You are on page 1of 42

Contents

1.

Introduction

2.

Preliminary selection of structural elements

3.

Wind Analysis

4.

Earthquake Analysis

5.

Element Design

6.

Reference

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-1

Design of a Forty Story Building for ABC bank head quarts


1.0 Introduction
It is decided to design a forty storied building for the use of ABC bank at Colombo 7. Whole
building is to be used as Bank head quarts and rent some space to be used as office.
Designed will be done as a part of the course work of Pg Dip /MEng (Structural Design )
program.
Key features of the building
1- 40 storied building
2- 8 floors to be used as car park
3- Lift system is designed as Hard Zoning
4- Building length 48m
5- Building width 36m
6- Super structure will be reinforced concrete and sub structure will be pile foundation.
Following designs will be considered in this Report.

Decide grid arrangement and building services

Selecting the arrangement of strong elements

Selection of suitable loads

Selection of dynamic parameters

Determination of wind loads and induced acceleration

Determination of earth quake loads

Develop computer model and determination of member forces

Design of slab beam wall column and pile foundation

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-2

1.1

Calculation of basic parameters of the building

Let Column spacing in longest direction

8m

Therefore no of columns

Let column spacing in shortest direction

6m

Therefore no of columns

48/8+1

36/6+1

Let beam height

(hb) 6000/14+25

450mm

Slab Thickness (Ts)

6000/44+25

160 mm

Let space for services

300 mm

Let head clearance

2.5 m

2.5+.3+.45

3.25m

130m

Total Floor height

h+c+Ts+hb
H

Height of the Building

3.25x40

Height/Width Ratio

130/36

3.6

One Floor Area

36x48

1728 m2

Lift Core Area

24x16

384 m2

Usable Area

1344 m2

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-3

B
8.00 m

C
8.00 m

8.00 m

8.00 m

F
8.00 m

G
8.00 m

7
6.00 m

6
6.00 m

5
6.00 m

36.00 m
6.00 m

3
6.00 m

2
6.00 m

1
48.00 m

Fig 1 Building Layout

1.2 Calculation of Number of Lifts


= 10 m2

Let population density


Number of people per floor

1344/10

= 134.4 per floor


Let

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-4

= 135 persons per floor

Hard zoning arrangement will be used as follows.

40th Floor

30th Floor

Express Run

Express Run

20th Floor

10th Floor
8th Floor (Car park)

Fig 2 Lift Arrangement


1.2.1 Ground floor level to 19th floor level
Population calculation Ground floor to 19th floor

= 135 x 12
= 1620 persons

Let consider serving for 5 minute peak capacity.


Peak capacity is assumed as 14% of the total population .
Hence, population handled in 5 minute period

= 1620x14/100
= 226.8persons
Let 227 persons

Let select 24 capacity lift, Average interval


PG/DIP Structural Engineering

= 28 sec (Table 25 7.1)


Page-5

Let select 4m/s speed lift system, hence round trip time

= 165 s

Hence, number of lifts required

Round Trip Time


Average Interval
= 165 / 28
= 5.89

Hence, 6 lift required between ground floor level and 19th floor level.
1.2.2 20th floor level to 29th floor level
Population calculation 20th floor to 29th floor

= 135 x 10
= 1350 persons

Let consider serving for 5 minute peak capacity.


Peak capacity is assumed as 14% of the total population
Hence, population handled in 5 minute period

= 1350 x 14/100
= 189 persons

Let select 24 capacity lift ,Average interval

= 32 sec (Table 25 7.1)

Let select 4m/s speed lift system, for 18 floors hence round trip time

= 160 s

Lift will travel express 6 ms-1 from 8th floor level to 19th floor level and serve 20th floor to 29th
floor.
Hence, total distance traveled

= 12 x 3.25 x 2
= 78 m

Hence, time taken

= 78 / 6
= 13 s

Total round trip time

= 160 + 13 s
= 173 s

Hence, number of lifts required


PG/DIP Structural Engineering

= Round Trip Time


Page-6

Average Interval
= 173 / 32
= 5.4
Say, 5 lifts
Hence, 5 lift cars to serve between 20th floor level and 29th floor level.
1.2.3 30th floor level to 39th floor level
Population calculation 30th floor to 39th floor

= 135 x 10
= 1350 persons

Let consider serving for 5 minute peak capacity.


