reference report on Highrise Building

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reference report on Highrise Building

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 42

1.

Introduction

2.

3.

Wind Analysis

4.

Earthquake Analysis

5.

Element Design

6.

Reference

Page-1

1.0 Introduction

It is decided to design a forty storied building for the use of ABC bank at Colombo 7. Whole

building is to be used as Bank head quarts and rent some space to be used as office.

Designed will be done as a part of the course work of Pg Dip /MEng (Structural Design )

program.

Key features of the building

1- 40 storied building

2- 8 floors to be used as car park

3- Lift system is designed as Hard Zoning

4- Building length 48m

5- Building width 36m

6- Super structure will be reinforced concrete and sub structure will be pile foundation.

Following designs will be considered in this Report.

Page-2

1.1

8m

Therefore no of columns

6m

Therefore no of columns

48/8+1

36/6+1

(hb) 6000/14+25

450mm

6000/44+25

160 mm

300 mm

2.5 m

2.5+.3+.45

3.25m

130m

h+c+Ts+hb

H

3.25x40

Height/Width Ratio

130/36

3.6

36x48

1728 m2

24x16

384 m2

Usable Area

1344 m2

Page-3

B

8.00 m

C

8.00 m

8.00 m

8.00 m

F

8.00 m

G

8.00 m

7

6.00 m

6

6.00 m

5

6.00 m

36.00 m

6.00 m

3

6.00 m

2

6.00 m

1

48.00 m

= 10 m2

Number of people per floor

1344/10

Let

Page-4

40th Floor

30th Floor

Express Run

Express Run

20th Floor

10th Floor

8th Floor (Car park)

1.2.1 Ground floor level to 19th floor level

Population calculation Ground floor to 19th floor

= 135 x 12

= 1620 persons

Peak capacity is assumed as 14% of the total population .

Hence, population handled in 5 minute period

= 1620x14/100

= 226.8persons

Let 227 persons

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-5

Let select 4m/s speed lift system, hence round trip time

= 165 s

Average Interval

= 165 / 28

= 5.89

Hence, 6 lift required between ground floor level and 19th floor level.

1.2.2 20th floor level to 29th floor level

Population calculation 20th floor to 29th floor

= 135 x 10

= 1350 persons

Peak capacity is assumed as 14% of the total population

Hence, population handled in 5 minute period

= 1350 x 14/100

= 189 persons

Let select 4m/s speed lift system, for 18 floors hence round trip time

= 160 s

Lift will travel express 6 ms-1 from 8th floor level to 19th floor level and serve 20th floor to 29th

floor.

Hence, total distance traveled

= 12 x 3.25 x 2

= 78 m

= 78 / 6

= 13 s

= 160 + 13 s

= 173 s

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-6

Average Interval

= 173 / 32

= 5.4

Say, 5 lifts

Hence, 5 lift cars to serve between 20th floor level and 29th floor level.

1.2.3 30th floor level to 39th floor level

Population calculation 30th floor to 39th floor

= 135 x 10

= 1350 persons

Peak capacity is assumed as 14% of the total population

Hence, population handled in 5 minute period

= 1350 x 14/100

= 189 persons

Let select 4m/s speed lift system, hence round trip time

= 160 s

Lift will travel express 6 ms-1 from 8th floor level to 29th floor level and serve 30th floor to 39th

floor.

Hence, total distance traveled

= 22 x 3.25 x 2

= 143 m

= 143 / 6

= 23.8 s

= 160 + 24 s

= 184 s

Page-7

Average Interval

= 184 / 32

= 5.7

Say 6 lifts

Hence, 6 lift cars can be used to serve between 30 th floor level and 39th floor level.

Summary of the lift arrangement as follows.

Location

No of lifts

Total

17

Table 1 Required lift at each zone

From Table 25.3

Cabin size of the 24 passenger lift

= 2100 x 1650

Shaft size

= 2550 x 2400

Width

2m

Length

3.35m

Landing length

4m

Landing width

1.5m

= (3.35+1.5)x 4 m2

19.4m2

Page-8

There will be two washrooms for men and women, 7.5m x7.5m each

Length

24m

Width

16m

B

8.00 m

C

8.00 m

8.00 m

E

8.00 m

F

8.00 m

G

8.00 m

7

6.00 m

6

6.00 m

5

6.00 m

men

wash room

6.00 m

3

6.00 m

ladies

wash room

2

6.00 m

1

48.00 m

Page-9

36.00 m

Lateral loads are to be resisted by a shear wall arrangement.

