single letterswhich may perhapsbe most
readilyexplainedas indicationsof quality:alphaon Hd 1 and Hd 20; gammaon Hd 15; deltaon Hd 5.
Perhapssimilarin significanceis the &*r-tposwhichappearsalongwitha pricemarkon He 15.
Six vesselsare markedas containingoil. Threeo e
inscriptionsare graffitiand indicatemerely
that the contentswas oil: Hd 2 fromthe 4th centuryB.C. seemsto say that the oil is for externalrather
thaninternaluse; Hd 4 and Hd 18, of the 1stand 3rdcenturiesrespectively,havethe sameabbreviation,
inai(ov). The three dipinti, on the other hand, indicate the kind or quality of the oil: on He 7 pamrpl(avE-

Aaiov)or radishoil, weighing20 5/12 litrai(6.676kg.), is equatedwith27 kotyles(7.3711., of whichthe


oil weightis 9/10 or 6.655 kg.); on He 15 the priceis givenfor what may be secondqualitywhiteoil;
on He 32 oil-leesor Tpu(yla),weighingnine litrai(2.943kg.), occupiesa vessel of ca. 3.300 1. capacity
(oil weightof a 3.276 1. chousis 9/10 or 2.943kg.).
Fivejarsaremarkedas honeypots, eitherimplicitlyor explicitly.Implicitin the combinationof Hd 6's
weightnotationwith its capacityis the fact that its contentswas honey:that is, the 14 litrai(4.578kg.)
indicatedon the shouldercouldbe containedin the ca. 3.200 1. capacityonly if the contents'weightwas
4/3 that of wine(4/3 x 3.052 = 4.578).Honey is explicitlynotedas contentsof threeotherjars: sufficient
tracesof the word Hymettosappeartwice on He 29 and combinewith the noted net weightto confirm
the natureof the contents.On He 33 and He 34 the genitiveof honey(iX1iTos)
is followedby the weight
in litrai.Somewhatdifferentis He 36, whichnotesthenumberof xestaiof "tawnyhoney"(tavS9oupLArtos).
Thevarietyof miscellaneouscontentsis great,rangingfromfish-sauce(garumn)
to milk(yaXa).Perhaps
most certainare the threejarsmarkedas containingItalianmillet:He 23, He 24 (iEEI6'v(oS) --= AivoS =
Two vesselsprobablycontainedgarum:Hd 3 reads coc(tum)ab Auso( ),
p0ivr%,
LSJ); He 41 e?Aivns.
employinga formulaelsewhereusedfor fish-sauce(C. L.L., IV,2576,2643, 5671ff., 9418f.);the ligature
of Hd 8 may be reasonablyresolvedas yap(ou).Preparationsof a medicalnaturemay perhapsbe seen
in Hd 11 ("20partsdarnelto four partsasparagus")and Hd 21 ("diuretic").MorepuzzlingareHd 14,
a cookie-jarshapewiththe inscription-rafyvia,presumablyin the senseof "goodies,"andHd 19 which
readsSEarac(thingsput up? that is, preserves?).The Sacrra
of Hd 16 are most likely liquids,and the
inscriptionis to alertthe readereitherto the fact that dry materialsare elsewhereor that the measure
(30 units)is wet ratherthan dry. Hd 22 readsy6Aa, a clearand unambiguouslabel in contrastto the
of He 17.
generalizedKaprrou
Four other vessels show notationswhich may well be of contents,but certainidentificationis not
possiblesincethe abbreviationsare difficultto resolve.TheKopl( ) of He 44 maybe somethingflavored
with coriander.The ycovo( ) and C&Ti() of I 11 and I 12 seemto parallelthe &dilvv() whichappears
in nine otherTax Notation texts and so mightbe wine. No expansionof 'covo( ) suggestsitself, but
either i&-aTov
or arT-nris is possible for I 12. On 142 pev[ ]/vEXi[ (either or both) could also be wine:
Mendaean.
honeyed
It is possiblethat in Miscellaneous(K) and Unclassified(L) Notationslurk otherindicationsof contentswhichhavenot beenrecognized.For otherpossibilitiessee Ha 1, Ha 16 andHa 40.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

74

Hd 1 (P 11021).PI.41. Upperpart of 5th-century


B.C.type wine amphora.Dipinto in black on
shoulder. Context: last quarter 5th century
B.C. (B 15:1). Hesperia,XVIII, 1949, p. 336,
no. 102,pls. 97, 98.
Last quarterV cent. B.C. 06rXosA i.e., 6Oos
Sigma-chifor xi is found also on ostrakaof
Kallixenos; see Hesperia,XIX, 1950, p. 387,
no. 22. Alphamayperhapsbe takenas a number
indicatingcapacity(one amphoraor metretes)
or quality.

Sincethe jar holds 3.200 1., the contentscan


weigh 14 litrai (4.578 kg.) only if it is honey,
whichis four-thirdsthe weightof wine or water.
Four-thirdsof 3.200 gives only 4.264 kg., but
it seems likely that althoughthis was only a
scant chous (properly3.276 1.) it was thought
of as six xestai,whichmay have been indicated
in the largelyfaded second line. Six xestai of
wine were ten litrai; six xestai of honey would
be 13% litrai, which might in turn have been
called 14 litrai. Thereis no questionof the 14
litraibeing the weightof the jar, whichis only
1.100kg.

Hd 2 (P 20294).PI.41. Partof shoulderand upper


wallof small black-glazedolpe. Graffitowritten Hd 7 (P 3058). PI.41. Upper part of amphora
vertically.
like Robinson, Chronology,G 197. Dipinto in
black
on shoulder. Context: Ist-early 3rd
1
oTi
IV cent. B.C. T-r]O TO
roOr4([sial&
Tfi T]aXafrT[pas
century(J 12:1).
KV ( )
Restorationis not certain but for example I-II cent.
only.
PerhapsKcxv&apirls
olvos,but other possibilities exist: owner'sname;Kav(Sliov)
for KviS8ov;
Hd 3 (P 7529). PI.41. Amphora of late Koan
etc.
F 93. Dipinto
type, like Robinson,Chronology,
in black on shoulder.Context:late 1st century Hd 8 (P 13601).P1.41. Amphorapreservedonly
B.C. to early 1st century (D 11:1). H. 0.72m.;
to shoulder.Dipinto in red on shoulder.ConD. 0.275m.
text:mid-lst to mid-2ndcentury(N 19:2).
Late I cent. B.c.-earlyI cent.
Mid-Ito mid-IIcent. (ligature) y&p(ou)
coc(tum)ab Auso[
Probably(garum)coc(tum)ab Auso[ . This Hd 9 (P 21381). PI.41. Neck and shoulder of
H 20).
plainamphora(=Robinson, Chronology,
use of the participleis not knownto me from
Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:firsthalf
elsewhere,but the ablativeof agencywithfac2nd century(P 8: 1).
turnis familiarfrom Pompeii;e.g., C.I.L., IV,
5671ff.: g(arum)f(actum)ab Umbricio.
Firsthalf II cent.
(illegible)
(illegibleov
Hd 4 (P 15380). P1.41. Small jug with rounded
(illegible)
body, narrowneck and ridgedhandle.Graffito
Thatis, raisinwine.Cf. C.LL.,IV, 5594.
on shoulder. Context: 1st century (R 21:2).
PH. 0.15 m.; D. 0.129 m.

Hd 10 (P 10064). P1.41. Upper part of widemouthedamphora.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.


Context: 2nd century (M 18:1). PH. 0.37 m.;
Hd 5 (P 9671). P1.41. Top of small coarse amD. 0.25m.
phora, like Robinson, Chronology,G 197. DiII cent.
KaOapo9u
X(iTpa)[
pinto in black on shoulder.Context: lst-2nd
centuries(M 18:1).
Thatis, weightof contentsnet.
Late I-earlyII cent. npa.v[
Hd 11 (P 963). P1.41. Wide-mouthedjar, similar
A
to Robinson, Chronology,M 118. Dipinto in
That is, Pramnianwine. The isolated delta
black on shoulder. Context: late 2nd-early
may relateto capacityor quality.
3rd centuries(I16:1). H. 0.23m.; D. 0.18m.
Hd 6 (P 12373). P1.41. Wide-mouthedamphora LateII-earlyIII cent. aipco(v)K'
similarto Robinson,Chronology,
M 41. Dipinto
a&orapayou8'
in black on side. Context: late Ist-early 2nd
Apparentlya decoctionof herbsmade up of
centuries (N 20:5). H. 0.195m.; D. 0.188m.
20 parts of darnelto four parts of asparagus.
Cf. Dioscorides,II, 122, 152for uses of the two
Late I-earlyII cent. Xi(rpai)18'
herbsseparately.
(orai)
I cent.

.at((ov)

75

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

Hd 12 (P 965). P1.41. Fragmentfrom neck and Hd 18 (P 5717). PI.41. Shoulderfragmentfrom


shoulderof a largeamphora.Dipintoin red on
storage amphora. Graffito. Context: dumped
shoulder.Context:late 2nd-early3rd centuries fill going into 3rdcentury(E 14:1).
(I 16:1).
III cent.
cat(ov)
Late II-earlyIII cent.
rro( )
racr(craov)
The significanceof the second abbreviation
Hd 13 (P 17894). PI.41. Small wheel-ridgedjug
is obscure.
like Robinson,Chronology,M 122. Graffitoon
shoulder.Context:late 2nd to mid-3rdcenturies
Hd 19 (P 11198). P1.42. Neck and shoulder
(C 20:1). H. 0.201 m.; D. 0.128 m.
fragment of amphora with short neck and
Late II-mid-III cent.
o7vou
rounded rim. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Hd 14 (P 9918). P1.41. Wide-mouthedjar (=
Context:late 3rd-early4th centuries(C 14:4).
Robinson, Chronology,M 118). Dipinto in
Late Ill-early IV cent.
e0~iaTa
black below lip. Context: early 3rd century
Preserves?
(M 17:1). H. 0.217 m.; D. 0.165 m.
EarlyIII cent.

irrayvia

(illegible)
Cf. Ephippus,fr. 24 (Kock) for this word
listedamongothergood thingsof the table.
Hd 15 (P 12359). P1.41. Shoulderfragmentof
wheel-ridgedamphora. Dipinto in black on
neck behind handle, running down. Context:
early3rdcentury(N 20:5).
( )
EarlyIII cent.
&pco

Hd 20 (P 1027). P1.42. Small storage amphora


like Robinson, Chronology,M 237. Dipinto
in black on shoulder. Context: 5th century
(I16:1). H. 0.57 m.; D. 0.19 m.

Late IV cent.

A
TEPp(uVaVO6S)

If the dipintorefersto the contents,the word


suggestedabove is most probable.The isolated
alphamay referto quantityor quality.

Hd 21 (P 8001).P1.42. Neck and mouth of small


amphora. Graffito on lower part of neck.
5583: aroma( ). The gamma may refer to
Found with coins of late 4th and 5th centuries.
qualityor quantity.
IV-V cent.
Sioup(rnTlKOv)
Hd 16 (P 13605).P1.41. Upper part of amphora
withthickroundedlip, narrowneckand sloping Hd 22 (P 14086). P1.42. Amphora preserved
only up to shoulder,with squat plump body
shoulder.Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:
and rounded bottom. Dipinto in black and
firsthalf of 3rdcentury(P 19:1).
graffitoon shoulder.Context:5th-6thcenturies
Sa'-ra
Mid-IIIcent.
(P18:1). PH. 0.43m.; D. 0.38m.
V-VI cent.
(dipinto) y?6a
Thatis, liquids:30 (probablylitrai).
(graffito) p[
Hd 17 (P 25195). PI.41. Amphora with pointed
toe similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 236. Hd 23 (P 7985). P1.42. Fragmentfrom neck and
Dipintoin blackon shoulder.Context:mid-3rd shoulderof plainamphora.Graffitoon shoulder.
Late Roman 6&pv( )
century (Q 17:4).
Mid-IIIcent. TTp&(pveos
or atiovd&iveivov.
Perhapsolvos&tiveOiris
olvos)
Perhaps &pco(panTis oTvos); cf. C.I.L., IV,

INTRODUCTIONTO COMBINEDNOTATIONS(He)
For the most partthese44 texts are madeup of notationsof capacity,date and contentsand so have
alreadybeen discussedalong with those categories.Thereare two chief exceptions:notationsof price;
and propernames,perhapsproducers,sellersor owners.
The threepricesfromthe Greekperiodarefairlyconsistentand are expressedin knownterms:about
two drachmsor one didrachm(stater)for eachchousof wine(Ha 5; He 1, He 2). The six possibleprices
fromthe Romanperiodare moreuncertainboth as readingsand with regardto unitsand values.Three
seemto employthe asterisk-shaped
symbolfor denarius(He 16, He 17, He 38), but the threepricesfor

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

76

amountsof commoditiesaveragingabout two choes are two, fifteenand fifteendenarii.The firsttwo


both date from the 2nd centurywhilethe thirdis fromthe 4th-5th centuries,but the commoditiesmay
be differentin eitherkind or quality,so that no real indicationof pricefluctuationexists. Some confor a
firmationof the higherpricemay be found in another2nd-centuryprice (He 15): 16 drachms14
smalljar (probablynot morethan two choes)of oil. It may be notedthat in the Edictof Diocletianthe
price-rangesfor wine and oil are similarto each other.
The two otherpossiblepriceinscriptionsare evenless certain:200 poMXeis
(if doubledphi may be so
taken)for six choes(He 35,4th century);500keratiafor an uncertainamount(He 25, 3rdcentury).The
4th-centuryfollis is variouslyequated(Mattingly,RomanCoins,p. 229) with twenty-four,ten or four
denarii,makingpossiblepricesper chous of 800, 333 or 133 denarii.Thekerationis equatedwiththe
siliqua(100denarii)so thatthe priceper chousfor the possiblecontentsof He 25 (perhapsthreechoes)
wouldbe a highlyimprobable16,666denarii.Furthermore,the date of this vessel seemsto be earlier
introductionof thesiliqua,so thereis somepossibilitythatkerationwas usedfor
than the Constantinian
denarius(Metrolog.Script.,1,274),inwhichcasethepriceperchous(at500denariiforthreechoes)wouldbe
of readings,equationsandcommoditiesmakethesepriceabout166denarii.Thecumulativeuncertainties
seeK 8, K 16-18;L 20.
indications(if suchthey are) of little value.Forwhatmayalsobe price-notations
Thenameswhichoccuron someof thesevesselshavelittlein commonwitheachotherbut canperhaps
be groupedas follows:personalnames,eitherabbreviatedor in the genitivecase,whichbeingpaintedon
are most likelyto be originaland so produceror sellerratherthan owner(He 6, He 11, He 12, He 14,
He 25, He 26, He 28); place-names(?), mostly abbreviated,which may give the provenienceof the
commodity(He 14, He 18, He 23, He 24). In addition,there are other notationswhich may be serial
numbers(He 8-10, He 19, He 20), one Christianmonogram(He 39) and one text whichmay add to the
amountdeliveredan amountstill owed(He 30).
He 1 (P 11382).P1.42. Mouth and neck of Mendaean-typeamphora. Graffito on either side
of neck. Context:thirdquarter5th centuryB.C.
(R 13:4). Hesperia,XXV, 1956, p. 10, no. 44.
Third quarter V cent. B.C.
X(6ES) 6(6Ka) K(o *Xn) K(OT,XTi)

58(Ka) r(T'rcrfipEs)

A combination of capacity and price: 10


choes, 2 kotyles; 10 staters.
He 2 (P 2366). P1.42. Chian amphora. Graffito
on neck, running downward.Context: third
quarter5th century B.C. (R 13:4). H. 0.79 m.;
D. 0.31m. Hesperia,IV, 1935, p. 496, fig. 17,
no. 86; p. 516, fig. 28; XXV, 1956, p. 12, no. 58.
ThirdquarterV cent B.C.
TrVTr)?(s) E(Ys)X(s)
8EKarrTrapEs

Both the capacity(sevenchoes) and the price


(14 drachms)appearon this jar. In the Chian
dialectthe aspiratewouldbe omitted.
He 3 (P 23948). PI.42. Upper part of amphora
with spreadinglip and broad shoulder.Graffiti
near base of neck on both sides. Context:

400-390 B.C. (Q 15:2). Hesperia, XXV, 1956,

p. 17, no. 71, pl. 4.


Early IV cent. B.C.
(a) a&(cpopcos)(vaot)8(iKa) A(v&)(v&)
(b) I(vaT)8(ka) (vaT)8(WKa)

The two weightsshouldbe tare and net. On


a goods-mna of 457 gm.15 the jar will have
weighed5.484kg. and the contents9.140 kg. If
the contentswas wine, the capacitymust have
been less than three choes (9.828 1.); if oil,
rather more (three choes of oil would weigh
only 8.845 kg.); the breadthof the shoulders
makesa dry materialless likely.
He 4 (P 21792). P1.43. Body of large cylindrical
amphora,missing bottom, handles and neck.
Dipinto in black on shoulder.Context: early
1st century(R 10:1). PH. 0.652m.; D. 0.305m.
Late I cent. B.C.

MO(DII)

8'

C. FURNIO COS.
ANTEA
A combination of capacity and date. For
the oppositecombinationof Greekletterswith
RomannumeralsseeHe 19,He 20. Themeaning
of anteain this contextis not readilyapparent.

Cf. H. Mat14 The Attic drachmsmay still at this time have been equatedwith the denarius,or at least valued at three-quarters.
tingly, RomanCoins,London, 1960, pp. 104, 196f.
16 I.e., 105 coin-drachmsof 4.36 gm. Cf. Agora, X, pp. 2-4.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

77

Thejar is too weakto be measuredfor capacity,


but cf. He 10. The numberon the other side
might possibly be a date on the Actian era
(i.e. A.D. 116), but the doubtfulfirst letter and
the
comparablenotations on He 9-11 suggest
(a) o'i(KCOiaa)
Early I cent.
u(vcT)i?'<
it mightbetterbe takenas a serialnumber.
that
Xcop..
He 9 (P 12468). P1.44. Amphora of late Koan
(b) af(Kco0a) I?'< (val) 1E'
type similar to Robinson, Chronology,F 93.
Tare is written on both sides; what must
Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and on body
one
on
be capacity(xcdbpima
side,
only
appears
?)
below handles (b). Context: second half 1st
and the amount(?) is largelyillegible.
century(N20:2). H. 0.893m.; D. 0.28 m.
He 6 (P 21789).P1.43. Amphorawith ovoid body,
Late I cent.
short neck and angularlip. Dipinto in black
e'
(no longervisible)
(a)
on shoulder.Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).
(one
side)
(b)
i6(Siol)
y' (monogram)
PH. 0.438 m.; D. 0.338 m.
(otherside) ,aacs'
EarlyI cent. li(Trpai)rl|'
For drawingof monogram,see He 8, He 10,
AlOWcrvUOVu
He 11; see the same for capacity.The second
inscription on the body might be a serial
The weight of the jar, whichlacks the lower
number(1246).
thirdof the body, is 4.235kg. or about 13 litrai;
18 litrai are 5.886 kg. Dionysiusis presumably He 10 (P 12469).P1.43. Amphoraof late Koan
the nameof produceror seller;for assimilation type like He 9. Dipinti in red on shoulder(a)
of the vowel to the ending, cf. Meisterhans2, and on body below handles (b). Context:
second half 1st century(N 20:2). H. 0.915m.;
p. 22. Theta, which is no longer visible, may
D. 0.25 m.
give the capacity:nine (choes).
Late I cent.
He 7 (P 21793). P1.43. Ovoid amphora with
(a) (one side) 8'
long narrow neck, vertical handles and ring
(otherside) o'
foot. Dipinti in black on both shoulders.
(b) (one side) pO6(S6oi)
y' (monogram)
Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).H. 0.447m.;
,iu8o'
side)
(other
D. 0.217m.
Compare He 8, He 9, He 11 for capacity.
EarlyI cent.
The
second inscriptionon the body (with the
(a) iaTrp(avcXatov) X(Txpai)K'o()y(Kiai) e'
horizontal stroke above the first two letters)
(b) ]K'
might be a very large number(10,474) or an
The lower part of the kappa in (a) is lost in
abbreviationof the name (?) which appearsin
the break; the abbreviationof ounce is an
the same position on He 11. The capacity of
angular C-shapedgamma with omicron. The
thejaris 27.3201.; threemodiiare26.2081.
jar holds 7.400 1. Twenty-sevenkotyles of
0.273 1. (as in the second inscription) are He 11 (P 12471).P1.43. Amphoraof late Koan
type, like He 9. Dipinti in red on body below
7.371 1.; oil of this amount would weigh
handles. Context: second half 1st century
6.633kg., or somethingover 20 litrai(20 x 327
(N 20:2). H. 0.92 m.; D. 0.285m.
gm. = 6.540 kg.).
Late I cent. (one side) O6(Stio)y' (monogram)
He 8 (P 12361). PI.43. Amphora of late Koan
(other side) 'hEpoV8ou
type with hornedhandles(= Robinson,ChronCompareHe 8-10 for capacity.The second
ology, M 54). Dipinti in red on shoulder(a)
inscription
mightbe a name,not knownto me,
and on bodybelowhandles(b). Context:second
or
an
abbreviation:
'ICpoV 5OV(?ou).
half 1st century (N 20:2). H. 0.775m.; D.
0.305m.
He 12 (P 13617).P1.44. Upperpart of late Koan
amphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology,
LateI cent. (a) (one shoulder) E'
F 93. Dipinto in red on neck inside handle.
(othershoulder) U'
(b) (oneside)1o6(81ot)
y' (monogram) Context:late 1st century(P 19:1). PH. 0.44 m.;
D. 0.23 m.
(other side)
.ps"'
Aiav( )
The letters epsilon and zeta are probably Late I cent.
Ks"'
X(irpai)
numbers.The monogrammay be read as the
numberthree and the abbreviationof modius.
Combinationof personalname (?) with tare.

He 5 (P 21788). P1.42. Upper part of large


amphorawith angularhandlesand profiledlip.
Dipinti between handles on both shoulders.
Context:early 1st century(R 10:1).

