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Sweet potatoes grow year-round in the tropics. Sweet potato has the shortest growing cycle of the root crops grown in the tropics. The crop is normally harvested about 4 months after planting and harvesting may be spread over several months. In a temperate climate, harvest must take place before risk of frost. To widen its optimization sweet potato can be processed into flour and starch which are less bulky and more stable than the very perishable fresh root. Sweet potato would be in greater demand if it could be used in staple food products which have wide consumption, such as bread and pasta/ noodle. These which are used as rice substitutes in the Asia-Pacific region. Increased used of sweet potato would also help offset the increasing wheat importation of developing countries which constitutes an economic drain for many economies.
1.1 OBJECTIVES 1.1.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE 126.96.36.199 To evaluate the optimization of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea Batatas) Flour in muffin making
1.1.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES 188.8.131.52 To learn the technique and process of muffin making
184.108.40.206 To evaluate the proximate analysis and microbiological characteristic of Sweet Potato muffin 220.127.116.11 To evaluate the sensory characteristic of sweet potato muffin 18.104.22.168 To study the shelf life of sweet potato muffin 22.214.171.124 To study the effect of other ingredients such as flour, and fat in microbiological and sensory characteristic of muffin 126.96.36.199 To study the standard temperature of oven in muffin using sweet potato flour
1.2 HYPOTHESIS 1.2.1 Null 188.8.131.52 The temperature to be subjected to the bread will not cause nutritional lost of the product. 184.108.40.206 The process / technique of bread making will not affect the quality of the product. 220.127.116.11 The proportion of the ingredients will not affect the quality of the product and its characteristics.
1.2.2 Alternative 18.104.22.168 The temperature to be subjected to the bread will be the cause of nutritional lost of the product 22.214.171.124 The process technique of bread making will affect the quality of the product. 126.96.36.199 The proportion of the ingredients will affect the quality of the product and its characteristics. 2
1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY Nowadays, consumers are looking for a food that is high in carbohydrates. Carbohydrate food is the most efficient fuel for energy production that can be use in our daily activities. This study wants to produce a new product that can be consumed and incorporated on carbohydrate intake. Also to produce product that is a good source of potassium, pyridoxine, a good anti-oxidant. Another idea is to give idea the local processors to produce commercial product made from sweet potato flour. As a result, it can expand the use of sweet potato flour especially in baking purposes.
1.4 ASSUMPTION 1.4.1 The Sweet Potato Flour has a different component from the other flour. 1.4.2 The chemical composition of sweet potato flour might be affected when it is subjected to heat and other process treatment. 1.4.3 The quality of muffin might be affected by adding other ingredients.
1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATION 1.5.1 Scope The study of the Sweet Potato Muffin will also cover recent study about the optimization of sweet potato flour in bread making. 1.5.2 Limitation It will not include any information that will be related to the topic. It will cover from the month of July to March 2008.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
ANOVA (analysis of variance) is a collection of statistical models, and their associated procedures, in which the observed variance is partitioned into components due to different explanatory variables. The initial techniques of the analysis of variance were developed by the statistician and geneticist R. A. Fisher in the 1920s and 1930s, and is sometimes known as Fisher's ANOVA or Fisher's analysis of variance, due to the use of Fisher's F-distribution as part of the test of statistical significance.
Box-Behnken Design is an independent quadratic design that does not contain an embedded factorial or fractional factorial design.
Color is the visual, perceptual property that corresponds to humans, has categories as red, yellow, white, etc.
Fat consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water.
Flavor is the sensory impression of a food or other substance, and is determined mainly by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
Flour is a fine powder made from cereals or other starchy food sources. Flour is the key ingredient of bread, which is the staple food in many countries, and therefore the
availability of adequate supplies of flour has often been a major economic and political issue. Flour can also be made from legumes and nuts, such as soy, peanuts, almonds, and other tree nuts. Flour is always based on the presence of starches, which are complex carbohydrates (aka polysaccharides).
Hedonic Rating Scale - is anchored verbally with nine different categories ranging from like extremely to dislike extremely.
Molds and Yeast Count – is the enumeration of mesophilic aerobic in a medium for yeast and molds.
Objective Test – is the physical, microbial and chemical methods used as tools for evaluation of the quality of the food.
Odor / Aroma - are also called smells, which can refer to both pleasant and unpleasant odors
pH - is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution.
Subjective Test – is an evaluation based on individual experiences using the five senses.
Sweet potatoes- are botanically known as “Ipomoea batatas”, are the root of a vine in the morning glory family and native to the New-World tropics.
Sweet Potato Flour – is specialty flour that is produced from white sweet potatoes. It is raw flour, not roasted flour and therefore, does not require cooking before use. Dull white in color, sweet potato flour is stiff in texture and somewhat sweet tasting. High in fiber, this flour contains more carbohydrates but less protein than common flour.
Temperature - is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold; something that is hotter has the greater temperature.
Texture - the way food feels in a person's mouth
Q. D. A. (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) – uses parameters for describing physical properties of food like color, texture, aroma, flavor and general appearance of the food. It is a way of measuring quality characteristics requiring a number of panelists to evaluate the product.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Sweet potato 2.1.1 History
Sweet potatoes, botanically known as “Ipomoea Batatas”, are the root of a vine in the morning glory family and native to the New-World tropics. It history dates back to 750 BC in Peruvian records. Columbus brought the sweet potato to the New World from the island of Saint Thomas. The Tiano word for them was “batatas” which eventually became “patata” in Spanish, “patae” in French and “potato” in English. At that time, “potato” to the sweet potato and not the generic white potato as it does in English nowadays. In fact, according to noted food historian waverly Root, the white potato did not arrive in the northern regions from South America until the late 17th century, more than a hundred years later.
2.1.2 Kingdom: Division: Class: Order: Family: Genus: Species: Group:
Scientific Classification Plantae Magnoliophyta Magnoliopsida Solanales Convulvulaceae (morning glory) Ipomoea I. batatas Dicotyledon
Appearance , Shape and Variety
The yellow or orange tubers are elongated with ends that taper to a point and are of two dominant types. The paler-skinned sweet potato has a thin, light yellow skin with pale yellow flesh which is no sweet and has a dry, crumbly texture similar to a white baking potato. The darker-skinned one (most often called yam in error) has a thicker, dark orange skin with vivid orange, sweet flesh and moist texture. Varieties include Goldrush, Georgia Red, Centennial, Puerto Rico, New Jersey and Velvet.
188.8.131.52 Sweet potatoes are a good source of potassium Sweet potato and yam health information includes carotene. More times the recommended daily allowance of Vitamin A, as well as loaded with potassium. These nutrients help protect against heart attack and stroke. The potassium helps maintain fluid
and electrolyte balance in the body cells, as well as normal heart functions and blood pressure.
184.108.40.206 Sweet potatoes are a good source of pyridoxine. Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) is a micronutrient, water-soluble vitamin Helps the body use carbohydrates, fats and proteins, and is essential in converting tryptophan (essential amino acids) to niacin and linoleic acid (fatty acid) to arachidonic acid (fatty acid in animal fat). Lack of pyridoxine results in appetite loss, nausea and vomiting; nervous irritability and convulsions; and dermatitis around the eyes, mouth, nose and behind the ears.