Peak capacity is assumed as 14% of the total population
Hence, population handled in 5 minute period

= 1350 x 14/100
= 189 persons

Let select 24 capacity lift ,Average interval

= 32 sec (Table 25 7.1)

Let select 4m/s speed lift system, hence round trip time

= 160 s

Lift will travel express 6 ms-1 from 8th floor level to 29th floor level and serve 30th floor to 39th
floor.
Hence, total distance traveled

= 22 x 3.25 x 2
= 143 m

Hence, time taken

= 143 / 6
= 23.8 s

Total round trip time

= 160 + 24 s
= 184 s

Hence, number of lifts required

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

= Round Trip Time

Page-7

Average Interval
= 184 / 32
= 5.7
Say 6 lifts
Hence, 6 lift cars can be used to serve between 30 th floor level and 39th floor level.
Summary of the lift arrangement as follows.
Location

No of lifts

Ground floor level to 19th floor level

20th floor level to 29th floor level

30th floor level to 39th floor level

Total

17
Table 1 Required lift at each zone

1.2.4 Lift cabin arrangement


From Table 25.3
Cabin size of the 24 passenger lift

= 2100 x 1650

Shaft size

= 2550 x 2400

1.2.5 Stair case arrangement


Width

2m

Length

3.35m

Landing length

4m

Landing width

1.5m

Required opening area

= (3.35+1.5)x 4 m2

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

19.4m2

Page-8

1.2.6 Wash rooms arrangement


There will be two washrooms for men and women, 7.5m x7.5m each

1.2.7 Service Core Arrangement


Length

24m

Width

16m

B
8.00 m

C
8.00 m

8.00 m

E
8.00 m

F
8.00 m

G
8.00 m

7
6.00 m

6
6.00 m

5
6.00 m

men
wash room

6.00 m

3
6.00 m

ladies
wash room

2
6.00 m

1
48.00 m

Fig 3 Service Core Arrangements

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-9

36.00 m

1.2.8 Shear wall arrangement


Lateral loads are to be resisted by a shear wall arrangement.
Assumed Shear wall thicknesses are as follows.
Zone

Selected

Shear

wall

thickness / (mm)
Ground to 9th floor level

300

10th floor to 19th floor level

300

20th floor to 29th floor level

300

30th floor to 39th floor level

300
Table 2 Shear wall Thickness

B
8.00 m

C
8.00 m

8.00 m

E
8.00 m

F
8.00 m

G
8.00 m

7
6.00 m

6
6.00 m

5
6.00 m

men
wash room

36.00 m

6.00 m

3
6.00 m

ladies
wash room

2
6.00 m

1
48.00 m

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-10

Fig 4
Shear wall
arrangement

2.0 Preliminary selection of structural elements.

Slab Thickness
Selected slab thickness

= 175 mm

Cover

= 25 mm

Diameter of the reinforcement

= 10 mm

Hence, effective depth

= 175 - 25 10/2
= 145 mm

Span / Effective depth

= 6000 / 145
= 41.4

Basic span / Effective depth

= 26

( T 3.9 BS8110)

Let Assume a modification factor of 1.6


Modified span / Effective depth

= 26 x 1.6
= 41.6

Hence, 175 mm slab thickness is capable of meeting the deflection criteria satisfactorily.

2.1 Selection of Beam Dimensions

Selected beam depth

= 600 mm

Hence, effective depth

= 550 mm

Span / Effective depth

= 8000 / 550
= 14.55<26

Hence, depth is a reasonable value.


Selected width of the beam
PG/DIP Structural Engineering

= 400 mm
Page-11

2.2 Determination of Column Dimensions


Initial column size can be selected with trial approximate loads
Assume column carries load from 8 x 6 panel area of the building. Trial size of column will be
selected according to axial load capacity
2.2.1 Dead loads calculation
Slab self-weight

= 8 x 6 x 0.175 x 24

= 201.6 kN
Assuming Finishes of 0.75 kN / m2

= 0.75 x 8 x 6

= 36kN
Assuming partition of 1.0 kN / m2

= 1.0 x 8 x 6 (BS 6399 5.1.4)

= 48 kN
Assuming services of 1.0 kN / m2

= 1.0 x 8 x 6

= 48 kN

Beams Weight

= (8 + 6) x 0.4 x 0.6 x 24

= 80.64 kN
Live load on slab of2.5 kN / m2

= 2.5 x 8 x 6 (BS 6399)

= 120 kN

Calculation of design load

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-12

Consider 50% maximum reduction in impose load (BS 6399)


Assume 40% reduction in impose load in our design
1.4 x (201.6 + 36 + 48 + 48 +80.64) + 1.6 x 120 x 0.60 = 695.14 kN