Assumed Shear wall thicknesses are as follows.

Zone

Selected

Shear

wall

thickness / (mm)

Ground to 9th floor level

300

300

300

300

Table 2 Shear wall Thickness

B

8.00 m

C

8.00 m

8.00 m

E

8.00 m

F

8.00 m

G

8.00 m

7

6.00 m

6

6.00 m

5

6.00 m

men

wash room

36.00 m

6.00 m

3

6.00 m

ladies

wash room

2

6.00 m

1

48.00 m

Page-10

Fig 4

Shear wall

arrangement

Slab Thickness

Selected slab thickness

= 175 mm

Cover

= 25 mm

= 10 mm

= 175 - 25 10/2

= 145 mm

= 6000 / 145

= 41.4

= 26

( T 3.9 BS8110)

Modified span / Effective depth

= 26 x 1.6

= 41.6

Hence, 175 mm slab thickness is capable of meeting the deflection criteria satisfactorily.

= 600 mm

= 550 mm

= 8000 / 550

= 14.55<26

Selected width of the beam

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

= 400 mm

Page-11

Initial column size can be selected with trial approximate loads

Assume column carries load from 8 x 6 panel area of the building. Trial size of column will be

selected according to axial load capacity

2.2.1 Dead loads calculation

Slab self-weight

= 8 x 6 x 0.175 x 24

= 201.6 kN

Assuming Finishes of 0.75 kN / m2

= 0.75 x 8 x 6

= 36kN

Assuming partition of 1.0 kN / m2

= 48 kN

Assuming services of 1.0 kN / m2

= 1.0 x 8 x 6

= 48 kN

Beams Weight

= (8 + 6) x 0.4 x 0.6 x 24

= 80.64 kN

Live load on slab of2.5 kN / m2

= 120 kN

Page-12

Assume 40% reduction in impose load in our design

1.4 x (201.6 + 36 + 48 + 48 +80.64) + 1.6 x 120 x 0.60 = 695.14 kN

Select Trial column size from 30th floor level to 39th floor= 700mm x 700mm

Axial load at 30th floor level [695 x 10 + (0.7 x 0.7 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]

= 7485.1kN

Axial load of Short columns resisting moment and axial forces given by,

N = 0.4fcuAc + 0.8Ascfy (BS 8110 -1997 equation 38) --------------------- > Eq(A)

Let assume fcu= 40 N/mm2 and Asc =3%Ac

N = 0.4Ac x 40 + 0.8 x 0.03 x Ac x 460

N = 27.04 Ac

N= 7485 at 30th floor

7485x103 = 27.04 Ac

Ac = 276,812mm2

Therefore required column size = 526 x 526

Hence, selected size is too large and 600 x 600 will be selected

Select Trial column size from 20th floor level to 29th floor= 700mm x 700mm

Axial load at 20th floor level [695 x 10 + (0.7 x 0.7 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]+7343

=14828

From Eq(A) , Let assume fcu= 40 N/mm2 and Asc =3%Ac

Same as previous calculation

14828x103=27.04Ac

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-13

Ac = 548,372 mm2

Hence, minimum column dimension required is 740 mm x 740 mm.

Therefore 750mm x 750mm columns are used

Select Trial column size from 10th floor level to 19th floor= 800mm x 800mm

Axial load at 10th floor level [695 x 10 + (0.8 x 0.8 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]+ 14828

=22477

From Eq(A) , Let assume fcu= 40 N/mm2 and Asc =4%Ac

Same as previous calculation

N = 0.4Ac x 40 + 0.8 x 0.04 x Ac x 460

22477 x 1000= 30.72Ac

Ac = 731673 mm2

Hence, minimum column dimension required is 855 mm x 855 mm.

Therefore 900mm x 900mm columns are used

Select Trial column size from ground floor level to 9th floor= 1000mm x 1000mm

Additional impose load of 2.5kN/m2 will be considered up to 8 th floor to equate car park

load

Axial load at Ground floor level [695 x 10 + (1 x 1 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]+ 22477+2.5x8x6x8

=32055

From Eq(A) , Let assume fcu= 50 N/mm2 and Asc =5%Ac

Same as previous calculation

N = 0.4Ac x 50 + 0.8 x 0.05x Ac x 460

32055 x 1000= 38.4Ac

Ac = 834,765 mm2

Hence, minimum column dimension required is 914 mm x 914 mm.