78

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The next sign is certainlythat for denarius,


He 13 (P 3297). P1.44. Upper part of large early
with two strokes following presumablyindiRoman amphora with neck tapering toward
on
in
ribbed.
handles
and
catingthe price.
Dipinti green
top
neck (a) and shoulder (b). Context: lst-2nd He 17
(P 10067). P1.44. Amphora similar to
centuries(F 11:1).
Robinson, Chronology,L 31 but fuller and
I cent.
earlier.Dipinto in black on shoulder;graffito
(a) T'(oc(aov)
i'
on neck above. Context: lst-2nd centuries
(b) ]>' o(U)y(Kiat)
(M 18:1). H. 0.346 m.; D. 0.225 m.
The first notation is here taken as contents,
II cent.
(dipinto) Kp.a ouv*lE'
i.e., raisin wine; there are obviously other
i.' Ko(riXat)K6(a6os)
for
which
compare
possibilities(e.g., TaAcai6s,
The
in
(graffito) 'Ill!i
vet(us) C.LL., IV, 5526, 5536-8, etc.).
second
the
in
10
weight (40 litrai,
ounces)
The price of the contents is 15 denarii;the
notationmay be either tare or net weight; no
capacity,now measuredas 5.500 1. to the lip,
similarjar survives completeto be measured. is just over 191/6kotyles of 0.273 1. (5.233 1.).
The weightof the vessel is 2.185 kg., or someHe 14 (P 12460).PI.44. Ovoidjar preservedonly
over six litrai (1.962kg.), as the six and
up to shoulder.Dipinto in black on shoulder. thing
one-half
(?) tally strokesindicate.(If it is 151/6
Context: early 2nd century (N 20:5). PH.
must be half of 0.728 1. xestes
they
kotyles
0.28 m.; D. 0.25 m.
[l51/, x 0.364 1.- 5.520 1.].)
'Epeveas
Early II cent. orra(pvoi)KOX?ou
He 18 (P 7925). P1.44. Shoulderfragmentfrom
between
hold six and seven
'lar
jars
an amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: late
Similar jars hold between six and seven
2nd-early3rdcenturies(D 12:1).
liters so that these three stamnoi of Kyllos of
Late II-earlyIII cent. Aug(usti)N(onae)
Ereneiamight be like those reportedby Epivas stig(matum)
phanius (Metrolog. Script., II, 102) to hold
saec( ) car( )
vin(um)
four xestai each. Twelve xestai are 6.552 1.
vil(la)
Terg(estina)
Whether Kyllos made jars or wine is unThe expansionsof the abbreviationsare not
certain.The name,not attestedat Athens,may
but seem to give date, contents and
certain
nickname.
be a meaningful
provenience.
He 15 (P 17128). PI.44. Rim and neck of an He 19
(P 11992).PI.44. Large Roman amphora
amphora. Dipinti in black on shoulder (a)
with
pear-shapedbody like Robinson,Chronoland base of neck on other side (b). Context:
M
ogy, 14 but longerbodyand almostno neck.
early2nd century(B 20:1).
Dipinti in red on neck (a) and below (b).
(a) &/pyi/e?( )
Early II cent.
Context:earlyRoman(R 19:2).
IS' &pyuvpicov
II-III cent. (a) X X V (see drawing)
(b) BaerEpos
(writtendown
(b) 01
the side)
The first letters may be &pyti&(atov) or
white oil, a word not attested but analogous
For Romannumeralswrittenin this fashion
in form with &yptiAaosand in meaningwith
to the Studyof Latin
see J. Egbert,Introduction
apyf-rosXAaiou.The price is apparently 16
Inscriptions,New York, 1923, p. 75. It is
drachms;for &pyupisas drachm, see Heraunlikely that the number indicates capacity,
clidesLembicus,frag.6. The secondinscription which can not be measuredbecausethe jar is
may describethe qualityof the contentsor the
both weakand very large,since25 choes is too
positionof the jar in some series.
muchand 25 xestaitoo little. It is most likelya
serialnumber.The secondinscriptionmay be a
He 16 (P 11634). P1.44. Amphora (=Robinson, Chronology,M 90). Graffitoon shoulder. trade mark, kind of wine, or even a number.
Cf. He 20.
Context: second half 2nd century (M 17:1).
H. 0.36 m.; D. 0.254 m.
He 20 (P 12991).P1.44. Large Roman amphora
like He 19. Dipintiin red on neck(a) and body,
(see drawing)
Secondhalf II cent.
runningdown the side (b). H. 0.95 m.; D. 0.40 m.
Since the capacityof the jar is 7.000 1., it is
II-III cent. (a) X X I I I
possible that the first two strokes stand for
(b) AO
two choes (6.552 1.) and the two crossed
Cf. He 19.
strokes for two additionalkotyles (0.546 1.).

79

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

The name in the genitive may be the producer; the tare of 15 litrai is possiblebut can
not be demonstratedbecause of the jar's
presentstate. It may be that the thirdline gives
the price:500keratia(see above,p. 76).
Mid-III cent. Trav(Tracva)
Ky'olvou
pjeAtrirvov
He 26 (P 9675). PI.45. Amphora with ovoid
(two lines illegible)
body taperingto ring foot. Dipintiin black on
shoulder(a) and body (b). Context: 3rd cenravwraThe inscriptioncombinescapacity(33
vai = TprpAila
or kotyles)and contents(honeyed tury (N 18:5). PH. 0.425m.; D. 0.26 m.
wine).The capacityof the jar is 8.250 1. to the
III cent.
(a) A / Mf(Tpai),u'
base of the neck, which is broken above; 33
X(Trpat)Iy'
kotylesof 0.273 1. are 9.009 1.
(b) Up&(vvEos)
TT]oXuKn()
He 22 (P 9897). P1.44. Small amphora(= RobThe capacityof the jar is ca. 13 1.; if the jar
inson, Chronology,M 199). Dipinto in black
held
wine, the net weightwould be just about
Context:
late
3rd
on shoulder.
century(M 17:1).
40
litrai
(13.0801.). The secondweightmust be
m.
0.295
D.
0.188
H.
m.;
tare; 13 litrai is 4.251 kg.; the jar, without
LateIII cent.
mouth and handles, now weighs 4.550 kg.;
0M7'KC0i(arTOS)
X{(Tpat) y' o(O)y(Kiat) rI'
presumablythere is considerablenon-soluble
Kaeap(ou)Xi(Tpai)i'
depositinside.The identificationof the contents
is uncertain,as is the nameof produceror seller.
The vessel weighs 1.116 kg.; three litrai and
eightouncesare 1.199kg. Thecapacityis 3.3001. He 27
(P 9676). PI.45. Upper part of amphora,
to the lip; ten litrai of wine or water would
similar
to He 26. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
weigh3.270kg. and havea volumeof 3.270 1.
Context: 3rd century (N 18:5). PH. 0.375m.;
D. ca. 0.28 m.
He 23 (P 26599). P1.45. Amphora,lackingneck,
with slender ovoid body and pointed toe.
III cent. (DaEApv(6s)
Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late
(see drawing)
3rd century(Q 17:7). PH. 0.51 m.; D. 0.238m.
The secondline is veryobscure.

He 21 (P 10247). PI.44. Ovoid jar with one


handle, short neck and projectinglip ridged
on top. Dipinto in red on shoulder.Context:
3rd century(B 14:1). H. 0.362m.; D. 0.255m.

Late III cent.

ET(os) p95'

He 28 (P 17799).P1.45. Upper part of amphora


&rroMecco( )
,EsATiv(os)
with
handles from shoulder to midThis and the following are writtenin differ- neck.arching
Dipintoin blackon shoulder.
ent hands but have the samedate. The context
III cent. Oeo9 ( )
date of the jars is late 3rd century,so that the
Q'
di(Trpa)
era on which the date is based must have its
KOl?p(oU)
Combinationof name and tare, if reading
beginningin the secondhalf of the 1st century.
is correct.
Unfortunately,the name of the persons or
places from which the millet comes are so
uncertainthat the era can not be localized. He 29 (P 11195). P1.45. Fragmentaryamphora
similarto Robinson,Chronology,
L 31. Dipinto
in
black
on
shoulder; graffito near handle.
He 24 (P 26601). PI.45. Amphora with ovoid
Context:
3rd-4th
centuries (C 14:4). PH.
body, tall neck and vertical handles; bottom
0.336
D.
0.223
m.
m.;
missing. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: late 3rd century (Q 17:7). PH. 0.54 m.;
III-IV cent. (graffito) A((Tpai)
AP3'
D. 0.235m.
(dipinto) ] Xi(-rpac)6'
Late III cent.

Tr(os)p96'
&Tr6TpwKcop( )
IE]XATv(os)

See He 23.
He 25 (P 7405). PI.45. Upper part of amphora
similar to Robinson, Chronology,K 112. Dipinto in blackon shoulder.
III cent. TRAivfov
KOVT( ) X(irpa) iE'

K?( ) q'

] Xi(rpai) Ky'
] ...TTOU

CYP.TCO
tI.AT]OS

Presumablythe graffitogivesthe total weight


of jar and contents(32 litrai).The first line of
the dipinto must be the weight of the jar (9
litrai)and the secondthe weightof the contents
(23 litrai). The presentweight and capacityof
the jar provide some confirmationfor these
figures although it is very much restored in

80

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS

plaster(whichis lighterthan clay) and still has He 33 (P 11301).PI.46. Upper part of small
no mouth. The jar weighs 1.935 kg. (instead amphora, similar to Robinson, Chronology,
M 238.Dipintoin blackandgraffition shoulders.
of 2.943kg.) andholdsca. 5.5001. Evenwithout
Context:4th century(G 11:2).
the two words which may be most convincingly restored as 'YI-rITTO,we should have
1illl
IV cent. (graffitoon one shoulder)
known that the contentswas honey, since the
(graffitoon othershoulder) illIllI
metrologicalwriters emphasizethe fact that
(dipinto, now largely illegible) OM
honey weighsheavierby a thirdthan an equal
Ai(rpal)s.'<
6oarp(xKou)
quantityof wine or water. Twenty-threelitrai
IAlITOS
Ai(Trpa)K5'<
of honey (7.521kg.) will fit into a jar which
Both tallies and the dipintoindicatethat the
holds three-fourthsof 7.521 1. or 5.640 1.
weighedsix and one-halflitrai.The contents
jar
(The jar could not be located for the final
24? litrai;and sinceit was honey,the
weighed
drawing,whichis thereforebased on an earlier
must have been only three-fourthsthe
capacity
sketch.)
amountof wateror wine neededto weighthat
He 30 (P 26119).P1.45. Amphorawithovoidbody
(241/ x 327 gm. = 8.010kg. x 3 = 6.006 1.).
and pointedtoe. Dipinto in blackon shoulder.
Context: 4th century (Q 19:1). H. 0.56 m.; He 34 (P 27220). P1.46. Small wheel-ridgedamM 238.
D. 0.30m.
phorasimilarto Robinson,Chronology,
4th
Context:
shoulder.
on
in
black
Dipinto
LateIII-earlyIV cent.
29:5).
(E
century
pEAtT(fvou)l' / 65px.(a) e'
v i(rpai)[(nowpartlyillegible)
The capacityof the jar is 14.1001.; eighteen IV cent. 6arrpKou
IiArTOS
A(Trpat)[
xestai of 0.728 1. are 13.1041. It is likely that
the contents is honeyed wine (pe^(TIvoSolvos)
The numberof litrai is no longer legible on
rather than honey; cf. He 21. The above
eitherline, but compareHe 33.
interpretationof the second line is somewhat
fragmentfrom
speculativeand assumes that the contents of He 35 (P 16728).P1.46. Shoulder
Context:
in
black.
large amphora. Dipinto
this jar are part payment only of a debt or
4th century(N 21:1).
shipment of which the greater part is still
IV cent. ]c ca'
owing.
]X(?s) s'
He 31 (P 9806). P1.45. Amphora(= Robinson,
the
If the doubled phi stands for qoACTIs,
Chronology,M 230). Graffiti on shoulders,
on
pricefor six choes (of wine?)will depend the
front (a) and back (b). Context: early 4th
particularvalueassignedto thefollis; see above,
century(M 17:1). H. 0.44 m.; D. 0.285m.
p. 76.
IE'
(a) 6ca<>Trp6Kou
A(Trpal)
EarlyIV cent.
(b) &v.( )11111
He 36 (P 25175). P1.46. Amphora similar to
M 234. Dipintoin black
somewhat
is
Robinson,Chronology,
5.125
of
The presentweight
kg.
4th
Context:
shoulder.
on
x
327
15
century(Q 17:4). H.
of
calculated
heavierthan the
weight
m.
D.
0.22
=
0.42
of
because
4.905 kg., probably
m.;
large
gm.
amountsof pitchinsidethe jar.
IV cent. 7T(AXpcowta)
gav.6oU Xr-TosE(orrai) ty'
He 32 (P 12841). P1.46. Tall narrow amphora
The expansion of the first letter is only
with handles from shoulder to below rim.
tentative.The jar holds almost exactly7.098 1.
Dipinto in red on neck. Context:4th century
or 13 xestaiof the 0.546 1. capacity.
(O 19:1). H. 0.542m.; D. 0.17 m.
He 37 (P 124).PI.46. Neck and shoulderfragment
Second half IV cent. A(i{rpat)0'
of a small wheel-ridgedamphora similar to
Tpuv(yia)
M 238. Dipintoin black
Robinson,Chronology,
on lower neck and shoulder, now almost
The weight is not tare, since the jar weighs
completelyfaded.
only 2.480 kg., or only about seven and oneIV-V cent. 6o-p[&aKov
half litrai. The capacity,however,is just about
ikTpa) s'
one chous (3.300 1.), and althoughone chous
of wine weighs ten litrai, one chous of oil
The inscription combines tare, capacity,
weighsnine. Hesychios(s.v.) providesevidence
and perhapsa date in the era of Diocletian:
for oil as well as for wine.
of the use of rpuyyia
139 =A.D. 423.
The phi is unexplained.

H. COMMERCIAL NOTATIONS
He 38 (P 11357). P1.46. Upper part of small
wheel-ridgedamphora. Graffiti on shoulders.
Context:4th-5th centuries(E 15:5).
IV-V cent. (one shoulder) e'<
(othershoulder) IE'
(see drawingfor othersigns)
The jar is smallenoughso that five and onehalf (litrai) may represent tare; the other
inscriptionmay be either price or the weight
of the contents.
He 39 (P 12866). P1.46. Wheel-ridgedamphora
similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and inside handle
on neck (b); graffito on neck. Context: 5th
century(O 19:1). H. 0.464m.; D. 0.235m.
V cent. (dipinto)(a) (chi-rhomonogram)
o-raTvo( ) / IL'<

(b) (almostillegibleand
not drawn)
(graffito) t' o(*)y(K(ai)5'
Despite what is apparentlythe name of the
jar (stamnos),this is certainlya Cypriotemodius
of 17 plus xestai(Metrolog.Script.,I, 263, 272),
i.e., 9.646 1.; its capacityis 9.800 1. to the lip.
The almost illegible dipinto (b) might be the
abbreviation for TriVEwpiIEcos;
cf. He 42. The

81

LateV-earlyVI cent.
(a)
(b)
(c)

(orTal) XXV
wIEXivns
PTi(v6s)'IouvlouiZ'
'rr6Tro wTp9eOTco
Tro
EcoS

The capacity is 14.530 1., very close to


25 x 0.546 1. (13.460 1.). The contents was
apparentlymillet. The date of the month is
perfectlyclear,and the line below seemsto be a
command:"Let him put it up for sale from
this (time) until the ...." Perhaps the line
which appears to connect the ecows
TOUto the

date is to convey that June 17 is the terminal


must be "now." It
date; in that case &rr6-TO0
is also possible that the dipinto has been lost
at the end.
He 42 (P 1567).P1.47. Shoulderfragmentof amM 333.
phora similarto Robinson,Chronology,
Dipinti in red on shoulder(a) and on neck
behindhandle(b).
VI cent. (a) ] \i' 3"
(b) rp(6) i5[cov
EnTv(tEi.aEcos).

For the capacitysee He 39. For the date by


indiction year see Tax Notations (I 1-45); here

howeverits useappearsto be different.


present weight of the jar (somewhat light
because restored in plaster) is 3.165kg.; ten
He 43 (P 4618). P1.47. Amphoraneck. Graffito
litraiand four ouncesare 3.383kg.
and dipintoin red.
He 40 (P 26104).PI.47. MiniatureamphorasimiRoman (graffito) (rra]oe(lbs) Ai(Tpa) iy'<
lar in shape to Robinson, Chronology,M 306.
in
black
above
toe
(dipinto) KpI
Dipinto
just
ring. Context:
4th-5th centuries (Q 19:1). H. 0.24 m.; D.
The first gives tare, carelesslyscratchedby
0.115m.
the owner, and the second gives capacity,
V cent. oc(a90o6s)
P' &rra(ao'aov)
o(O)y(kiai)X'
formally painted by producer or seller. The
presumedsize of the amphorais compatible
The actual weight of the jar is 648 gm. or
with
a weight of 131/2 litrai and a capacityof
two
litrai
The
very nearly
(654 gm.).
capacity
22 xestai(12.0121.).
is 0.830 1. or slightlyover 30 ounces(0.818 1.).
The abbreviationtaken here as contentsmight
be somethingelse. Particularlynotable is the He 44 (P 22833). P1.47. Wall fragmentof amphora.Two dipintiin black.
location of the dipinto, suggestingthat it was
to be read while the jar lay undisturbedon a
Roman Kov[
shelfwith only the toe visible.
Kopi( ) g((orat) O'
He 41 (P 12707). P1.47. Amphora with ovoid
The first line might be the producer'sname,
body similarto Robinson, Chronology,M 235.
but since it is in a differenthand it might be
Dipinto in red on neck (a); in blackbelow (b);
the contents of second use: e.g., KovSeITOv.
in black on shoulder (c). Context: late 5thThe second must give contents,whethersomeearly 6th centuries (O 19:1). H. 0.482 m.;
thing flavoredwith corianderor a tradename
D. 0.293m.
like Corinthian.

82

I. TAX NOTATIONS

I. TAX NOTATIONS
Thetypicaltextin this grouphas two elements:an indictiondateandan estatename.Oneor the other
elementis missingon somevessels,perhapsbecauseit was wornawayor becauseof a missingfragment,
but it is both possibleand probablethat on all except
1 1 both wereoriginallypresent.In almosthalf of
the texts somethingfurtherhas been addedto the two elements,but since these additionsare far less
uniformandconstantthanthe indictiondateand estatename,theymaybe consideredseparatelybelow.
of
andan alphabeticnumber.
Theindictiondateis most oftenexpressedby an abbreviation
rirwpiouatsl
Of the 37 textswhichpreservethe datein wholeor in part35 showthis form;the two variantsseemto
use the Latinwordspelledwith Greekletters,i. e.,l TvSu bvwith alphabeticnumerals(I 12, 44). The
is most?irivE(
often
abbreviationof brtvrivnrisl
) with the epsilon suspendedover the nu; next most
frequentis -rriv() with or withouta strokeover the nu. Thereare two exceptions:an earlytext gives
(I 4); a late and laconic one gives (rri)ve( ) (I 27). The numbers from ia to iEare most
Trr( ) EK&rris

oftenwrittenin this order,but theyare reversedin fourexamples(I 17, I 24,


I 39,143). Forthe chronology of indictioncycles,seeKubitschek,pp. 106ff.;it is not possibleto identifythe particularcyclesto
whichthe yearsinscribedon the jars belong.
of
Of the 33 textswhichseem
The estatenameis most oftenprefacedby an abbreviatedformXcopiov.
to use this formula,27 showa chi witha suspendedomega;fourlackthis partof the text (9,I 10, I 23,
1 38); the variantsare Xcop(rov)
(I 45). Anotherformulaappearson threevessels
(I32) and X(co)p(fou)
I 12).
fromthe early4th and 5th centuries:
( 11,
a Trowiththe genitiveplural(14) or withabbreviations
Often the estate names with Xcpiou too are abbreviated,but those given in full are all in the genitive case
And since some of these are
31,132,134,36-38,140,141).
(15, 119,110,119,120,123-25,127-29,
adjectives, it may be right to assume that Xcopiouitself is in the genitive case. Concerning estate names

(I. G., XII 2,


generallythe best sourcesare.LG.,
II112, 2776 and the cadastralinscriptionsfrom Lesbos
76ff.), Astypalaia(.L G., XII 3, 180ff.), Thera(L.G.,XII 3, 343ff.), Kos(L. G. R. P., IV, 1083),Tralles
(B. C. H., IV, 1880, pp. 336-338) and Magnesia (0. Kern, Inschriften von Magnesia am Maeander,

Berlin,1900,no. 122).Estatenameson thesejars, like those in the cadastralinscriptions,seemto be of


variouskinds.Most have referenceto naturalfeaturessuch as a spring(127), or hills (14,I 5), the sea
(133,I 35), kinds of trees (119,I 34,I 45) or some more generalaspectof the scene (118, I 36, I 37,
I 40,I 41,I 43). A few are known by the namesof persons(120,I 25), officials(19), nearbyshrines
(128,I 29,131) or a relevantplacename(123). Manyaretoo abbreviatedor uncertainto be categorized.
The combinationof indictiondatesand estatenamesof the sortfoundin the tax registersmakesclear
the originalfunctionof thesevesselsas containersfor taxesin kindpaidin varioustax yearsby various
estates.It was Diocletianwho institutedthe systemof annualpaymentsin kind based on elaborate
censusrecordsof the sortwe havefromLesbos,etc., but the actualbeginningof the fifteen-yearindiction
cyclescame only in A. D. 3121 so that it is no coincidencethat our earliesttax notationsdate from the
early 4th century.2

Not only do the inscriptionson thejars indicatethat they representthe paymentof taxesin kindbut
also the remarkableconcentrationof the inscribedjars in and aroundone buildingsuggeststhe use to
whichthe contentsmusthavebeenput. Twenty-fiveof thejarsbelowwerefoundin wellslocatedin four
squaresof the Agora grid(0-P 18-19);3fifteenmore were found in squareseitheradjacentor one re1 For a general discussion of indictionesor annual levies in kind see A. H. M. Jones, The Later RomanEmpire,Oxford, 1964,
pp. 61ff., 448ff.

2 1 is included in this
group because it employs the estate abbreviation,but the differentform of the vessel and its late 3rdcenturydate set it apart from the rest of the series.
P 18: I 35-37, 141
80 18: I 17-19, 123,124,128-34
P 19:19,120-22,125,126
019:15,16,115

I. TAX NOTATIONS

83

moved.4Thebuildingin questionis a LateRomanstructuremostlyin squares0-P 18-19with some outlyingpartsin adjacentsquares.Thelargesize of the buildingmakeslikelya publicfunction;its domestic
features(wells, courtyards)suggestthat it was no tax collector'swarehouse;and the presenceof so
manyinscribedjars in the wellsmay indicatethat they wereemptiedon the spot. Somekind of official
householdwith a largeresidentpopulationis likely,eithercivil or military,to whom the taxes in kind
could have been issuedas rations.
Of the other notationson these jars the most frequentis probablythat indicatingcontents.Nine
vessels(I 7, I 10, I 16, I 19, I 20, I 25, I 29, I 40, I 45) show some form of 'ALcvaos,5
a wine so called
fromthe veryspecialvines(Pliny,N. H., XIV, 4, 21) originallygrownin Aminaea,a regionin Picenum,
but later grown everywhere(loc. cit., 4, 36). The presumptionis that only special wines were labeled, but

that all these similarvesselshad wine as theircontents.The otherabbreviationswhichmightbe special


wines are: a&wr() (I 12); irpap( ) (I 13); pev[ ] pEXt[
(I 42).

Capacityor net weightis notedon 15,110, I 12,118,121,123,124,126,132. Tareappearsonly on


17, wholenotationsof date occuron I 17, I 23, I 44. All these are discussedin the introductionsto the
appropriatecategories.Additionaland unexplainednotationsarefoundon 1 8,111,124.
The jars on which all these inscriptionsappearare of four main types; only the first and the last
(I 1, I 45) are demonstrablydifferent;threeothers(18, I 10, I 14) are too fragmentaryto be classified.
Withinthe generaluniformitythe variationsin fabricandin the thin-glazewashandthe slightdifferences
in the treatmentof feet and handlesseemto indicatea varietyof provenienceswhichcoincideswell with
the interpretationof thesejars as paymentof taxes in kind from variousestatesin a fairlylargearea.
The largestgroup(TypeI)6 is made up of tall jars with narrownecksand one handle.Next most numerousarethejars(TypeII)7withtwo handlesandovoidbodynarrowingsharplyto a smallpointedtoe:
thesebelongto the late 5th and 6th centuriesand seemto havereplacedthe thirdtype.Thejars of Type
III8are similarto those of Type II exceptthat they have a smallring foot. Fewestof all are the twohandledjars (Type IV)9of soft orangeclay with wheel-ridgedbody taperingalmost withouta curve
from the shoulderto the toe. Becauseof the generaluniformitynot only of shapesbut also of contexts
for thesevessels,it seemsunnecessaryto give individualcontextdates.Instead,the type as in the above
classificationis given.
All inscriptionsarewrittenon the shoulderof thejar withblackpaintunlessindicatedotherwise.