2.3 Selection of Column Sizes


Select Trial column size from 30th floor level to 39th floor= 700mm x 700mm
Axial load at 30th floor level [695 x 10 + (0.7 x 0.7 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]
= 7485.1kN
Axial load of Short columns resisting moment and axial forces given by,
N = 0.4fcuAc + 0.8Ascfy (BS 8110 -1997 equation 38) --------------------- > Eq(A)
Let assume fcu= 40 N/mm2 and Asc =3%Ac
N = 0.4Ac x 40 + 0.8 x 0.03 x Ac x 460
N = 27.04 Ac
N= 7485 at 30th floor
7485x103 = 27.04 Ac
Ac = 276,812mm2
Therefore required column size = 526 x 526
Hence, selected size is too large and 600 x 600 will be selected
Select Trial column size from 20th floor level to 29th floor= 700mm x 700mm
Axial load at 20th floor level [695 x 10 + (0.7 x 0.7 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]+7343
=14828
From Eq(A) , Let assume fcu= 40 N/mm2 and Asc =3%Ac
Same as previous calculation
14828x103=27.04Ac
PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-13

Ac = 548,372 mm2
Hence, minimum column dimension required is 740 mm x 740 mm.
Therefore 750mm x 750mm columns are used
Select Trial column size from 10th floor level to 19th floor= 800mm x 800mm
Axial load at 10th floor level [695 x 10 + (0.8 x 0.8 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]+ 14828
=22477
From Eq(A) , Let assume fcu= 40 N/mm2 and Asc =4%Ac
Same as previous calculation
N = 0.4Ac x 40 + 0.8 x 0.04 x Ac x 460
22477 x 1000= 30.72Ac
Ac = 731673 mm2
Hence, minimum column dimension required is 855 mm x 855 mm.
Therefore 900mm x 900mm columns are used
Select Trial column size from ground floor level to 9th floor= 1000mm x 1000mm
Additional impose load of 2.5kN/m2 will be considered up to 8 th floor to equate car park
load
Axial load at Ground floor level [695 x 10 + (1 x 1 x 3.25 x 24) x 10 x 1.4]+ 22477+2.5x8x6x8
=32055
From Eq(A) , Let assume fcu= 50 N/mm2 and Asc =5%Ac
Same as previous calculation
N = 0.4Ac x 50 + 0.8 x 0.05x Ac x 460
32055 x 1000= 38.4Ac
Ac = 834,765 mm2
Hence, minimum column dimension required is 914 mm x 914 mm.
PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-14

Therefore 1000mm x 1000mm columns are used


Selected element sizes are given in following table.
Element
Zone

Shear Wall
0.3
0.3
0.3
0.3

th

Ground floor to 9 floor


10th floor to 19th floor
20th floor to 29th floor
30th floor to 39th floor

Column
1.0x1.0
0.9x0.9
0.7x0.7
0.6x0.6

beam (6m)
0.45
0.45
0.45
0.45

Beam
(8m)
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.6

Slab
0.175
0.175
0.175
0.175

Table 3 Summary of element sizes.

3.0 Wind Analysis


3.1 Determination of Wind Induced Forces of the Structure
Hourly mean wind speed is calculated using following equation.
Vz = V. M (z.cat). Ms. Mt. Mi
Vz = Design hourly mean wind speed at height z in ms

-1

V= Basic wind speed


-1
Basic wind is taken as 38 ms . (Zone-2)

Ms= 1.0 (It is assumed the building spacing > 12-Table-4.2.7)


Mt = 1.0
Ms= 1.0 (It is assumed the building as normal structure-Table-4.2.9)
Hence, Vz = 38M (z.cat)
Fz= Cp,e.qz.Az
Hence dynamic wind pressure
qz= 0.6vz2 x 10-3
Let Cp,e = Pressure coefficients for both windward and leeward surfaces of rectangular
buildings.
Az= Area of a structure at height z

X- Direction,

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-15

d/b

= 48 / 36
= 1.33

Y- Direction,
d/b

= 36 / 48
= 0.75

X- Direction,
(Cp,e)x = 0.8 + 0.3 = 1.1
Y- Direction,
(Cp,e) y= 0.8 + 0.5 = 1.30

Fx = (Cp,e)x.qz. (Az)x
Hence, Fx = 1.1qz
Fy = (Cp,e)y qz. (Az)y
Hence, Fy = 1.30 qz

Total wind force acting on each level is assumed to act on two frames which are
connected to shear walls . Nodel forces are calculated based on total affecting
force divided by 2.