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-14

Selected element sizes are given in following table.

Element

Zone

Shear Wall

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

th

10th floor to 19th floor

20th floor to 29th floor

30th floor to 39th floor

Column

1.0x1.0

0.9x0.9

0.7x0.7

0.6x0.6

beam (6m)

0.45

0.45

0.45

0.45

Beam

(8m)

0.6

0.6

0.6

0.6

Slab

0.175

0.175

0.175

0.175

3.1 Determination of Wind Induced Forces of the Structure

Hourly mean wind speed is calculated using following equation.

Vz = V. M (z.cat). Ms. Mt. Mi

Vz = Design hourly mean wind speed at height z in ms

-1

-1

Basic wind is taken as 38 ms . (Zone-2)

Mt = 1.0

Ms= 1.0 (It is assumed the building as normal structure-Table-4.2.9)

Hence, Vz = 38M (z.cat)

Fz= Cp,e.qz.Az

Hence dynamic wind pressure

qz= 0.6vz2 x 10-3

Let Cp,e = Pressure coefficients for both windward and leeward surfaces of rectangular

buildings.

Az= Area of a structure at height z

X- Direction,

Page-15

d/b

= 48 / 36

= 1.33

Y- Direction,

d/b

= 36 / 48

= 0.75

X- Direction,

(Cp,e)x = 0.8 + 0.3 = 1.1

Y- Direction,

(Cp,e) y= 0.8 + 0.5 = 1.30

Fx = (Cp,e)x.qz. (Az)x

Hence, Fx = 1.1qz

Fy = (Cp,e)y qz. (Az)y

Hence, Fy = 1.30 qz

Total wind force acting on each level is assumed to act on two frames which are

connected to shear walls . Nodel forces are calculated based on total affecting

force divided by 2.

Level

G

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

FloorFloor

height

(m)

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

Z (m)

M(z,cat)

Vz

(ms1

)

0

3.25

6.5

9.75

13

16.25

19.5

22.75

26

29.25

32.5

35.75

39

42.25

45.5

48.75

52

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.35

0.358

0.368

0.378

0.385

0.39

0.398

0.4

0.41

0.417

0.42

13.3

13.3

13.3

13.3

13.3

13.3

13.6

13.98

14.36

14.63

14.82

15.12

15.2

15.58

15.85

15.96

qz

(kPa)

Fx

(kNm1

)

Fy

(kNm1

)