I 1 (P 9681). P1.48. Rim and wall fragmentof 1 3 (P 9808). P1.48. Amphorawith ovoid body
on false ring foot (= Robinson, Chronology,
pithos. Dipinto in black on upper wall. Context: N 18:5.
M 233).TypeIII. Context:M 17:1. H. 0.466m.;
D. 0.271m.
Late III cent. Xco(piou)
P9[
EarlyIV cent. frrl(VEPoC?os)1'
1 2 (P 12261).P1.48. Amphorawith ovoid body,
similarto Robinson,Chronology,
pl. 40, P 16704. I4 (P10265). P. 48. Narrow-neckedovoid jar
Early variant of Type II. Context: N 20:5.
with one handle and small flat bottom, preH. 0.515 m.; D. 0.254m.
decessor of
Early IV cent.

E'
wnMv(Elacrscos)

(traces)
4 M 17: I3
M 18: I4,I16

Robinson, Chronology, M 315.


I.
M 18:4. PH. 0.54 m.; D.
Context:
Type

0.26 m.

N 18: I1
Q 17: I27,139,140,144,145
N20:1 2, I17
Q 19:I43
N21: I10-12
5 Various forms: 'Avivvios(Ed. Diocl., 2,4); 'AgvvaTos(Diosc. 5,19); 'ApivaTos
(Hesych. s.v.); 'AlpivaTos(Geoponica,VIII, 22,1).
6 1 4, 1 5, 17, I 25-40. See Robinson, Chronology,M 315 for a late example.
71 20-24, I 41-43. For early variants
(I 2, 1 9) see Robinson, Chronology,pl. 40, P 16074; M 236.
8 3, I 6, I 13,
1I 15-19. See Robinson, Chronology,M 233, M 302, M 324.
9I 11,1 12. See Robinson, Chronology,M 334.

84

I. TAX NOTATIONS

EarlyIV cent. &oT6


TptKoXcbvcov
?7r(IVE|jirCOS) SEKOTTis

The variantforms of both estate nameand


indictiondatemarkthis out as an earlyexample,
perhapsbefore standardization."Threehills"
seemsa possiblenamefor an estate.

Late IV-V cent. e[Tnv(E1direcos)]8'


S'
EXAscO[Vo]vErTv(q.e?aecoS)

It is not clearthat anythinglike xco(piou)or


Tor6
was writtenin front of the wordfor "stewards." It mightbe that the jar was markednot
with its proveniencebut with its prospective
users-a specialvintagetoo good for ordinary
I 5 (P 12874). P1.48. Narrow-neckedovoid jar
rations.
with one handleand small flat bottom, similar
to 14. Type I. Context: 019:1. H. 0.562m.; I 10 (P 15766).PI.49. Walland shoulderfragment
of amphorawith ovoid body. Context:N 21: 1.
D. 0.228m.
---]avcov'A!uiv(vaTos)
EarlyIV cent. ]trr]w(Fioicos)
y' Xco(piou)
Pouvo-v EarlyV cent. [xco(piou)
0'
1S'
E(aoTai)
E
IKE'
t13'
lv(E?4o'6COs)
Gamma is probably right for the date,
The beginning of the estate name, which
althoughit is obscuredby a diagonal stroke,
seemsto be genitiveplural,is lost. The contents
which may indicatethat the previousword is
follow on the same line. In the secondline the
abbreviatedor that the gamma itself is a
number.For the estatename,cf. BouvvsEvBapOp number27 seems to be too large for capacity
(27 xestai are 14.742 1.) or tare (27 litrai are
from Tralles(B.C.H.,IV, 1880,pp. 336ff.) and
8.829kg.); it couldbe the weightof the contents
Bouviov(Kern, Inschriftenvon Magnesia am
Maeander,no. 122); the referenceis obviously (i.e., 8.829 kg. would be about 16 xestai of
wine). The theta betweenthe lines is probably
topographical.The jar now holds 7.800 1.;
the numbernine, but its applicationis obscure.
14 xestaiof 0.546 1. are 7.644 1.
I 6 (P 12827).PI.48. Amphorawith ovoid body I 11 (P 15784).PI.49. Tall amphorawith wheeland smallringfoot, similarto 1 3 but plumper. ridged body taperingto pointed bottom, like
Robinson, Chronology,M 334. Type IV. ConType III. Context: 0 19:1. H. 0.47m.; D.
text: N21:1. H. 0.59 m.; D. 0.20m.
0.308m.
ca'ycovo( )
EarlyV cent. i]-rrv(e6icr?cos)
LateIV cent. Xco(piov)Trr() Ka( )
arr6
OUIK
AA
(
)
Note that the dots above upsilonand kappa
The word after the indiction year might be
It is unclearwhether
mayindicateabbreviations.
expectedto give the kind of wine but seemsnot
the estatenameis made up of two words,e.g.,
or whetherthe secondelement to be otherwiseknown. For the abbreviated
uvnr6
Ka(XXipp6Ov)
at Magnesia on the
might be a number, e.g., Xco(piou)Cr(&rou), estate name cf. BtKtavos
Maeander(Kern, loc. cit. [I 5]). The reading
21, perhapsindicatingcapacity.
and interpretationof the followingtwo letters
1 7 (P 12262). P1.48. Narrow-neckedovoid jar
are uncertain.
similarto I 4. Type I. Context: N 20:5. PH.
I 12 (P 16679). PI.49. Upper part of amphora
0.465m.; D. 0.238m.
like I 11. TypeIV. Context:N 21: 1.
IV cent. bivs(lio'aEcos)E''Apuv(valos)
EarlyV cent.
1p'
XE(iTpat)
18'
Xf(Tpai) K' aTr( )
v58(1<KTicvos)
The jar, which lacks mouth and bottom,
&rr6
)
NoT(
weighs2.950kg. The 12 litraiof the secondline,
(graffito) OY
if this readingis correct,are 3.924kg.
Line 1: the numberafter the abbreviationis
1 8 (P 3002). P1.48. Shoulderfragmentof jar of
a similarjar (I 11) holds about 20
uncertain;
coarse grayish clay. Found with pottery and
litrai. The contents may be &rdiTnrs
(pear-wine)
coins of 4th century(Q 15).
or nrrta-rov
(wine flavoredwith celery).(From
IV cent.
(traces)
this same well came shoulderfragmentsof two
8'
other amphorasof this shape and fabric with
]TroT( ) 'Tv(e?VCoos)
The word abbreviatedbefore the indiction inscriptions in black paint, now illegible:
P 16677,P 16678.)
yearmay be the estatename.
1 9 (P 13590).P1.49. Amphorawithtaperingbody 1 13 (P 3754). P1.49. Upper part of amphora,
and pointed toe, like Robinson, Chronology, similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 302, but
with narrow mouth. Type III. Context: late
M 236. Early variant of Type II. Context:
Roman(I 15:1).
P 19:1.

85

I. TAX NOTATIONS

wAx( )
EarlyV cent. Xco(piou)
1939-71, p. 204) must have influenced even
Attic purists.
(traces)
The ways in whichthe estate name could be 1 20 (P 13433).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body
completed are various; cf. L 43. The traces
and short rounded toe. Type II. Context:
below might be TTp...(vEios).

I 14 (P 5623). P1.49. Neck fragmentof narrowmouthedjar. Context:N 13:1.


V cent.
.&rrop[
XCo(p(ou)
The indiction year may have been written
below.

P 19:1. H. 0.385 m.; D. 0.215 m.

LateV-VI cent. Xco(piou)


lTacrxrrou
r)'
'Ag,vv(aTos)krrivE(pn?oaEcoS)

The estate is apparentlythat of Pasippus;


for the single instead of the double consonant
in this periodsee Meisterhans2,
p. 73.
1 21 (P 13468).P1.50. Amphora,similarto 1 20.
I 15 (P 12710).P1.49. Amphorawith ovoid body
Type II. Dipinti in both black and red. Consimilar to 1 17. Type III. Context: 0 19:1.
text: P 19:1. H. 0.47 m.; D. 0.28 m.
PH. 0.368 m.; D. 0.237 m.
V cent. Xco(piou)0 ( ) Tnve(VrioEcos)
cs'

LateV-VI cent.

ti3'
(black) Triv(6Eio'Ecos)
Xco(p(ou)[

The first part of the line could as well be


(red)
(koarat)ie'
x6(Es)0' from the palaeographicalpoint of
The capacityis 12.7501., whichis somewhat
view, but the certaintyof the indiction date
morethan15xestaiof the0.7281.size(10.9201.).
may make the estate interpretationeasier. The
(Dipintinow barelyvisible.)
estate may have been known by a number
1 22 (P 13474).P1.50. Amphora,similarto 1 20.
ratherthan a name.
Type II. Context: P 19:1. PH. 0.42 m.;
1 16 (P 14018).P1.49. Amphorawith ovoid body
D. 0.275m.
and false ring foot, similar to I 17. Type III.
LateV-VI cent. rtlvE(aicrcos) is'
Context:M 18:4. PH. 0.37 m.; D. 0.23 m.
Traces of letters on the broken edge above
Late V-VI cent. ]TrtV(E^Ecrecos)
IE''Agtvv(aTos)
may be the remnantsof the estatename.
Only indiction year and contents are now
I 23 (P 13160). P1.50. Upper part of amphora
visible.
like 1 20. Type II. Context:0 18:1.
1 17 (P 13178).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body
LateV-VI cent.
and small ring foot, similar to Robinson,
KT-eioUs'
6WtV(EPIsco) iE'
Ir)(vO6)
Chronology,M 324. Type III. Context:0 18:1.
[Xoo(piou)]MEOivrns
g(Eorat)t'
H. 0.456 m.; D. 0.26 m.

LateV-VI cent. IA(rlvos)


a' nrrve(Iji'aooS)El'
I 18 (P 13148).P1.50. Amphorawith ovoid body,
similar to 1 17. Type III. Context: 0 18:1.
H. 0.407 m.; D. 0.24 m.
Late V-VI cent. FwmvE(QcEcos)
I'
X&)(piou)cyopi(ou)

o(u)y(Kaa)y

A completejar of similarshapeand approximate size (I 20) holds 6.500 1., so that the
presentxestai might have been either size: 10
and 3/20 x 0.546 1. = 5.542 1. or 10 and
3/20 x 0.728 1. = 7.362 1.

I 24 (P 13147). P1.50. Upper part of amphora,


similarto I 20. Type II. Dipinto in red. Con0 18:1.
text:
t'
(eorTa)
The estate may be oyop<ai>ou;see Meister- LateV-VI cent.
hans2, p. 27 for the spelling. The jar holds
O6(ios)
7.800 1., whichwouldbe slightlymorethan ten
XC)(piou)[.]vouthS rTIVcs(i:aEos)
yi'
of the 0.728 1. xestai(see above,p. 57).
AtOKA( ) AapoKpaTrOS
Both the reading and significanceof the
1 19 (P 13158).P1.50. Amphora,similarto I 17.
third
line are uncertain.
III.
Context:
018:1. PH. 0.39m.; D.
Type
0.24 m.
1 25 (P 13465).P1.51. Tall taperedjar with one
Late V-VI cent. 'Alvtvv(aTos)
handle, like Robinson, Chronology,M 315.
I. Context:P 19:1. H. 0.51 m.; D. 0.205m.
Type
Xco(piou)Outcovos
LateV-VI cent. Xco(plou)MoXrrou
The estate name shouldprobablybe read as
'Ati(vvaios)
ia'
Trtv(6E'cEscos)
since
in
this
the
period
<TT>ucovos
frequent
interchangeof phi and pi in Egypt and Asia
The last word in the first line seems to be a
Minor (E. Schwyzer, Gr. Gram., Miinchen, shorterthan usualabbreviationof 'Algvvaios.

I. TAX NOTATIONS

86

1 26 (P 13467). P1.51. Tapered jar, similar to


125. Type I. Context: P 19:1. PH.0.535m.;
D. 0.198m.
a'
LateV-VI cent. Trnv(e?fircos)
ai'
E(o'rrat)

The capacity is 6.210 1.; 11 x 0.546 1. =


6.006 1.
1 27 (P 25064).P1.51. Taperedjar, similarto I 25.
Type I. Context: Q17:4. PH.0.505m.;
D. 0.205m.
Late V-VI cent. Xco(piou)-rrniyis
(mI)vE(6or?os) Y

Late V-VI cent. Xco(piou)Batcov


Cf. xco(piou)Batasin Magnesia (Kern, loc. cit.
lI 51).
I 35 (P 12863). P1. 52. Tapered jar similar to

125. Type I. Context: P 18:2. PH. 0.555m.;


D. 0.231 m.
0'
VI cent. ErivE?(fcrEcos)
(traces)
Xco(piou) 'rapa,iou

(traces)

The traces in the second and fourth lines


look like earlier(more faded) versionsof the
firstand thirdlines.

1 28 (P 13182).P1.51. Taperedjar, missingneck


and mouth, similarto 1 25. Type I. Context: 1 36 (P 13063).P1.52. Mouth and neck fragment
0 18:1. PH. 0.432m.; D. 0.225m.
of jar like 1 25. Context:P 18:2.
Late V-VI cent.

rin[

VI cent.

Xco(piou)Kevfis E[tv(EixaEco5s)

xco(piou)p( ) MfOpou
Cf. 1 18.
PerhapsKaivqs?
The betain the secondline may be a number,
e.g., the secondfield of Mithras,or an abbrevi- 137 (P 13065). P1.52. Tapered jar like 1 25.
ation of popeioSor pcoi6osor pouvoXstov.

1 29 (P 13188). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.


LateV-VI cent. rw[iv(Eao?cos).
'A]i]v(vacos)
Xco(pio)p( ) Miep[ou

I 30 (P 13170). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.

Late V-VI cent. xco(piou)Tlpia[ e.g., nlpiaxrEou


1 31 (P 13171). P1. 51. Shoulder fragment of jar

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.


Late V-VI cent.

ta'
Xco(pfou) lepoUkrIVE(l6a?wcoS)

I 32 (P 13151). P1.51. Shoulderfragmentof jar


like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.
ta'
Late V-VI cent. hrTv(EgncrEcoS)
Ka0(apoO)o(O)y(Kiai) o'

Xco(pfou)'AXco( ) &ypou
The capacity of similar jars is about 5?/2

liters, which would give a net weight of 200


ounces (5.460 kg.) or 10 xestai of wine. For a
personal name (?) with &ypou as an estate

namecf. Tralles(B.C.H.,IV, 1880,pp. 336-338).

1 33 (P 13157). P1.52. Shoulderfragmentof jar


like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.
LateV-VI cent. Xco(pfou)
Eca[ e.g., Eixou
iTrv(e6aoecos) 0'

I 34 (P 13169). PI. 52. Shoulder fragment of jar

like 1 25. TypeI. Context:0 18:1.

Type I. Context: P 18:2. PH. 0.465 m.; D.


0.205 m.
18'
VI cent. xco(piou) xSv E?hiv(Eraorcos)

1 38 (P 1461).P1.52. Wall and shoulderfragment


of jar like 1 25. Type I. Context: mixed fill
(G-H 16-17).
VI cent. ]Eou
bE]tv(~iE(?os) 8'

I 39 (P 25048). P1. 52. Tapered jar like I25.


Type I. Context: Q 17:4. PH. 0.555 m.;

D. 0.20 m.

VI cent. Xco(piou)rrpoK( )
MlVe?(pJ JCOS) El'

The estate name might be anything from


to TTp6KAou.
TrrpoKEiEvoV

1 40 (P 26691). P1.52. Tapered jar like 1 25.


Type I. Context: Q 17:7. PH. 0.47 m.; D.
0.21 m.
VI cent. ?TrvE?(ji6cEcos)Iy'
'Aiuv[vcTios
Xco(piou) oVKO6Aou

or oruyKo?.os?
PerhapsayK AXos
1 41 (P 13064). P1. 53. Upper part of amphora

similarto 1 20. TypeII. Context:P 18:2.

VI cent. Xco(piou)[N]?Epv

S'
'A[tv]v(caos)iTnve(l~fq|o~os)

1 42 (P 12152). P1.53. Shoulder fragment of

amphora similar to 120. Type II. Context:

Late Roman.

J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS
VI cent. Mev[

87

Year 239 of Diocletian was A.D. 523; the


third year of the appropriateindiction cycle
began in September A.D. 524. This might be an

xco[

error?Or the number has some other signi(traces)


ficance?
PerhapsMendaeanwine with honey?
1 43 (P 26083). P1.53. Amphorasimilarto I 20, 145 (P 26690). P1.53. Amphora with wheelridgedcylindricalbody and round bottom like
with more elongatedbody. Type II. Context:
M 333. Dipintiin black
Robinson,Chronology,
Q 19:1. H. 0.42m.; D. 0.18 m.
and
red
on
shoulder.
Context: Q 17:7. H.
VI cent. +
pt'
Xco(pfou)&Kev() mTnv?(uiaoscos)

The cross may be Christian.The estatename


maybevariouslycompleted,e.g.6o&crpos,acxaivn.
1 44 (P 26694). P1.53. Amphora of same fabric
as I 11 and of same generalshape but shorter
and with small flat base. Type IV. Context:
Q 17:7. H. 0.43 m.; D. 0.128m.
VI cent. iv8(iKTrcovos)
y'
(writtenvertically)eAX'

0.47 m.; D. 0.27 m.

VI cent.
(black) rTiv?(E(7?ecos)
ty' x(co)p(ou) 'Axpa( )
pouvaios .. ..ivios

(red) (fainttracesof abbreviationfor xestes)


This jar, as the only one of its kind with an
indictiondate, was probablyre-used.Presumand a
ably an alternatespelling of 'Amivvcaos
specialvintagefrom the hills.

J. CHRISTIAN INSCRIPTIONS
Includedhere are vesselswhichhave Christianinscriptionsonly. Symbolsthat are most easilyinterpretedas Christianalso appearin companywithothernotationson F 322-324,Ha 46, Hc 22, He 39, I 43.
For parallelsand generaldiscussionsee C.L.L.,XV, 4889ff.andF. CabrolandH. LeClerq,Dictionnaire
d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie, Paris, 1924-53, s.vv. amphores, chrisme, inscriptions. For the

specificproblempresentedby X M r, see W. K. Prentice,Cl. Phil., IX, 1914,pp. 410-416,who argues


for XpiorosMapiasyivva in preferenceto XpiarosMiXa?A9
rappiiA. J 7, J 8 below give support to
is
for
the
or
substituted
since
mu.
Prentice'sview,
Se(oi) $(Eo0)
J 1 (P 7544). P1.53. Fragmentof small amphora EarlyV cent.
(chi-rhomonogram)
preservingpart of rim, neck and shoulderwith
rTiS Tiapeevou
one handle. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
J 5 (P 9756). P1.53. Amphora neck. Dipinto in
Foundwith coins of 4th-5th centuries.
red. Context: 5th century(B 14:1).
IV-V cent. '1q](chi-rhomonogram)aou
V cent.
XMr
J 2 (P 9766). P1.53. Amphoraneck and shoulder
with plain thickenedrim. Dipinto in red on J 6 (P 12713). P1.53. Amphora like Robinson,
Chronology,
pl. 40, P 16074.Dipintoin blackon
shoulder.Context:4th-5th centuries(K 18:1).
shoulder. Context: 5th century (O 19:1).
X Mr
IV-V cent.
H. 0.503m.; D. 0.246m.
V cent.
J 3 (P 16313). P1.53. Wall fragment from tall
M
one-handledjar like Robinson, Chronology,
eoss pon)e6s
M 315. Context: 4th-5th centuries (K 18:1).
The mu might stand for 40 (kotyles) or
XMF
IV-V cent.
"modius"; both measureswould be possible.
(verticalto jar)
Orit mightbe for contents,e.g., pEAl.
J 4 (P 25133).P1.53. Small ribbedpitchersimilar J 7 (P 13060).P1.54. Small amphorawith cylinto Robinson, Chronology,M 291. Graffitoon
drical wheel-ridgedbody and short narrow
shoulder.Context:early 5th century(Q 17:4).
neck. Dipinti in red on neck (a) and body (b),
H. 0.175 m.; D. 0.13 m. Hesperia, XXV, 1956,
(c). Context: 5th-6th centuries(P 18:1). PH.
b.
0.49
m.; D. 0.202 m.
p. 54, pl. 14,

88
V-VI cent.

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS
(a)

Xr
e(oO)

(b)
(c)

Tp.( )
xaaTrTo( )

J 10 (P 3756). P1.54. Shoulder fragment from


small amphora.Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Late Roman X Mr

J 8 (P 13087). P1.54. Fragmentfrom neck and J 11 (P 15075). P1.54. Neck and shoulder of
amphora.Dipintoin blackat base of neck.
shoulderof amphora.Dipinto in red on neck.
Foundwith potteryof 6th century.
Late Roman X Mr
Xe r
VI cent.
J 12 (P 15560).P1.54. Shoulderfragmentof amJ 9 (P 10564). P1. 54. Tall one-handled jar (=
phora.Dipintoin red.
Robinson, Chronology,M 315). Graffito on
Late Roman X Mr
wall. Context: late 6th century (D 15:2).
H. 0.52m.; D.0.183m.
LateVI cent.
(chi-rhomonogram)

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS
Includedin this grouparetextswhichcan be readand interpretedbut whichdo not belongto one of
the largerclasses. Probableprices (K 8, K 16-18)1are more numerousthan anythingelse. Numbers
withoutdefinitionarealso frequent(K9, K 14, K 15, K 19). Othersareone or two of a kind:vesselname
(K 1, K 10); message(K2, K 3); signature(K 4, K 6); gamecounter(K 12); equation(K 13, K 14). All of
thesecan be most convenientlydiscussedunderthe individualitems.
K 1 (P 18276).P1.54. Wellhead.Graffition side
wall, outside. Context: second quarter 6th
centuryB.C.(A 17:1). Hesperia,XVIII, 1949,
p. 119.
Second quarterVI cent. B.C.

VI cent. B.C.

dyoVI9Ov wT6po[v

Perhapsa mascotpreparedby a boy entering


a contest:"agonisticresource."

K 4 (P 12181).P1.54. Wall fragmentfrom thinwalled vessel, with brownishglaze inside and


(a) (upsidedown) icr[e]Oiov<q(>paT(os)out. Graffito
on outside.
(b) EnAes
"Neck of well." The Greekterm is perhaps Late VI-early V cent. B.C. ]s gypa[gcrs
more sensiblethan our "wellhead."The name
Presumablysignatureof owner, since it is
incised.
may be of the owner.
K 2 (P 4233). P1.54. Black-glazedfragment,per- K 5 (P 16791). P1.54. Fragmentfrom base and
floor of black-glazedstemlessbowl. Graffitoon
haps from lower wall of skyphos. Graffitoon
outside. Found with 6th- to 5th-centuryB.C. inside, almostcertainlywrittenwhen the vessel
was wholesinceit followsthe curveof the wall;
pottery.
subsequentlybrokenin half and chippedaround
VI cent. B.C. Ele]iyois 9*Tr[pas
theedges.Context:late 6thcenturyB.c. (G 15:1).
Compare C.L.G., I, 545: Kr<pioopro&vTos
i
Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
no. 446.
Koxtl- eav 6e TISKararn SpaXi,iv TrroTE'itar.
Scopovov Trapa=evo ... Also Kretschmer, p. 91:
Kal E OeiyEis
Bu' 6PEACA
with commentary by

D. A. Amyx, University of California Publications in ClassicalArchaeology,I, 8, Berkeley and

Ca. 500 B.C. ]ot ypap[


Perhaps to be restored as rTOIyp&ovT-r and
used as a tag, or -rot ypaqpvypaqpovoi "to

the prosecutor."

