AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review – Part 2 French Colonization Quebec, Montreal, St. Louis, St.
Lawrence River in 1608 The French traded fur with Indians, better relations & alliances with natives They were mainly Catholic and Jesuit Did not try to convert natives; intermarried with Indians coureurs de bois – f r traders and trappers First successful English settlement in N. America Jamestown, Virginia 1607 When/where was it established? Jamestown, Virginia 1607 Founded by the London Company (later to become the Virginia Company) Indentured servants – worked under a contract for a 7 years exchange for food, clothing, lodging, passage to America; after that, free and receive land Headright system – 50 acres of land ranted to new settlers, colonists get 100 acres; encouraged families to migrate together = more heads = more land New England Longer live-expectancy, greater family (‘cos they migrated together), population growth = natural reproduction Females = inferior under paternalism Organized town and church (English model); theocracy Diverse econ like English Chesapeake Farm / plantation (tobacco); spread-out population, slow growth Females = widowarchy = more freedom, since males died young (6 W : 1 M) Mayflower Compact: 1st social agreement, established civil government and proclaimed allegiance to king; pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock Dec 21, 1620 Importance of First Great Awakening (freedom of religion, separation of church and state, etc) Separation of church and state, religious freedom and toleration, establishment of Ivy League colleges Enlightenment (long term impact on America) John Locke impacted the American Declaration of Independence Undermined traditional authority, encouraged education, heightened interest in politics; govt = between people and leader, not God Reason & scientific inquiry; increased interest in scientific knowledge Jonathan Edwards “Sinners in the Hand of an Angry God” spread revival by preaching; instilled fear into others so that they would become more religious Religious tolerance/freedom: Religious freedom/toleration was a legacy of the 1st Great Awakening Only Christian related religions were tolerated, some attempted to convert Native Americans George Whitefield Succeeded John Wesley as leader of the Calvinistic Methodists in England Promoted religious revivalism Went on a missionary journey to New World that sparked the start of the Great Awakening The Triangle Trade – New England (rum) Africa (slaves) Caribbean / West Indies (molasses) back to N.E. Middle Passage – The passage Africans took from Africa to the New World as part of the Atlantic Slave trade; any died because Africans were packed tightly into the ships Mercantilism – mother country using colonies as a source of raw materials and market for finished goods Boston Massacre British soldiers = job competitions with colonists = angry, 3/5/1770 – British soldiers vs. “Liberty Boys” = open fire Led to Administration of Justice Act Boston Tea Party Colonists did not allow British ships to unload – Boston allowed – upset colonists – dress up as Mohawks and dumped tea into Boston Harbor Led to Intolerable Acts (Coercive + Quebec Act) Non-importation associations Stop all trade with Britain to hurt their economy Thomas Paine Common Sense, argue for independence from Britain Declaration of Independence Declared independence of colonies from British control Written by Thomas Jefferson and was ratified on July 4, 1776 Constitution was adopted in 1788 Father of Constitution James Madison, ‘cos he influenced it, e.g. Bill of Rights Washington’s Farewell Address – Asked to maintain neutrality, warning of political factions Revolution of 1800 – 1st peaceful political transfer between 2 parties Which reports of Hamilton were accepted? The debt, mint, and currency Which reports of Hamilton were not accepted? Manufacturing, ‘cos of tariffs on imports Virginia Dynasty – Jefferson – Madison – Monroe; all from VA Northwest Ordinance Guidelines for state admission to Union; prohibit slavery in NW territories 2nd Great Awakening Mormons – Joseph Smith; Shakers – Mother Ann Lee; Transcendentalists – Henry David Thoreau Horace Mann – “Father of Education” – children should be molded, discouraged corporal punishment, established state teacher training program – made it a profession Dorothea Dix – “Dragon Lady” – more humane system for mentally ill people; humans are capable of self-improvement Temperance Movement – no alcohol; Beecher Family, Frances