0.106

0.106

0.106

0.106

0.106

0.106

0.111

0.117

0.124

0.128

0.132

0.137

0.139

0.146

0.151

0.153

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.13

0.13

0.14

0.15

0.15

0.16

0.16

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.14

0.15

0.16

0.17

0.17

0.18

0.18

0.19

0.19

0.2

0.2

Page-16

X

Y

nodal Nodal

force Force

2.34

2.34

2.34

2.34

2.34

2.34

2.535

2.535

2.73

2.925

2.925

3.12

3.12

3.315

3.315

3.315

3.64

3.64

3.64

3.64

3.64

3.64

3.9

4.16

4.42

4.42

4.68

4.68

4.94

4.94

5.2

5.2

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

3.25

55.25

58.5

61.75

65

68.25

71.5

74.75

78

81.25

84.5

87.75

91

94.25

97.5

100.75

104

107.25

110.5

113.75

117

120.25

123.5

126.75

130

0.438

0.45

0.462

0.474

0.485

0.497

0.508

0.514

0.52

0.525

0.53

0.535

0.54

0.546

0.551

0.555

0.56

0.564

0.569

0.574

0.578

0.583

0.587

0.592

16.64

17.1

17.56

18.01

18.43

18.89

19.3

19.53

19.76

19.95

20.14

20.33

20.52

20.75

20.94

21.09

21.28

21.43

21.62

21.81

21.96

22.15

22.31

22.5

0.166

0.175

0.185

0.195

0.204

0.214

0.224

0.229

0.234

0.239

0.243

0.248

0.253

0.258

0.263

0.267

0.272

0.276

0.281

0.285

0.289

0.294

0.299

0.327

0.19

0.2

0.21

0.22

0.23

0.24

0.25

0.26

0.26

0.27

0.27

0.28

0.28

0.29

0.29

0.3

0.3

0.31

0.31

0.32

0.32

0.33

0.33

0.36

0.22

0.23

0.25

0.26

0.27

0.28

0.3

0.3

0.31

0.32

0.32

0.33

0.33

0.34

0.35

0.35

0.36

0.36

0.37

0.38

0.38

0.39

0.39

0.43

3.705

3.9

4.095

4.29

4.485

4.68

4.875

5.07

5.07

5.265

5.265

5.46

5.46

5.655

5.655

5.85

5.85

6.045

6.045

6.24

6.24

6.435

6.435

3.51

5.72

5.98

6.5

6.76

7.02

7.28

7.8

7.8

8.06

8.32

8.32

8.58

8.58

8.84

9.1

9.1

9.36

9.36

9.62

9.88

9.88

10.14

10.14

5.59

Wind forces calculated above were assigned to two frames of the structure to ensure

symmetrical distribution of wind forces. Grid 2,6 and C,E were selected for applying wind

force

Maximum drift index for normal building 1/500 .However tall buildings the drift index value

is limited to 1/1000.

The maximum top deflection obtained from SAP 2000 under load combination-2 is 59 mm.

Drift index

= 59 / (130 x 1000)

= 1 / 2203 < 1 / 1000

Page-17

The gust factor G can be calculated using the equation,

G

gv = 3.7

Turbulence length

Lh

= 1000 x (h / 10)0.25

= 1000 x (130/ 10)0.25

= 1898 m

Background factor

B

= 1/ {1 + [ (36x1302 + 64x482) 1/2/ 1898] }

= 0.685

r- Roughness factor

r

= 2(v/ v) / Mt

v/ v

= 2 x 0.219 / 1.0

= 0.438

w

= gv.r.(B)1/2 / 4

= 3.7 x 0.438 x (0.685)1/2 / 4

= 0.335

gf = (2 log(3600na))1/2

Natural period of vibration along Y direction obtained after analyzing the modal in SAP 2000

and it is assumed T = 4 sec

Hence, natural frequency of the first mode vibration is,

Page-18

na

=1/4

= 0.25

gf

= (2 log(3600 x 0.25))1/2

= 2.43

S-Size factor

S

Vz

= V.x Mzcat

= 38 x 0.652

= 24.78 m/s

= 0.061

= na x Lh / Vz

= 0.25 x 1898 / 24.78

= 19.14

E

= 0.47 x 16.64 / (2+ 16.64x16.64)5/6

= 0.065

= 1 + 0.438 [ 3.72 x 0.685 x (1 + 0.335)2 + (2.432 x 0.061 x 0.065 / 0.01) ]

= 2.91

Page-19

Generally accelerations above 0.05ms2 are perceived by the people. A peak acceleration of

2

0.15ms

to 0.20ms

speeds.

Along wind acceleration,

a

=(2 x 22/7 x 0.25)2 x 2.91 x 0.438 (0.061 x 0.065/0.01)1/2 (/2.91)

= 0.681

=0.681x59/1000

=0.04 ms2 Marginaly Satisfied

c = [1.5 gf . qh .b(0.76 + 0.24k)(Cfs/ )1/2] / m0

k = 1.0 (Building with a central core and moment resisting facade)

qh = 0.6 Vz2

gf = (2 log(3600nc))1/2

Natural period of vibration along Y direction obtained after analyzing the modal in SAP 2000

and it is assumed T = 4 sec

Hence, natural frequency of the first mode vibration is,

nc

=1/4

= 0.25

gf

= (2 log(3600 x 0.25))1/2

= 2.43

h:b:d =130:48:36

=3.6 : 1.33 :1

Vh/ncb =24.78/(0.25 x48)

= 2.065

Page-20

m0 = 262 kg / m

= [1.5 gf . qh .b(0.76 + 0.24k)(Cfs/ )1/2] / m0

= [1.5 x 2.43 x 0.303 x 48 (0.76 + 0.24 x 1.0 )(22/7 x 0.0022/ 0.01)1/2] /262

= 0.168 ms-2

4.1 Determination of the Weight of the Stricture

Number of Columns

Shear Wall Length

=34 Nos.

per floor

=136 m

600mm

=336m

450mm

=336m

Building weight

Columns

Beams

600mm

Beams

450mm

Salb

Shear

walls

Impose

load

Super

impose

Dead

load

Total

Load

Zone

Amount

1x1

Level 0-9

(kN)

2652

Amount

0.9x0.9

Level

10-19

(kN)

21481

336m

10282

336m

252m

1599m2

4989.6

67158

1326

136m

Amount

0.7x0.7

Level

20-29

(kN)

12994

Amount

0.6x0.6

9547

10282

336m

10281.