Los Angeles,1941,pp. 179-206.

K 6 (P 15108). P1.55. Upper part of amphora


with bulbousneck and verticalhandles.GrafK 3 (P 27724). P1.54. Wall fragment of large
fito
on neck and shoulder. Context: second
black-figuredamphorapreservingcentral part
half
5th
century B.C.(E 19: 5).
of a shield with whirlingradii. Graffitostarts
at centerand goes out and around.
Second half V cent. B.C. avriy/pa,[e 6oeliva
1 For other prices see Ha 5; He 1, He 2, He 15-17, He 25, He 35, He
38; L 20.

K. MISCELLANEOUS NOTATIONS
The second line is written retrograde."So
and so checkedthe account"?

89

Not a statementof capacity but a note of


equivalence: one chous equals six xestai.
Perhapswrittenon the sherd.

K7 (P 25909). P1.55. Fragmentfrom floor of


black-glazedbowl. Graffitoon inside.
K 14 (P 19861). PI. 55. Fragmentfrom neck of
V cent. B.C.
XEX
largeamphorawith profiledlip. Dipinto in red
on neck.
"You pour" (x?ts)is perhaps more proper
but less sensible than Xia((a), whether as
Late Hellenistic ]IE'
expletiveor definitionof the vessel'suse.
XL]V
Obviously Greek and Roman numerals,
K 8 (P 19389).P1.55. Part of flat-toppedrim and
perhapsequated.
shoulderof a large pithos. Graffitoon upper
surfaceof rim.
K 15 (P 21773). P1.55. Fragmentfrom neck of
IV cent. B.C. I!11
111'
large amphorawith profiled rim. Dipinto in
redon neck.Context:early1stcentury(R 10:1).
Tallyingand price: nine drachmas(and one
obol?).
EarlyI cent.
XXXV[
K 9 (P 20373). P1.55. Shoulder fragment from
CompareHe 19 for the method of writing
the tens.
jug. Dipinto in black. Found with sherds of
4th-3rdcenturiesB.C.
K 16 (P 12478). P1.55. Amphora similar to
IV-III cent. B.C.
A KY
M 12. Dipinto in black
Robinson,Chronology,
Presumablya number, but since the last
on shoulder. Context: first half 1st century
sign might be seen either as upsilon (400) or
(N 20:5). H. 0.395 m.; D. 0.28 m.
the drachm-symbol,
the readingmightbe either
Firsthalf I cent. 8rl(vapta)p[
"424" or "24 drachms."
Presumablyprice,probablyof contents.
K 10 (P3983). PI. 55. Amphora with almost
cylindricalbody and small toe. Lettersincised K 17 (P 10268).PI. 55. Amphorasimilarto Robbeforefiringat base of neck. Context:3rd-2nd
inson, Chronology,M 234. Dipinto in black
centuriesB.c. (G l: 1). PH. 0.615m.; D. 0.314m.
on shoulder. Context: 4th century (M 18:4).
III-II cent. B.C.

&a(qopeCis)AtorTiou

The part of the handles where a stamp


might have been is missing,but the inscription
made beforefiringmay give the potter'sname.

H. (restored)0.53 m.; D. 0.27 m.

IV cent.
cr'
vo({faac-raT)a
See Metrolog. Script., I, p. 253 for equivalencebetweennomismaand denarius.

K 11 (P 17070). P1.55. Amphora handle. GrafK 18 (P 11307). P1.55. Fusiform wheel-ridged


fito on top. Foundwith Hellenisticsherds.
jar with one handle,like Robinson,Chronology,
Hellenistic
ap(opEOs)
M 240. Dipinto in black beneath handle.
Context:4th century(G 11:2).
Perhapsthe other handlecarriedthe potter's
name; cf. K 10. The abbreviationmight be
IV cent.
KaAwTr(os)
expandedin otherways.
e'
Bp(axvait)

K 12 (P 22976). P1.55. A roughly circulardisc


cut from the wall of a pot, glazed inside and
out. Graffition both sides.
Hellenistic

(inside)

This form of the word is more frequentthan


either KaXAiri
or Ka&XTros.
The inscriptionpresumablyrecordsthe priceof the jar.

'HpaAsoous 'ApEos
Mouacov
/ NiKcov K 19 (P 7628). P1.55. Neck and shoulderof one(outside)
handledjar similar to Robinson, Chronology,
Piece for a game like checkers?Cf. British
M 315. Graffition eitherside of shoulder.
Museum, Guide to the ExhibitionIllustrating
VI cent.
XII
GreekandRomanLife3,London, 1929,p. 203.

K 13 (P 5506). P1.55. Fragment from base of


largeamphoraneck. Graffitoon outside.
Late Hellenistic xoJs ~(o-rat)s'

Thenumberis givenin both Latinand Greek;


why the Greek should be largerby one-halfis
obscure.

90

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS
L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

Littlecan be saidof thisgroupas a wholesincethe variousitemshaveonlytheirobscurityin common.


is only relativeto the reader'sunderstanding,
it has seemednecessaryand
But becauseunintelligibility
worthwhile to include them in the hope that some at least will come clear.

L 1 (P 14670). P1.56. Wall fragmentsof pithos


with incised decoration,similarto Brann,no.
609. Graffito on outside. Context: early 5th
century B.C. (G 3:1).
VII-VI cent. B.C. ]. EAIHA
]ANIA

Context: fourth quarter5th centuryB.C.(B 13:5).


Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. ]EIE
]H2HZ;

The letters are very uncertain.Perhaps a


namein the vocativewith a negativecommand,
e.g., ji/ Sillycn~s.

L 2 (P 24998). PI. 56. Roughly oblong piece cut L 7 (P 12965). P1.56. Rim fragment of largemouthedvessel with broad shoulderand short
from the side wall of a large pot (wheelmarks
verticalrim. Graffitoon shoulder.
visible) while the clay was still soft. Letters
Late V cent. B.C.
U]-rraieplos6p3oA6[S
incised outside, also in soft clay. Context:
mid-6th century B.C.(Q 13:5).
But why a "spit in the open air"? A cookout?Or is it ivrraiOepo
6 P6Bos?
Mid-VI cent. B.C. AE
Was the piece cut out and fired with the L 8 (P 17125).PI. 56. Black-glazedskyphos.Grafintentionof usingit as a plug?Oris it a counter? fito besidehandle.Context:late 5thcenturyB.C.
If so, why is it cut from a pot?
(A 20-21:1). Hesperia,XVI, 1947,p. 212.
Late V cent. B.C. Tr<v)>T-E
a(i&nlca)
L 3 (P 7867). P1.56. Part of ring foot of blackglazed bowl. Graffito on reserved resting L 9 (P 14703). P1.56. Fragmentof black-glazed
surfaceof foot.
kylix base. Graffitoon underside(a) and on
top (b).
VI cent. B.C.
]A! HOAIBYZT
V
cent. B.C. (a) ]I[
Possible readings: 6 Apuoar[iK6s,i.e. the
Libyan (bowl, boy, wine?); 681 puor[iK6s,i.e.

this saving(drink?).

]OKOSK[

]u:
(b)
A namelike Demodokos?

(retrograde)

L4 (P7820). P1.56. Wall fragment of heavy


lekane with black glaze inside. Graffitoinside. L 10 (P 23130). PI. 56. Wall fragmentof lekane.
Graffito on inside, probably written on the
VI cent. B.C. ]ETAe[
sherd.Foundwith 5th-centuryB.C. pottery.
Not apparentlypart of a name. Perhapsa
V cent. B.C.
TnOY lnE
phrase, e.g., I-ra e6cov?Or a fragment of a
The scoredtriangleabove (see drawing)may
spelled-outabecedarium:zeta eta theta?
have been a letter?
L 5 (P9483). P1.56. Rim fragmentfrom large L 11 (MC 1011).P1.56. Small terracottaplaque,
kraterdecoratedwith slantingpalmetteband.
brokenat one end; daubof clay ddedto other
Graffitiin reservedbands above (a) and below
end. Graffitoon backface.
(b) band of palmettes.Context: mid-5th cenV cent. B.C.
JIVIKt
tury B.C. (C9:6). Hesperia, Suppl.V, p. 142,
Dative for a tag? E.g., rTC(oliVIKI?
fig. 69, 30; 70,b.
Firsthalf V cent. B.C. (a) (see drawing)
L 12 (P 9986).P1.56. Partof base of heavyblack(b) (see drawing)
glazedskyphos.Graffitoon underside.
Apparentlymeaningless.They may represent V cent. B.C. Tacr( ) 6 'lC[aL]i<o>vi(lKrs)
practicelettersfor formalinscriptionselsewhere
Probablytwo inscriptions,because of differon the pot, some of whichwereretrograde.
ent depths of incision. Perhapsthe owner's
L 6 (P 9994).PI. 56. Partof black-glazedsaltcellar ligature,with the epithetaddedby anotheras a
with concave sides. Graffito on underside. joke?CompareC 5.

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

91

L 13 (P 8203).P1.56. Threefragmentsfrom upper L 19 (P 23274). P1.56. Fragment of plain lid


with flat-toppedknob. Dipinto in black near
wall of black-glazedskyphos, one (a) with
rim.
tracesof handleattachment,and two (b,c) with
rim. Graffito on outside. Context: second
Hellenistic &p.vco[v
quarter4th centuryB.C. (B 12:5).
SecondquarterIV cent.B.c. Al[ ].IQ[ ]ENEIA[
Perhaps cover of vessel containingvarious
Manyrestorationsare possible,e.g., Ai[oviOacp kindsof fish (cf. Ath., VII, 306c).
X,a]fco[veii]EvEda. Even the order of the pieces

L 20 (P 15741).P1.57. Mouth and part of neck


of amphorawith heavy profiledrim. Dipinto
L 14 (P 6904). P1.56. Base of black-glazedbowl
in blackon neck.
with ring foot. Graffitoon underside,circling
II-I cent. B.C. (monogram) Spa(X,ali)y'
around. Found with 5th- to 4th-centuriesB.C.
pottery.
L 21 (P 15200).P1.57. Fragmentfromflat bottom
IV cent. B.C. cvo<p>)oifrs ir&pos-rT
of heavycoarsepot. Graffitoon underside.
The writer did not finish the inscription, Late Hellenistic IXTA[
probably because he had come almost full
PIAX[
circle and there seemedto be no room for the
Perhapsan imperativeof !o-rrill?
object of the verb. Lettersare not orientedin
any consistent direction; generally the work L 22 (P 20839).P1.57. Neck fragmentof amphora.
looks incompetentenough to suggestthat the
Blackdipintoat base of neck.
be
so
too.
a
Perhaps message
syntax might
Late Hellenistic Eu6upa&vou[s
hoping that the addresseemight restore the
(illegible)
fragmentsof the pot as before!
of
Name
or
producer seller?
L 15 (P 18420). P1.56. Base of black-glazed
skyphos.Graffitoon underside.
L23 (P 20657). PI. 57. Upper part of amphora
with rolled rim and vertical handles. Dipinto
IV cent. B.C.
(see drawing)
in red on neck (a) and upper shoulder (b).
Perhapsto be read as Tro( ) and the sign
Context:last quarter1st centuryB.C. to early
for two drachmswrittentwice. The sherdmay
have been used as a tag or label on a shipment. 1st century(R 13:2).
Late I cent. B.c.-earlyI cent. (a) tp'
L 16 (P 19124). P1.56. Rim fragmentof blackpla'
glazedkantharos.Graffitoon outside.
IV cent. B.C. ]VXuo[
(b) TEI
is uncertain.

It is temptingto inventa proverb,e.g.,yXuKo6si


6 8pi'us,butbothcouldbe goodAtheniannames,
Almost certainlynumberin (a); perhapsthe
12thday of 111thyear(Actianera?),5thmonth.
e.g., Epilukosand Mus.
The obscurityof (b) is less suggestive.
L 17 (P 21714). P1.56. Half of foot and part of
lower wall of black-glazedbowl. Graffiti on L 24 (P 21776). P1.57. Ovoid amphorawith tall
outside,on lowerwall (a) and insidefoot (b).
vertical handles and pointed toe. Graffition
shoulder.Context: early 1st century(R 10:1).
IV cent. B.C. (a) ]BE
(b) ]NHOX
(a) (see drawing)
EarlyI cent.
(b) ]KOINOAI
See drawing.The lettersare too uncertainto
allow of easy restoration.
(a) Possibly a number?(b) Perhapsthis jar
was
heldin common(KoItvS)
or heldwine(olvos)?
L 18 (MC 961). P1.56. Fragmentfrom the rim
of a bandedplate(?).Graffitoon underside.
L 25 (P 16202).P1.57. Amphorasimilarto RobIV cent. B.C. hrri
inson, Chronology,F93. Dipinto in black
rav ( )
on shoulder. Context: first half 1st century
(N
20:1). H. 0.73m.; D. 0.30 m.
Theinscriptionmaynot be complete.Whether
the word in the second line is completeis obFirsthalf I cent. &puv[
scure.
0eo[

92

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

Perhaps &upvorip,a liquid measure. The


second line might be a personal name or a
month.

EarlyIII cent.

OYA2
ETCOV
y'

PerhapsGreeklettersfor Latin vas?And age


of jar?or contents?
L 26 (P 4480). PI. 57. Shoulderfragmentof large
storage amphora.Dipinto in black. Context: L 32 (P 16700).P1.58.
Amphorawith tall cylin1st century(F 11:1).
drical neck and elongatedovoid body, small
I cent. 2TPA
spur on top of handle. Dipinto in black on
shoulder.Context:early 3rd century(N21:1).
AMIN[
PH. 0.58 m.; D. 0.19 m.
Possible that some letters of an original
6o-rpoKou i(-rpat)have faded completely. It is
EarlyIII cent.
KipliKfs
possiblethatthe secondline mightbe 'Altvvcaos.
Kalia6IrEAos.
Cf. Hesychios, KapiKil'&OcVETOS,
L 27 (P 26675).P1.57. Part of neck and shoulder Or KapuKrl?
of amphora.Dipintoin redon shoulder.
L33 (P 14077). P1.58. Upper part of small
Firsthalf II cent. pa( )
amphorawith short neck and plain thickened
6?( )
lip. Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context:
P 18:2.
6oosfor cheapwine?
Firsthalf III cent. ]plvias y'
L 28 (P 16703, P 16706, P 19401). P1.57. Three
Uncertainreading:Corinthianmeasures?
similar amphoras with tall cylindricalneck,
angular ridged handles, body which tapers L34
(P 12314). P1.58. Small amphora similar
sharply to small concave foot. Large dipinti
to
Robinson,
Chronology,M 177. Dipinti in
in red on either side of neck. Context:
on
red shoulder.Context:3rdcentury(N 20:3).
early 2nd century(N 21:1; E 17:1). Average
H. 0.41 m.; D. 0.195 m.

H. 0.55 m.; D. 0.26 m.

EarlyII cent.

(chi-rhomonogram)

Mid-IIIcent. rp( ) air' or rparr( )


See drawing.The abbreviatedword may be
followedbynumbers.Ora two-letterabbreviation

Too early for Christianuse of chi-rho, so


may have been expanded to four: TpaCrilTos?
perhapsabbreviationof producer'sname or of
contents (e.g., Xpuvaorrri6ov
otvov,XpTila).The L35 (P 3218). P1.58. Shoulder fragment from
secondinscriptionmightalso be eitherof these.
largeplainamphora.Dipintoin black.
be
other
might
Many
imagined,
possibilities
EarlyRoman ]AIHA
"owed to the Treafor example,qcfKxc
xXpfcos:
]ANIi
sury."For 01 see also He 19.
L 29 (P 18434). PI. 57. Fragmentfrom shoulder L36 (P7525). P1.58. Upper wall fragment of
plainpot. Graffitoon outside.
of large plain amphora. Dipinto in black.
Context:2nd century(C 18:2).
EarlyRoman ]TAPA.AH
II cent. ]ap( ) Fcal( ) Tri iy'
L 37 (P 7843). P1.58. Neck fragment of widemouthedjar; profiledrim with piecrust decPerhapsa date: 13thday of Gamelion.
oration on lower side. Lettersincised in soft
L 30 (P 17113).P1.57. Neck and upper shoulder clay belowrim.
of amphora. Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Early Roman viyliea]SEvE[a
Context:2nd century(B 20:1).
II cent.

KIXHTOY
AP vU'

]E6[

Wordin genitivecase restoredexempligratia.

86 i3at ,LEai 6 tipa- L 38 (P 11991).P1.58. Amphorawithnarrowneck


Cf. Hesychios, KIXrTT6OS

Thesecondlinemaynot be "57drachms"
vcoTr6s.
but it is likely that the last letter at least is a

number.

L 31 (P 25218).P1.58. Amphorawith tall narrow


neck and body tapering to small ring foot.
Dipinto in red on shoulder. Context: early
3rd century(Q 17:4). H. 0.485m.; D. 0.243m.

and elongatedovoid body on ring foot. Dipinti


in black (charcoal)on shoulder.
XX X X V
EarlyRoman
TOA
Cf. L 39, which also has Roman numerals
which do not apparentlyrelate to capacit or
weight.Perhapsserial numbersin a shipment.

L. UNCLASSIFIED NOTATIONS

93

but the only similarlytemporalparallel


An abbreviatedname seems most likely for
TrcalXi6
for Irllwould be irvilaios.(Drawing includes
the second line, e.g., Tolmides or Tollios
only samples.)
(Tullius).
L39 (P 17883). P1.58. Amphora similar to L44 (P 11119). P1.59. Shoulder fragment of
Robinson, Chronology,K 114. Dipinti in black
small wheel-ridgedjug similar to Robinson,
(charcoal)on shoulders.
Chronology,M 266. Graffitoon shoulder.Con4th century(B 14:2).
text:
Roman
(see
drawing)
Early
XIL
TIPB
IV cent.
Uncertainletters might be Greek or Latin.
If the second line is supposedto be a Roman L45 (P12837). P1.59. Amphora similar to
M 234. Dipintoin black
numeralthe orderof numbersis peculiar.(The
Robinson,Chronology,
on shoulder. Context: 4th century ( 19:1).
two lines are reversedin the drawing.)
H. 0.455 m.; D. 0.275 m.
L40 (P 14725). P1.58. Wall fragment of large
IV cent.
TrpoBij.lAfvou
amphora.Graffitoon outside, verticalto pot.
Foundwith earlyRomanpottery.
Perhaps imitation Bybline wine; for the
spellingsee Hesychios,s.v.
EarlyRoman ]S1
]pi' Buoio(u) e'

Line 2: perhapsan era date firstand then the


Delphi month name seems to be writtenover
tracesof the Attic monthBoedromion.

L 46 (P 12870).P1.59. Body of ovoid amphora.


Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 4th
century (O 19:1). PH. 0.345 m.; D. 0.272 m.

IV cent.
AipEpa
L 41 (P 22293). P1.58. Part of tall narrow amPerhaps a Latin adjectivein Greek letters
phora neck with flaringrim and heavy ridge
used as a name?But the blurredletters could
below. Dipintoin red on neck.
as well be AtOepa.
S [E
EarlyRoman
L 47 (P 13585).P1.59. Tall one-handledjar, an
DFC
earlierform of Robinson, Chronology,M 315.
Perhapssepulchral:s(itus) [e(st)]/ d(e)f(un)c- Dipinto in black on shoulder.
Context: 4th[tus].
early 5th centuries (P 19:1). H. 0.60 m.;
D. 0.245m.
L 42 (P 26120). P1.58. Ovoid wheel-ridgedamwith
handles
and
narrow
neck.
ridged
phora
'
IV-V cent.
Pa&p(os)
Dipinto in black on shoulder. Context: 3rdPerhaps better as yap(ou) with the last
4th centuries(Q 19:1). H. 0.48 m.; D. 0.26 m.
"letter"taken as the sign of abbreviation?
Late III cent.
(see drawing)
L 48 (P 27050). P1.59. Rim fragmentof shallow
]TrvoS
dish of Late Roman red ware. Graffito on
L 43 (P 9800, P 11582,P 11583,P 22009,P 11590,
inside,belowrim.
P22008, P 11584, P 11594). P1.59. Eight jars
IV-V cent.
or fragments of jars with fusiform bodies
(see drawing)
(= Robinson, Chronology,M 256, M 278,
Uncertainscratchingsof which only a few
M 259, M 258, M 242, M 257, M 255, M 241).
look like letters.Unreadable.
Dipinti in black under the handle of each.
Context: M 17:1. Average H. 0.49 m.; average L 49 (P 1026).P1.59. Rim fragmentof amphora
D. 0.19 m.
with heavyrolledlip. Dipinto in black on neck
below rim. Context: 5th century(I 16:1).
just
IV cent. (a) rrpo( )
(e) Trca( )
V cent.
AAEON
(f) TrA( )
(b) rrpo( )
(c)

Trp[

(g)

rA(

L50 (P 2097). P1.59. Fragment of coarse lid.


Letters incised in the soft clay. Context: 5th
The abbreviationsall seem to be writtenby
century
(H-I 7-8:1).
the same hand. Unfortunately,the range of
V cent.
]orum[
possibilities is too large to allow any con]tuis a[
of
vincingcompletion the abbreviations.If, as
]ciri[
seems likely, the abbreviationsrefer to conirca
and
be
and
tents, rrpo
might
rrpowrrEpvolv6s
Perhaps a proverb or motto.
(d) Trpo( )

(h) la( )

M. PICTURES

94

L 51 (P 1944).P1.59. Upperpart of smallgouged L 54 (P 481). P1.59. Rim fragmentof open bowl.


Graffition top of outturnedrim (a) and outside
jug, similar to Robinson, Chronology,M 359.
on wall belowrim (b).
Graffitoon neck.
Late Roman (a) ]HA<BE[
VI cent.
ANKZB[
(b) ]ENHOHTO[
L 52 (P 7507).PI. 59. Neck of amphorasimilarto
An
illiterate
attemptat an abecedarium?
Robinson, Chronology,M 333. Dipinto in red
on neck below handle.Found with 6th-century
L 55 (P 3076). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentof uncoins.
glazedamphora.Graffitoon outside.
TYTTA
VI cent.
Late Roman
a5( )
?Ep( )
L 53 (P 7638). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentof large
L 56 (P 25852). P1.59. Shoulderfragmentfrom
amphora.Dipintoin red.
closedpot. Graffitoon outside.
Roman
]APENrE[
Late Roman

ZOY

xrru( )

VE( )

Ur'r[

M. PICTURES
seemssuperfluous,sincethe picturesspeakbestfor themselves.It is possibleto speculate
Commentary
on the motivesbehindeachdrawing,but suchspeculationis likelyto be moreproductiveof amusement
than of profit.
M 7 (P9889). P1.60. Wall fragment of blackglazedkylix of 6th- to-5th centuriesB.C. fabric.
VIII-VII cent. B.C.
(horse and rider)
Graffitoon inside(a) and outside(b). Hesperia,
M 2 (P 1001).P1.60. Black-figuredskyphoswith
XV, 1946,p. 278, underno. 30.
lotus-budpatternon reservedband at handle
VI-V cent. B.C.
(a) (two figures facing left
zone. Graffito on inside wall, upper part.
and a tree)
Context: first half 6th century B.C. (116:4).
(b) (small round holes and
First half VI cent. B.C.
theta)
(fish)
M 3 (P 24999).P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom black- M 8 (P 7103).P1.60. Fragmentfromrimandbody
glazed kylix of "komast" shape. Graffito in
of small semi-glazedkrater. Graffito inside.
reservedhandle zone. Context: mid-6th cenHesperia,XV, 1946,p. 273, no. 16.
M 1 (MC907).P1.60. Pyramidalloomweight(Al).

tury B.C.(Q 13:5).


