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ENG5001/ENG6001 Advanced Engineering Data Analysis

Tutorial 07 Problem Set


Week 7: Tue 21 April 2015

1. A leakage test was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seal designed to keep the
inside of a plug airtight. An air needle was inserted into the plug, which was then placed
underwater. Next, the pressure was increased until leakage was observed. The magnitude
of this pressure in psi was recorded for 10 trials:
3.1 3.5 3.3 3.7 4.5 4.2 2.8 3.9 3.5 3.3
Find the sample mean and sample standard deviation for these 10 measurements.
2. Ledolter and Hogg report that a manufacturer of metal alloys is concerned about customer
complaints regarding the lack of uniformity in the melting points of one of the films alloy
filaments. Fifty filaments are selected and their melting points determined. The following
results were obtained:
320
320
318
308
313

326
320
313
305
320

325
317
327
328
324

318
329
314
330
311

322
316
329
322
317

320
308
323
310
325

329
321
327
324
328

317
319
323
314
319

316
322
324
312
310

331
335
314
318
324

(a) Construct a frequency table, and display the histogram, of the data.
(b) Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation.
(c) Locate x, x s on your histogram. How many observations lie within one standard
deviation of the mean? How many lie within two standard deviations of the mean?
(d) Find the five-number summary for these melting points.
(e) Construct a box-and-whisker diagram.
(f) Describe the symmetry of the data.
3. A small part for an automobile rearview mirror was produced on two different punch
presses. In order to describe the distribution of the weights of those parts, a random
sample was selected, and each piece was weighed in grams, resulting in the following data
set:
3.968
3.669
3.645
3.799
3.621
3.977
3.681
3.700

3.534
3.705
3.977
4.010
3.575
3.961
3.861
4.008

4.032
4.023
3.888
3.704
3.714
3.948
3.662
3.627

3.912
3.588
3.948
3.642
4.017
3.994
3.995
3.970

3.572
3.945
3.551
3.681
4.082
3.958
4.010
3.647

4.014
3.871
3.796
3.554
3.660
3.860
3.999
3.847

3.682
3.744
3.657
4.025
3.692
3.965
3.993
3.628

3.608
3.711
3.667
4.079
3.905
3.592
4.004
3.646

Tutorial 07
3.674
3.672
3.645
3.511
4.028
3.997
3.680
3.910
3.721
3.658

3.601
3.898
3.643
3.539
3.665
3.936
3.888
3.672
3.927
4.034

4.029
3.959
3.898
3.830
3.681
3.976
3.921
3.957
3.621
3.778

3.603
3.607
3.635
3.925
3.984
3.627
3.953
3.961
4.038

3.619
3.707
3.865
3.971
3.664
3.536
3.847
3.950
4.047

4.009
3.978
3.631
3.646
3.893
3.695
3.645
3.904
3.627

4.015
3.656
3.929
3.669
3.606
3.981
4.042
3.928
3.774

3.615
4.027
3.635
3.931
3.699
3.587
3.692
3.984
3.983

(a) Using about 10 (say, 8 to 12) classes, construct a frequency distribution of the data.
(b) Draw a histogram of the data.
(c) Describe the shape of the distribution represented by the histogram.
4. In the casino game roulette, if a player bets $1 on red (or on black or on odd or on even),
the probability of winning $1 is 18/38 and the probability of losing $1 is 20/38. Suppose
that a player begins with $5 and makes successive $1 bets. Let Y equal the players
maximum capital before losing the $5. One hundred observations of Y were simulated on
a computer, yielding the following data:
25 9 5 5 5 9 6 5 15 45
55 6 5 6 24 21 16 5 8 7
7 5 5 35 13 9 5 18 6 10
19 16 21 8 13 5 9 10 10 6
23 8 5 10 15 7 5 5 24 9
11 34 12 11 17 11 16 5 15 5
12 6 5 5 7 6 17 20 7 8
8 6 10 11 6 7 5 12 11 18
6 21 6 5 24 7 16 21 23 15
11 8 6 8 14 11 6 9 6 10
(a) Find the five-number summary of the data and draw a box-and-whisker diagram.
(b) Calculate the IQR and the locations of the inner and outer fences.
(c) Draw a box plot that shows the fences, suspected outliers, and outliers.
(d) Find the 90th sample percentile.
5. A random sample X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn of size n is taken from N (, 2 ), where the variance
= 2 is such that 0 < < and is a known real number. Show that the maximum
n
1X
(Xi )2 and that this estimator is an unbiased
likelihood estimator for is =
n i=1
estimator of .
6. Find the maximum likelihood estimates for 1 = and 2 = 2 if a random sample of
size 15 from N (, 2 ) yielded the following values:

ENG5001/ENG6001 Advanced Engineering Data Analysis

31.5 36.9 33.8 30.1 33.9


35.2 29.6 34.4 30.5 34.2
31.6 36.7 35.8 34.5 32.7
7. Let f (x; ) = (1/)x(1)/ , 0 < x < 1, 0 < < .
(a) Show that the maximum likelihood estimator of is = (1/n)

n
X

ln Xi .

i=1

= and thus that is an unbiased estimator of .