6

336m

10281.6

252m

1599m2

4989.6

67158

252m

1599m2

4989.6

67158

252m

1599m2

4989.6

67158

136m

1326

136m

1326

136m

1326

4.5kNm2

71955

2.5kNm

(60%)

43973

2.75kNm

2.75kNm

202335

23985

2.5kNm

(60%)

43973

2.75kNm

173194

Total

building

load

Building

volume

701495

kN

224640

m3

Page-21

23985

2.5kNm

(60%)

43972.5

2.75kNm

164707

23985

43972.5

161260

= 3.12 KN/ m3

V = ZIKCSW

V-Base shear

Z-Seismic probability zone factor

Z = 3 / 16 (Minor earthquake)

I = 1.00 (Office building)

K-Building type factor

K = 1.33

T- Fundamental natural period of vibration

T =4 sec

C

= 1/15(T)1/2

= 1/15(T)1/2

= 0.13 < 0.2

S = 1.2 (It is assumed cohesionless or stiff clay soil conditions overlying rock at a depth

greater than 200ft in Colombo 03)

W Total dead load and appropriate portions of the live load

W = 701,495 kN

= ZIKCSW

= 6,297 kN

Page-22

X Direction:

The base shear is to act with a minimum eccentricity of 5% of the maximum building

dimension.

Eccentricity, e = 0.05Dmax

= 0.05 x 48

= 2.4m

Base shear will be assigned to frames 2 & 6 as follows.

V2

= 6297 x (12-2.4)/24

V2

= 2518 KN

V6

= 6297-2518 KN

= 3779 KN

Ft

= 0.07 TV

=0.07 x 4 V

=0.28V >0.25V then Ft=0.25V is selected

Ft

= 1574 kN

Ft2

=629 kN

Ft6

=944 kN

FX

= (V- Ft) hx / hx

(V- Ft)

=6297-1574

=4723 kN

hx

=3.25(40/2x(1+40)m

=2665m

Fx(2)

= 0.75x2518/2665 hx

Page-23

Fx(2)

=0.709 hx

Fx(6)

= 0.75x3779/2665 hx

Fx(6)

= 1.06 hx

Y Direction:

The base shear is to act with a minimum eccentricity of 5% of the maximum building

dimension.

Eccentricity, e = 0.05Dmax

= 0.05 x 48

= 2.4 m

Base shear can be assigned to frames along gridlines C & F as follows.

VC

= 6297 x (8+2.4)/16

VC

= 4093 KN

VE

= 6297-4093 KN

= 2204 KN

Ft

= 0.07 TV

=0.07 x 4 V

=0.28V >0.25V then Ft=0.25V is selected

Ft

=1574

Ftc

=1023

FtE

=550

FX

= (V- Ft)hx / hx

FC

= (0.75 x 4093/2665) hx

=1.15 hx

FE

= (0.75 x 2204/2665) hx

=0.62 hx

Page-24

Earthquake Load

Level

hx (m)

X Direction (kN)

F2

G

1

2

Y Direction (kN)