Mid-VI cent. B.C.

(grotesque head)

M 4 (P 3533). P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom blackglazedkylix. Graffitoon outside. Context:6th

Early V cent. B.C.

Koa7ij/xJv[o]s

(headwith wreathand beard)

An ostrakon.

M9 (P 27698). P1.61. Half of hemispherical


black-glazedstand(C 15). Incisedbeforeglaing
(head)
and firing.
M 5 (P 16789).P1.60. Wall fragmentfrom blackSecondquarterV cent. B.C. (act of sodomy)
glazed skyphos. Graffitoon outside. Context:
For the verbaltext see C 15.
6th centuryB.C.(G 15:2). Hesperia,XV, 1946,
p. 278, underno. 30.
M 10 (P 10352). P1.60. Fragment of blackVI cent. B.C.
(ithyphallic satyr)
glazed lid with incised tendrilborder.Graffito
M 6 (P 2714). P1.60. Fragmentaryblack-figured on upper surface.Context:fourth quarter5th
no. 1261.
centuryB.C.Cf. Sparkes-Talcott,
skyphos.Graffitoon outside lower wall. Context: late 6th-early 5th centuriesB.C.(G 6:3).
Fourth quarterV cent. B.C.
Hesperia,XV, 1946,p. 278, no. 30.
(at right,pygmyfighting;
at left, partof crane)
Late VI-early V cent. B.C.
(head)
century B.C.
VI cent. B.C.

M. PICTURES

95

III cent. B.C.


The drawingseems to have been done with
(head)
a fine point before the glaze was applied, so
PerhapsKairos, with hair in front and bald
that the head and upper body of the crane,
behind.
which were too lightly drawn, are no longer
visible.The tendrilpatternwas done in the same M 17 (P 14323).P1.60. Rim fragmentof Megarian
bowl. Graffitoon outside.Context:Hellenistic.
way.
III cent. B.C.
M 11 (P 19312).PI. 60. Wall fragmentof black(head)
Conon
outside.
Graffito
glazed skyphos (?).
M 18 (P 3817). P1.61. Fragment from large
text: late 5th century B.C.
Pergameneplate.Graffitoon inside.
Late V cent. B.C.
(head)

I cent. B.C.-I cent.

(costume-design?)

M 12 (P 23242). P1.60. Neck and shoulderfragment of red-figuredoinochoe. Graffitoon out- M 19 (P 9880). P1.61. Wheel-ridgedjug. Graffito
on shoulder.Context:1st century.
side of neck. Context: late 5th century B.C.
Late V cent. B.C.
I cent.
(swastika)
(boukranion?)
M 13 (L 2450).P1.61. Nozzle and partsof rim of M 20 (P 12306).P1.61. Wallfragmentof amphora
black-glazedlamp (= Howland, no. 176
( = F 315). Graffito outside. Context: 4th
C 30 above).Graffitoon top of nozzle.Context:
century(N 20:3).
4th century B.C. (E 6:3).
IV cent.
(somethingwith headandwings)
Late V-early IV cent. B.C.
(phallus)
For verbaltext see F 315.
For verbaltext see C 30.
M 14 (L 4212).P1.60. Black-glazedlamp(= How- M 21 (P7048). P1.61. Wall fragment of large
unglazed pot. Graffito on outside. Context:
land, no. 267 = F 177 above).Graffitoon sides
Late
Roman.
of body and top of nozzle.
Late Roman
(uncertainletters;dolphin)
IV-early III cent. B.C.
(boukranion)
M 22 (P 9873). P1.61. Base of low-footedbowl.
Graffiti inside and outside. Context: Late
M 15 (P 20374). P1.60. Shoulderfragmentfrom
Roman.
unglazedamphora.Graffitooutside and sideLate Roman
ways to pot, probably drawn on the sherd.
Context:4th-3rdcenturiesB.C.
(inside)(head with helmet?)
(outside)(letters,perhapsalphabeta gamma)
IV-III cent. B.C.
(herm)
M 16 (P 23231). P1.60. Wall fragmentof West M 23 (P 15343). PI. 61. Wall fragmentof large
Slope plate or saucer, with checkerboard unglazed pot. Graffito on outside. Context:
Late Roman.
pattern inside. Graffito on outside. Context:
Hellenistic.
Late Roman
(face)
For verbaltext see F 177.

DEPOSITS
Theletterandfirstnumberof eachdepositgivethe grid-squareof its location(see P1. 62). The second
numbergivesits serialpositionwithinthat square.Sincethe datingof depositshaslargelybeenthe work
of specialistsin the particularperiods,the indicationgivenhere is only a briefsummaryof fullerdescriptionsappearingin relevantAgoravolumes,whichare listed in each case, or of study-notesby excavatorsand othersin the Agora. Wheredepositsconsist of severalfillings,ordinarilyonly those in
which objectsfrom this volume were found are included.The cataloguedobjectsare listed for each
depositor partthereof,exceptthat in the case of those stratifiedover centuriesno attemptis made to
list chronologically,but the usualclass and numericalorderis retained.Differencesin contextdescriptionshereandunderindividualitemsarethosebetweenthe generalandimmediatecontext.
Abbreviationsused include:POU, use filling,or Periodof Use; L, M, U, dumpedfillings,Lower,
Middleand Upper.
A 16:1
A17:1
A 18:6
A 18-19:1
A 20-21:1
A-B 21-22:1
B 11:l
B 12:5

B 13:1
B 13:2

BronzeCastingPit (Agora,XII)
Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Pit
Ostrakonfill (Agora,IV, XII)
Drainfill (Agora,XII)
Terracefillings(Agora,XII)
Channelmouth
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Cisternshaft(Agora,V, VII, XII)

Third quarter4th century B.C. Ha 11


Second quarter 6th century B.C. D 13; K 1
Late 4th to early 3rd century B.C. F 184
First and second quarters5th centuryB.C. F 56
Fourth quarter 5th century B.C. L 8
Ca. 420-390 B.C. E 5; F 99-101
Late 2nd into early 1st cent. B.C. F 233
Ca. 380-350 B.C. L 13
Fourth quarter 3rd cent. B.C. (L) F 202, F 203

Well (Agora, V)
Well (Agora, XII)

Late 1st to early3rdcent. (POU)Hc 10


Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. L 6

B 14:1

Well (Agora, V, VI)

B 14:2

Well (Agora, V, VI, VII)

Mid-lst to early3rdcent. (POU) He 21


5th cent. (U) J 5
Late 1stto late 2nd cent. (POU) F 269,F 276
4th cent. (U) L 44
Secondhalf 1stcent.F 255,F 256; Ha 17
Firsthalf 4th cent. (POU) Ha 32
Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 91; Hd 1
Mid-3rdcent. F 296

B 13:5

B 13:8

B 14:3
B 14:4
B 15:1
B17:1
B 18:7
B 18:10
B 19:7
B 19:9
B 20:1
B 20:2
BB 17:1
C9:6
C9:7
C 12:1
C 12:2

Well (Agora,IV, XII)

Cistern (Agora, IV, V, VII)

Well
Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Destructiondebris(Agora,VII)

Ca. 325-300 B.C.(POU) F 163


Ca. 300-275 B.C.(U) Hb 1; Hc 2

Well (Agora, IV, XII)


Well (Agora, IV)

Ca. 350-325 B.C.(POU) F 154


First quarter 6th cent. B.C. D 10
Ca. 430-410 B.C. F 90
1st cent. B.C. to 1st cent. F 250

Well (Agora, V, VII)

Second half 1st to mid-2nd cent. (POU)


F 267, F283; G 23; Ha20; Hb 6; He 15;
L30

Cistern(Agora,XII)
Well
Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII)
Cistern

First half 2nd cent. B.C. F 227


First half 4th cent. B.C. F 145

Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII)
Well

Well (Agora, V, VI, VII)

Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)

Ca. 450B.C. C14; F72,F73; L5

Late 2nd cent. B.C. F 228; Hc 3

Mid-2ndto early3rdcent.(POU) B 18;He 15


Ca. 375-325 B.C. F 149

97

DEPOSITS
C 13:2
C 14:1
C 14:2
C 14:4

Well (Agora, XII)

C18:2

Well (Agora, V)

C 18:4
C 18:7
C18:11
C 19:5

Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII)
Constructionfilling(Agora,XII)

Cistern
Cistern(Agora,VII)
Well (Agora,IV, VII)

Drain (Agora, XII)

Housefillings(Agora,XII)

C 19:9

Well (Agora,IV, XII)

C 20:1
D 10:2
D11:l
D 11:4

Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)


Channel
Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII)
Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)

D 12:1

Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII)

D 12:2

Cistern(Agora, IV)

D 15:2
D 15:3
D 17:3
D 17:11
D-E 8-9:1
E2:3
E3:l

Well (Agora,V, VII)


Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)
Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)
Well
Cistern(Agora,XII)
Foundrypit (Agora,IV, XII)
Cistern(Agora,IV, X, XII)

E6:3

Cistern (Agora, X, XII)

E 11:2
E 13:1
E 14:1

Well (Agora, IV, V)

Well
Cistern(Agora,IV, V, VI, X, XII)

Late 2nd to 4th cent. (POU) F 170; Ha 34


Hellenistic F 193
Thirdquarter3rdcent. F 298
First half 2nd to second quarter 4th cent.
(POU) F 310; Hb 13-15; Hd 19; He29
Second half 1st to early 3rd cent. (POU)
F 257; L29
First half 5th cent. B.C. F 76
Second quarter 5th cent. B.C. C 23
Ca. 490-480 B.C. F 51

a) Secondhalf 5th cent. B.C. B 8; F 110


b) Late 5th and firsthalf 4th cent. B.C. E 12;
F 146; Ha9
Ca. 425-400 B.C. (POU) F 97
Ca. 400-390 B.C. (U) F 128

Early2nd to mid-3rdcent. (POU) Hd 13


3rd to 2nd cent. B.C. F 185

Late 1st cent. B.C. to mid-lst cent. Hd 3


Middle filling: mixed late Hellenisticto early
Roman F 303
Bottom filling 3: late 2nd to mid-3rdcent.
Ha 23; He 18
Late2ndto early1stcent.B.C. (L) G 21
Late Hellenisticto early Roman (M) F 234
6th cent. (POU) J 9
Ca. 375-330 B.C.
Ca. 300-290 B.C.
1st cent. B.C. (L)
Ca. 330-305 B.C.
Ca. 375-350 B.C.

C 33
F 195
G 22
D 43; F 165, F 166
F 142-144

Late 4th to early 3rdcent.B.C. F 182,F 183;


G9; Hcl
Ca. 375-310 B. . C 30 (M 13); F 135, F 136;

Fb 1,Fb 2
Lowerfilling:1st cent. F 259

Ca. 470-425 B.C. C 26; F 58;Fa 23

a) Late 4th and 3rd cent. B.C. F 199, F 200;


Hb 2, Hb 3

b) Late 1st cent B.C. E 16

E 14:2
E 14:3
E 14:5
E 15:1
E 15:3
E 15:5

E 15:6
E 17:1
E 19:5
E 29:5
F5:1

F 11:
F 11:2
F 12:3
F 12:5
F 13:2

Well (Agora,IV, V, VI)


Cistern (Agora, IV)

Well (Agora,IV, XII)

Well (Agora, V)
Cistern (Agora, IV)

Well
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Well
Pit
Well
Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)
Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)
Well (Agora, IV, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Well(Agora,IV, VI, VII)

c) Dumpedfillingof 3rd cent. Hd 18


1st cent. (POU) F 258
Mid-lst cent. B.C. (M) F 243
Ca. 520490 B.C. F 14, F 15; Ha 1

Constructionfillingin 1st cent. F 251


Late 2nd to early 1st cent. B.C.(POU) F 230
4th and 5thcent.(POU) Hb 21, Hb 24; He 38
Ca. 500-480B. c. F 27;Fal
Earlyto late 2nd cent. (POU) Ha 21; L 28
Second half 5th cent. B.C. K 6

Early4th cent. F 319; He 34


3rd to 2nd cent. B.C. F 210

1st and early2nd cent.F 268; He 13; L 26

Second half 4th cent. B.C. (POU) E 13


Second half 4th cent. B.C. B 13
7th cent to ca. 570 B.C.D 2, D 8

Secondhalf 1stcent.to end of 2ndcent.(POU)


Hc 12

98

DEPOSITS

F 15:1
F16:1
F 17:3

Well (Agora, XII)

Ca. 350-310 B.c. F 164


End of 4th cent. to ca. 225 B.C. (second POU)

F 19:1
F 19:2
F 19:3
F 19:4

Well(Agora,V, VI, VII)


Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)
Well
Well (Agora,IV, XII)

Ca. 375-340 B.c. A 6; B 10


1st cent. B.C. Hb 4
Ca. 490-450 B.C. B7; C24; D39;

F 19:5

F 20:1
F-G 12:1
G3:1
G6:3

Well (Agora, V)

Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)

Well(Agora,IV, XII)
Filling(Agora,XII)
Road levels(Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Pit (Agora,IV, XII)
Rock-cutShaft(Agora,IV, X, XII)

G8:1
G11:l
G 11:2

Well (Agora,IV, VII)

G 12:22
G 12:23
G 13:5
G 14:2
G15:1
G 15:2
G 18:1
H 5-6:1
H6:5

Pit (Agora,IV, XII)


Pit (Agora,IV, XII)
Well
Well (Agora,IV, X, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, X, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Fillings(Agora,IV, XII)

H6:9

Pit (Agora,IV, X, XII)

H7:3
H 10:2
H 12:6
H 12:11
H 13:5
H 16:3
H 16:4
H 17:5
H-I 7-8:1
19:1
110:1
115:1
I15:2
I116:1

Constructionfilling(Agora,IV, XII)
Pit (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, VII, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Pit
Cistern(Agora,IV, XII)
Pithos(Agora,IV, XII)
Filling(Agora,IV, XII)

16:4
I16:5
I 16:7
117:1
J11:1
J12:1
J 13-14:1
J18:1
J 18:4

Well (Agora,IV, XII)

Cistern (Agora, V)

Well(Agora,V, VI, VII)

Well (Agora, XII)

Filling (Agora, VI)

Drain(Agora,IV, VIII)
Well
Well
Filling
Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)

Cistern (Agora, IV)

Settlingbasin

Well (Agora, XII)

Filling(Agora,XII)
Well (Agora,V, VII)
Drain (Agora, XII)

Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)


Pit (Agora,IV, XII)

4th cent. (POU) Hb 22

F 206, F 207
Late 3rdand 4th cent. (POU) F 311

F 65, F

F57,

,F68, F69

Ca. 520-480 B.C. F 31


4th cent. B.C. F 150
7th and 6th cent. B.C.D 4, D 32; F 3
Ca. 500-470 B.C. L 1

Ca. 510-480B.C.(U) A5; B2; F23, F24;


M6
1st cent. (POU) Hb5

Early 3rd to late 2nd cent. B.C. (POU) K 10

Late2nd to early6thcent.(POU)D 44; F 291,


F307; He 33; K18
Ca. 470-460 B.C. Fa 16-19
Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 141
First quarter4th cent. B.C. (U) F 139
Early 4th into 2nd cent. B.C. F 152, F 229
Ca. 500 B.C.(POU) D 28; F 16; K 5
Ca. 550-525 B.C.(POU) M 5
Ca. 425-400 B.C.(with some earlier) F 74, F 96
Early 5th cent. B.C. F 42
Ca. 470-460 B.C. C 16-22; E2; F 59-62;
Fa 2-15
End of 4th cent. B.C.(L) F 160
2nd cent. B.C. F 190
Ca. 375-350 B.C. F 140
Ca. 575-525 B.C. D 18
Ca. 425-400 B.C. F92,F93
Ca. 410-390 B.C.(POU) F 127
Ca.480B.C. B6; C13; D38
Ca. 320-275 B.C. F 179, F 180
Ca. 150 B.C. G19
Ca. 375-340 B.C. F 148

5th cent. L 50
Secondandthirdquarters6th cent.B.C. D 14
First half 6th cent. B.C.

D7

Late Roman 1 13
Third quarter 4th cent. B.C. F 159

Late 1stto mid-3rdcent. (POU)F 286;Ha 27;


Hd 11, Hd 12
4th and 5th cent. (POU) Hd 20; L49
Ca. 600-540 B.C.(POU) F 8; M 2

2ndcent.B.C.with somelaterintrusions F 288


Late 5th to early 4th cent. B.C. F 138
Ca. 450-425 B.C. F 85
Ca. 400-340 B.c. F 158

Late 1st to early3rdcent. (POU) Hd 7


Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. B 9
3rd century before A.D.267 (POU) Ha 28
Mid-6th centuryB.C. (lower fill) B 1; C 4;
F 12, F 13

99

DEPOSITS
K 18:1

Well(Agora,V, VII)

Late 1stto early2nd cent. (POU) F 260-262;


M 19

4th to early5th cent. (POU) J 2, J 3


11lthcent. (POU) G 2
Dumpedfillingof 3rdcent. Hc 21
6th and 7th cent. He 26

K 18:3
L 14:2
IM 11:3
IM 17:1

Cistern
Well
Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, V, VI, VII, XII)

M 18:1

Well(Agora,V, VI, VII)

M 18:4

Well

M 18:10
M 18:11
M 19:1
M 20:2
M 21:1
N 7:3
N 11:6
N 13:1
N 17:1
N 17:2
N 18:5
N 19:1
N 19:2

Well (Agora,XII)
Pit
Cistern(Agora,V, VII)
Well (Agora,VI, VII)
Cistern(Agora,IV, V, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, XII)
Well (Agora,VIII)
Well (Agora,V, VII)
Well (Agora,V)
Well (Agora,V, VII)
Well (Agora,V)
Cistern(Agora,IV, V, VI, VII, XII)
Well (Agora,IV, V, VII)

Hellenistic ca. 200 B.C. F 208


5th cent. B.C. E 9

N 20:1
N 20:2
N 20:3

Well(Agora,IV, V, VI, VII,XII)


Cistern(Agora,V)
Well (Agora,V, VII)

Firsthalfof 1stcent.(POU) He 6, He 8; L 25
Secondhalf of 1stcent. He 8-11

Second half of 7th cent. B.C. F 6

Mid-lst to late 6th cent. (POU)B 17; F 285,


F 312, F 320; Ha 24, Ha 26, Ha 33, Ha 47,
Ha 48; Hb 10; He 11, He 24; Hd 14; He 16,
He22, He31; 13; L43

1stand2ndcent.(POU) F 277; Hd 5, Hd 10;

He 17
3rd to 6th cent. (POU) F 309; Hb 8, Hb 11,

Hb27; I4, I16; K17

Firsthalf of 2nd cent. F 280, F 281


3rdcent. Ha 30
Late 3rdand early 2nd cent. B.C. F 212, F 213
Ca. 460-440 B.C. F 77, F 79-83
Late 8th into early 4th cent. B.C. A 1 (M 1)

5th cent. (POU) 114


Mid-3rdinto 5th cent. (POU) Ha 25
Mid-lst to mid-2ndcent. (POU) F 270-275
Late 3rdto 4th cent. Ha 31; He 26, He 27; I 1
Secondquarterto end of 1st cent. He 5
Mid-lst to first half of 2nd cent. (POU)
F278; Hcl7;Hd8

N 20:4
N 20:5

Cistern(Agora,IV, V)
Well (Agora,IV, VI)

N 20:7
N 21:1

Cistern(Agora,IV)
Well (Agora,V, VI, VII, XII)

N 21:4

Cistern (Agora, IV, XII)

N-P 20:1

Streetpacking(Agora,XII)

07:10
O 12:1
0 16:1-2
O 16:3
O 16:4
0 17:1
0 18:1

Pit (Agora,XII)
Well (Agora,IV, VIII, XII)
Constructionfilling(Agora,XII)
Well
Pit (Agora,XII)
Cistern(Agora,V, VII, XII)
Well (Agora,V, VI, VII, XII)

O 19:1

Well (Agora, V)

0 19:4

Well (Agora, XII

3rd cent. before A.D.267 (POU) L 34

4th cent. (POU) F 315 (M 20)

Second quarter 1st cent. B.C. F 242

First half of 1st to early 3rd cent. (POU)


F282, F 292-294;
He 14; K 16

Ha 19; Hd6, Hd 15;

4th cent. 12, 17

Second half of 3rd cent. B. c. F 197

Early 1st to 5th cent. (POU) F 287; Ha 15;


He 35; 1 10-12; L 28, L 32
3rd cent. B.C. F196; G 14

a) Late 6th to early5th cent. B.C. F 30


b) Fourthquarterof 5th cent. B.C. F 94
Ca. 450-425 B.C. F 88
Third quarter 7th cent. B.C. F 4
Third quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 89
Second half of 3rd cent. B.C. F 198
Ca. 350-325 B.C. Ha 10

Secondto fourthquarter1st cent. Ha 16


4th to 6th cent. (POU) F322; Ha 41-43;
I 17-19, I 23, 1 24, 1 28-34

Early 4th to 6th cent. (POU) F 317, F318;


Ha 50; Hb 16, Hb 18, Hb 19; He 4, He 32,

He39,He41; 15, I6,I115; J6; L45, L 46


Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. (POU) E6;
F95

DEPOSITS

100
P7:4
P8:1
P8:2
P 14:3
P18:1

Filling(Agora,V, VI, VII)


Pit (Agora,IV, XII)
Depositover floor(Agora,XII)
Well (Agora,V, VII)

P 18:2

Well(Agora,V, VI, VII)

P 19:1

Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)

Q8:1

Pit (Agora,IV, XII)

Q 10:4
Q 12:3
Q 13:2
Q 13:3
Q 13:5
Q 15:2

Well

Well (Agora, XII)

Q 17:1
Q 17:4

Well
Well (Agora,V, VI, VII)

Q 17:7

Well (Agora, VI)

Q 18:1
Q 18:2
Q 19:1

Well (Agora, IV, XII)


Well
Well

Q 19:2
R8:2
R 10:1

Pit

Well (Agora, VII)

Well (Agora,X, XII)


Cistern
Footing-trench(Agora,VII)
Well (Agora,VIII, XII)

Well (Agora, IV, VIII, XII)

Well (Agora,IV, V, VII)

R 12:1
R 12:3
R 12:4
R13:1
R 13:2
R 13:4
R 17:5
R 19:2
R21:2
S16:1

Well (Agora, IV, VIII)


Well (Agora, XII)
Well (Agora, XII)
Well (Agora, IV, V, VII, XII)
Well (Agora, IV, VII)

S 19:6
S21:2
S21:3
T 18:2
T18:3
T 19:3
T27:1
U22:1

Well

U 23:2

Well(Agora,IV, XII)

Well (Agora,IV, XII)


Well (Agora, VIII)
Drain
Cistern (Agora, IV)
Well (Agora, XII)

Well (Agora,IV, VIII,XII)

Well (Agora, IV, V, VI, VII)


Well (Agora, XII)
Filling (Agora, XII)
Pit or well (Agora, IV, VIII, XII)
Filling
Well

Late 5th to early6th cent. Ha 39


Firsthalf of 2nd cent. F 284; Hd 9
Third quarter into fourth, 5th cent. B.C. Ha 2
Ca. 470-460 B.c. E4; F70, F71

5th to 6th cent. (POU) Hb 28, Hb 29; Hc 23;