Willard Abolitionist Movement – get rid of slavery Women’s Rights – Carrie Chapman Catt, Seneca Fall, 1848, gender equality Paternalism: treat like children – going to church, curfew, dormitory, no vulgar language (Lowell Factory) Early: fatherly relationship between workers and employees French and Indian War French + Natives vs. British over colonial disputes British won; French lost West Indies land, Canada, and Mississippi (not new Orleans) to Britain under Peace of Paris 1763 Constitutional Convention 1787 Aka Philadelphia Convention; attempted to amend Article of Confederation – couldn’t ‘cos only 12 states showed up (must have 13/13) Result: created new Constitution Shay’s Rebellion – helped spark changes to Article of Confederation, led to Constitution XYZ Affair – French demanded bribery before they would negotiate
AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review – Part 2 Henry Bessemer – inventor, manufacture of steel – open-hearth process Thomas Edison – inventor, electric lightning, telephone = rapid industrializ. Role of Railroad in industrialization and farming (steel, coal) Railroads were used to transport finished goods and people west, use coals as natural power source; railroad + steel = drive revolution 1800’s New steel technique - Bessemer process converted iron to steel Sherman Antitrust Act: July 1890, had no impact, not enforced, poorly written; designed to regulate monopolies Affect of industrialization on society (emergence of middle class, emergence of unions, concentration of wealth, loss of certain jobs to technology industry) Industrialization- resulted in immigrants coming from Northern Europe, Ireland, England as well as southern and eastern Europeans Led to little job security and unsafe/ unhealthy working conditions Women and children join the workforce—paid less Unions were formed in an attempt to fight against poor work conditions National Labor Union founded in 1866 by William H. Sylvis Women were excluded from the Unions because they were thought to be the cause of lowered wages Social gap – really wealth or really poor Unskilled + machines replaced skilled artisans Horatio Alger (social mobility, rags to riches) A poor boy from a small town went to the big city to seek his fortune Wounded Knee: The last major battle / massacre with Indians; between the Sioux Indians and the US. December 29, 1890. A Century of Dishonor Helen Hunt Jackson, book on how American never keep compromises / treaties with natives, exposed injustice Radical Republicans / Abolitionists (who, what did they want, economic & societal goal) R.R.: Thaddeus Stevens, Charles Sumner, Benjamin Wade Abol.: Frederick Douglas, Harriet Tubman, William Garrison Freedman’s Bureau – help blacks 13th Amendment Industrialize South Tallmadge Amendment Prohibit further introduction of slaves into Missouri & gradual emancipation when Missouri applied to become state Population dynamics from 1800: What areas were growing: Northeast/Northwest Immigrants: German & Irish, Germans: Midwest (farms), Irish (Northeast, manufacturing factories) Redeemers Powerful, wealthy class in South tried to return South to antebellum Carpetbaggers Northern Republicans sent to reconstruct South Scalawags Poor white southerners who helped with reconstruction; tried to overturn social status Exodusters Slaves who went to Kansas ‘cos of Homestead Act Why Ex-slaves Did Not Move Far After the War Be with family, not wanted in North, no money Booker T. Washington & Atlanta Compromise Education, rights, and privileges of citizenship for blacks, but they must struggle for econ gains & self-improvement (econ-equality = pol-equality)
Alien and Sedition Acts Alien – placed obstacles on aliens: longer time to neutralize, allowed president to deport aliens out of country Sedition – allowed govt to arrest those who opposed the govt. Aimed to punish Democrat-Republicans King Andrew – ‘cos of use of vetoes Ostend Manifesto Offered to buy Cuba from Spain as new slave state Manifest Destiny President Polk God given rights for whites American to expand from “sea to shining sea” 54°40’ or Fight Oregon Territory dispute with Britain (at border of Canada) Resolved at 49th Parallel at Treaty of 1846 Symbolized good relationship between U.S. and Brit. War of 1812 Chesapeake Affair (impressments) Indian disputes War Hawks wanted expansion (Canada and West) Causes and Results of Mexican American War Long-term Causes - Manifesto Destiny - California (Polk wanted Pacific Ocean; West = cotton; trade with China) Immediate Causes - Texas Annexation 1845 - Failure of Slidell Mission - Border Dispute – southern border at Rio Grande vs. Nueces River Effects - Thoreau’s Civil Disobedience - Mexican Cession - Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Slavery Imbalance Civil War Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Ended Mexican War – Polk sent Nicholas Trist Feb. 2nd, 1848: Mexican ceded CA, NM, UT, NV (southwest territories) Acknowledge TX border line at Rio Grande U.S. paid $15 million to Mexico Wilmot Proviso Antislavery Democrat Introduced amendment to the appropriation bill prohibiting slavery in territories acquired from Mexico Compromise of 1850 (who, what) Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, John Calhoun, Stephen Douglas 1. California is free state 2. Popular Sovereignty to decide issue of slavery in states 3. Abolish slave trade, not slavery, in D.C. 4. New fugitive laws: can’t hide slaves & police must return runaway slaves Popular Sovereignty (what it was, who proposed it) Let the people of each new state decide whether they wanted to be admitted into the Union as free or slave state Stephen A. Douglas Immigrants West – CA gold rush, Chinese males New Stock – S/E Europe, Italian, Greek, German, Russian, Portugal, Bulgarian, Turkish, Polish; Catholics; settled in North and Mid-West Old – N/W Europe, British, Irish, French, Czech, Belgium, Swish, Dutch; Protestants; settled NE and NW Faced poverty, religious / political persecution
AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review – Part 2
Seward's Folly: Purchase of Alaska 1867, Seward bought Alaska from Russia; criticized ‘cos Rocky Mt. hadn’t been filled yet Taylorism Frederick Taylor – division of labor = allowed unskilled to replace skilled Ford and the assemble line Henry Ford – automobile, efficient means of mass production, parts move from person to person, people could afford what they made now Knights of labor Founded by Uriah S. Stephens, let everyone in (blacks and women), 1st successful national labor movement, wanted an 8 hr day, equal pay for men and women, no child and prison labor; disorganized AFL (American Federation of Labor) Most enduring and important labor group in the country, an association of craft unions that represented skilled workers, opposition to female employment, concentrated on the relationship between labor & management NLU (National Labor Union) Founded by William H. Sylvis, association that had a variety of reform groups having little direct relationship with labor, excluded women, disintegrated after panic of 1873, wasn't succesful because it was too varied IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) Led by William "Big Bill" Haywood, wanted a single union for all workers, abolish "wage slave" system; Eugene V. Debs Samuel Gompers Founder of AFL, represented workers in national legislation, only accept skill workers Labor Unrest Workers had no job security, few were safe from poverty, and industrial accidents were frequent & severe Immigration Restriction League - immigrants should go through screening tests Chinese Exclusion Act – Congress passed 1882, denied entry to all “undesirables” and placed small tax on immigrants Gentlemen’s Agreement 1908 Deny Japanese people to work for US Segregated school at San Francisco U.S. not impose restriction on Japanese immigrants Rise of Urban Push – reasons to leave: overpopulation, unsanitary (no sewage system), crimes, violence, corruption, pollution, transportation (to suburbs), cheaper housing, education, tenement (affordable houses, cheap, overcrowded) Pull – reasons to come: industrial / service jobs, department stores, entertainment Major cities: NY, Chicago, Boston Skyscrapers – move up cause no room to move sideways, cities were growing upward & outward Women – white collar jobs: clerks, secretaries-telephone operators, department stores (Macys) WCTU – Women’s Christian Temperance Union Women Rights Movement 1848, Seneca Fall, Carrie Chapman Catt Margaret Sanger – mother of birth control & family planning Technology for expansion – cast iron & steel beams = transportation, buildings, skyscrapers