(b) Show that E[]
8. Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn be a random sample of size n from a geometric distribution for which
p is the probability of success.
(a) Use the method of moments to find a point estimate for p.
(b) Explain intuitively why your estimate makes good sense.
(c) Use the following data to give a point estimate of p:
3 34 7 4 19 2 1 19 43 2
22 4 19 11 7 1 2 21 15 16
9. Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn be a random sample from Binomial(1, p) (i.e., n Bernoulli trials).
n
X
Thus, Y =
Xi is Binomial(n, p).
i=1

= Y /n is an unbiased estimator of p.
(a) Show that X
= p(1 p)/n.
(b) Show that var(X)
X)/n]

(c) Show that E[X(1


= (n 1)p(1 p)/n2 .

is an unbiased estimator of var(X)


= p(1p)/n.
(d) Find the value of c so that cX(1
X)
10. Given the following 25 observations from a gamma distribution with mean = and
variance 2 = 2 , use the method-of-moments estimators to find point estimates of
and :
6.9 7.3 6.7 6.4 6.3 5.9 7.0 7.1 6.5 7.6 7.2 7.1 6.1
7.3 7.6 7.6 6.7 6.3 5.7 6.7 7.5 5.3 5.4 7.4 6.9
11. An urn contains 64 balls, of which N1 are orange and N2 are blue. A random sample of
n = 8 balls is selected from the urn without replacement, and X is equal to the number
of orange balls in the sample. This experiment was repeated 30 times (the 8 balls being
returned to the urn before each repetition), yielding the following data:
3 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 0 1 3 1
0 1 0 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 3 1 1 2
Using these data, guess the value of Nl and give a reason for your guess.

Tutorial 07
12. A random sample of size 8 from N (, 72) yielded x = 85. Find the following confidence
intervals for :
(a) 99%. (b) 95%. (c) 90%. (d) 80%.
13. Let X equal the weight in grams of a 52-gram snack pack of candies. Assume that the
distribution of X is N (, 4). A random sample of n = 10 observations of X yielded the
following data:
55.95 56.54 57.58 55.13 57.48
56.06 59.93 58.30 52.57 58.46
(a) Give a point estimate for .
(b) Find the endpoints for a 95% confidence interval for .
(c) On the basis of these very limited data, what is the probability that an individual
snack pack selected at random is filled with less than 52 grams of candy?
14. To determine whether the bacteria count was lower in the west basin of Lake Macatawa
than in the east basin, n = 37 samples of water were taken from the west basin and
the number of bacteria colonies in 100 milliliters of water was counted. The sample
characteristics were x = 11.95 and s = 11.80, measured in hundreds of colonies. Find the
approximate 95% confidence interval for the mean number of colonies (say, W ) in 100
milliliters of water in the west basin.
15. Assume that the yield per acre for a particular variety of soybeans is N (, 2 ). For a
random sample of n = 5 plots, the yields in bushels per acre were 37.4, 48.8, 46.9, 55.0
and 44.0.
(a) Give a point estimate for .

[2]

(b) Find a 90% confidence interval for .

[4]

16. A leakage test was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seal designed to keep the
inside of a plug airtight. An air needle was inserted into the plug and the plug and needle
were placed under water. The pressure was then increased until leakage was observed.
Let X equal the pressure in pounds per square inch. Assume that the distribution of X
is N (, 2 ). The following n = 10 observations of X were obtained:
3.1

3.3

4.5

2.8

3.5

3.5

3.7

4.2 3.9

3.3

Use the observations to


(a) Find a point estimate of .
(b) Find a point estimate of .
(c) Find a 95% one-sided confidence interval for that provides an upper bound for .
17. Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn be a random sample of size n from the normal distribution N (, 2 ).
Calculate the expected length of a 95% confidence interval for , assuming that n = 5
and the variance is

ENG5001/ENG6001 Advanced Engineering Data Analysis

(a) known
(b) unknown
p
Hint: To find E[S], first determine E[ (n 1)S 2 / 2 ], recalling that (n 1)S 2 / 2 is
2 (n 1).
18. A manufacturer of soap powder packages the soap in 6-pound boxes. To check the filling
machine, a sample of n = 1219 boxes was weighed. Assuming that x = 6.05 pounds and
s = 0.02 pounds, give the endpoints for a 99% confidence interval for , the mean weight
of the boxes of soap filled by this machine.
19. Let X equal the weight of an unbreaded $2.00 fried fish at a local restaurant in East
Greenbush, New York. Assume that the distribution of X is N (, 2 ). A random sample
of n = 24 weights (in ounces) was
4.4
3.9
5.2

3.8
4.2
4.8

5.1
4.4
4.4

4.6
4.9
4.6

4.5
5.0
4.6

4.5
4.3
5.0

4.8
4.4
4.0

4.1
3.6
4.5

(a) Find point estimates of , 2 and .


(b) Find a 95% one-sided confidence interval for that gives a lower bound for .
(c) Does the assumption that these weights are normal seem to be justified? Why?