Hd22; J7
Firsthalf of 3rdcent. (POU) L 33
4th to 6th cent. (POU) I 35-37, I 41
Late 1st cent. (POU) He 12
Early 3rd to 6th cent. (POU) F 295, F 323;
Ha 44; Hb 25, b 26, Hb 30; Hd 16; 19,
1 20-22, 25, I 26; L 47
Third quarter 5th cent. B.C. (into fourth)

F 111

Late 5th cent. B.C. F 123


Ca. 520-490 B.C. F 19, F 52; G 4
Dumped filling of 6th cent. B.C. D 19; F 32

5th cent. B 21

Ca. 575-540 B.c. L2; M3


Ca. 420-390 B.C. C31; E 10; F 131-134;

He 3
6th and 7th cent. Ha 53
Early 1st to 6th cent. (POU) F 266, F290
Hb 12; He 25; Hd 17; He 36; I 27, 1 39;
J4; L31
3rdto 6th cent. (POU) F 327; Ha 45, Ha 46;
Hb9, Hb 23; He23, He24; 140, 144, 45
Ca. 550-525 B.C.(POU) G 1

5th and 6th cent. (POU) Ha 52; Hb 31


3rdto 6th cent. (POU) F 299, F 325; Hb 20;
He30,He40; 143; L42

3rd cent. B.C. E 15


Third into fourth quarter7th cent. B.C. F 5

Early 1st cent. F 252, F 253; Hc 7; He 4-7


K15; L24
Ca. 520-480 B.C. C 7; F 33-41
Ca. 525-500 B.C.(POU) F 11

Ca. 520-480B.c. C 5; F28,F29

Late 1st cent. B.C. to mid-lst cent. F 254


Late 1st cent. B.C. to early 1st cent. L 23
Ca. 440-425 B.c. He 1, He 2
Second quarter 7th cent. B.C. C 1; F 2

EarlyRoman He 19
1st cent. Hc9;Hd4

Fourth quarter 5th cent. B.C. F 104, F 105;

Ha 3-6
Secondhalf 6th cent. F 326
Ca. 600-570B.C. D 11, D 12; F7
Firsthalf 1stto firsthalf3rdcent. Ha 22

Ca. 575-550 B.C. D 17


Ca. 600-550 B.C. D 23
Later 8th to mid-7th cent. B.C. D 3; F 1
Second quarter 1st cent. B.C. F 241

a) 2nd to early3rdcent. Hc 18
b) 4th cent. F 316
Ca. 525-500 B.C. (POU) G 3

CONCORDANCE
Inv. No.
P8
P13
P83
P103
P 119
P124
P133
P136
P137
P195
P199
P226
P266
P410
P416
P469
P481
P526
P580
P605
P633
P638
P770
P772
P897
P928
P963
P964
P965
P989
P 1001
P1026
P1027
P1206
P1265
P1444
P1458
P1461
P1493
P1504
P1538
P1567
P1850
P1870
P1881
P 1944
P1992
P1993
P2004

Cat. No.
F43
D 16
F126
F 107
F 190
He 37
F167
F 189
F44
F9
F 168
E3
F 160
C 12
F191
Ha 40
L 54
F 229
F 179
G19
F 180
Ha 35
F288
F 85
F 164
Ha 27
Hd 11
F 286
Hd 12
F8
M2
L 49
Hd 20
F 16
B2
F147
F 148
I 38
F 181
A7
F 181
He 42
F332
F 108
F 215
L 51
F 333
D 19
B 21

Inv. No.
P 2022
P 2029
P2030
P 2041
P 2095
P 2097
P2145
P 2228
P2272
P2281
P 2366
P 2518
P 2610
P2707
P2714
P 2759
P 2841
P 3002
P 3044
P3058
P 3076
P3140
P3143
P3144
P 3163
P3215
P 3218
P 3272
P 3285
P 3289
P 3297
P 3446
P 3457
P 3467
P 3512
P3533
P 3534
P 3549
P 3629
P 3671
P 3721
P 3736
P3754
P 3756
P 3784
P 3788
P 3817
P3983
P 4232

Cat. No.
B9
F 10
D6
D 24
F 334
L 50
A 10
F 300
F 249
F 314
He 2
Hc 14
F 23
A5
M6
F 24
F 127
18
Ha 49
Hd 7
L 55
Hc 22
F251
(F 251)
F 216
Hc 4
L 35
A2
F 217
B 16
He 13
F 218
Hc 26
Hb 5
E 13
M4
D5
F 301
D
F 302
F 140
F 109
I13
J 10
B 13
F 219
M 18
K10
F 25

Inv. No.
P4233
P4480
P4498
P 4618
P 4627
P 4663
P4664
P 4666
P 4696
P 4723
P 4791
P 4794
P 4899
P4909
P4914
P 4915
P5009
P5012
P 5028
P5109
P 5116
P5117
P5118
P 5119
P 5120
P 5121
P 5122
P 5123
P 5124
P 5125
P 5128
P 5133
P 5137
P 5140
P 5144
P5157
P 5158
P 5160
P 5164
P 5167
P 5168
P 5169
P5174
P5175
P 5181
P 5203
P 5206
P 5449
P 5453

Cat. No.
K2
L 26
F268
He 43
D 32
F3
D4
F 26
D 35
F 244
D 41
D8
B 14
E7
Ha 29
F 245
F46
F 45
F 331
F84
Fa 9
Fa 2
Fa 3
Fa 10
Fa 4
Fa 5
Fa 11
Fa 6
Fa 12
Fa 7
C 16
E2
F 59
Fa 13
C 17
C 18
Fa 14
C 19
C 21
C 20
F 62
C 22
F60
F 61
Fa 15
F 115
F 17
C 26
F 58

Inv. No.
P 5458
P5506
P 5595
P5623
P 5663
P 5671
P5717
P 5726
P5738
P 5774
P 5792
P 5820
P 5828
P5838
P5918
P 5925
P 5929
P 6034
P 6067
P6074
P6128
P6139
P6153
P 6173
P 6349
P 6578
P 6717
P 6799
P 6825
P 6864
P6867
P 6873
P 6876
P 6878
P 6889
P6903
P 6904
P6992
P 7048
P 7058
P 7063
P 7082
P7103
P 7140
P7247
P 7254
P 7360
P7405
P 7502

Cat. No.
Fa 23
K 13
Fa26
I 14
Ha 54
Ha 36
Hdl8
F 243
F 230
Hc 12
Hb2
F 199
F 226
F200
F201
F 199
Hb 3
F 231
D 14
A2
F209
Fa
C33
F27
E 16
D2
F 235
D 43
Fb 3
F 234
F 228
F 238
E 14
G 21
F 161
F 169
L 14
F 303
M 21
F 53
F 289
F 233
M8
F63
A3
F 116
G9
He 25
F 149

102

CONCORDANCE

Inv.No. Cat. No.


P7507
P 7525
P 7529
P 7544
P 7575
P 7583
P 7607
P7628
P 7638
P 7670
P 7690
P 7699
P 7740
P 7785
P7820
P 7843
P 7860
P 7867
P 7884
P 7925
P 7957
P7977
P7985
P7994
P8001
P8037
P8040
P8046
P8050
P8105
P8108
P8120
P8203
P8341
P8600
P8611
P8621
P8813
P8826
P8842
P9055
P9177
P9318
P9322
P9482
P9483
P9513
P9634
P 9645
P 9660
P9670
P9671
P 9672
P9675
P9676
P 9681

L52
L 36
Hd 3
J1
Fa 8
He 15
F 193
K 9
L 53
F 170
C6
Hc 1
F 182
Hc 20
L4
L 37
Ha 23
L3
Hb 17
He 18
F 254
F 135
Hd 23
F 259
Hd 21
F 202
F 298
B19
Ha 37
(Hc 3)
Hc3
F117
L13
B18
Fbl
Fb 2
F136
F14
F15
Ha
F 18
E8
Ha 55
Ha 56
C14
L5
F 277
G2
F 171
Hc 24
Hc5
Hd5
Ha 31
He 26
He 27
I

Inv.No. Cat. No.


P9753
P 9754
P 9755
P 9756
P 9766
P 9784
P 9794
P9800
P 9806
P 9808
P 9835
P 9873
P 9878
P 9880
P9881
P 9889
P 9897
P 9902
P 9907
P 9918
P 9919
P 9922
P 9925
P 9986
P 9994
P 10032
P 10035
P 10040
P 10048
P 10064
P10067
P 10151
P 10159
P 10181
P 10247
P 10265
P10267
P 10268
P 10352
P10422
P10447
P 10466
P 10469
P 10511
P10512
P10537
P 10556
P10564
P 10613
P10616
P10618
P10634
P 10710
P 10712
P 10717
P 10729

Hb 1P
He 2
Hc 2
J5
J2
Ha 48
F 312
L43
He 31
13
F280
M 22
F 260
M 19
Hb 10P
M7
He 22
Ha 26
(Ha 26)
Hd 14
Ha 24
B 17
F281
L 12
L6
F 261
F 262
F285
H ll
Hd 10
He 17
F
D22
F330
He 21
I4
Hbll
K17
M10
Fa25
F276
F75
Hb 8
B5
F118
F91
Ha 32
J9
F 307
Fa 22
C29
F246
Hb 21
F258
D34
F 210

Inv.No. Cat. No.

Inv.No. Cat. No.

10775
P 10778
P 10779
P 10803
P 10805
P 10809
P 10810
P 10813
P 10814
P 10815
P 10816
P 10838
P 10839
P 11021
11119
P 11142
P 11193
P 11194
P 11195
P 11196
P 11197
P 11198
P 11202
P 11249
P 11256
P 11258
P 11301
P 11307
P 11355
P 11357
P11382
P 11392
P 11545
P 11558
P 11569
P11579
P11582
P 11583
P11584
P 11590
P 11594
P 11634
P 11752
P 11763
P11798
P 11991
P 11992
P12010
P 12011
P 12030
P12100
P 12152
P 12157
P 12158
P 12181
P12200

P 12212
P 12214
P 12225
P 12257
P 12261
P 12262
P 12306
P 12314
P 12317
P 12336
P 12351
P 12352
P 12354
12357
P 12359
P 12361
P 12373
P 12396
P 12458
P 12459
P 12460
P 12468
P 12469
P 12471
P 12478
P 12510
P 12629
P 12664
P 12695
P12707
P12710
P 12713
P12825
P12827
P 12836
P12837
P12841
P 12842
P 12863
P 12866
P 12870
P 12874
P 12914
P12936
F12965
P12991
P13060
P13063
P 13064
P 13065
P13087
P13099
P 13130
P 13147
P 13148
P 13149

D44
F 291
C 25
F 92
F 64
D 37
B 12
Fa 16
Fa 17
Fa 18
Fa 19
Fa 20
Fa 21
Hd 1P
L44
F 269
Hb 13
Hb 14
He 29
F 310
Hb 15
Hd l9
F 203
F 255
F 256
Ha 17
He 33
K18
Hb24
He 38
Hel
F32
Hc 13
Ha 47
F320
Ha 33
L43
L43
L43
L43
L43
He 16
Hc 21
B20
F145
L38
He 19
Ha 38
G7
F94
F242
142
Ha 51
F329
K4
F220

D 15
E1
B3
F 308
12
17
F315, M20
L34
E6
G6
F 321
F 292
F 293
F 294
Hd 15
He 8
Hd 6
F 141
Ha 19
F 282
He 14
He 9
He 10
He11
K 16
F98
G
G 17
Ha 50
He 41
I15
J6
Hb16
I6
F 317
L45
He 32
F318
I35
He 39
L46
15
Hb 28
Hb29
L7
He 20
J7
I36
141
137
J8
F95
F 313
I24
I18
F 322

103

CONCORDANCE
Inv. No.
P 13150
P 13151
P 13152
P 13157
P 13158
P 13160
P 13164
P 13169
P 13170
P 13171
P 13178
P 13182
P 13188
P 13227
P 13248
P 13251
P 13282
P 13307
P 13322
P 13333
P 13360
P 13365
P 13386
P 13433
P 13462
P 13463
P 13464
P 13465
P 13466
P 13467
P 13468
P 13472
P 13474
P 13477
P 13585
P 13590
P 13599
P 13601
P 13602
P 13605
P 13615
P 13617
P 13655
P 13754
P 14016
P 14018
P 14024
P 14055
P 14056
P 14077
P 14086
P 14093
P 14110
P 14113
P 14117
P 14130

Cat. No.
Ha 41
132
Ha 42

133
19
123
Ha 43
134
I30
131
117
128
129
Fa 24
D26
D27
A4
F 247
C2
D9
D 18
F 326
F241
120
F30
Ha 44
Hb 30
125
F 323
126
121
Hb 25
122
Hb 26
L47
19
Hc 17
Hd 8
F 278
Hd 16
F 295
He 12
D3
G3
Hb 27
I16
F 309
Ha 52
Hb 31
L33
Hd 22
Hc 23
Hb 18
Hb 19
Ha 16
D 33

Inv. No.
P 14131
P 14323
P 14566
P 14622
P 14623
P 14636
P 14644
P 14658
P 14670
P 14676
P 14687
P 14691
P 14693
P 14703
P 14705
P 14710
P 14725
P 14917
P 14938
P 14943
P 14950
P 14960
P 15075
P 15108
P 15200
P 15208
P 15209
P 15217
P 15218
P 15224
P 15225
P 15296
P 15302
P 15303
P 15304
P 15305
P 15307
P 15343
P 15347
P 15348
P 15379
P 15380
P 15397
P 15446
P 15555
P 15559
P 15560
P 15576
P 15664
P 15682
P 15693
P 15694
P 15707
P 15719
P 15741

Cat. No.
B4
M 17
F 221
El1
F 263
F 142
F 143
F 144
L1
G5
D 11
F7
D 12
L9
F 150
C10
L40
Ha 25
F 119
Cll
F 31
F 186
J 1
K6
L21
B7
D39
F 96
F66
F 57
C24
F 270
F271
F 272
F 273
F 274
F 275
M 23
F 65
F 65
C9
Hd 4
F 187
F162
C8
He 9
J 12
F 316
D 25
Ha 22
D29
D30
F 74
F 304
L20

Inv. No.
P 15784
P 15867
P 15868
P 15990
P 16024
P 16079
P 16199
P 16202
P 16206
P 16236
P 16295
P 16313
P 16360
P 16391
P 16404
P 16585
P 16594
P 16679
P 16700
P 16703
P 16704
P 16706
P 16723
P 16728
P 16789
P 16791
P 16812
P 16865
P 16869
P 16903
P 16904
P 16905
P 16981
P 17005
P 17043
P 17059
P 17070
P 17113
P 17123
P 17125
P 17128
P 17129
P 17130
P 17133
P 17139
P 17144
P 17380
P 17425
P 17463
P 17499
P 17585
P 17677
P 17794
P 17799
P 17824

P 15766

I 10

P 17825

Cat. No.
I1
F72
F73
F68
F69
Hb 22
He 8
L25
He 6
G14
F 196
J3
F 311
B 10
Hb4
F 21
F 248
112
L32
L28
F 287
L28
Ha 15
He 35
M5
K5
D28
D42
F 22
F 99
F 100
F 101
E5
F 264
F 227
F 130
K1
L30
C27
L8
He 15
Hb6
Ha 20
F 283
F 120
F 267
F6
F 222
F 67
Ha 28
G23
F 56
F 172
He 28
B1
F 12

Inv. No.
P 17826
P 17827
P 17867
P 17883
P 17894
P 17898
P 17902
P 17961
P 17971
P 18003
P 18009
P 18248
P 18255
P 18264
P 18271
P 18276
P 18284
P 18325
P 18337
P 18340
P 18342
P 18420
P 18434
P 18435
P 18499
P 18609
P 18610
P 18619
P 18620
P 18625
P 18756
P 18952
P 19007
P 19124
P 19170
P 19179
P 19203
P 19287
P 19312
P 19389
P 19400
P 19401
P 19403
P 19491
P 19555
P 19694
P 19861
P 19956
P 19958
P 20019
P 20089
P 20191
P 20216
P 20283
P 20294
P 20329

Cat. No.
F 13
C4
Ha 30
L39
Hd 13
F 78
F 173
F 90
F78
F 146
F 184
All
F 305
F 223
D 13
K1
F 250
B8
F 76
G 15
D 10
L 15
L29
F 257
C23
Ha 9
E 12
F 154
F 97
F 188
F 213
F 128
F 265
L16
F 192
G22
F 296
D 36
M 11
K8
Ha 21
L28
C28
Ha 18
F 110
G8
K14
F 151
F 121
F 122
F 50
F 204
F 194
F 155
Hd 2
F 205

104

CONCORDANCE

Inv.No. Cat. No.


P 20361
P 20373
P20374
P 20422
P 20424
P 20657
P 20719
P 20757
P 20761
P 20768
P 20785
P 20787
P 20788
P 20789
P 20790
P 20791
P 20792
P 20839
P 20846
P20848
P20903
P20987
P21220
P21290
P21310
P21373
P21374
P 21381
P 21393
P21399
P21400
P 21404
P 21454
P 21553
P 21583
P 21631
P 21694
P 21714
P 21773
P 21776
P 21777
P 21788
P21789
P 21791
P 21792
P21793
P 21840
P 22008
P 22009
P 22104
P 22110
P22116
P 22162
P 22211
P 22218

F 239
K9
M 15
F 51
G 13
L 23
F252
F 33
F 36
F37
F38
C7
F34
F39
F 35
F40
F 41
L 22
F 174
F 195
Ha 13
F156
F123
F77
Ha 39
F82
F80
Hd 9
F 284
F79
F81
F 83
G 20
Ha 2
D40
Hc 18
F88
L 17
K 15
L 24
F 253
He 5
He 6
Hc 7
He 4
He7
Ha 34
L 43
L 43
F 175
A8
F158
F328
Hc9
F 157

P 22234 F279

Inv.No. Cat. No.


P 22293
P 22483
P22484
P 22512
P 22709
P 22833
P 22836
P 22914
P 22976
P 22998
P 23045
P 23130
P 23163
P 23205
P 23227
P 23231
P 23242
P 23272
P 23274
P 23283
P 23309
P 23389
P 23452
P23523
P23690
P23693
P23821
P 23835
P 23837
P 23872
P23873
P 23874
P 23948
P 24024
P 24062
P 24126
P 24265
P 24274
P 24668
P 24691
P 24698
P24727
P24735
P 24745
P 24746
P24760
P 24774
P 24853
P 24859
P 24882
P 24910
P24911
P 24912
P 24917
P 24922

L 41
G10
G1
Ha 53
F4
He 44
F224
F 153
K 12
F86
F 232
L 10
F236
G 18
F 237
M 16
M 12
F 137
L 19
F 89
B 15
Hb7
F5
F225
Bll
C3
F131
F 132
C 31
F 133
E10
F 134
He 3
F 139
G4
F52
F111
F 54
F 28
F 112
F 87
F11
F55
D 20
D 21
Hal
F 106
Hc 10
F 176
F 19
C5
F28
F28
F 29
F 28

P 24923 F 28

Inv. No. Cat. No.


P 24935 F 198
P 24998 L2
P24999 M3
P 25048 139
P 25054 Hc 25
P 25064 127
P 25133 J4
P 25170 Hb12
P 25175 He 36
P 25195 Hd 17
P 25218 L 31
P 25224 F290
P 25245 F266
P 25464 Hc 16
P 25474 Ha 14
P 25475 F306
P 25742 Ha11
P 25816 F 240
P 25822 F 124
P 25852 L56
P 25886 E9
P25892 F125
P 25909 K7
P 25922 F20
P25940 F324
P25983 E15
P25998 F206
P 26004 F207
P 26070 Ha 7
P26083 I43
P26090 F325
P 26104 He 40
P 26114 Hb 20
P 26119 He 30
P 26120 L 42
P 26127 F299
P 26179 F48
P 26180 F 47
P 26181 Ha 8
P 26192 F 49
P 26262 F208
P 26389 (F 120)
P 26410 F297
P 26420 F 2
P 26424 F 102
P 26452 C1
P 26539 D 23
P 26595 F 327
P 26598 Ha 45
P 26599 He 23
P 26601 He 24
P26602 Hb9
P 26618 D 17
P 26675 L 27
P 26690 I45

P 26691 1 40

Inv.No. Cat.No.
P 26693 Ha 46
P 26694 I44
P26699 Hb23
P 26866 F 114
P 26945 F 159
P 27040 G 12
P 27050 L48
P 27211 F319
P 27220 He 34
P 27314 F 104
P 27353 F 105
P 27367 Ha 12
P 27513 Ha 3
P 27515 Ha 4
P 27517 Ha 5
P 27525 Ha 6
P 27566 F 138
P 27690 F 70
P 27692 F 71
P 27694 E4
P27698 C15, M9
P27724 K3
P27741 D7
P27844 D38
P27848 C13
P27850 B6
L535
L 1096
L2019
L2122
L2229
L 2450
L2653
L3042
L 3077
L 3088
L 3269
L 3293
L3653
L 3773
L3918
L4134
L4194
L4212
L4414
L 5298

F 152
F 42
F185
F211
F 183
C30,M13
F103
F 163
F214
F 93
F 113
F197
F 178
A6
G 16
F 129
F 212
F 177, M 14
A9
C 32

MC216 F165
MC 224 F 166
MC483 C34
MC907 A1,M1
MC961 L18
MC 1011L 11

A 2498

D 31

INDICES
Includedin the Index Nominumare only those items that are certainlynames of men, women or
divinities.The Index Verborum
lists all otheritems,includingsome whichmay be eitherplace namesor
even personalnames;this servesto keep all the "estate"namesof the Tax Notationstogether,since
those names range from simple geographicaldescriptionsthrough proper place names to possible
owners'names. Both the IndexNominumand the Index Verborunare dividedinto Greekand Latin
sections.The Greekheadingsarein the Ionicalphabet,withthe actualspellingof the texts givenwhereit
differsfromthe heading.At the conclusionof eachsectionof bothindicesarelistedbrokenforms.
The IndexNumerorum,
whichincludeseverythingthat is numberedwhateverthe unit may be (e.g.,
measure,coin,year),is in numericalorder,startingwith one-halfand goingup; fractionsare givenonly
in context(e.g., 17 2/3), not separately.Singlelettersor two- and three-lettercombinationswhichmight
be eithernumbers(alphabeticor acrophonic)or abbreviations
and
maybe listedin bothIndexVerborum
IndexNumerorum.
The IndexSigillorumincludesonly those notationsfor measuresand such that are
not primarilyalphabetical;abbreviationswhichuse lettersappeareitherunderthe appropriatewordin
the Index Verborum
or as acrophonicunitsin the IndexNumerorum.
All referencesare to cataloguenumbers.
INDEX NOMINUM
Greek
F 227
'Appco( ) or 'Appcb
'AyoftasF 271

'Ayaeovfis: F 179 'Ayaeo9og[u]s

'Ay5ccov:F 199'AycOcovos

'Aya( )F 21 F48
'Ayep[ F 302
'Aypu( ) F 20
'ASpaar( ) F 241 (monogram)

'ASpiav6s:Hc 15 'ASplavoi
'AeQva:G 23 'A]eOva5
AXItav6sF 316

F 26 'A]XKtouoi[vos
'AuaKtioevS:
'A?dcovF 310
'Aua( ) F 60
D 39 'Al4pipoXos
'A"ppovuXos:
'AvaKss:G 5 'A]v[a]K.ov
'AvsoKISTis:B 5 'AvBoKt[o

F 321 'AvSpFo
'AvSp&as:

F 131 'AvSpioKo;
F 132 'A[v6]polco
'AvSSptlros:
'AvSpi( ) F 97 F 237
D 3 'AvplTros
'Avirpltos:
'AvOv,.:C 3 'AvOeE