220.127.116.11 Vitamin C is a good anti-oxidant. Vitamin C is a good anti-oxidant found in sweet potato. It has been recognized and accepted by the U.S. Food and Drug Admin., (FDA) as one of the four dietary antioxidants, the others being vitamin E, beta-carotene and selenium. A dietary oxidant is a substance in food that significantly decreases the adverse effects of harmful chemicals like react oxygen and nitrogen species, and other radicals on normal physiological functions in human. It acts as a scavenger, sweeping these chemicals away from damage. Antioxidant vitamins prevents the oxidation of LDC (low-density lipoproteins) cholesterol thus may reduce platelet adhesion to the arterial wall. Platelet adhesion favors development of atheoroscleriotic plagues.
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA), 1989 for Filipinos for vitamin C, published by the FNRI-DOST, is 30 mg/day for infants; 35 mg/day for 1-3 children; 75 & 70 mg/day for male and female adults respectively.
2.2 Compositions of Raw Sweet Potato, Sweet Potato Flour and Sweet Potato Muffin 2.2.1 Fiber 18.104.22.168 Importance Fibers resist bulging has long been known due to their importance in providing regularity of bowel movement. However, it was during the late 19th century when the noble effects of fibers in the human body got into the limelight. Dietary fiber, in general, is a loose term denoting the substances in plant foods that are not digested by the human digestive enzymes. Simply put, it is what remains from food cyter digestion.
22.214.171.124 Benefits 126.96.36.199.1 188.8.131.52.2 Promote and satisfy weight loss; Help prevent compaction of the intestinal content which could abstract the appendix and permit bacteria to invade and infect it; 184.108.40.206.3 Exercise the muscles of the digestive tract to retain their health and tone, and resist bulging out into pouches (as in the case of diverticulosis); 220.127.116.11.4 Act as a broom and regulate wave like motions in the intestines propelling and pushing the food inside the digestive tract; and
Bind bile and carry it out of the body to reduce the risk or cancer
18.104.22.168 Two (2) types of dietary fiber 22.214.171.124.1 Soluble Fiber – forms a gel when mixed with liquids, while insoluble does not. 126.96.36.199.2 Insoluble Fiber – passes through your digestive tract and is largely intact
Both types of fiber are important in the diet and prove benefits to the digestive system by helping maintain regularly the bowel movement. Soluble fiber has some additional benefits to heart health. It has been scientifically proven to reduce blood cholesterol levels, which may help reduce your risk of heart disease.
2.2.2 Proteins Proteins are large organic compounds made of amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is defined by a gene and encoded in the genetic code. Although this genetic code specifies 20 "standard" amino acids, the residues in a protein are often chemically altered in post-translational modification: either before the protein can function in the cell, or as part of control mechanisms. Proteins can also work together to achieve a particular function, and they often associate to form stable complexes.
2.2.3 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates (from 'hydrates of carbon') or saccharides (Greek σάκχαρον meaning "sugar") are simple organic compounds that are aldehydes or ketones with many hydroxyl groups added, usually one on each carbon atom that is not part of the aldehyde or ketone functional group. Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four major classes of biomolecules, which also include proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. They fill numerous roles in living things, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). Additionally, carbohydrates and their derivatives play major roles in the working process of the immune system, fertilization, pathogenesis, blood clotting, and development.
2.2.4 Vitamin A vitamin is a nutrient that is an organic compound required in tiny amounts for essential metabolic reactions in a living organism. The term vitamin does not include other essential nutrients such as dietary minerals, essential fatty acids, or essential amino acids, nor does it encompass the large number of other nutrients that promote health but that are not essential for life.
2.2.5 Calcium Calcium (pronounced /ˈkælsiəm/) is the chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078. Calcium is a soft grey alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth most abundant element in the Earth's
crust. It is essential for living organisms, particularly in cell physiology, and is the most common metal in many animals.
2.2.6 Fats Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at normal room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words "oils", "fats" and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature. "Lipids" is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats. The word "oil" is used for any substance that does not mix with water and has a greasy feel, such as petroleum (or crude oil) and heating oil, regardless of its chemical structure. Fats form a category of lipid, and are distinguished from other lipids by their chemical structure and physical properties. This category of molecules is important for many forms of life, serving both structural and metabolic functions. They are an important part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans). Fats or lipids are broken down in the body by enzymes called lipase produced in the pancreas. Examples of edible animal fats are lard (pig fat), fish oil, and butter or ghee. They are obtained from fats in the milk, meat and under the skin of the animal. Examples of edible plant fats are peanut, soya bean, sunflower, sesame, coconut, olive and vegetable oils. Margarine and vegetable shortening, which can be which derived from the above
oils, are used mainly for baking. These examples of fats can be categorized into saturated fats and unsaturated fats.
2.2.7 Riboflavin Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. It is the central component of the cofactors FAD and FMN, and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. As such, vitamin B2 is required for a wide variety of cellular processes. Like the other B vitamins, it plays a key role in energy metabolism, and is required for the metabolism of fats, carbohydrates, and proteins. Milk, cheese, leafy green vegetables, liver, legumes such as mature soybeans , yeast and almonds are good sources of vitamin B2, but exposure to light destroys riboflavin.
2.2.8 Niacin Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin discovered by Conrad Elvehjem in 1937. Its derivatives, NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP plays essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair (an enzymatic process in a living cell).  The designation vitamin B3 also includes the corresponding amide nicotinamide (or "niacinamide"), whose chemical formula is C6H6NO2.
Other functions of niacin include removing toxic chemicals from the body, and assisting in the production of steroid hormones made by the adrenal gland, such as sex hormones and stress-related hormones.
2.2.9 Phosphorus Phosphorus, (IPA: /ˈfɒsfərəs/, Greek: phôs meaning "light", and phoros meaning "bearer"), is the chemical element that has the symbol P and atomic number 15. A multivalent nonmetal of the nitrogen group, phosphorus is commonly found in inorganic phosphate rocks. Due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element in nature. One form of phosphorus (white phosphorus) emits a faint glow upon exposure to oxygen (hence its Greek derivation and the Latin 'light-bearer', meaning the planet Venus as Hesperus or "Morning Star"). Phosphorus is a component of DNA and RNA and an essential element for all living cells. The most important commercial use of phosphorus-based chemicals is the production of fertilizers. Phosphorus compounds are also widely used in explosives, nerve agents, friction matches, fireworks, pesticides, toothpaste, and detergents.
2.2.10 Ash In analytical chemistry, Ash is the name given to all compounds that are not considered organic or water. These are the compounds that remain (as "ashes") after a sample is burned, and consist mostly of metal oxides.
Ash is one of the components in the proximate analysis of biological materials, consisting mainly of salty, non-organic constituents. It includes metal salts which are important for processes requiring ions such as Na+ (Sodium), K+ (Potassium), Ca+ (Calcium). It also includes trace minerals which are required for unique molecules, such as chlorophyll and hemoglobin.
2.2.11 Starch Starch (chemical formula (C6H10O5)) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). These are both complex carbohydrate polymers of glucose (chemical formula of glucose C6H12O6), making starch a glucose polymer as well, as seen by the chemical formula for starch, regardless of the ratio of amylose:amylopectin. The word is derived from Middle English sterchen, meaning to stiffen, which is appropriate since it can be used as a thickening agent when dissolved in water and heated.