Level
G
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

FloorFloor
height
(m)
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25

Z (m)

M(z,cat)

Vz
(ms1
)

0
3.25
6.5
9.75
13
16.25
19.5
22.75
26
29.25
32.5
35.75
39
42.25
45.5
48.75
52

0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.35
0.358
0.368
0.378
0.385
0.39
0.398
0.4
0.41
0.417
0.42

13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.3
13.6
13.98
14.36
14.63
14.82
15.12
15.2
15.58
15.85
15.96

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

qz
(kPa)

Fx
(kNm1
)

Fy
(kNm1
)

0.106
0.106
0.106
0.106
0.106
0.106
0.111
0.117
0.124
0.128
0.132
0.137
0.139
0.146
0.151
0.153

0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.12
0.13
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.15
0.16
0.16
0.17
0.17
0.17

0.14
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.14
0.15
0.16
0.17
0.17
0.18
0.18
0.19
0.19
0.2
0.2

Page-16

X
Y
nodal Nodal
force Force
2.34
2.34
2.34
2.34
2.34
2.34
2.535
2.535
2.73
2.925
2.925
3.12
3.12
3.315
3.315
3.315

3.64
3.64
3.64
3.64
3.64
3.64
3.9
4.16
4.42
4.42
4.68
4.68
4.94
4.94
5.2
5.2

17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25
3.25

55.25
58.5
61.75
65
68.25
71.5
74.75
78
81.25
84.5
87.75
91
94.25
97.5
100.75
104
107.25
110.5
113.75
117
120.25
123.5
126.75
130

0.438
0.45
0.462
0.474
0.485
0.497
0.508
0.514
0.52
0.525
0.53
0.535
0.54
0.546
0.551
0.555
0.56
0.564
0.569
0.574
0.578
0.583
0.587
0.592

16.64
17.1
17.56
18.01
18.43
18.89
19.3
19.53
19.76
19.95
20.14
20.33
20.52
20.75
20.94
21.09
21.28
21.43
21.62
21.81
21.96
22.15
22.31
22.5

0.166
0.175
0.185
0.195
0.204
0.214
0.224
0.229
0.234
0.239
0.243
0.248
0.253
0.258
0.263
0.267
0.272
0.276
0.281
0.285
0.289
0.294
0.299
0.327

0.19
0.2
0.21
0.22
0.23
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.26
0.27
0.27
0.28
0.28
0.29
0.29
0.3
0.3
0.31
0.31
0.32
0.32
0.33
0.33
0.36

0.22
0.23
0.25
0.26
0.27
0.28
0.3
0.3
0.31
0.32
0.32
0.33
0.33
0.34
0.35
0.35
0.36
0.36
0.37
0.38
0.38
0.39
0.39
0.43

3.705
3.9
4.095
4.29
4.485
4.68
4.875
5.07
5.07
5.265
5.265
5.46
5.46
5.655
5.655
5.85
5.85
6.045
6.045
6.24
6.24
6.435
6.435
3.51

5.72
5.98
6.5
6.76
7.02
7.28
7.8
7.8
8.06
8.32
8.32
8.58
8.58
8.84
9.1
9.1
9.36
9.36
9.62
9.88
9.88
10.14
10.14
5.59

Table 4 Wind load on each floor

3.2 Assignment of Wind Force to the Modal


Wind forces calculated above were assigned to two frames of the structure to ensure
symmetrical distribution of wind forces. Grid 2,6 and C,E were selected for applying wind
force

3.3 Lateral Deflection of the Structure due to Wind (Along X direction)


Maximum drift index for normal building 1/500 .However tall buildings the drift index value
is limited to 1/1000.

Height of the building = 130 m


The maximum top deflection obtained from SAP 2000 under load combination-2 is 59 mm.
Drift index

= 59 / (130 x 1000)
= 1 / 2203 < 1 / 1000

Hence structure satisfy Drift index

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-17

3.4 Calculation of Gust factor


The gust factor G can be calculated using the equation,
G

= 1 + r [ gv2.B. (1 + w)2 + (gf2.S.E / ) ]

Let assume Damping ratio = 0.01


gv = 3.7
Turbulence length
Lh

= 1000 x (h / 10)0.25
= 1000 x (130/ 10)0.25
= 1898 m

Background factor
B

= 1/ {1 + [ (36h2 + 64b2) 1/2/ Lh ] }


= 1/ {1 + [ (36x1302 + 64x482) 1/2/ 1898] }
= 0.685

r- Roughness factor
r

= 2(v/ v) / Mt

v/ v

=0.219 (From Table 4.2.5.3)

= 2 x 0.219 / 1.0
= 0.438

w-Factor to account for the second order effects of turbulence intensity


w

= gv.r.(B)1/2 / 4
= 3.7 x 0.438 x (0.685)1/2 / 4
= 0.335

gf- Peak factor


gf = (2 log(3600na))1/2
Natural period of vibration along Y direction obtained after analyzing the modal in SAP 2000
and it is assumed T = 4 sec
Hence, natural frequency of the first mode vibration is,

