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Week 7: Tue 21 April 2015

1. A leakage test was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seal designed to keep the

inside of a plug airtight. An air needle was inserted into the plug, which was then placed

underwater. Next, the pressure was increased until leakage was observed. The magnitude

of this pressure in psi was recorded for 10 trials:

3.1 3.5 3.3 3.7 4.5 4.2 2.8 3.9 3.5 3.3

Find the sample mean and sample standard deviation for these 10 measurements.

2. Ledolter and Hogg report that a manufacturer of metal alloys is concerned about customer

complaints regarding the lack of uniformity in the melting points of one of the films alloy

filaments. Fifty filaments are selected and their melting points determined. The following

results were obtained:

320

320

318

308

313

326

320

313

305

320

325

317

327

328

324

318

329

314

330

311

322

316

329

322

317

320

308

323

310

325

329

321

327

324

328

317

319

323

314

319

316

322

324

312

310

331

335

314

318

324

(a) Construct a frequency table, and display the histogram, of the data.

(b) Calculate the sample mean and sample standard deviation.

(c) Locate x, x s on your histogram. How many observations lie within one standard

deviation of the mean? How many lie within two standard deviations of the mean?

(d) Find the five-number summary for these melting points.

(e) Construct a box-and-whisker diagram.

(f) Describe the symmetry of the data.

3. A small part for an automobile rearview mirror was produced on two different punch

presses. In order to describe the distribution of the weights of those parts, a random

sample was selected, and each piece was weighed in grams, resulting in the following data

set:

3.968

3.669

3.645

3.799

3.621

3.977

3.681

3.700

3.534

3.705

3.977

4.010

3.575

3.961

3.861

4.008

4.032

4.023

3.888

3.704

3.714

3.948

3.662

3.627

3.912

3.588

3.948

3.642

4.017

3.994

3.995

3.970

3.572

3.945

3.551

3.681

4.082

3.958

4.010

3.647

4.014

3.871

3.796

3.554

3.660

3.860

3.999

3.847

3.682

3.744

3.657

4.025

3.692

3.965

3.993

3.628

3.608

3.711

3.667

4.079

3.905

3.592

4.004

3.646

Tutorial 07

3.674

3.672

3.645

3.511

4.028

3.997

3.680

3.910

3.721

3.658

3.601

3.898

3.643

3.539

3.665

3.936

3.888

3.672

3.927

4.034

4.029

3.959

3.898

3.830

3.681

3.976

3.921

3.957

3.621

3.778

3.603

3.607

3.635

3.925

3.984

3.627

3.953

3.961

4.038

3.619

3.707

3.865

3.971

3.664

3.536

3.847

3.950

4.047

4.009

3.978

3.631

3.646

3.893

3.695

3.645

3.904

3.627

4.015

3.656

3.929

3.669

3.606

3.981

4.042

3.928

3.774

3.615

4.027

3.635

3.931

3.699

3.587

3.692

3.984

3.983

(a) Using about 10 (say, 8 to 12) classes, construct a frequency distribution of the data.

(b) Draw a histogram of the data.

(c) Describe the shape of the distribution represented by the histogram.

4. In the casino game roulette, if a player bets $1 on red (or on black or on odd or on even),

the probability of winning $1 is 18/38 and the probability of losing $1 is 20/38. Suppose

that a player begins with $5 and makes successive $1 bets. Let Y equal the players

maximum capital before losing the $5. One hundred observations of Y were simulated on

a computer, yielding the following data:

25 9 5 5 5 9 6 5 15 45

55 6 5 6 24 21 16 5 8 7

7 5 5 35 13 9 5 18 6 10

19 16 21 8 13 5 9 10 10 6

23 8 5 10 15 7 5 5 24 9

11 34 12 11 17 11 16 5 15 5

12 6 5 5 7 6 17 20 7 8

8 6 10 11 6 7 5 12 11 18

6 21 6 5 24 7 16 21 23 15

11 8 6 8 14 11 6 9 6 10

(a) Find the five-number summary of the data and draw a box-and-whisker diagram.

(b) Calculate the IQR and the locations of the inner and outer fences.

(c) Draw a box plot that shows the fences, suspected outliers, and outliers.

(d) Find the 90th sample percentile.

5. A random sample X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn of size n is taken from N (, 2 ), where the variance

= 2 is such that 0 < < and is a known real number. Show that the maximum

n

1X

(Xi )2 and that this estimator is an unbiased

likelihood estimator for is =

n i=1

estimator of .

6. Find the maximum likelihood estimates for 1 = and 2 = 2 if a random sample of

size 15 from N (, 2 ) yielded the following values:

35.2 29.6 34.4 30.5 34.2

31.6 36.7 35.8 34.5 32.7

7. Let f (x; ) = (1/)x(1)/ , 0 < x < 1, 0 < < .

(a) Show that the maximum likelihood estimator of is = (1/n)

n

X

ln Xi .

i=1

(b) Show that E[]

8. Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn be a random sample of size n from a geometric distribution for which

p is the probability of success.