188.8.131.52 Starch in food In terms of human nutrition, starch is by far the most consumed polysaccharide in the human diet. It constitutes more than half of the carbohydrates even in many affluent diets, and much more in poorer diets. Traditional staple foods such as cereals, roots and tubers are the main source of dietary starch. Starch (in particular cornstarch) is used in cooking for thickening foods such as sauces. In industry, it is used in the manufacturing of adhesives, paper,
textiles and as a mold in the manufacture of sweets such as wine gums and jelly beans. It is a white powder, and depending on the source, may be tasteless and odorless. Starch is often found in the fruit, seeds, rhizomes or tubers of plants and is the major source of energy in these food items. The major resources for starch production and consumption worldwide are rice, wheat, corn, and potatoes. Cooked foods containing starches include boiled rice, various forms of bread and noodles (including pasta). As an additive for food processing, arrowroot and tapioca are commonly used as well. Commonly used starches around the world are: arracacha, buckwheat, banana, barley, cassava, kudzu, oca, sago, sorghum, and regular household potatoes (sweet potato, taro and yams). Edible beans, such as favas, lentils and peas, are also rich in starch. When a starch is pre-cooked, it can then be used to thicken cold foods. This is referred to as a pre-gelatinized starch. Otherwise starch requires heat to thicken, or “gelatinize”. The actual temperature needed depends on the type of starch. A modified food starch undergoes one or more chemical modifications, which allow it to function properly under high heat and/or shear that is frequently encountered during food processing. Food starches are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, but have many other uses.
Resistant starch is a starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals. Plants use starch as a way to store excess glucose, and thus also use starch as food during mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Starch as adhesive in Papermaking is the largest non-food application for starches globally, consuming millions of metric tons annually. In a typical sheet of copy paper for instance, the starch content may be as high as 8%. Both chemically modified and unmodified starches are used in papermaking. In the wet part of the papermaking process, generally called the “wet-end”, starches are chemically modified to contain a cationic or positive charge bound to the starch polymer, and are utilized to associate with the anionic or negatively charged paper fibers and inorganic fillers. These cationic starches impart the necessary strength properties for the paper web to be formed in the papermaking process (wet strength), and to provide strength to the final paper sheet (dry strength). In the dry end of the papermaking process the paper web is rewetted with a solution of starch paste that has been chemically, or enzymatically depolymerized. The starch paste solutions are applied to the paper web by means of various mechanical presses (size press). The dry end starches impart additional strength to the paper web and additionally provide water hold out or “size” for superior printing properties. Corrugating glues are the next largest consumer of non-food starches globally. These glues are used in the production of corrugated fiberboard (sometimes called corrugated cardboard), and generally contain a mixture of
chemically modified and unmodified starches that have been partially gelatinized to form an opaque paste. This paste is applied to the flute tips of the interior fluted paper to glue the fluted paper to the outside paper in the construction of cardboard boxes. This is then dried under high heat, which provides the box board strength and rigidity. Another large non-food starch application is in the construction industry where starch is used in the or wall board manufacturing process. Chemically modified or unmodified starches are added to the rock mud containing primarily gypsum. Top and bottom heavyweight sheets of paper are applied to the mud formulation and the process is allowed to heat and cure to form the eventual rigid wall board. The starches act as a glue for the cured gypsum rock with the paper covering and also provide rigidity to the board.
2.2.12 pH PH is a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Aqueous solutions at 25°C with a pH less than seven are considered acidic, while those with a pH greater than seven are considered basic (alkaline). When a pH level is 7.0, it is defined as 'neutral' at 25°C because at this pH the concentration of H3O+ equals the concentration of OH− in pure water. PH is formally dependent upon the activity of hydronium ions (H 3O+), but for very dilute solutions, the molarity of H3O+ may be used as a substitute with little loss of accuracy (H+ is often used as a synonym for H3O+). Because pH is dependent on ionic activity, a property which cannot be measured easily or fully predicted theoretically, it is difficult to determine an accurate value for the pH of a solution. The pH reading of a
solution is usually obtained by comparing unknown solutions to those of known pH, and there are several ways to do so.
2.2.13 Yeast and Molds 184.108.40.206 Yeast Yeasts are growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described; they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. Most reproduce asexually by budding, although a few do by binary fission. Yeasts are unicellular, although some species with yeast forms may become multicellular through the formation of a string of connected budding cells known as pseudohyphae, or true hyphae as seen in most molds. Yeast size can vary greatly depending on the species, typically measuring 3–4 µm in diameter, although some yeasts can reach over 40 µm.
220.127.116.11 Molds Moulds (or molds, see spelling differences) include all species of microscopic fungi that grow in the form of multicellular filaments, called hyphae. In contrast, microscopic fungi that grow as single cells are called yeasts. A connected network of these tubular branching hyphae has multiple, genetically identical nuclei and is considered a single organism, referred to as a colony or in more technical terms a mycelium.
Flour 2.3.1 History Historically, both large and hand mills were operated to make flour. Until modern
times, much flour contained minute amounts of grit, either the result of poor sifting of the grain or of grinding stones together. This grit strongly abraded teeth. One of the most ancient methods of grinding to produce flour was by using a pair of quern-stones. These were made out of rock, and were ground together by hand. They were generally replaced by millstones once mechanised forms of milling appeared, particularly the water mill and the windmill, although animals were also used to operate the millstones.
An ingredient used in many foods, flour is a fine powder made from cereals or other starchy food sources. It is most commonly made from wheat, but also maize (now called corn in many parts of the Western Hemisphere), rye, barley, and rice, amongst many other grasses and non-grain plants (including buckwheat, grain amaranths and many Australian species of acacia). Flour is the key ingredient of bread, which is the staple food in many countries, and therefore the availability of adequate supplies of flour has often been a major economic and political issue. Flour can also be made from legumes and nuts, such as soy, peanuts, almonds, and other tree nuts. Flour is always based on the presence of starches, which are complex carbohydrates (aka polysaccharides).
Usually, the word "flour" used alone refers to wheat flour, which is one of the most important foods in European and American culture and it usually is enriched. Wheat flour is the main ingredient in most types of breads and pastries. Wheat flour was often called corn before the introduction of corn from the Western Hemisphere. Wheat is so widely used because of an important property: when wheat flour is mixed with water, a complex protein called gluten develops. The gluten development is what gives wheat dough an elastic structure that allows it to be worked in a variety of ways, and which allows the retention of gas bubbles in an intact structure, resulting in a sponge-like texture to the final product. This is highly desired for breads, cakes and other baked products. However, certain individuals suffer from an intolerance to wheat gluten known as coeliac or celiac disease. Increased awareness of this disorder, as well as a rising belief in the benefits of a gluten-free diet for persons suffering certain other conditions, has led to an increased demand for bread, pasta, and other products made with flours that do not contain gluten. A coarser, somewhat granular preparation, rather than a fine dust of flour is often called meal.
Types of Flour
18.104.22.168 Wheat Flour The vast majority of today's flour consumption is wheat flour. Wheat varieties are typically known as, variously, "white" or "brown" if they have high gluten content, and "soft" or "weak flour" if gluten content is low. Hard flour, or "bread" flour, is high in gluten and so forms a certain toughness that holds its shape well
once baked. Soft flour is comparatively low in gluten and so results in a finer texture. Soft flour is usually divided into cake flour, which is the lowest in gluten, and pastry flour, which has slightly more gluten than cake flour.