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-18

na

=1/4
= 0.25

gf

= (2 log(3600 x 0.25))1/2
= 2.43

S-Size factor
S

= 1/ {[1 + (3.5 nah /Vz)] x [1 + (4 nab /Vz)]}

Vz

= V.x Mzcat
= 38 x 0.652
= 24.78 m/s

= 1/ {[1 + (3.5 x 0.25 x 130/ 24.78)] x [1 + (4 x 0.25 x 48 / 24.78)]}


= 0.061

N-Effective reduced frequency

= na x Lh / Vz
= 0.25 x 1898 / 24.78
= 19.14

E- Spectrum of turbulence in the approaching wind stream


E

= 0.47N / (2+ N2)5/6


= 0.47 x 16.64 / (2+ 16.64x16.64)5/6
= 0.065

= 1 + r [ gv2.B. (1 + w)2 + (gf2.S.E / ) ]1/2


= 1 + 0.438 [ 3.72 x 0.685 x (1 + 0.335)2 + (2.432 x 0.061 x 0.065 / 0.01) ]

= 2.91

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-19

3.5 Calculation of Wind Induced Acceleration (Along X direction)


Generally accelerations above 0.05ms2 are perceived by the people. A peak acceleration of
2

0.15ms

to 0.20ms

is often considered as the limiting value at the suitable design wind

speeds.
Along wind acceleration,
a

= ( 2na)2gf.r(SE / )1/2 (/G)


=(2 x 22/7 x 0.25)2 x 2.91 x 0.438 (0.061 x 0.065/0.01)1/2 (/2.91)
= 0.681
=0.681x59/1000
=0.04 ms2 Marginaly Satisfied

Across wind acceleration,


c = [1.5 gf . qh .b(0.76 + 0.24k)(Cfs/ )1/2] / m0
k = 1.0 (Building with a central core and moment resisting facade)
qh = 0.6 Vz2
gf = (2 log(3600nc))1/2
Natural period of vibration along Y direction obtained after analyzing the modal in SAP 2000
and it is assumed T = 4 sec
Hence, natural frequency of the first mode vibration is,

nc

=1/4
= 0.25

gf

= (2 log(3600 x 0.25))1/2
= 2.43

h:b:d =130:48:36
=3.6 : 1.33 :1
Vh/ncb =24.78/(0.25 x48)
= 2.065

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-20

Cfs = 0.0022 (Cross wind force spectrum coefficient)


m0 = 262 kg / m
= [1.5 gf . qh .b(0.76 + 0.24k)(Cfs/ )1/2] / m0

= [1.5 x 2.43 x 0.303 x 48 (0.76 + 0.24 x 1.0 )(22/7 x 0.0022/ 0.01)1/2] /262
= 0.168 ms-2

4.0 Earthquake Analysis


4.1 Determination of the Weight of the Stricture
Number of Columns
Shear Wall Length

=34 Nos.
per floor

=136 m

Beam Length per floor

600mm

=336m

Beam Length per floor

450mm

=336m

Building weight

Columns
Beams
600mm
Beams
450mm
Salb
Shear
walls
Impose
load
Super
impose
Dead
load
Total
Load

Zone

Amount
1x1

Level 0-9
(kN)
2652

Amount
0.9x0.9

Level
10-19
(kN)
21481

336m

10282

336m

252m
1599m2

4989.6
67158
1326

136m

Amount
0.7x0.7

Level
20-29
(kN)
12994

Amount
0.6x0.6

Level 3040 (kN)


9547

10282

336m

10281.
6

336m

10281.6

252m
1599m2

4989.6
67158

252m
1599m2

4989.6
67158

252m
1599m2

4989.6
67158

136m

1326

136m

1326

136m

1326

4.5kNm2

71955

2.5kNm
(60%)

43973

2.75kNm

2.75kNm

202335

23985

2.5kNm
(60%)

43973

2.75kNm

173194

Table 5 Load Summary


Total
building
load
Building
volume

701495

kN

224640

m3

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-21

23985

2.5kNm
(60%)

43972.5

2.75kNm

164707

23985

43972.5

161260

Density of the building

= 3.12 KN/ m3

4.2 Determination of the Base Shear


V = ZIKCSW

V-Base shear
Z-Seismic probability zone factor
Z = 3 / 16 (Minor earthquake)

I-Occupancy importance factor


I = 1.00 (Office building)
K-Building type factor
K = 1.33
T- Fundamental natural period of vibration
T =4 sec
C

= 1/15(T)1/2
= 1/15(T)1/2
= 0.13 < 0.2

S-Soil interaction factor


S = 1.2 (It is assumed cohesionless or stiff clay soil conditions overlying rock at a depth
greater than 200ft in Colombo 03)
W Total dead load and appropriate portions of the live load
W = 701,495 kN