F6

FC

FE

3.25

6.5

2.30425

4.6085

3.445

6.89

3.7375

7.475

2.015

4.03

9.75

6.91275

10.335

11.2125

6.045

13

9.217

13.78

14.95

8.06

16.25

11.52125

17.225

18.6875

10.075

19.5

13.8255

20.67

22.425

12.09

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

35

36

37

22.75

26

29.25

32.5

35.75

39

42.25

45.5

48.75

52

55.25

58.5

61.75

65

68.25

71.5

74.75

78

81.25

84.5

87.75

91

94.25

97.5

100.75

104

107.25

110.5

113.75

117

120.25

16.12975

18.434

20.73825

23.0425

25.34675

27.651

29.95525

32.2595

34.56375

36.868

39.17225

41.4765

43.78075

46.085

48.38925

50.6935

52.99775

55.302

57.60625

59.9105

62.21475

64.519

66.82325

69.1275

71.43175

73.736

76.04025

78.3445

80.64875

82.953

85.25725

24.115

27.56

31.005

34.45

37.895

41.34

44.785

48.23

51.675

55.12

58.565

62.01

65.455

68.9

72.345

75.79

79.235

82.68

86.125

89.57

93.015

96.46

99.905

103.35

106.795

110.24

113.685

117.13

120.575

124.02

127.465

26.1625

29.9

33.6375

37.375

41.1125

44.85

48.5875

52.325

56.0625

59.8

63.5375

67.275

71.0125

74.75

78.4875

82.225

85.9625

89.7

93.4375

97.175

100.9125

104.65

108.3875

112.125

115.8625

119.6

123.3375

127.075

130.8125

134.55

138.2875

14.105

16.12

18.135

20.15

22.165

24.18

26.195

28.21

30.225

32.24

34.255

36.27

38.285

40.3

42.315

44.33

46.345

48.36

50.375

52.39

54.405

56.42

58.435

60.45

62.465

64.48

66.495

68.51

70.525

72.54

74.555

Page-25

38

39

40

123.5

126.75

130

87.5615

89.86575

92.17

130.91

134.355

137.8

142.025

145.7625

149.5

76.57

78.585

80.6

A new load case is defined as Earthquake.

A new load combination is defined.

Then the earthquake forces calculated above are assigned to the frames along grid 2 & 6 on

x direction and along C & F on y direction.

Following elements are designed in this model analysis.

1- Pile & Pile Cap

2- Beam

3- Column

4- Slab

5.1Design of Pile

5.1.1 Estimation of Carrying Capacity of a Single Pile

Consider foundation at F-2 column location

Design load on foundation = 21, 550 kN

Assuming bed rock level is 20 m below existing ground level and skin friction values are

assumed as follows. Assumed allowable bearing capacity of rock is 4 N/mm2.

Page-26

Pu Column Load

W Self Weignt

P si -Skin

Friction

Pu = Ppu + Psi W

Tu = Psi + W

Where,

Pu = Ultimate compressive load on pile

Tu = Ultimate tensile load on pile

Psi = Skin Friction Resistance

W =Weight of pile

Ppu = End bearing resistance

Assuming 1500mm diameter bored cast in-situ R/C pile.

Page-27

Hence, End bearing resistance = x 1.52 x 4000/4

Ppu = 7068kN

Assuming ultimate skin friction values as follows

Depth

Aerage

From

To

SPT value

(Ultimate)

0,00

10

20

20

10

20

25

25

20

25

30

30

25

30

>50

100

Psi

= 3887kN

Factor of safety 3

Therefore total allowable skin friction

= 3887kN

= (7068+ 3887)

= 10955 kN

Pu

= 9895kN

Design load of the internal column from SAP analysis = 18805 kN

Therefore number of piles required for an internal column location

= 18805/9895 = 1.9

Therefore allow two piles for one internal column location.

Therefore load acting on one pile = 18805/2

= 9402 kN

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-28

Hence pile carrying capacity for axial load is satisfied.

Let consider Grade 30 concrete

Working stress of the concrete at pile toe

= 5.9 N/mm2

Required number of 25mm bars

= 17671/490

Number of bars

= 36 Nos

Piles should be socketed 1500mm in to parent rock and capacity should be verified by a full

scale load test.

Piled raft can be used for connection of piles to the column. Individual pile caps are not

suitable for this building because the pile caps will be arranged in very congested pattern.

Centre to centre distance of the pile (2.5 )

= 2.5 x 1500

= 3750 mm

= 400 mm

= 6050 mm

= 1875 mm

pile spacing

Edge distance =

Length of pile cap

3750

mm

400

mm

6050

mm

Page-29

2100

mm

30500 kN

1800

mm

75

mm

1665

mm

cover

Effective depth (d)