22.214.171.124 All-purpose or plain flour This flour is a blended wheat flour with an intermediate gluten level which is marketed as an acceptable compromise for most household baking needs. In terms of the parts of the grain (the grass seed) used in flour—the endosperm or starchy part, the germ or protein part, and the bran or fiber part—there are three general types of flour. White flour is made from the endosperm only. Whole grain flour is made from the entire grain including bran, endosperm, and germ. A germ flour is made from the endosperm and germ, excluding the bran.
126.96.36.199 Bleached flour This is a flour that was subjected to flour bleaching agents for health purposes, to whiten it (freshly milled flour is yellowish), and to give it more gluten-producing potential. Oxidizing agents are usually employed, most commonly organic peroxides like acetone peroxide or benzoyl peroxide, nitrogen dioxide, or chlorine. A similar effect can be achieved by letting the flour slowly oxidize with oxygen in the air ("natural aging") for approximately 10 days; this process, however is more expensive due to the time required.
188.8.131.52 Bromated flour This is flour with a maturing agent added. The agent's role is to help with developing gluten, a role similar to the flour bleaching agents. Bromate is usually used. Other choices are phosphates, ascorbic acid, and malted barley. Bromated flour has been banned in much of the world, but remains available in the United States.
184.108.40.206 Cake flour This is a finely milled flour made from soft wheat. It has very low gluten content, making it suitable for soft-textured cakes and cookies. The higher gluten content of other flours would make the cakes tough.
220.127.116.11 Graham flour This is a special type of whole-wheat flour. The endosperm is finely ground, as in white flour, while the bran and germ are coarsely ground. Graham flour is uncommon outside of the USA and the cities of Romania. It is the basis of true graham crackers. Many graham crackers on the market are actually imitation grahams because they do not contain graham flour or even whole-wheat flour.
18.104.22.168 Pastry flour / cookie flour / cracker flour This flour has slightly higher gluten content than cake flour, but lower than allpurpose flour. It is suitable for fine, light-textured pastries.
22.214.171.124 Self-rising or self-raising flour This is "white" wheat flour or wholemeal flour that is sold premixed with chemical leavening agents. It was invented by Henry Jones. It can also be substituted by Maida when cooking under the Indian Cuisine. Typical ratios are:
U.S. customary: one cup flour 1 to 1½ teaspoon baking powder a pinch to ½ teaspoon salt Metric: 100 g flour 3 g baking powder 1 g or less salt
126.96.36.199 Durum flour This flour is made of durum wheat. It has the highest protein content, and it is an important component of nearly all noodles and pastas. It is also commonly used to make Indian flatbreads. Wheat flour is highly explosive when airborne. In medieval flour mills, candles, lamps, or other sources of fire were forbidden. In Britain, many flours go by names different than those from America. Some American flours and British equivalents include:
Cake and pastry flour = soft flour All-purpose flour = plain flour Bread flour = strong flour, hard flour Self-rising flour = self-raising flour Whole-wheat flour = whole meal flour
2.3.4 Other Flours 188.8.131.52 Corn (maize) flour is popular in the Southern and Southwestern US and in Mexico. Coarse whole-grain corn flour is usually called corn meal. Corn meal that has been bleached with lye is called masa harina (see masa) and is used to make tortillas and tamales in Mexican cooking. Corn flour should never be confused with cornstarch, which is known as "corn flour" in British English.
184.108.40.206 Rye flour is used to bake the traditional sourdough breads of Germany and Scandinavia. Most rye breads use a mix of rye and wheat flours because rye has a low gluten content. Pumpernickel bread is usually made exclusively of rye, and contains a mixture of rye flour and rye meal.
220.127.116.11 Rice flour is of great importance in Southeast Asian cuisine. Also, edible rice paper can be made from it. Most rice flour is made from white rice, thus is essentially a pure starch, however whole-grain brown rice flour is commercially available.
18.104.22.168 Noodle flour is special blend of flour used for the making of Asian style noodles.
22.214.171.124 Buckwheat flour is used as an ingredient in many pancakes in the United States. In Japan, it is used to make a popular noodle called Soba. In Russia, buckwheat flour is added to the batter for pancakes called blinis which are frequently eaten with caviar.
126.96.36.199 Chestnut flour is popular in Corsica, the Périgord and Lunigiana. In Corsica, it is used to cook the local variety of polenta. In Italy, it is mainly used for desserts.
188.8.131.52 Chickpea flour (also known as gram flour or besan) is of great importance in Indian cuisine, and in Italy, where it is used for the Ligurian farinata.
184.108.40.206 Teff flour is made from the grain teff, and is of considerable importance in eastern Africa (particularly around the horn of Africa). Notably, it is the chief ingredient in the bread injera, an important component of Ethiopian cuisine.
220.127.116.11 Atta flour is wheat flour which is important in Indian cuisine, used for a range of breads such as roti and chapati.
18.104.22.168 Tang flour (not to be confused with the powdered beverage Tang) or wheat starch is a type of wheat flour used primarily in Chinese cooking for making the outer layer of dumplings and buns.
22.214.171.124 Glutinous rice flour or sticky rice flour, used in east and southeast Asian cuisines for making tangyuan etc.
126.96.36.199 Peasemeal or pea flour is flour produced from roasted and pulverized yellow field peas.
188.8.131.52 Bean flour is flour produced from pulverized dried or ripe beans.
184.108.40.206 Potato flour is obtained by grinding the tubers to a pulp and removing the fibre by water-washings. The dried product is consist chiefly of starch, but also contains some protein. Potato flour is used as a thickening agent. When heated and brought to boiling, food added with a suspension of potato flour in water thickens quickly. Because the flour is made from neither grain nor legume, it is used as substitute for wheat flour in cooking by Jews during Passover, when grains are not eaten.
220.127.116.11 Amaranth flour is flour produced from ground Amaranth grain. It was commonly used in pre-Columbian meso-American cuisine. It is becoming more and more available in specialty food shops.
18.104.22.168 Nut flours are ground from oily nuts--most commonly almonds and hazelnuts--and are used instead of or in addition to wheat flour to produce more dry and flavorful pastries and cakes. Cakes made with nut flours are usually called tortes and mostly originated from Central Europe, in countries such as Hungary and Austria. Flour can also be made from buckwheat, soy beans, arrowroot, taro, cattails, acorns, peas, beans, and other non-grain foodstuffs.
Flour type numbers
In some markets, the different available flour varieties are labeled according to the ash mass ("mineral content") that remains after a sample was incinerated in a laboratory oven (typically at 550 °C or 900 °C, see international standards ISO 2171 and ICC 104/1). This is an easy to verify indicator for the fraction of the whole grain that ended up in the flour, because the mineral content of the starchy endosperm is much lower than that of the outer parts of the grain. Flour made from all parts of the grain (extraction rate: 100%) leaves about 2 g ash or more per 100 g dry flour. Plain white flour (extraction rate: 50-60%) leaves only about 0.4 g.