= ZIKCSW

= (3 / 16) x 1.00 x 1.33 x 0.03 x 1.2 x 701,495

= 6,297 kN

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-22

4.3 Determination of Earthquake Forces


X Direction:
The base shear is to act with a minimum eccentricity of 5% of the maximum building
dimension.
Eccentricity, e = 0.05Dmax
= 0.05 x 48
= 2.4m
Base shear will be assigned to frames 2 & 6 as follows.
V2

= 6297 x (12-2.4)/24

V2

= 2518 KN

V6

= 6297-2518 KN
= 3779 KN

Ft

= 0.07 TV
=0.07 x 4 V
=0.28V >0.25V then Ft=0.25V is selected

Ft

= 1574 kN

Ft2

=629 kN

Ft6

=944 kN

Let assume weight at the floor levels is constant.


FX

= (V- Ft) hx / hx

(V- Ft)

=6297-1574
=4723 kN

hx

=3.25(40/2x(1+40)m
=2665m

Fx(2)

= 0.75x2518/2665 hx

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-23

Fx(2)

=0.709 hx

Fx(6)

= 0.75x3779/2665 hx

Fx(6)

= 1.06 hx

Y Direction:
The base shear is to act with a minimum eccentricity of 5% of the maximum building
dimension.
Eccentricity, e = 0.05Dmax
= 0.05 x 48
= 2.4 m
Base shear can be assigned to frames along gridlines C & F as follows.
VC

= 6297 x (8+2.4)/16

VC

= 4093 KN

VE

= 6297-4093 KN
= 2204 KN

Ft

= 0.07 TV
=0.07 x 4 V
=0.28V >0.25V then Ft=0.25V is selected

Ft

=1574

Ftc

=1023

FtE

=550

FX

= (V- Ft)hx / hx

FC

= (0.75 x 4093/2665) hx
=1.15 hx

FE

= (0.75 x 2204/2665) hx
=0.62 hx

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-24

Calculation of Earthquake Load at each level


Earthquake Load
Level

hx (m)

X Direction (kN)

F2
G

1
2

Y Direction (kN)

F6

FC

FE

3.25
6.5

2.30425
4.6085

3.445
6.89

3.7375
7.475

2.015
4.03

9.75

6.91275

10.335

11.2125

6.045

13

9.217

13.78

14.95

8.06

16.25

11.52125

17.225

18.6875

10.075

19.5

13.8255

20.67

22.425

12.09

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

22.75
26
29.25
32.5
35.75
39
42.25
45.5
48.75
52
55.25
58.5
61.75
65
68.25
71.5
74.75
78
81.25
84.5
87.75
91
94.25
97.5
100.75
104
107.25
110.5
113.75
117
120.25

16.12975
18.434
20.73825
23.0425
25.34675
27.651
29.95525
32.2595
34.56375
36.868
39.17225
41.4765
43.78075
46.085
48.38925
50.6935
52.99775
55.302
57.60625
59.9105
62.21475
64.519
66.82325
69.1275
71.43175
73.736
76.04025
78.3445
80.64875
82.953
85.25725

24.115
27.56
31.005
34.45
37.895
41.34
44.785
48.23
51.675
55.12
58.565
62.01
65.455
68.9
72.345
75.79
79.235
82.68
86.125
89.57
93.015
96.46
99.905
103.35
106.795
110.24
113.685
117.13
120.575
124.02
127.465

26.1625
29.9
33.6375
37.375
41.1125
44.85
48.5875
52.325
56.0625
59.8
63.5375
67.275
71.0125
74.75
78.4875
82.225
85.9625
89.7
93.4375
97.175
100.9125
104.65
108.3875
112.125
115.8625
119.6
123.3375
127.075
130.8125
134.55
138.2875

14.105
16.12
18.135
20.15
22.165
24.18
26.195
28.21
30.225
32.24
34.255
36.27
38.285
40.3
42.315
44.33
46.345
48.36
50.375
52.39
54.405
56.42
58.435
60.45
62.465
64.48
66.495
68.51
70.525
72.54
74.555

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-25

38
39
40

123.5
126.75
130

87.5615
89.86575
92.17

130.91
134.355
137.8

142.025
145.7625
149.5

76.57
78.585
80.6

Table 6 Earth quake loads

4.4 Application of the Earthquake Load to the SAP 2000 Modal


A new load case is defined as Earthquake.
A new load combination is defined.
Then the earthquake forces calculated above are assigned to the frames along grid 2 & 6 on
x direction and along C & F on y direction.

5.0 Element Design


Following elements are designed in this model analysis.
1- Pile & Pile Cap
2- Beam
3- Column
4- Slab

5.1Design of Pile
5.1.1 Estimation of Carrying Capacity of a Single Pile
Consider foundation at F-2 column location
Design load on foundation = 21, 550 kN
Assuming bed rock level is 20 m below existing ground level and skin friction values are
assumed as follows. Assumed allowable bearing capacity of rock is 4 N/mm2.