As required

Layer 1 Diameter

Nos

N l / 2d

20608 kN

T /0.87 fy

51495 mm2

40

14

Spacing

Layer 2 Diameter

Nos

131 mm

=

40

14

Spacing

Layer 3 Diameter

Nos

mm

131 mm

=

40

14

Spacing

As Provided

mm

mm

131 mm

=

52769 mm2

Punching shear around column perimeter

3.82

N/mm2

0.8fcu =

4.38

N/mm2

Check Satisfied

Since spacing of piles = 3 no further check is required

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-30

Column side dimension =

1000

mm

mm

av

1300

V at critical section

15250 kN

5.09

2d/av =

2.56

100As/bd

1.76

vc

2.08

N/mm2

N/mm2

Determination of Distribution steel

Min Steel

100 As/ Ac

0.13

As

4212

mm2

32

mm

Diameter

Spacing =

175

As

4593

mm2

As

13192 mm2

32

Nos

15

As Provided

12061 mm2

Diameter

mm

Page-31

Fig 7

Design

Max Support moment = 278 kNm

Max Bending moment at span = 189 kNm

Depth of the Beam

600

mm

300

mm

Concrete Strength

30

N/mm2

Assume moderate exposure conditions, for outdoor exposure. Assume a fire resistance of 2 hours.

Cover of the Beam

25

mm

= 553mm

Design for Flexure

Page-32

Max. hogging Bending Moment = 278

kNm

Then design support moment

=278x0.9

=250.2 kNm

Reduction in moment =27.8 kNm

At the exterior support ,

K

M/bd2fcu

Z = d

0.5

= d

0.5

= d

=

Z

As

0.25 -

K

0.9

0.25 -

0.091

0.9

x 0.886

0.89

d < 0.90d

0.89 d

489 mm

M/(0.87fyZ)

0.87x460x489

=

Minimum reinforcement =

Therefore As

=

=

=

1278 mm2

0.13/100bh

0.13/(300x600x100)

234 mm2

1278 mm2

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-33

From Sap2000 Results

Vmax

268kN

Vmax

V/ bd

vmax

1.62

0.887

100As/bd

N/mm2

Ultimate

Axial

Load

26785 kN

Majour B/M

64 kNm

Miner B/M

18 kNm

Page-34

Column Size

Concrete Grade

1000mm x 1000mm

50 N/mm2

Top Condition

Bottom Condition

=

=

Condition 2

Condition 1

For X-X / Y-Y Direction

q

L=3.25 m

So ,

pq

o x

=

=

=

1.3

3.25 - 0.6

2.65 m

ex

=

=

1.3

x

x

3.45

=

=

3.45

3.4

ex , ey

o

2.65

ex /h

= ey/h

1

< 10

60 b

=

=

>

60 x

72 m

1200

/ 1000

Considering 40% live load reduction ,Critical load combination 1.4 Gk + 1.6 (0.6) Qk

Page-35

N

26785

kN

Mx

68 kNm

My

=

18 kNm

N emin

N

x (0.05 h or 20mm or lesser)

26785 x (0.05 x 1000 or 20)

536

kNm

MMin

=

=

=

=

<

Design bending moment about y-y,

My

536

=

=

=

N

bh

d/h

fcu

1000

1000

0.54

536

x 10 6

x

1000

x

26785 x 10 3

1000 x

1000

26.79

=

=

=

929 / 1000

0.94

50 N/mm2

1.3

1.3 x 1000 x

1000

mm

1000 - 45 - 10 - (32/2)

929

mm

b h2

kNm

1000

Chart No 39

100 Asc / bh

Asc

100

2

13000 mm

24 x x (32/2)2

Asc provided

Page-36

Asc provided

=

=

24 x x (32/2)2

1000 x 1000

1.93%

x 100

48 x x (32/2)2

1000 x 1000

3.86

%

6%

x 100

Longitudinal R/F O.K.

Asc at lap

=

=

<

Check for shear:

From Sap2000

M/N

35

21765

0.75h

V

=

=

0.75

15

0.8

=

=

15

x

1000

1000 x

929

0.02 N/mm2

5.0 N/mm2 > v

m >M/N

kN

5.4.5 Check for Deflection:

For unbraced columns:

le / h = 5.58 / 1

=

Hence no check is required for deflection.

Page-37

5.58

<

30

= 0.002 m

Assume Following parameters

Slab thickness

=

Slab self-weight =

Finishes

=

175 mm

4.20 kN/m2

1.00 kN/m2

Partitions

1.00 kN/m2

Services

1.00 kN/m2

Total DL

7.20 kN/m2

Design Load

2.50 kN/m2

6

Lx = 6m

Ly = 8m

Ly / Lx =

1.3 < 2

Two way spanning slab

Moment Coefficients.