22.214.171.124 German flour type numbers (Mehltype) indicate the amount of ash (measured in milligrams) obtained from 100 g of the dry mass of this flour. Standard wheat flours (defined in DIN 10355) range from type 405 for normal white wheat flour for baking, to strong bread flour types 550, 650, 812, and the darker types 1050 and 1600 for wholegrain breads.
126.96.36.199 French flour type numbers (type de farine) are a factor 10 smaller than those used in Germany, because they indicate the ash content (in milligrams) per 10 g flour. Type 55 is the standard, hard-wheat white flour for baking, including puff pastries ("pâte feuilletée"). Type 45 is often called pastry flour, but is generally from a softer wheat. Types 65, 80, and 110 are strong bread flours of increasing darkness, and type 150 is a wholemeal flour. In the United States and the United Kingdom, no numbered standardized flour types are defined, and the ash mass is only rarely given on the label by flour manufacturers. However, the legally required standard nutrition label specifies the protein content of the flour, which is also a suitable way for comparing the extraction rates of different available flour types. It is possible to find out ash content from some US manufacturers. However, US measurements are based on wheat with a 14% moisture content. Thus, a US flour with .48 ash would approximate a French Type 55. In general, as the extraction rate of the flour increases, so do both the protein and the ash content. However, as the extraction rate approaches 100% (whole meal), the protein content drops slightly, while the ash content continues to rise. The following table shows some typical examples of how protein and ash content relate to each other in wheat flour:
Table 1: This table shows the Protein and Ash Content of Flours
Ash ~0.4% ~0.55% ~0.8% ~1% >1.5%
Protein ~9% ~11% ~14% ~15% ~13%
Wheat flour type US German pastry flour 405 all-purpose flour 550 high gluten flour 812 first clear flour 1050 white whole wheat 1600
French 45 55 80 110 150
This table is only a rough guideline for converting bread recipes. Since the American flour types are not standardized, the numbers may differ between manufacturers.
Milling of flour is accomplished by grinding grain between stones or steel wheels. Today, "stone-ground" usually means that the grain has been ground in a mill in which a revolving stone wheel turns over a stationary stone wheel, vertically or horizontally with the grain in between. Many small appliance mills are available, both hand-cranked and electric. Flour dust suspended in air is explosive, as is any mixture of a finely powdered flammable substance with air. Some devastating and fatal explosions have occurred at flour mills, including an explosion in 1878 at the Washburn "A" Mill in Minneapolis, the largest flour mill in the United States at the time.
Bread, pasta crackers, many cakes, and many other foods are made using flour. Wheat flour is also used to make a roux as a base for gravy and sauces. White wheat flour is the traditional base for wallpaper paste. It is also the base for papier-mâché. Cornstarch is a principal ingredient of many puddings or desserts.
2.3.8 Flour Contamination The exteriors of harvested grains retain some of the microorganisms they had while the growing plus contamination from soil, insects, and other sources. Freshly harvested grains contain a few thousand to millions of bacteria per gram and from none to several hundred thousands mold spores. Bacteria are mostly from the families Pseudomonadaceae, Lactobacillceae, micrococcaceae and Bacillaceae. Bacteria in wheat flour include spores of Bacillus, coliform bacteria, and a few representatives of the genera Achromobacter, Flavobacterium, Sarcina, Micrococcus, Alcaligenes, and Serratia. Dry cleaning and washing of grains and the milling and sifting of flour reduced the content of microorganisms, but the important kinds still are represented in whole grain flour. White wheat flour, however, usually is bleached by an oxidizing agent, such as an oxide of nitrogen, chlorine nitrosyl chloride, or benzoyl peroxide, and this process serves to reduce microbial numbers and kinds. A moisture content of a flour of less than 13% has been reported to prevent the growth of all microorganisms. Other workers claim that 15% permits good mold growth, and over 17% the growth of all molds and bacteria.
Bread is the staple food of European, Middle Eastern and Indian cultures which is prepared by baking, steaming, or frying of dough. Bread consists minimally of flour and water; salt is present in most cases, and usually a leavening agent such as yeast is used. Bread may also contain some amounts of sugar, spices, fruit (such as raisins, pumpkin or bananas), vegetables (like onion or zucchini), nuts, or seeds (such as caraway, sesame or poppy seeds). There are a wide variety of breads, with preferences differing from region to region. Fresh bread is prized for its taste and texture, and retaining its freshness is important to keep it appetizing. Bread that has stiffened or dried past its prime is said to be stale. Modern bread is often wrapped in paper or plastic film, or stored in airtight containers such as a breadbox to keep it fresh longer. Bread that is kept in warm moist environments is prone to the growth of mold. It becomes stale more quickly in the low temperature of a refrigerator, although by keeping it cool, mold is less likely to grow. The inner soft part of bread is referred to as the crumb (not to be confused with small bits of bread, which are called "crumbs"). The outer hard part of bread is called the crust (The latter term is in common use, but "crumb" is an esoteric word used mainly by culinary professionals.).
2.4.1 Usage Bread can be served ranging anywhere from room temperature to hot. Once baked, bread can subsequently be toasted. Bread is most commonly picked up and eaten with the hands, or sometimes with a fork and knife. It can be eaten by itself or as a carrier for another, usually less compact food. Bread may be dunked or dipped into a liquid
(such as beef gravy or olive oil), topped with various spreads, both sweet and savory, or serve as the enclosure for the ubiquitous sandwich with any number of meats, cheeses, vegetables or condiments inside. Across the world, bread is the preferred vehicle for many toppings that vary from culture to culture.
2.4.2 Etymology The word itself, Old English bread, is common in various forms to many Germanic languages; such as Frisian brea, Dutch brood, German Brot, Swedish bröd, and Norwegian brød; it has been claimed to be derived from the root of brew, but more probably is connected with the root of break, for its early uses are confined to broken pieces, or bits of bread, the Latin crustum, and it was not until the 12th century that it took the place—as the generic name for bread—of hlaf (modern English loaf), which appears to be the oldest Teutonic name; Old High German hleib and modern German Laib, or Finnish leipä, Estonian leib, and Russian хлеб (khleb) are similar (all are derived from the Old Germanic word for "loaf").
2.4.3 History Bread is one of the oldest prepared foods, dating back to the Neolithic era. The first breads produced were probably cooked versions of a grain-paste, made from ground cereal grains and water, and may have been developed by accidental cooking or deliberate experimentation with water and grain flour. Descendants of these early breads are still commonly made from various grains worldwide, including the Mexican tortilla, Indian chapatis, rotis and naans, Scottish oatcake, North American johnnycake, Middle
Eastern Pita bread (Kmaj in Arabic and Pitot in Hebrew) and Ethiopian injera. The basic flat breads of this type also formed a staple in the diet of many early civilizations with the Sumerians eating a type of barley flat cake, and the 12th century BC Egyptians being able to purchase a flat bread called ta from stalls in the village streets.
2.4.4 Types Bread is a popular food in Western and most other societies, although East Asian societies typically prefer rice or noodles. It is often made from a wheat-flour dough that is cultured with yeast, allowed to rise, and finally baked in an oven. Owing to its high levels of gluten (which give the dough sponginess and elasticity), common wheat (also known as bread wheat) is the most common grain used for the preparation of bread, but bread is also made from the flour of other wheat species (including durum, spelt and emmer), rye, barley, maize (or corn), and oats, usually, but not always, in combination with wheat flour. Although common wheat is best suited for making highly-risen white bread, other wheat species are capable of giving a good crumb. Spelt bread (Dinkelbrot) continues to be widely consumed in Germany, and emmer bread was a staple food in ancient Egypt.