D 33 A]loaXav;E 3 Aloyxia;F 65
AlarXkas:
Altoeio

'AvrTiPos:B 5 'Avnrp[fo]

Alaxt( ) F 119

'Avrfi.aXos:F 290 'AvwrfiaXos

Alox[ C 3

F 250 A]lacIoTro
Alrcowrros:
'AKiV( )F 254
'AKIV.()F 320
'AKU( )F260
'AAKaios:C 19 'A?AKaios;C 20 'AAKai(ou);

C 22 'A7]Kdaos
'AXK?( ) F 299
'AhKiasC 32
F 146 'A]?KinTro
"AAKtrrros:

C 32
'Av-riTKEi5is

C 32
'AvTritUSlir
'Avrip[ F 324
F 58 'A-TroXo6po;
'AiroM6Scopos:
He 1
'ArroMoScbp(ou)
G 6 'A[rr6Sova
'Ar6TAcov:
D
'Apyefrins: 25 'ApyE[LSs

'Apiis: K 12 "ApEos
'Apio-rcSris:D 23 'ApiorefS(es)
'Apaoricov:D 22 'Apia-crov;F 16 'Apicrriov
'Apiori( ) F 80

106

INDEX NOMINUM

'Apioarolvris:C 26 'Aploaro[ves
'AploLOArls: D 42 'Apr)lTOT[

'Apiorvu[F 149

F 238
'Aptorrcov

'Apiacr() F 153
'Apic( ) F 81
'Api( )F 219

A^itos:F 127 Arifo(u),Arl( ); see Ailos


Atav( )He12
Alta-riqs:D 27 Atac-r&ES
AitS( ) F 189 (ligature)

Ale( ) F 14 (monogram)
Aly( ) F 206

G 16 'ApT-riSos;G 18 'ApTr[iStl;
"AprTEpiS:
G 21 'ApT-riSt
'ApTi( ) F 148

Aioyvrls: F 304 Aioykvo[u]s


Aloye[ F 232
Ato,ifis: F 177 AtoKhous
AioKX( ) I24
AtOKA[F 130
Aiov1tios F 150; F 209 F 233 Alovwuiou;
He 6 Atovvoa'ou
G 10 Ai[ov*rou;
Ao6vuos; G 9 AIovCmou;

F 205 'A]pXiTnro[u
"ApXrwrros:

Al6Tin.L: K 10 AtOTrflouv

C 32
'ApKErfcias
B
'Apxcritos 7

'Apo( )F194
'Apr( ) F 281

'Ap( ) F 159; Hc 5 'ApT(Elafiou)

'Ap( ) F 112 (ligature)


'A(
) F 208

'Aacr( )F280
'ATrTaia:F 4 'ATTrafas
F 7 ]6owr[o]s
'ATrpO61Tros:
'Arv( ): see ATr( )
AOyovrros:Hc 5 AOyoi(orrou)

AO( ) F 89 (ligature)

AOT( ) F 52 (monogram)
'Appoitria: C 11 ['Apqpo]Staia

G 10 ['Aqpo8iTris];
G 11 'Acpp[o8iTrs
'Aqpo8iTrl:
'Appo( )F 151
'AXE()F293
'A( ) F 87; see also IndexNumerorum
B7A( )F 17
or BXcoaus:D 29 BA6avs
BA6ovus

raFos:He 4 r(aiou)
racifisF 230

rFv( ) F 210
rfpus:F 142 rfipuos

raCxos: B 9 F1aiKot
!rau( ) F 114

rv6ecov:B 5 rv[&ecvos
rva( ) F 102
rov( )F239
FopyiasD 6; F 64 ropyio
rpaCmKos:F 256 rpa<lKou

Aafilcv: G 9 A]caiov[os
Aoaicea:D 31 Aanotl[s
AaloKprls: I 24 AaooKp&orous

F 135
Aewvias

Akios: F 136 AEi(o[

AEp( ) F 41

Arii'.evEa: D 8 Aeiwvdia

F 165 AqrlTyrpias
Aqli,Tnrpia:
Arl.ln( )F 95

AqoqtliAosF 187; D 14 AE?l6piaos


AT|o( ) F 261

G 21 Aiovaoco;G 22 Aiov[*crcp]

Aio( ) E 15
AipiXos:F 152 Atpi(aou),AtliXou
Apa:l'rflisF 93

Ap*ios:F 316 Apptou

EtAEios
(lXos): F 276 Ei?Eoy
Eli7tlva: G8 'IAuv0e[ai

Elp( ) F 120 F315

EicriSwpos
('Icrfcopos):F 291 Eloi[8]copos

'EKi( ) F 265
'EAXrri(): F 108 'E]jATir()
F 85 'ExacrKov
'Eoancov:

'Eqrl( )F53
'E6pTtos:D 13 'EopT[; F 22 'Eop( )
'Ewayca6s:F 292 'ESrayaoou

D 38 'EwtyvbFs;
F 223 'Ermyvous
'ETrlyivyjs:

'E'rryovosD 44 F 287 F 318; F 282 'Ei]Ifyovos

'Eirty( ) F 110

F249
'ETrnTK[
'ETorvacosG 4
F 270 'Eppaiou
'Eppatcos:
'Ep,fis: G 1 G 4 heppte; G 17 'Ep.po
'Epnrl[ F333
'EpLto[ F 226
"Epi'rrnos:F 198 'Eppinrro
'Ep6ocopos:F 304 'ppiobpou
'Epp[ F253
F 329
'EprTrivta
'Epco( )F247
Eorr( ):F57 hEa( );F68 hrr( )

Epil( )F 186
Ernl( )F236
EepoviSris:F 43 E]ebpovi?[o
E0euivris: D 12 .E8.OV6s
L 22 E0OvStvo'[s
EOvuvwvris:
F
EvKaprros 323; F 323 EVK( ); F 331 EKap( )

EnKfiiC 24 K I EQ?S
B 7 EO,ef{S
EiOnATi{:

EuvoCos:F 272 Ev(( );F 275 E*v61tou

Euvo( ) F 229
.F_rro[ F 266

107

INDEX NOMINUM
D 7 Ernrpaxcris
Eirnrpaots:
F 284
EOpuvp[
D 10 EpiOre
EpOTnr:
F
EOp( ) 314

EOicrrtos:F 332 .E.o-raofov


EUrEK[F 10
F 165 EOrvuxf[as
EOTruXia:
F 295 EOruxtavou
ECrruxiav6s:
(EOvpcov
?): D 15 Et<(>po[
E*cpp6vios
F
303
E1p( )
E?xa( ) F334
Exe[ G 3
F 297 EOuXfiov
EOVpXlos:
E0( )F89
"EqEaaF 257
F 157 'ExEKpaT-i6a
'ExKpaCriSas:
F
155
'Ecov( )
'E( )F98

I: see Et
'lavOiSTis
(or 'laveIs):C 10 'lavei6[
'IEpoK[F 218

'IEpoSi6rs:He 10 'I(Epo),So(u); He 11 'IEpo86ou


'Ieprbvuios:B 18 ['I]epoov[]pico
'IEpcy[ F 315
'I|<oo0S:J 1 'Ilq]-C0U

He 9 'louAiou
'loAilos:F 308 'louXAo(u);
F
217
'Irrra( )
('IrroXOyr .?): D 16 'lqIoAOyE
'I<pooX*yq

F 214 (monogram); cf. F 166


KcAMias

M 8 KaAAcfXav[o]s
KcMiAevos:
Koaicrrp&ri: D 39 KaAicrrprrr
Kd6Acov:
D 17 K&Aovi
F
KaiAnr 176

Kacr( )F 166
Kapa( ) F162

Kp-ros: F 286 K&pwou

ZaOAos(aAOXos
?): Hc 20 Zac.A[ou

Zes G 19; G 6 Afa; G 9 Ai6s

F 307 Zcocarlou;
F 309 Z[cba]tlpos
Zcbacnios:
F 312 ZcoTIKOV
Zco'rK6s:
'Hyicrrparos:C 8 'Eyarpa-ros; C 9 'Eyar(p>aTos
'Hy?iravSpos:F 116 'Hy'crSv[Spou
'Hyiacirrros:F 168 'Hyatrr( )
'HAia( ) F 327
'HpaAeiE[F 305
'HpaKqs: K 12 'HpaKiAous
F 332 'HpcAfcas
'HpavAita:
F
'HpK( ) 294
'HPaToros:G 7 ['Hpat]CrToi
'Hqal( ): F 54 'Eal( )
'H4qa( ) F 183

H2EF 191 F 192


H[ C 14 F225

OaXfs:D 41 [O]acfis
Eaef: see T-roT
OalvvES:B 1 [eOalvE]u;F 12 F 13 eOavios

6eppias:F 3 Oapio

eioBoaoiaC 33
F 259 OEIoScopiSou
GOElcopn6rs:
F 220 OEoyEdTCo[
OEoyEfToov:

soyl[: F 55 Oeroyi[

eEopvrns:F 231 eEotvou(s) E)OG<e>


( )

EEop( )He 28

C 17
OECrnrtis
&covF 185
eQptKvfis:C 21 OsplKMS

D 11
Ooupli&tsx
epa( ) F 32-37; F38 e[; F39 ep; F40 e
F 231
epaaOvcov
e(

) F185

F 306 K.apqvifas
Kapqpvica:
He 4 Kacrai(ou)
K&anoos:
Ka[F 285
KKpo[F 101
Kep( ) F 105
Kepa[ F 161

Ke( ) F 73 (monogram)
KrS( ):F 45 KE( ) (monogram)

K9l( ): F 66 KEp( )
F 262 KiKKou
KiKxos:
K{icov:D 41 Kf]gov
D 30 Kfono[s
Kiooaos:

B 6 KAEi<To>pov'n
KAl-rToqcv:

KAe( )F29

F74

K?npiov:F 76 Kkepiov
KAia( )F88
Kpr( )F15
Kpe( ) F 197
D 12 9uSiiaX[os
KuSiiiacXos:

He 14 K*AXou
KOXAos:

Kutrp6o8aos:F 67 (Cypriote syllabary)


Kv( )F242
F 123 KOE
Kcb&is:
KGvos:D 4 Q98o[s;F 212 Kc&ou;F 213 Kcb(.ou)
K( )F173

K[G5
Aai( ) F 207
Aapta( ) F 137
Aagia: F 182 Aagfas
A?( )F47 Fll
Aeco[ F 128
AE( )Ha6
Afrrapos:F 63 [A]ir&po
A6Kpos:D 18 A69po
C 10 AuK6la)x[os
AuK6paaXos:
D34
AUVK[
Avaias: D 20; F 267 Aucrio

INDEX NOMINUM

108
AucyiSrloS:F 9 Av]atSigo
C 7AuVaCKAe
AucIKAijs:
Avaiuorp&.l:F 158 Avauorp[[x]Trls
Au( )F28 F296

M&yipos:F 330 Mayipou


McLaeos: F 274; F 271 F 278 M[Lca(8os)
F 325 MaCiKoU
MA.IKOS:
MapiaF 322; F 258 Mapfas; J 2 J 3 J 5 J 10-12
M(apfas)
Map( )F87
ME1i( )F 98
K(
MEKI( )or ME(

F 129

F 46 McAa<y>K6pa
MENsayyK,6iaS:
D 32
MeXavel's
D 37 MeAa[ ]8es
MEXavrlnrrrls:
M?his:C 19 MfIT-r
D 39 MEvi8SEIos
MEvi&ISlo5:

C 7 M[EvE]Kp&ASs
MIEvEKp-rqS:
D 2 ME]vECOSI
MevE?Co&:
F 202 MvrT)TOS
Mkvrns:
G 21
MEvoKhyis

MvcovF 164; F 163 Mvcovos,Mivco(vos),


M(bvcovos)
MEv( ) F 190 (monogram)
Mr0i|rlF 184
MrTryE[F 171

Mn( ) E 12
Mi(as: F 180 Mifou
Mi6EcvF 78
Miepas:I 28 Mifpou;129 Miep[ou]
MIKa( ) F 195
Mtiicov F 72
MiXcov:
F 56 MfiAcvos
Mip( )F175
MvralIcaXos:F 92 Mvrlicnt&Xo

Mv[C 25
MoCacr:
K 12 Movurov
Mo( ) F 112
MupTrc:D 20 Mupr6
MUsF 204

MfNOF 86
M( ) F332
NEIKOV
F 252
D 32 NEoK(<A>o(s)
NEsoKAfi:

Nrcr( )F 196

Nty( )F235
E 3 NIK&vop
NtK&vcop:
F
NiK<acr[ 172
HC2 NuK<jTou
NK'pTraS:
NiKI: K 12 NtKCov

NIKT( ) F121
NIKI( )F200
Nti6Xaos:F 245 NIKoA&OU
NiKoa[:F 75 NtKccwa[
NiKcb
F 188

NIK( )Ell

NiK[C 15
Nov( ) F 156

N( )F245
-ave0js: D 39 Eav9es

-av(

)F 106 F 109

-a( ):F42Xoa(

F 141
EEV6&pavTos
-Evoq>Sv:F 145 -VO.,opS(vros)

MOvaros:B 5 'Ova[ro
D 19 'O]veyiipj[os
'Ovrilcrpios:
F
'Oviicig[ 215
'Ov-aiipopos:F 268 F 269 'Ovrlnq6pov;F 279
['Ov]rlcpq6pou

'Opiv( )F49
nav5r( )F 147

TTavraocovC 31
TTapuL() F 193
Tap( ) F69
F 273 nIlxrniTlKO
aTTlrrlitKos:

D 26 Trauoafas
nlauvaas:
nlau( )F27 F30
D 9 lhpacla8[
Tlipaia6rSs:
TTliforrpaTros: D 1 rihCcr<T>pcrros

D 39nh rapopre
evrapiorrTl:
F 284 nefpptq
rTEpipos:

fie( )F31
TlTr()F 133
F 224
1TAavTrrlos

MAa( )F173
He 25 RTAviou
lTTivios:
F 167 MloAvui(Trou)
TToAXKrros:

He 26 [Tl]oXuW
TnoiQufis:
( )
TloXopaos:He 2 TloXv6io(v)

F 285
TnoiSEs

nPAI( ) D 26

tnpaciasC 32
D 10 TIpaXa<i>vw
ppaCXivvi:
C 21 np<A>XCvos
TTp&Ecov:
TTPE() F 221
C 31 lpocroria
Tpocrooucra:
nlpoa( ) F 255
D 39 Tlp6TapXos
npcbTrapXos:
Tpco( )F248
fnve6copos:C 19 nue6iopos
see Tnp&Ecov
nTTOcov:
nupoeouptiSrlsD 11
D 37 rlupp[ ]5s
nTvppovf6rls:
D
TTOppos: 11, see text; D 21 rlopos
D 11, see text
TTvppcb:
F
TTpcov: 138lnlpov
F 263 'PoOpov
'PoOqxos:

INDEX NOMINUM
EaL( ) F 178
F 301 26xKO
X&KOS:
atrrpa[ F 169
actrpa: F 113 EaTcrpas
EaTm( )F 180
EPqrl( )F317

6EA?UK(
): Hc 17 [ZX]AVK( )
F
eE'vios: 125 Yeevto

EIKCaC 27
Eipzcas:F 183 lfi{a

F 107 I(lo
fipoS:
ZlUv( )F91
Xfiiov:F 86 Eico0vos
Zt'ciJpppr:F 84 []'Jio~<<>Ppes
ZKI( )F70
EKvea( ) F 79
EzuIKpvos:F 23 IEIlKpiVQo

D 43
Trparcov
F
XTrpaTco[ 319
IZpa( ) F 222
D 6 .vp&pios
X61papis:
C 23
EuvSpo6aXos
Euv( )F 19
l0pos F 170; F 203 Srpou
Ecoofias:C 18 oacias
2cao'tvecs:B 9 SoafvEo(S)
EcoaX[F 134
cbcrrparTo:F 143 2aooTrp&TO
Ecorlp: G 9 2coT[filpo

F 150
coyppovaS
TaTr:F 11 Eaei
Tiypi( ) F 326
TtI6Evos: C 16 C 21 TtIg6Xovos;F 160

T]tpcov[ou

Tilo( ) F 71
TiTas C 5
Tpfpacxos:F 62 Tpfplaos
F 104 TpoxiXo
Tp6XtXos:
Tp'rrls D 4

F 44
Tupcrav6s
G 9 TX[rIs
T*Oix:

F 77 Oatacrrfo
OaifoTios:

B 2cOac6[veo
ODcXavOos:
OaviAXrl:F 8 OavAXs

Oa&ccov:
F 6 Oaaov

OeiSorrpacros: F 181 ]?1i6oo0Tp(&rov)

$fiXA:F 277 0[qiXl


OiSfas:F 246 Ot619u
D 41 [$]fDAT
fAnrl:
OtLXrilcov:D 44 OXiXAovoS
OiXTr[ F 300

B 17; F 103 OlAhr1s


OlAxrMnr
F 225; B 17 OlAirc
OfcXiAros
O?iAt( ) F 211
C 32; F 50 OIXopi]ot
OcAt68rlljoS:

F 304 OlxoKpp[Tro]us
(tXoKp&rrls:
PiXo( )F51 F90
(DAcov:F 2 DiXovos
OiA( ) F 126
Op*vcov:D 28 Opivov
Xatp( ) F 240
Xai( ) F 174
F 24 Xapl&[v]Os
Xapi&v&r:
Xapfas D 39
XappiiSrs:C 21 XappfieS
Xap( )F61
Xot( )F25
Xpfocros:F 243 Xpcr-roU
Xpicr( ) F 244
X(pto-r6s)J2 J3 J5 J7 J8 J 10-12
F 201 XpvuT[f]Tnlou
Xpio'inrrros:
X( )F 182 F230
X[ C14 F330
'Q29(pE(): F 59 'Oq9E
]ayv( ) F 122
]alrs: D 40 ]aiES
]cqKtT9[ D 35
]aX.ta[ F 124
F 311
]aoalK.uEa
]as G 18
]aTafrlF 117
]aTos:F 94 ]&-rT
]6atos: F 144 ]6afou
D 5 ]St59os
]Bt6Kos:
D 24 ]eSEs;F 115 ]eio8
]EiBrIs:
].v( ) D 24
]?SC 12
]Eupa G 22
]qlcov: F 140 ]^ovos
]icrcov:D 25 ].kcov
]fas F 63
](vaBoS:F 234 ]va&Sou
]iv( )F82
]ios C 14
F 216 ]tIcrT5ou
]tcrri86rs:
C
14
]fov
]kov:
]Kaio8[D 36
F1
]A&TlXOs
F
]oous: 5 ]Mos
C 29
]XvT
]XXosF 131
F 264 ]?coviou
]AcXvios:
]papiTrl:D 16 ] oaprTE
]v( )F194 F224
]rlvo[ D35
].OHT.[ F171
]ovTos F 82

]o B 5 C15
F 18
]OTOS

109

110

INDEX VERBORUM

[.rTraaD 40

]aoos:F 118 ]cro

]..PKEF 96
]sD42 F117 F209 K4

]o'rparos C 28

F 118 ]Kncopos
]nKrcop:
].pcovo[s F 289

]aa C 14

Latin
AusQ[Hd 3
Ba( ) He 7
C( ) He4
Cn( ) F 288
Co( ) F 228
Crispinus:He 6 Crispino
Dom( ) F 283
Drusus:He 6 Druso
Fel( ) F 277
Fund[ :F 328 Q. L. Fund[

Furmius:He 4 Furnio
F 298 Gemmiano
Gemmnianus:
L( ) F328
Marinus:F 251 Marini
Nero: He 8 Nerone
Pasinus:F 313 Pasini
Pat[ F 328
Q( )F328
Se( ) F 228

Titius: F 288 Titio


Non-Greek(possiblyCarian?)

AITZKPI
F 99

APXAH?O: F 100

INDEX VERBORUM
&yaO6s:G 9 [&yaouo],&[y]aOfis

Greek
An L34

G1
cycAula

&pyliA(aov)He 15
OyavG2
dpyupis:He 15 &pyvpi6cov
ayopcaos:G 17 [3yop].dou; I 18 &yopl(ou)
a&peva:L 19 d&ppivy[v
1
32
&ypou
&ypos:
&pva[L 25
K
3
He 2 I[]pxovrTo
cyoviQ96v
dycoIK,6S:
&pXcov:
B
18
B
Hd 15
&8EXp6s: 17 &Sr^&:C; &5sp[Co],[t&]8&)p[Cv] &pco(l.rrTirs)
AA L 55
'Acra:B 11 'Aaias
&du
Ad [B8
itpayo: Hd 11 ao ,iap6you
&otrB9
AOL2
ATOZHe 12
alpa: Hd 11 atpcov
Al F 163
AO He 20
&KEv( )I43

B 19 KU( )
&KuXos:
B
aXXos: 2 &hos;G 6 [IAos]

AAEONL 49
AAI 11
AMINL 26
'Amgv( ) 17 110 116 I19 I20 I25 129 I40
I41
K 10 K 11; He 3 &4(qpop&os)
&3(q9opaVs):
avOT-rfeil:G 7 &vfKEiv
&v8( )He 31

ANKZB[L51

dvope6co:L 14 &vo<p>eoils
K 6 &wvrTypcx[e
d&vrypa&co:
AN F 103
&rrm() I12

rr6He23He 24 He 41 I4 I11 I112

B 17 drr66os
rrroSifcoUt:
&frroq[I 14

'AXPO()I45
'AXc( )I32
&nlv(e{Tts)Hd 23
'A[...][vios I 45
A( )F87 F170 Hdl
A[ Hc 21

Hd20

He26

B&aai:
I 34 Batcov
L 47 P&p(os)
P&pos:

B 12 Paiv(a)
P3rT&Vov:
B 21 [.. .]a ppi( )
pev&~ppiov:
L
PiLpAivos: 45 Plu1pAvou
C 14 4[v,Tro],
pIVt3: C 2 VE[EqC;
L
40
Borip6lllov
oqe6s J 6
Boi( )F65
pouvcaosI 45
PovvUs:I 5 .ouvoi
Po[ I1

er*[o]

INDEX VERBORUM
Bartos:L 40 Bvoio(v)
B( )F65 F233 128 129

111

B 9 I-ctu ve
Tro'WrrXo:
brnirpacrItov: B 13 r1TrpaCrrfi[a
it[ B 10
'Epevefa:He 14 'Eppvdis
Hb 6 :pfllou
EprTlos:
ppI[B 10
EP( )Hc11

y&ia Hd 22

FraI(iXtov)L 29

y&pov:Hd 8 yap( ); L 47 ydpgy?