Schools and Assimilation of Immigrants Children = compulsory schooling to prevent child labor; high demand for education ‘cos to get specialized skills & scientific knowledge Jane Addams and Hull house Shelter for poor, 1889 in Chicago, model for other institutions, sought to help immigrant families adapt to language and customs of new country Initiative – petition for desirable bill by people Referendum – people decide whether a bill by govt to be passed or not Recall – voters petition to remove an officer from office through population Amendments [Progressive] 16th: income tax 17th: direct election of senators 18th: prohibition of alcohol 19th: women's suffrage 1920 Muckrakers – exposed corruption of business and govt to public The Jungle 1906 – by Upton Sinclair; led to Meat Inspection Act, Pure Food and Drug Act How the Other Half Lives – Jacob Riis, exposed the poor life conditions, especially of children Muller vs. Oregon - justified sex discrimination and usage of labor laws as protecting women's health NAWSA - National American Woman Suffrage Association, Wyoming was 1st state to let them vote, leads to 19th amendment; founders: Anna Shaw and Susan B. Anthony; leader: Carrie Chapman Catt Teddy Roosevelt and square deal Fair econ and social opportunity, attacked trusts, protected businesses Conservation Restrict private development on govt land; expanded National Park System to protect natural lands and wilderness Gifford Pinchot – 1st director of National Forest Service, promoted policies to protect land for carefully managed development; leaked info that Sec of Interior Richard Ballinger sold public lands in Alaska for personal profit fired by Taft, progressive alienated Trust Busting – destroyed trusts that Teddy didn’t agree with, only bad ones Election of 1912 – Taft (republican) vs. Theodore Roosevelt (progressive); Roosevelt upset ‘cos Taft fired Pinchot – split votes, Democrat Wilson ended up winning William Jennings Bryant “Cross of Gold,” speech to support free silver, he lost, focus on silver, did not form alliance Bi-metallism Gold and silver basis for the dollar; populists & democrats wanted coinage of silver = farmers easier to pay off debt; republicans wanted gold (McKinley) Coxey’s Army Unemployed marched to Washington D.C. 1894, demanded jobs from govt Eugene V. Debs Head of RR Unions; one of the best-known Socialist – govt regulate commerce in favor of people; founder of IWW Alfred Mahan
AP U.S. History Semester 1 Review – Part 2 Wrote “The Influence of Sea Power Upon History” (1890) – all great nations need strong navy, influenced U.S. to build 1st great modern navy Need sea power to: foreign commerce, merchant marine, defend routes, obtain colonies for raw materials and bases (Pacific Islands, HI Asia) Frederick Turner Historian, believed that frontier / westward expansion = country’s spirit and success, start life anew, restore ideals of democracy Imperialism Arguments For: investment, military / strategic (Mahan’s), social Darwinism (strong nations ctrl weak), religious / missionary interests, closing of frontier, keeping up with Europe Against: hurt democracy, immigrants take jobs & dirty society, fear of mass immigration Yellow Journalism – using sensational headlines to attract attention to issues; Joseph Pullitzer & William Randolph Hearst (“Provide pictures I’ll give you war”) Spanish-American War (“A Splendid Little War”) Puerto Rico, Guam, Guantanamo Bay, Philippines (Manila) Alaska and Hawaii Alaska: Seward’s Folly, U.S. buy from Russia before British does Hawaii: annexed 1898; wanted Pearl Harbor as navy base and sugar exports Platt and Teller Teller Amendment 1898: U.S. would not take Cuba, only want to help fight for its independence Platt Amendment 1903: U.S. took Cuba and Guantanamo Bay; gave U.S. right to intervene Occupation of Philippines Strengthened U.S. interest in Asia and Chinese trade – stopping point Insular Cases: 1901-1903 Question of “Does the Constitution follow the flag?” Supreme Court ruled that “citizenship does not follow the flag” = no full constitutional rights to areas under American control = treated as colonies Open Door policy Pres McKinley sent Sec of State John Hay – forced China to open – equal foreign trade in Chinese market Boxer Rebellion Uprising against foreigners in China and imperialist expansion Panama Canal Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty 1903: construction of Panama Canal, reserved for U.S. for war; building from 1903-1914 Roosevelt Corollary Big Stick = navy fleet, 1904 justified U.S. intervention in Latin America and foreign affairs as policeman to correct wrongdoings Response to dispute in Venezuela Roosevelt = 1st modern president Dollar Diplomacy Pres William Taft – use econ power to further foreign policy in Latin America Moral Diplomacy Pres Wilson – be nice to foreign countries Wilson Idealism State should make its internal political philosophy the goal of its foreign policy