2.4.5 Composition and chemistry 188.8.131.52 Formulation The amount of water and flour are the most significant measurements in a bread recipe, as they affect texture and crumb the most. Professional bakers use a system of percentages known as Bakers' Percentage in their recipe formulations, and measure
ingredients by weight instead of by volume. Measurement by weight is much more accurate and consistent than measurement by volume, especially for the dry ingredients. Flour is always 100%, and the rest of the ingredients are a percent of that amount by weight. Common table bread in the U.S. uses approximately 50% water, resulting in a finely-textured, light, bread. Most artisan bread formula contain anywhere from 60 to 75% water. In yeast breads, the higher water percentages result in more CO2 bubbles, and a coarser bread crumb. One pound (500 g) of flour will yield a standard loaf of bread, or two French loaves. Calcium propionate is commonly added by commercial bakeries to retard the growth of molds.
184.108.40.206 Flour Flour is a product made from grain that has been ground into a powdery consistency. It is flour that provides the primary structure to the final baked bread. Commonly available flours are made from rye, barley, maize, and other grains, but it is wheat flour that is most commonly used for breads. Each of these grains provides the starch and protein necessary for the production of bread. The quantity and quality of the proteins contained in the flour determine the quality of the bread dough and the finished bread. While bread can be made from allpurpose wheat flour, for quality bread a specialty bread flour, containing more protein, is recommended. Wheat flour in addition to its starch, contains three water-soluble proteins groups, albumin, globulin, proteoses, and two non-water soluble proteins groups, glutenin and
gliadin. When flour is mixed with water, the water-soluble proteins dissolve, leaving the glutenin and gliadin to form the structure of the resulting dough. When worked by kneading, the glutenin forms strands of long thin chainlike molecules while the shorter gliadin forms bridges between the strands of glutenin. The resulting networks of strands produced by these two proteins is known as gluten. Gluten development improves if the dough is allowed to autolyse.
220.127.116.11 Liquids Water, or some other liquid, is used to form the flour into a paste or dough. The volume of liquid required varies between recipes, but a ratio of 1 part liquid to 3 parts flour is common for yeast breads while recipes that use steam as the primary leavening method may have a liquid content in excess of one part liquid to one part flour by volume. In addition to water, other types of liquids that may be used include dairy products, fruit juices, or beer. In addition to the water in each of these they also bring additional sweeteners, fats, and or leavening components.
18.104.22.168 Leavening Leavening is the process of adding gas to a dough before or during baking to produce a lighter, more easily chewed bread. Most bread consumed in the West is leavened. However, unleavened breads have symbolic importance in Judaism and Christianity. Jews consume unleavened bread called Matza during Passover. They are also used in the Christan liturgy when they perform the Eucharist, a rite derived from the
narrative of the Last Supper when Jesus broke bread with his disciples during a Passover Seder.
22.214.171.124.1 Chemical leavening A simple technique for leavening bread is the use of gas-producing chemicals. There are two common methods. The first is to use baking powder or a self-rising flour that includes baking powder. The second is to have an acidic ingredient such as buttermilk and add baking soda. The reaction of the acid with the soda produces gas. Chemically-leavened breads are called quick breads and soda breads. This technique is commonly used to make muffins, pancakes, American-style biscuits and sweet breads such as banana bread.
126.96.36.199.2 Yeast leavening Many breads are leavened by yeast. The yeast used for leavening bread is Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the same species used for brewing alcoholic beverages. This yeast ferments carbohydrates in the flour, including any sugar, producing carbon dioxide. Most bakers in the U.S. leaven their doughs with commercially produced baker's yeast. Baker's yeast has the advantage of producing uniform, quick, and reliable results, because it is obtained from a pure culture. Many artisan bakers produce their own yeast by preparing a 'growth culture' which they then use in the making of bread. This culture kept in the right conditions will continue to grow and provide leavening for many years Both the baker's yeast, and the sourdough method of baking bread follow the same pattern. Water is mixed with flour, salt and the leavening agent (baker's yeast or
sourdough starter). Other additions (spices, herbs, fats, seeds, fruit, etc.) are not necessary to bake bread, but often used. The mixed dough is then allowed to rise one or more times (a longer rising time results in more flavor, so bakers often punch down the dough and let it rise again), then loaves are formed and (after an optional final rising time) the bread is baked in an oven. Many breads are made from a straight dough, which means that all of the ingredients are combined in one step, and the dough is baked after the rising time. Alternatively, doughs can be made with the starter method, when some of the flour, water, and the leavening are combined a day or so ahead of baking, and allowed to ferment overnight (such as the poolish typically used for baguettes). On the day of the baking, the rest of the ingredients are added, and the rest of the process is the same as that for straight doughs. This produces a more flavorful bread with better texture. Many bakers see the starter method as a compromise between the highly reliable results of baker's yeast, and the flavor/complexity of a longer fermentation. It also allows the baker to use only a minimal amount of baker's yeast, which was scarce and expensive when it first became available.
188.8.131.52.3 Sourdough The sour taste of sourdoughs actually comes not from the yeast, but from a lactobacillus, with which the yeast lives in symbiosis. The lactobacillus feeds on the byproducts of the yeast fermentation, and in turn makes the culture go sour by excreting lactic acid, which protects it from spoiling (since most microbes are unable to survive in an acid environment). All yeast-leavened breads used to be sourdoughs, and the leavening
process was not understood until the 19th century, when with the advance of microscopes, scientists were able to discover the microbes that make the dough rise. Since then, strains of yeast have been selected and cultured mainly for reliability and quickness of fermentation. Billions of cells of these strains are then packaged and marketed as "Baker's Yeast". Bread made with baker's yeast is not sour because of the absence of the lactobacillus. Bakers around the world quickly embraced baker's yeast for it made baking simple and so allowed for more flexibility in the bakery's operations. It made baking quick as well, allowing bakeries to make fresh bread from scratch as often as three times a day. While European bakeries kept producing sourdough breads, in the U.S., sourdough baking was widely replaced by baker's yeast, and only recently has that country (or parts of it, at least) seen the rebirth of sour-vinegar dough in artisan bakeries. According to Alton Brown, host of Food Network's "Good Eats" television show, each region of the world has different strains of lactobacillus, hence the flavor of the bread made from home starters is unique. The San Francisco Bay area is especially famous for its sourdough breads. Sourdough breads are most often made with a sourdough starter (not to be confused with the starter method discussed above). A sourdough starter is a culture of yeast and lactobacillus. It is essentially a dough-like or pancake-like flour/water mixture in which the yeast and lactobacilli live. A starter can be maintained indefinitely by periodically discarding a part of it and refreshing it by adding fresh flour and water. (When refrigerated, a starter can go weeks without needing to be fed.) There are starters owned by bakeries and families that are several human generations old, much revered for creating a special taste or texture. Starters can be obtained by taking a piece of another
starter and growing it, or they can be made from scratch. There are hobbyist groups on the web who will send their starter for a stamped, self-addressed envelope, and there are even mailorder companies that sell different starters from all over the world. An acquired starter has the advantage to be more proven and established (stable and reliable, resisting spoiling and behaving predictably) than from-scratch starters. There are other ways of sourdough baking and culture maintenance. A more traditional one is the process that was followed by peasant families throughout Europe in past centuries. The family (usually the woman was in charge of breadmaking) would bake on a fixed schedule, perhaps once a week. The starter was saved from the previous week's dough. The starter was mixed with the new ingredients, the dough was left to rise, then a piece of it was saved (to be the starter for next week's bread). The rest was formed into loaves which were marked with the family sign (this is where today's decorative slashing of bread loaves originates from), and taken to the communal oven to bake. These communal ovens over time evolved into what we know today as bakeries, when certain people specialized in bread baking, and with time enhanced the process so far as to be able to mass produce cheap bread for everyone in the village.