J3 J5 J7 J8 J10-12
y(ev...)J2
yiyvoiati: B 10 .yEv1irn
yp&qco:C 18 yp&coaas;K 4 gypa[9oe; K 5
ypa(p[
r( )F317 Hd15

ros[Hc 19] Hc 21; He 4 He 7 Hc 15 hrous;


L 31 T-rOv;
He 22-24 He 23 He 24 fr( )

EOC 33

fcosHe 41
E( ) F98; He 2 (s)
E[B 10

86: B 10 6'
58(a): see Index Numerorum
He 2
SEKaTiCapEs
86aTos: I 4 SEK&xTn

lalrrlov: L 8 la(i&6rna)

8&irrpos He 15

fKco: B 7 hiK[E]
8rl6Criov: Fa 1-26 S(ii6noov);Fb 1-3 'rl(6o'tov)
hfltva:Ha 54 Jg(lvai)
8Tlv&piov:K 16 8q(vapla); see also Index Sigillorum fflo-rrov: B 14 t(lo'r(a)

lATnA
fi.oUv:Ha 18 fill( ); see also IndexNumerorum
[ Hc 20
Ha
HaHa
Ha
17
Ha
25
6Kcatos
8IK[ ;
28;
8Ke(os); fillxa B 15
Ha 32 6iKEo[S
fplfXous:B 12 'fiXouv
iKaxicosF 131; F 94 8tK[ ;
fXi1:1 37 fX5ov
F 132 [81]Kacos;
F 139 [St]iKacos;
F 154
G 13 Oea[Tv]
Oe&:
[6S]Kafco[s
Hd
21
i,ga: Hd 19 0icpara
81oupil-rK6s:
Stoup(1rTK6v)
J 6; J 7 0(ou); C 21 eiol; G 6 C6[s]
WE6s:
8i( )Hb9
(ace.)
L13
Oco[ L25
8i[
SoK&o:C 3 [8o]KEI;C 10 [8]oET;C 19 Somt
K 2 [e0]yois
lyyT&vco:
B
16
B
1
8oAfXou
86XAXOs:
e0pa:
eOpas
Spaxpi: E 9 [6pax]pov; E 16 K 18 L 30 8p ( ); e( )I15 J8
L 20 bpa( ); see also Index Numerorum
A( )F162 F282 Hd5
16( )He 42
A[B3
lipeiS:F 262 Ieprios
lipoer*Ts:F 304 itpoOirov
B
10
i?p6sG 16; I 31 kpou; G 10 G 11 lepas; G 20
!6
'
tycb: C 8 poi; G 1
lepov[
el: K 2 [ei]
iE( ) F 323
Elpt (variouslyspelled and preserved) F 3 F 5 lv8(tKnTIv)I 12 1 44
F12 F13 F18 F32 F56 F58 F63 F 65 IN( )F82
F 94 F 107 F 115 F 131 [F 1321 F 144 F 177; 'loAtoos:He 9 'lovfou
Hd 2 [o-ri]
'lovtios: He 41 'louvfou
EtS:B 9 es; B 20 Is

raeItov: K 1 T[eO]iov
L 12 'lCO[l]t<o>)vi(Kns)
'Clor0toviKrs:

Ets:see Index Numerorum


Eibcros:I 23 KcrTeou

IETA[ L21

ecalov: Hd 4 Hd 18 MAai(); Hd 23 [ciatov]

EMF 177

Kaeap6s: Hd 10 oKaapQu;He 22 KaOap(ou);


132 Kac(apou)

gv8ecrpov:B 9 fvSeoaT(v)

Evrxa:L 37 v?K[a
1viavuiaTos:He 15 &viarcrlaiov
iac[ 133
-rrfHc 1 Hc 2 Hc 20 L 18 L 29
Trrie?lpa:B 13 1rrlfipa(Ta)
rlfiwvlov: Ha 16 []rrmlfi(vwov)

rlvi,rtocn:(in variousabbreviations)He 42
1 7-11

I45

15-18

Kaoeflql:B 1 Kd&sO

Kai:C7 C14 C34 G6 [G101 G21

Kaiv6s:B 2 Ka<i>v6s(ace.); Ha 2 Katv; 1 36 KEviS

KaKoBafplovG 15
KtaCrrro( ) J 7

2-5

I 20-29 1 31-33 I 35-41 I 43

KaX6sC7 [C 10 C13 C 15-17 C19 C21 C 28


C 31; C 3 C 11 KCai; C 29 C 31 KaiA
K 18 KaXrr!8(os)
KAcTris:
L 19
KdAvppra

112

INDEX VERBORUM

KCav()Hd7
B 12
[Kd&p6]oroS
L
32
mKaplK':
Kaplifis
He 17 K&perou
KaprroS:
KaTaTrtycovC24 [C261; C5 C18 C22 C25
C 27 KaaTanry(alva)
KarraTrOyov;
16
Ka( )F297
Ka[B 10 F 103 F 285
KE!( )L23
I 36 KEVjs(see Katv6s)
KEvri:
KEV[B 10
Kep6alov:Ha 18 ipalina; Ha 56 K(E)p(qiala)
KEpatos:E 5 KEpa0os
KE( )He 25
K1Tros:B 1 Krro

KIXHTOY
L 30
KA'TTS: F 199 vA-rTT[OU

He 29 [OhtT]os;
uia:He 33 He 34 He 36 XAi-ros;
I 42 AIt[
gEi{vr: He 41 ieXivris
He 21 eXi-rivou;
He 30
IEi-riTvoS:
I
42
MEv[alTos]
9EP( )L55
paCos:B 12 fooit
Mecp( )He 23

ITrr()

Trpios:Ha 1 Utr'rpto; Ha 12 iTpi(ov)


6Trpov:Ha 19 He 37 e'(Tpa)
Pe( ) Ha55
P4I:C 19 P
G 2 [lrQ8v]
n6E?is:

!wv: He 41 1 23 nl(v6s); He 5 He 9 1 17 lr(qv6s)


Prl( )L43
Iicryco:C 8 liaoyT
C 1 I{CErTOS
IoIrcTOS:

KMaois:D 18 [K]XSais
Klivrfip: B 2 KA[ivT-p]as
Kvi6iov: Ha 15 Kv<i>B)(ov)
Koivos:F 83 Koivai
C 30 KOKKOA(oi)
Ko6KKAos:
KOV( )He44

iva: Hb 5 pv(al); He 3 He 5 n(vai)


p6(8ios) Ha 16 Ha 44 Ha 53 He 4 He 8-11 1 24
1 25 MoXrroO
MoA6rTO:
M( )F332 Hall J6

Kopitv[ B 10

B 20 vaoAou
vcSXAoS:

Kopi( ) He 44
Ko'rXTA:Ha 29 Ha 40 He 17 Ko( ); B 21 F 198

va[ B10
vlJios:I 41 [N]Eclv
VE( )L56
vti: G 6 vE
vf(K:B 16 VlKal;He 19 [N]i(KrS)
v6jiicaa: K 17 vo({ioacrr)a

Ha 7 Ha 9 Ha 0OHa 35 He 1 K( ); see also


Index Numerorum
Koopoos:Hb11 Hb22 Hb28 He 25 He 28
KcjaeoS:
He 17 Kv(a0os)
D 44
KuSaOrivalwis
Ko<vos:B 20 KCbvco[v

K( ) F173
K<L9
AcKa.lco:C 33 XaiK&8e[t
AalKao-rpia C 34;

C 33 X(atcic-rpta)
C 23 AcxKK6OTp[o]TroS
AaKK6rOTrpcOKOS:
B 11 Xeyo[
WAyco:

XixKuosB 12
Afpepa L 46
L 3 Atlpucr[IK6s]
Apvuo-r.K6s:

Mieos:B 16 Aieo<u>
AiTpa:(variously abbreviated) Ha 26 Hb 6 Hb 7
Hbll Hb12 Hb l4 Hb 18 Hb21-23 Hb26
Hb28 Hb29 Hd6 Hd10 He6 He7 Hel2
He22 He25 He26 He28 He29 He31-34
He43 17 112
AoTra6rrB 14
Aoxr&atov:B 12 XoTr&dia
A7fco:B 10 aOIcaTo

[[ Hd22

B 19 [v]opirr
vopOqn:
NoT( )I12

vUvB 10
N( )F206

(av6os: He 36 aav0oui

(in various spellings or abbreviations):


cTrrlTs
Ha 17 Ha 20 Ha 23 Ha 28 Ha 30 Ha 32 Ha 37

Ha4Ha46 Ha:Ha50-52
4
Ha 38 Ha
e44 15 118 121
Ha56 Hd6 He 36 He4
123 126 145 K 13; see also Index Sigillorum
EHETYAPL 5
1 4 C 18 C 23 D 6 L 3 ho; L 126;
6,, ,6: C C
Hd 2 T6; B 1 B 2 F 304G 6 G 13 He 41 J 4
K 5 L 14 (various oblique cases)
6opeAas:B 12 [6]peial; B 14 [6]p-hima
6poA6sL 7
6e: Hd 2 [Tr]68;L 3 ho5i
olKosB 10
oivrpos Ha 27
olvos: Hd 13 He21 otvou; B20 olvov; (understood

onHdl5
Jiyca: B 14 iey&Xrn
MOievn:I 23 MeOfvnrs
I 9 Hex2c[VjO]V
AESCvosVOS:
vehMiv(os)He 23 He 24

Hc7

Hd17 Hd23)

E 15 6AK(ai);Hb 2 6A(Kai)
6OAK:
C 5 'OhAu<i>i)
'OAuITri6vtKoS:
t6v[t]K.os
OM He 33
6v&piov:B 106vO'pia

INDEX VERBORUM
o6os:Hd 1 8o'xos;L 27 5( )
rrpo( ) L 43
6S,aWiov:B 20 60i[,[aca]
iTp( )Hc26
C 121ruy[
B 19
O'rTOV
mrvyaTio:
Hb 12 6orTp6cns
lnvcbv, see Ouvcbvv
6carp6aK:
Hb7 Hbl4 Hbl5 Hb21 Hb23 Hb26 mru( )L56
o6rrpaKov:
Hb 30 He 31 He 33 He34 He 37 d&rrpd&ou
H( )J3
(variouslypreserved,spelled,abbreviated)
&OT
B 11
OTInB 8

He 7
OarrRr(avcXaov)

OYAEL 31 (vas?)

oVyK{a: B19

Hb3

pa L27

PIA[ L 21

Hb22 He7

He 13 He 22

B 12 5oclta
poqpeTov:
purTlK6S:L 3 pOcrr[lK6S

He 39 He 40 1 23 1 32 (variouslyabbreviated)
o866s:B 1 ho85i
He 22 arlcKCj(aTos);
OUIK()I 11
onYKcola:Hb 4 q6C<KCo[;
He 5 ( )*
oiros: B 8 rTaTa;B 10 TraOIrv
OY 1 12
MOYL 53
6cpicna:He 30 6oAl(pia)
crr[B 10
6y&piov: B 20 6oapEi(ou)

rraiyviov: Hd 14 rraiyvia
B 2 Trat
'raTs: C 1 C 4 Tratis];

F 316
rroacat66

Hd 2 [Tr]aAaCfT[pas]
TraAaIo-rpa:

rroa( )I 13 L43
wrav( )He21 L18

B 18 [Tra]p&
-rrap&:
'rapxAios:I 35 nrapaAfov

TTAPAMYNQTOX
F 91

J 4 rrapeEvou
rrap0Nvos:

L 14
rrapoS
I 20 naoaarrov
a&no'rrTros:
r&caaov:
Hd 9; Hd 12 Trar(oov);He 13 He 40
Tra(r(aoov)

Tracr()L12
TrrVTE:
Ha 5 Trv(-rE);
L 8 -rrT<V>Tr
B 20 'rrEpai
irrEpriS:

TEp(uoav6s)Hd 20
TrE( ) F 65 L 10

'rrriy:I 27 TrrlyiS
'rivat:B 12 TrivaKES
irivco:G 15 Trrir

araOei6s:He 40 ar( ); He 43 [ora]e(ci6s)


B 18 [co-r&]vos;B 17 -r[a]v]lov;
arT&uvos:
Ha 54 crrt((voi); He 14 crr&( ); He 39
crrlvo( )
(-rcarip)E 3 He 1

ETPAL 26
ovyye[ B 10

aryKo?Aosor oarycoaos:I 40 ovvK.6Xou

cosS
He 11

B7
rT&Xos
TEI L23
Ha 13 [TrTp]6cXovv
T-rTprpXoUs:
rTivco:G 6 TrdiiTro
T-Xaco:
C 23 T-r?A

TOA L 38
see L 34
Tpacrr(rrir6s):
I 4 TpIlKOcbvcOV
TptK6XCOvoS:
He
24
'rplKcop( )
B
12
rTppA3iov

Tpu(yia) He 32
rTpcyco:G 12 rpcoyovr[
TYnA L52
Tcb:C 19 'r6

IIPBL 44
rr(Aipcotia) He 36

B 10TrO
TroXAs:
9i; L 10 rro(<>)

B 10
Tr9gvrpos
K 3 or6po[v
TropoS:

'rroTIlptov:B 12 rrOT-rlpa;F 3 'rro-rptOV

68pfa:Ha 18 0Spiat

06cop:Hd 16 0'Sa-ra
He 29 ]..rTTou,c'Y.rTC
'Yiirr6IOS:
L7
U]'rrcaipios

Hd 2 rrrCa[XAtica]
T'rrr&AElca:

-rov( )L10
7ro( )Hd18 L15
Hd 5 TTpacxiv[
;Hd 17 He 26 Tpa( );
TTPa&VEIOS:

B 5 [iTr]?p
Trrrp:
B 19
0TrEpa
imrOB 1 htrro

Trp.I( )J7
rrpia[ 1 30

vcar[ L56

I 13 npa.( )

iTr( )1 6

Y.rTA L 5

rrpicov:B 1 Trpiov(a)

rrp6L 45; He42 Trp(6)

rrpoK( ) I 39
'rpOTrie01i:He 41 wp9Ogerco

He 27
O)aAEpv(6S)
ipco:Ha 36; C 19 9ps
C 18 (cnvtv
1fprli:

113

114

INDEX VERBORUM

OH .....AA L 48
qlfa G 14; G 9 [pl]Aas

qpAosC 7
qniAoTioov:C 6 [pli]oTroaov

pi( )He19 L 28

B 19 cpovoU
qpotv6s:
9opCo: B 2 4p6pE?
K 1 'TpaXT(oS)
pp&ap:

I 19 Ou(vovos
Ou$cbv:
00 He 35
0( )He32

]ENHGHTOL54
]soi G6
]eo 1 38
]EP-T[B4
]es C12

]ETA.[ L4

]? Ha 18

]HA(SBE[L 54
]HXHI L6
]f5es B 15
]ITorcov B 10
]IVlKt L 11

]InE[ B4
F 199 XCAKci
Xa(KouS:
]IPE B3
B 14 [X1&p'r[s]
X&PTTs:
].If[ L 13
XE K 7
L24
]KOINOAX
2
Xois K 13; Ha 8 xo; Ha 31 X6s; F 198 Ha
G3
]K,ov
1
35
Ha 6 Ha 14 Ha 25 He He 2 He (variously
]KoS G6
abbreviated;see also IndexNumerorum)
]Xipas B 10
B 18 [Xp]no-r'r
Xprlcrr6s:
]A.[ B 12
Xp(6vos)Hc 26
]A.KE! L23
B 13 Xrrpas; K 2 9JrT[pas]
Xrarpa:
Xcop.. He 5

]AUO[ L 16

B21
XC(p(ou)I1 I 5 16 113-15 118-21 124 125 ]A( )L 16
]uacr
127-37 1 39-43; 1 45 X(co)p( )
] L4L9
182F230F330
X( )F
]NHOE L17
B 10
]veov
TA He 23
]NN![ B4
Wcoifov:
B 20 yc(fco[v
]voulrls 1 24
wcovo()I 11

cvfi F 199
bs:C 18 hos; B 7 6s

]v.ra B 10

].N F 194
]KOS L9

].OM[ B3
].02o B 10

]A[ B10
]a E4

]os C2

]AMA2 B11

]piveias L 33

]A! L3

]AMME[B4
]ANIA L
]ANI L35

I 10
]&vcov

]APENrE[L53
]ap( ) L29
]AXHAL 35
]BE L17
]you Ha 40
].EAIHA L 1

]ei8[

L 37

]EI.[ B3 B15
]E! B5
]ENEIA[L 13

]TrrTl() Ha 16
]hrop( ) 1 8

]EIE L6
].I L40

]oEv9os B 10

]XOnOA[B 4
]ZX[ B 10
]EQT[ B 10
] B 10 K4 L37

][ B 10

]TAPA.AHL 36
]TA5AIIt1EMAXB 11
]TA Bll
]Tuqos L 42
]u L9

]qnQP() B 21

INDEX NUMERORUM1

115

Latin

ab Hd 3
antea He 4
Aug( ) He 18
a[ L50
bol Hc 8
car( ) He 18
coc(tum) Hd 3
co(n)s(ul)Hc 3 He 4
co(n)s(ule)sHc 7
d(e)f(un)c(tus)L 41
[e(st)] L 41
e, Hc 6
mo(dius): He 4 mo(dii)

N(onae) He 18
saec( ) He 18
s(itus) L 41
stig(matum)He 18
Terg( ) He 18
tuus: L 50 tuis
vas He 18 (see L 31 OYAX)
vil(la) He 18
vin(um)He 18
Iciri L 50
]orum L 50

INDEX NUMERORUM
one-half:Ha 21 (
thirteenplus: He 43 ty'<
fourteen: He 2 &xa CrLapEs;Hc26 Hd6 15 112
one:B141; E13 F-;F87 F170 117 126a'
41 37 iS'; Hb 9 Hcl15 Si'
one plus: E4
12
B
14
1
He16 1l; L151I; Ha7 He KK; fourteen plus: Ha 41 tS'P"
two:B
F198 Hal4 Ha25 HaS6 He40'
fifteen: F323 Hcll He5 Hel17 He25 He31
two plus: Hal1OXXHK[;Ha 1l II=
He38 116 121-23 ie'; Hb6 1 17 139 El'
8-11
F
Ha
317
22
He
three:
54 Hb
He 14 He 22 fifteen plus: Hb 19 XIIIII<;He 5 IE'<
144
L20
L31
sixteen: Ha 5 ].APF; He 15 is'
IS 123 127
L33y'
B12
B21
F162
F282
four:
Ha35 sixteen plus: Hbl1O XIIIIII=
Ha31111;
Hdll1 He 4 He 10 He 39 I 8 19 1385S'
seventeen: He 41 iL'
Ha 22 Ha 56 S'<
four plus: E 4 F+FFICKT>;
seventeen plus: Ha 50 He 39 i<'(; Hb 17 XIIIIIII<;
B 12 He 2 P; E 3 IF;
Ha36 Ha42 Ha44 He42 iL'13
five:Ha 5 Hb25 He 31 11111;
B21 He7-9 12 17 K18 L23 L40e'
eighteen: E 14 APF-l-; He 6 He 30 irl'
five plus: Hb 8 11111-;
F 65 PE; He 38 e'<
eighteen plus: Ha 47 tri'KSB
six: Hbl3 HblS Hbl6 Hb24 Hb27 111111;
nineteen: Ha 40 Ha 45 He 17 tO'
E 9 F1-F-F-;
F 104 Ha 24 Ha 31 Ha 54 Hbl5 twenty: B 12 E 12 AA; He 3 AA; Hb3 Hd ll
Hb 22 Hb 30 Hc 5 He 35 He 37 115 I 23 141
He7 I12 L24K'
K13 L 47 s"
twenty plus: Ha 21 K'<
six plus: He 17 He33 iIIIII; He 33 s`<; E 6 PHFCTtwenty-one: F 285 (?) F 297 Hc 22 (?) 16 (?) Kc'
seven: Ha 4 1111111;
He 2 PEE; B 19 F104 Hb 14 twenty-one plus: Ha 46 Ka'S"
Hbl 8 Hb21 He8 L'
twenty-two:Ha 11 II=; He 43 i'zB
sevenplus: Ha 7 1111111
PIKKH
Ha
9
He 29 Ky';
IEKK;
twenty-three: E 8 AAIII[;E 7 AAFL-F[;
Ha6
Hb2O
Hb3l
B13
He
20
Pill;
Ha26
XXIII
11111111;
eight:
Ha30 He22 13 120 if
twenty-four: Ha 38 KS'
[mXXXH
Ha
6
eightplus:
twenty-four plus: Ha 45 He 33 YB'<;Ha 49 KS'<5'
nine: Hb9 111111111;
E9 PH-H-; Hb7 Hb12 twenty-five: Ha 52 iE'; He 19 He 41 XXV
Hb23 Hb29 He6 He28 He29 He32 He44 twenty-six: Hb 1 AAIlIlll; He 12 ics"
I 10133 135 0'
twenty-seven: Ha 51 He 7 10 KUK
nine plus:K8 IIIIIIIIIPl-I-H-;
Ha 48 O'<
twenty-sevenplus: Ha 43 KL'<
ten: B 12 A; He 1 AA$; Hb28 He 13 He22 twenty-nine: F 250 Ke'
He39 1 18 123 i'
twenty-nine plus: Ha 39 Ke'<S"
eleven: F198 Ha55 Hb5 Ill I25 131 132 thirty:Hdl16 He 40 A'
ta'; 1 26 at'
thirty-one:Ha 19 Ha 37 ?a'; Ill rL'
twelve: He 3 AMM; Hb 26 17 I 10 121 L23 tn'; thirty-two:He 29 Ap'
143 Pt'; K19 XII
thirty-three:He 21 Ay'
twelveplus: K 19 tp'<
thirty-five:Ha34; K 15 XXXV
thirteen: B 21 Hb 11 He 26 He 36 1 40 1 45 L 29 thirty-six:E9 AAAPIty'; 1 24 yt'
thirty-sevenplus: Ha 33 VL'<

INDEX SIGILLORUM

116
thirty-eightplus: Ha 29 Xq'<

forty: E15 F332 He13 He26 I'


forty-five:E5 AAAAP[;K14 s'[XL]V;L38XXXXV
forty-five plus: Ha 18 IE'fi(icv)
forty-seven: B 19 Ii'; L 40 ]Pi'
fifty: E 10 F 130 FA; E 16 AAAAA; F252 rF, v'
fifty-seven: L 30 vl'
sixty:E 13 PA; He30 ~'
sixty-one: L 39 XIL
seventy: He 10 L 24 o'
eighty: J 3 rr'
eighty-one: L 34 air'
eighty-nine: Ha 10 eir'
100:Hb2 K16 p'
111: L23 pia'
115: F 315 Eip'
121:He 10 pKa'
139:Hc 1 He37 pAO'
146: He8 ppis'
150:Hc12 Hc23 pv'
155: He 13 pve'

15?: He 14 pv[
172: He 16 pop'
194: He 23 He 24 p96'
200:He35 132 K17 a'
210:Ell HHA[
229: Hc 18 oxe'
230: L 23 acr'
239: I 44 0ha'
241: He 19 caa'
329: F 250 KOr'
424: K9 SKv'
500: He 25 q'
502: He 17 qpP'
580: He 24 'rr
701: He 23 pa'
964: Hc25 F86'
1246: He9 ,acrls'
9975: El PXXXXPIHHHHraAAP
10474: He 10 ,tv8o'
11100:E2 MXH

INDEX SIGILLORUM

K
A

(half):see IndexNumerorum
(denarius):He 16 He 17 He 38 (?)
(drachm):K 9 (?) see IndexNumerorum

(litra): Ha26 IHb2 Hb18 Hb21-23


Hb 26 Hd 6He 6 He 22 He 26 He 28 He 29
He31 He33 He34 He43 112
(xestes): Ha37 He36 He 44 K13
(xestes): Ha 38 Ha 43 Ha 45 Ha 46 Ha 48
Ha 50-52 He 41 118 21 23 1 45

K
+

(xestes): Ha 30 Ha 56
(ounkia): B 19 HIb3 He 13 He22 He 39
He40 I23132
(ounkia):He 7
(cross):F 323 F 324 143

-P

(chi-rho):F322

Ha 46 He 22 He39 J1

J4 J9 L28
xer (see text):J 8
XMr (see text):J 2 J3 J5 J 10-12

Plates

PLATE1

A1

A3

A2

tcRt
A6

A4
A5

A7

A 10

-...

PLATE2

n nD
B2

/-

ON/<'

A:
oi\ AT
W
T/4\lI

FXpo<3
i

AC\VF nl

r AF

AX

rR D I

B3

PLATE 3

B14

B15
-T."/

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PLATE 30

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PLATE 62

Actual State Plan of the Agora

Related Interests