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-26

Pu Column Load

W Self Weignt

P si -Skin
Friction

Ppu -End Bearing

Pu = Ppu + Psi W
Tu = Psi + W
Where,
Pu = Ultimate compressive load on pile
Tu = Ultimate tensile load on pile
Psi = Skin Friction Resistance
W =Weight of pile
Ppu = End bearing resistance
Assuming 1500mm diameter bored cast in-situ R/C pile.

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-27

Average depth of a pile is 20 m.


Hence, End bearing resistance = x 1.52 x 4000/4
Ppu = 7068kN
Assuming ultimate skin friction values as follows

Depth

Aerage

Skin Friction (kN/m2)

From

To

SPT value

(Ultimate)

0,00

10

20

20

10

20

25

25

20

25

30

30

25

30

>50

100

Table 6:1 Skin friction at each depth

Psi

= x 1.5x [20x10+25x10+30x5 +1.5x150]


= 3887kN

Factor of safety 3
Therefore total allowable skin friction

= 3887kN

Total Pile Resistance

= (7068+ 3887)
= 10955 kN

Ultimate compressive load on pile,


Pu

= 10955 x 1.5 2 x 24 x 25/4


= 9895kN

Hence, allowable load on the pile 9895 kN


Design load of the internal column from SAP analysis = 18805 kN
Therefore number of piles required for an internal column location
= 18805/9895 = 1.9
Therefore allow two piles for one internal column location.
Therefore load acting on one pile = 18805/2
= 9402 kN
PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-28

Design load on pile < Allowable load on pile


Hence pile carrying capacity for axial load is satisfied.
Let consider Grade 30 concrete
Working stress of the concrete at pile toe

= (9402 + 1050) / ( x 1.5 2 /4)


= 5.9 N/mm2

< 0.25fcu = 7.5 N/mm2

Required area of reinforcement 1% of Concreter Area = 17671mm2


Required number of 25mm bars

= 17671/490

Number of bars

= 36 Nos

Reinforcement provided = 36Y25 +Y12 @200


Piles should be socketed 1500mm in to parent rock and capacity should be verified by a full
scale load test.
Piled raft can be used for connection of piles to the column. Individual pile caps are not
suitable for this building because the pile caps will be arranged in very congested pattern.

5.2 Determination of Pile Cap Dimensions


Centre to centre distance of the pile (2.5 )

= 2.5 x 1500

Distance from the edge of the pile cap

= 3750 mm
= 400 mm

length of the pile cap

= 3750 + 1500 + 400 + 400


= 6050 mm

Effective depth of the pile cap (2.5 /2)

= 1875 mm

Hence, pile cap dimension is 6050 mm x 2300 mm x 1875 mm

5.2.2 Design of a Pile Cap


pile spacing

Edge distance =
Length of pile cap

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

3750

mm

400

mm

6050

mm

Page-29

Width of pile cap

2100

mm

Ultimate load on pile cap (N)

30500 kN

Assume depth of pile cap

1800

mm

75

mm

1665

mm

Pile cap main reinforcement calculation

cover
Effective depth (d)

Total tensile force in each direction without considering column size

As required

Layer 1 Diameter
Nos

N l / 2d

20608 kN

T /0.87 fy

51495 mm2

40

14

Spacing
Layer 2 Diameter
Nos

131 mm
=

40

14

Spacing
Layer 3 Diameter
Nos

mm

131 mm
=

40

14

Spacing
As Provided

mm

mm

131 mm
=

52769 mm2

Check for punching shear


Punching shear around column perimeter

3.82

N/mm2

0.8fcu =

4.38

N/mm2

Check Satisfied
Since spacing of piles = 3 no further check is required
PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-30

Check for line shear


Column side dimension =

1000

mm
mm

av

1300

V at critical section

15250 kN

5.09

2d/av =

2.56

100As/bd

1.76

vc

2.08

N/mm2

N/mm2

Shear r/f need not to be provided


Determination of Distribution steel
Min Steel

100 As/ Ac

0.13

As

4212

mm2

32

mm

Diameter

Spacing =

175

As

4593

mm2

Determination of Horizontal binders

Use 25% of main steel


As

13192 mm2

32

Nos

15

As Provided

12061 mm2

Diameter

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

mm

Page-31

5.3 Design of a Beam

Fig 7
Design

moments of the beam at first floor level


Max Support moment = 278 kNm
Max Bending moment at span = 189 kNm

5.3.1 Design of Beams


Depth of the Beam

600

mm

Width of the Beam

300

mm

Concrete Strength

30

N/mm2

Assume moderate exposure conditions, for outdoor exposure. Assume a fire resistance of 2 hours.
Cover of the Beam