184.108.40.206.4 Steam leavening The rapid expansion of steam produced during baking leavens the bread, which is as simple as it is unpredictable. The best known steam-leavened bread is the popover. Steam-leavening is unpredictable since the steam is not produced until the bread is baked. Steam leavening happens regardless of the rising agents (soda powder, yeast, baking-powder, sour dough, egg snow.).
These rising agent generate carbon dioxide - or already contains air bubbles. The heat vaporises the water from the inner surface of the bubbles within the dough. The steam expands and makes the bread rise. It is actually the main factor in the rise of bread once it has been put in the oven. CO2 generation, on its own, is too small to account for the rise. Heat kills bacteria or yeast at an early stage, so the CO2 generation is stopped.
220.127.116.11.5 Bacterial leavening Salt-risen bread employs a form of bacterial leavening that does not require yeast. Although the leavening action is not always consistent, and requires close attention to the incubating conditions, this bread is making a comeback due to its unique cheese-like flavor and fine texture.
18.104.22.168.6 Aeration Aerated bread is leavened by carbon dioxide being forced into dough under pressure. The technique is no longer in common use, but from the mid 19th to 20th centuries bread made this way was somewhat popular in the United Kingdom, made by the Aerated Bread Company and sold in its high-street tea rooms.
22.214.171.124 Fats or shortenings Fats such as butter, vegetable oils, lard, or that contained in eggs affects the development of gluten in breads by coating and lubricating the individual strands of
protein and also helping hold the structure together. If too much fat is included in a bread dough, the lubrication effect will cause the protein structures to divide. A fat content of approximately 3% by weight is the concentration that will produce the greatest leavening action. This effect is used most popularly in cookies, in that increased fat - typically shortening - causes a harder cookie (more popular in cookies such as chocolate chip) while increased flour causes a softer cookie (more popular in cookies such as oatmeal). As it is typically not acceptable to have harder bread, this effect is usually not available for use in breads. In addition to their effects on leavening, fats also serve to tenderize the breads they are used in and also help to keep the bread fresh longer after baking.
126.96.36.199 Bread Improvers Bread improver is commonly used in production of bread to speed up the time that the bread takes to rise and it helps improve the texture and the volume of bread.
2.5 Muffin 2.5.1 Definition A muffin is a small cake, resembling a cupcake: they have cylindrical bases, rounded conical tops, and are usually sweet, although savory varieties (such as cornbread muffins) also exist. They generally fit in the palm of an adult hand, and are intended to be consumed by an individual in a single sitting. A muffin can also mean a different baked good, the smaller, disk-shaped English muffin, although this usage is uncommon outside
Britain. As American style muffins are now sold in the UK, the term can refer to either product, the context usually making clear which is meant. There are many varieties and flavors of muffins made with a specific ingredient such as blueberries or chocolate chips. These ingredients are then baked into the muffin.
2.5.2 Early History The "quick" muffins may have started out as a form of small cake, or possibly an adaptation of cornbread. Early versions of these muffins tend to be less sweet and much less varied in ingredients than their contemporary forms. Made quickly and easily, they were useful as a breakfast food. They also rapidly grew stale, which prevented them from being a marketable baked good, and they were not seen much outside home kitchens until the mid-20th century. Recipes tended to be limited to different grains (corn, wheat bran, or oatmeal) and a few readily available additives (raisins, apples in some form, or nuts). Fannie Merritt Farmer listed 15 recipes of this type in her Boston Cooking-School Cook Book of 1896, of which there were two each of "one-egg", "berry", oat, graham flour, and rye; one with cornmeal, one with cooked rice, and the remaining three slightly enriched versions of the plain "one-egg" muffin. Farmer used the term gem for her corn recipe, which was a muffin baked in a pan of lozenge shapes rather than circular cups. With the invention of circular muffin paper cups, hard-to-clean iron gem pans lost popularity, and are rarely used today, although corn muffins baked in the form of ears of corn remain a tradition. The development of non-stick pans has allowed the production of very elaborate muffin shapes (animals, holiday motifs, etc.), but the circular muffin remains the norm.
In the 1950s, packaged muffin mixes were introduced by several companies, most noticeably Spacey's (American) and Cadbury (British). By the 1960s, attempts were being made to treat the muffin like the doughnut as a franchise food business opportunity. Coffee shop-style restaurant chains appeared, featuring a wide variety of muffins. These tended to be regional, such as The Pewter Pot in southern New England. No such business has emerged nationally in the US (although doughnut chains have edged into the business), but Australia's Muffin Break has spread to New Zealand and the UK, featuring the American-style muffin.
2.5.3 Modern History A somewhat odd combination of circumstances in the 1970s and 1980s led to significant changes in what had been a rather simple, if not prosaic, food. The decline in home-baking, the health food movement, the rise of the specialty food shop, and the gourmet coffee trend all contributed to the creation of a new standard of muffin. Preservatives in muffin mixes led to the expectation that muffins did not have to go stale within hours of baking, but the resulting muffins were not a taste improvement over homemade. On the other hand, the baked muffin, even if from a mix, seemed almost good for one compared to the fat-laden alternatives of doughnuts and Danish pastry. "Healthful" muffin recipes using whole grains and such "natural" things as yogurt and various vegetables evolved rapidly. But for "healthful" muffins to have any shelf-life without artificial preservatives, the sugar and fat content needed to be increased, to the point where the "muffins" are almost indistinguishable from cupcakes. The rising market
for gourmet snacks to accompany gourmet coffees resulted in fancier concoctions in greater bulk than the original modestly-sized corn muffin. The marketing trend toward larger portion sizes also resulted in new muffin pan types for home-baking, not only for increased size. Since the area ratio of muffin top to muffin bottom changed considerably when the traditional small round exploded into a giant mushroom, consumers became more aware of the difference between the soft texture of tops, allowed to rise unfettered, and rougher, tougher bottoms, restricted by the pans. There was a brief foray into pans that could produce "all-top" muffins, i.e., extremely shallow, large-diameter cups. However, the reality of muffin physics prevented the fad from getting very far. The TV sitcom Seinfeld made reference to this in an episode in which the character Elaine Benes co-owns a bakery named "Top o' the Muffin to You!" that sold only the muffin tops (see The Muffin Tops (Seinfeld episode)). Along with the increasing size of muffins is a contrary trend of extremely small muffins. It is now very common to see muffin pans or premade muffins that are only one or two inches in diameter. Companies like Trader Joe's and Lite Bites are among the industry leaders in mini-muffin production.