Short span, continues edge

0.069

Short span, at mid-span

0.051

Long span ,at continues edge

0.045

Long span, at mid-span

0.034

Maximum design moment per unit width

Msx

B sx n lx2

Msy

=

=

=

=

=

Bsy n lx2

34.97

25.85

22.81

17.23

Short span, at mid-span

Long span ,at continues edge

Long span, at mid-span

kNm/m

kNm/m

kNm/m

kNm/m

Let use 10 mm RF with 25 mm cover , fcu =30 N/mm2, d=145mm

Short way, mid span RF

K= M/bd2 fcu

= 0.041

Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =

0.96 d

Z=

137.75 mm

As(req) = M /0.87 fy Z

= 469 mm2

Page-38

> 0.95d

Use T 10 @ 150

As provided = 520> As Req

Maximum spacing between bars < 3d

3d =

435

> 150 mm

Minimum R/F

100 As/ Ac =

0.13

5.5.2 Deflection check

Maximum moment at mid span

Mmax

25.9 kNm/m

1.23

343 N/mm2

M/bd

Ft

=

Basic (span / d )

Allowable (span / d)

Actual (span / d)

T 3.11

1.81

=

=

=

26

47

41

<

K= M/bd2 fcu

=

0.055

Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =0.953 d > 0.95d

Z=

138 mm

As = M /0.87 fy Z

634

mm2

Use T 12 @ 175

(As) provided =645 > 634 ,(As, required)

Effective depth

135

mm

K= M/bd2 fcu

=

0.027

Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =

Z=

128

mm

As = M /0.87 fy Z

mm2

336

Page-39

47

Use T 10 @ 200

(As) provided =

393

K= M/bd2 fcu

=

0.042

Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =

Z=

127

As = M /0.87 fy Z

0.94 d

mm

= 448 mm2

Use T 10 @ 150

(As) provided =523 > 442, As, req

100 As /Ac

0.13

Minimum As

For T 10 @ 250

228 mm2/m

(As) provided

314 mm2/m

Shear force induced at support V =

Bv n lx

0.4 x 13.03

x6

v = V/bd

=

=

31.27 kN/m

0.216

Vc =0.52 N/mm2

Vc >V T 3.17

No shear r/ f required

Page-40

( T 3.9 )

Wall is classified as braced column

Top condition

Bottom condition

Value of for braced wall

=

=

=

2

1

0.75

o

e

=

3.25

= 0.95 x 3.25

= 3.1 m

Wall thickness at graound floor is 300mm.

e/h

= 3.1 / 0.3

= 10.3

< 15

Therefore the wall is short.

For all load combinations wall is subjected to compression only.

Calculation of Compression Capacity

Maximum axial load on wall

fcu

=

=

=

3384kN/m

54144

40

x 16

kN

fy

= 460 N/mm2

Assume 1% of reinforcement in the wall.

Total design axial load on wall,

nw

0.35 fcu Ac + 0.67 Asc fy

(0.35x40x300x16000) +

(0.67x0.01x300x16000x460)

81993kN

Hence compression capacity of wall with 1% of reinforcement is

satisfactory.

Design of vertical reinforcement

Required reinforement

=

=

=

=

1% of Ac

1x300x16000 / 100

48000mm2

2000 mm2/m/per layer

Design of horizontal reinforcement

Required reinforcement

=

=

=

=

0.25% of Ac

0.25x300x1000 / 100

750 mm2/m

375 mm2/m/per layer

Page-41

6.0. References

1. B.S.8110 Part1:1985, The Structural Use of Concrete (Code of Practice for Design and

Construction)

2. B.S.6399 Part1:1996, Loadings on buildings( Code of Practice for dead and Imposed

loads)

3. AS1170.2-1989, Minimum Design Loads on Structures part 2: Wind Loads,

Standards Australia, New South Wales.

4. AS 1170.4-1993, Structural design actions Part 4: Earthquake actions , Standards

Australia, New South Wales.

5. Jayasinghe, M.T.R, Wind loads for tall buildings in Sri lanka, Seminar on structural

design for wind loading, Society of Structural Engineers, Sri lanka,2008.

6. Wijeratne, M.D., Jayasinghe, M.T.R., Wind loads for high-rise buildings constructed

in Sri Lanka, Transactions Part 2- Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka, 1998,

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