(a) Use the method of moments to find a point estimate for p.

(b) Explain intuitively why your estimate makes good sense.

(c) Use the following data to give a point estimate of p:

3 34 7 4 19 2 1 19 43 2

22 4 19 11 7 1 2 21 15 16

9. Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn be a random sample from Binomial(1, p) (i.e., n Bernoulli trials).

n

X

Thus, Y =

Xi is Binomial(n, p).

i=1

= Y /n is an unbiased estimator of p.

(a) Show that X

= p(1 p)/n.

(b) Show that var(X)

X)/n]

= (n 1)p(1 p)/n2 .

= p(1p)/n.

(d) Find the value of c so that cX(1

X)

10. Given the following 25 observations from a gamma distribution with mean = and

variance 2 = 2 , use the method-of-moments estimators to find point estimates of

and :

6.9 7.3 6.7 6.4 6.3 5.9 7.0 7.1 6.5 7.6 7.2 7.1 6.1

7.3 7.6 7.6 6.7 6.3 5.7 6.7 7.5 5.3 5.4 7.4 6.9

11. An urn contains 64 balls, of which N1 are orange and N2 are blue. A random sample of

n = 8 balls is selected from the urn without replacement, and X is equal to the number

of orange balls in the sample. This experiment was repeated 30 times (the 8 balls being

returned to the urn before each repetition), yielding the following data:

3 0 0 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 2 0 1 3 1

0 1 0 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 4 3 1 1 2

Using these data, guess the value of Nl and give a reason for your guess.

Tutorial 07

12. A random sample of size 8 from N (, 72) yielded x = 85. Find the following confidence

intervals for :

(a) 99%. (b) 95%. (c) 90%. (d) 80%.

13. Let X equal the weight in grams of a 52-gram snack pack of candies. Assume that the

distribution of X is N (, 4). A random sample of n = 10 observations of X yielded the

following data:

55.95 56.54 57.58 55.13 57.48

56.06 59.93 58.30 52.57 58.46

(a) Give a point estimate for .

(b) Find the endpoints for a 95% confidence interval for .

(c) On the basis of these very limited data, what is the probability that an individual

snack pack selected at random is filled with less than 52 grams of candy?

14. To determine whether the bacteria count was lower in the west basin of Lake Macatawa

than in the east basin, n = 37 samples of water were taken from the west basin and

the number of bacteria colonies in 100 milliliters of water was counted. The sample

characteristics were x = 11.95 and s = 11.80, measured in hundreds of colonies. Find the

approximate 95% confidence interval for the mean number of colonies (say, W ) in 100

milliliters of water in the west basin.

15. Assume that the yield per acre for a particular variety of soybeans is N (, 2 ). For a

random sample of n = 5 plots, the yields in bushels per acre were 37.4, 48.8, 46.9, 55.0

and 44.0.

(a) Give a point estimate for .

[2]

[4]

16. A leakage test was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seal designed to keep the

inside of a plug airtight. An air needle was inserted into the plug and the plug and needle

were placed under water. The pressure was then increased until leakage was observed.

Let X equal the pressure in pounds per square inch. Assume that the distribution of X

is N (, 2 ). The following n = 10 observations of X were obtained:

3.1

3.3

4.5

2.8

3.5

3.5

3.7

4.2 3.9

3.3

(a) Find a point estimate of .

(b) Find a point estimate of .

(c) Find a 95% one-sided confidence interval for that provides an upper bound for .

17. Let X1 , X2 , . . . , Xn be a random sample of size n from the normal distribution N (, 2 ).

Calculate the expected length of a 95% confidence interval for , assuming that n = 5

and the variance is

(a) known

(b) unknown

p

Hint: To find E[S], first determine E[ (n 1)S 2 / 2 ], recalling that (n 1)S 2 / 2 is

2 (n 1).

18. A manufacturer of soap powder packages the soap in 6-pound boxes. To check the filling

machine, a sample of n = 1219 boxes was weighed. Assuming that x = 6.05 pounds and

s = 0.02 pounds, give the endpoints for a 99% confidence interval for , the mean weight

of the boxes of soap filled by this machine.

19. Let X equal the weight of an unbreaded $2.00 fried fish at a local restaurant in East

Greenbush, New York. Assume that the distribution of X is N (, 2 ). A random sample

of n = 24 weights (in ounces) was

4.4

3.9

5.2

3.8

4.2

4.8

5.1

4.4

4.4

4.6

4.9

4.6

4.5

5.0

4.6

4.5

4.3

5.0

4.8

4.4

4.0

4.1

3.6

4.5

(b) Find a 95% one-sided confidence interval for that gives a lower bound for .

(c) Does the assumption that these weights are normal seem to be justified? Why?

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