2.5.4 Types of muffins 188.8.131.52 English Muffin The traditional English muffin is very different from the American variety. The English muffin is yeast leavened and predates the baking powder leavened muffins. This produces a type of muffin with a thick, fluffy pastry and is usually baked as a disk typically about 8 cm in diameter. It is usually split into two, toasted and buttered, and
bears a vague resemblance to a crumpet or pikelet. It also is eaten cold with a hot drink at coffee shops and diners. Fannie Farmer in her Cook Book gave recipes for both types of muffins, distinguishing between "raised" and adding instructions for a version that is nearly identical to today's "English muffin". Here the raised-muffin mixture was cooked in muffin rings on a griddle, and flipped to brown both sides, producing a grilled muffin. Farmer indicated this was a useful method when baking in an oven was not practical.
184.108.40.206 Corn Muffin Muffins made from cornmeal are popular in the United States. Similar to cornbread, they can be eaten with butter or as a side dish with stews or chili.
2.5.5 Muffin paper cups Muffin paper cups are round sheets of paper, foil or metal, with scallop-pressed edges, giving the muffin a round cup shape. Their shape can be compared to that of a disposable coffee filter. Muffin paper cups are used to line the bottoms of muffin pans, used in the baking of muffins to facilitate the easy removal of the finished pastry from the muffin tin. The advantage of cooking muffin cup is easier removal and cleanup, and moister muffins; however, using them will prevent a crust. Organic variations of the muffin cup are sold at Whole Foods.
Health Benefits and Concerns 2.6.1 Aid in Reducing the Risk of Certain Disease 220.127.116.11 Asthma Vitamin C, present in fruits and vegetables, is a powerful antioxidant and
inflammatory. This anti-inflammatory activity may influence the development of asthma symptoms. A large preliminary study has shown that young children with asthma experience significantly less wheezing if they eat a diet high in fruits rich in vitamin C.
18.104.22.168 Atherosclerosis Diets high in insoluble fiber (found in some vegetables) are associated with protection against heart disease in both men and women.
22.214.171.124 Athletic Performance Carbohydrate food is the most efficient fuel for energy production and can also be stored as glycogen in muscle and liver, functioning as a readily available energy source for prolonged, strenuous exercise. For this reasons, carbohydrate maybe the most important nutrient for sports performance. Depending on training intensity and duration. Athletes require up to 4.5 grams of carbohydrates per day per pound of body weight or 60-70 % of total dietary calories from carbohydrates, which ever is greater. Including starchy vegetables in the diet is one good way to obtain these carbohydrates.
126.96.36.199 Bruising Many Americans eat insufficient amounts of foods containing vitamin C; the disease caused by vitamin C deficiency, scurvy, causes easy bruising. While very few people actually have scurvy, even minor deficiencies of vitamin C an increase the incidence in bruising. People who experience easy bruising may want to try eating more fruits and vegetables-common dietary sources in vitamin C.
188.8.131.52 Cancer The strong association between increased intake of beta-carotene from food and a reduce risk of lung cancer does not necessarily mean that supplementation with natural beta-carotene supplements would reduce the risk of lung cancer. Dietary beta-carotene maybe a marker for diets high in certain fruits and vegetables that contain other anticancer substances that maybe responsible for the protective effects. Until more is known, some doctors advice smokers to avoid all forms of beta-carotene supplementation-even natural beta-carotene.
184.108.40.206 Capillary Fragility Eating plenty of flavonoid and vitamin C-rich fruits and vegetables helps to support the structure of capillaries.
220.127.116.11 Cataracts Some, but not all, studies have reported that eating more foods rich in betacarotene or vitamin A was associated with a lower risk of cataracts. Synthetic beta-
carotene supplementation has not even found to reduce the risk of cataract formation. It remains unclear whether natural beta-carotene from food or supplements would protect the eye or whether beta-carotene in food is merely a marker for other protective factors in fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene.
18.104.22.168 High Homocysteine A controlled trial showed that eating a diet high in fruits and vegetables containing folic acid, beta-carotene and vitamin C effectively lowered homocysteine levels. Healthy people were assigned to either a diet containing a pound of fruits and vegetables per day, or to a diet containing 3 ½ ounces (99 grams) of fruits and vegetables per day. After 4 weeks, those eating the higher amount of fruits and vegetables had a 11% lower homocysteine level compared to those eating the lower amount of fruits and vegetables.
22.214.171.124 Macular Degeneration People who eat plenty of fruits and vegetables high in beta-carotene appear to be at lower risk for muscular degeneration than people who do not eat these foods. However, another study found no association between age-related muscular degeneration and intake of anti-oxidants, either from diet, from supplements, or from combined. More research is needed to reconcile these differences. In the mean time, beta-carotene-rich vegetables continue to be part of healthful diet.
126.96.36.199 Night Blindness Low intake of fruits and vegetables containing beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A, may contribute to a vitamin A deficiency.
2.7 Studies Conducted Previously
Table 2: This table shows the studies conducted previously in sweet potato.
Author Agdeppa, Dr. Imelda Angeles
Results Vital for muscle contraction, nerve impulses and proper functioning of heart and kidneys; and helps regulate blood pressure and water balance in cells. Lack of potassium causes muscular weakness, increase in nervous irritability, mental disorientation, and cardiac irregularities. Excessive intake causes heart block. Good sources are dried beans, dark green and leafy vegetables, fish, shellfish, marine products, eggs,
Gayya, Cynthia T
and dairy products. Dietary fibers are provided in the human diet by eating fruits, vegetables, grain products, legumes, nuts and a variety of sources, usually from plant products. Therefore, selecting fresh fruits, vegetables and other high-fiber foods such as oatmeal, would represent both an economic and nutritious means of adding bulk to your diet. Although there is no recommended dietary allowance set for adequacy of intake of dietary fibers, an intake of 55-60% carbohydrate of total kilocalorie will suffice for the needed amount of fibers in the body.
2.8 Functional Properties of Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Flour
Table 3: This table shows the functional properties of sweet potato
Chemical Composition per 100 g of Sweet Potato Calories Moisture Protein Fat Total CHO Fiber Ash Calcium Phosphorus Riboflavin Niacin 400 10 – 20 % 35.10 g 17.70 g 32.00 g 4.20 g 5g 226 mg 546 mg 8.50 mg 2.50 mg
*Acceptability studies of drop cookies prepared from composite flour (consisting of soya & sweet potato) Galaro, Lolita C.; Gaspar, Ma. Thelma; and Mitra, Nelodina (Oct 1993)
Table 4: This table shows the functional properties of sweet potato flour
*Properties Starch Sugar Protein Fiber Fat Ash Total
*Philippine Journal of Food Science and Technology Volume 21., No. 2 July – December, 1999
% 71.7 11.3 3.9 10.3 0.6 1.89 99.69
L. S. Collado & H. Corke
2.9 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Gathering information and data.
Procedure for flour
Rich source of vitamins, minerals and fiber bread
Procedure for bread making Selection and Preparation of raw materials and equipment
Quality, safe and nutritious Sweet Potato bread
Stability and Sensory test Available and cheap bread product
Figure 1: This figure shows the Conceptual Framework of the Utilization of Sweet Potato “Ipomoea batatas” Flour in Bread Making
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