Assume a link diameter of 10

25

mm

mm and reinforcement size of 25mm

Effective Depth of the Beam = 600-25-10-12.5


= 553mm
Design for Flexure

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-32

Sample calculation is done for hoggin moment at the exterior column


Max. hogging Bending Moment = 278

kNm

moment, exterior support moment will be re-distributed by 10%


Then design support moment
=278x0.9
=250.2 kNm
Reduction in moment =27.8 kNm
At the exterior support ,
K

M/bd2fcu

250.2 x 1000 x 1000/300x5532x30

0.091 < 0.156

Section is singly reinforced

Z = d

0.5

= d

0.5

= d
=
Z

As

0.25 -

K
0.9

0.25 -

0.091
0.9

x 0.886

0.89

d < 0.90d

0.89 d

489 mm

M/(0.87fyZ)

250 x 1000 x 1000


0.87x460x489
=

Minimum reinforcement =

Therefore As

=
=
=

1278 mm2
0.13/100bh
0.13/(300x600x100)
234 mm2
1278 mm2

Provide 3T25 ( 1470 mm2)


PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-33

Design for Shear


From Sap2000 Results
Vmax

268kN

Vmax

V/ bd

vmax

268 x 1000 /300 x 553

1.62

0.887

100As/bd

N/mm2

Use R8 @ 100mm spacing

5.4 Design of a Column

Column Axial Force

Column Major Moment

Column Miner moment

Ultimate
Axial
Load

26785 kN

Majour B/M

64 kNm

Miner B/M

18 kNm

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-34

Column Size
Concrete Grade

1000mm x 1000mm
50 N/mm2

Top Condition
Bottom Condition

=
=

Condition 2
Condition 1

5.4.1 Effective Height Calculation


For X-X / Y-Y Direction
q

L=3.25 m

So ,

pq
o x

=
=
=

1.3
3.25 - 0.6
2.65 m

ex

=
=

1.3

x
x

3.45

=
=

3.45
3.4

ex , ey

o
2.65

5.4.2 Check for slenderness


ex /h

= ey/h

1
< 10

The column is a short column.


60 b

=
=
>

60 x
72 m

1200

/ 1000

Slenderness limit is not exceeded.

Considering 40% live load reduction ,Critical load combination 1.4 Gk + 1.6 (0.6) Qk

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-35

5.4.3 Design of Longitudinal R/F


N

26785

kN

Mx

68 kNm

My

=
18 kNm
N emin
N
x (0.05 h or 20mm or lesser)
26785 x (0.05 x 1000 or 20)
536
kNm
MMin

Critical section for the design lies at the top.

Minimum moment (MMin)

=
=
=
=

Mxx and Myy

<

Uniaxial bending about Minor Axis


Design bending moment about y-y,
My

536

=
=

=
N
bh

d/h
fcu

1000

1000
0.54

536
x 10 6
x
1000
x

26785 x 10 3
1000 x
1000
26.79

=
=
=

929 / 1000
0.94
50 N/mm2

1.3
1.3 x 1000 x
1000

mm

1000 - 45 - 10 - (32/2)
929
mm

b h2

kNm

1000

Chart No 39
100 Asc / bh
Asc

100
2

13000 mm

24 x x (32/2)2

19301 mm2 > Required Asc

Steel Provided 24 No. Y 32 bars.


Asc provided

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-36

5.4.4 Design for seismic effects


Asc provided

=
=

24 x x (32/2)2
1000 x 1000
1.93%

x 100

48 x x (32/2)2
1000 x 1000
3.86
%
6%

x 100

1% < Asc provided < 4%


Longitudinal R/F O.K.
Asc at lap

=
=
<

Lap R/F is O.K.


Check for shear:

From Sap2000

M/N

35

21765

0.75h
V

=
=

0.75
15

0.8

=
=

15
x
1000
1000 x
929
0.02 N/mm2
5.0 N/mm2 > v

m >M/N
kN

Hence shear r/f is not required.


5.4.5 Check for Deflection:
For unbraced columns:
le / h = 5.58 / 1
=
Hence no check is required for deflection.

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-37

5.58

<

30

= 0.002 m

5.5 Design of a Slab


Assume Following parameters

Slab thickness
=
Slab self-weight =
Finishes
=

175 mm
4.20 kN/m2
1.00 kN/m2

Partitions

1.00 kN/m2

Services

1.00 kN/m2

Total DL

7.20 kN/m2

Slab Live load


Design Load

2.50 kN/m2

N =1.4 Gk +1.6 Qk =14.08 kN/m2


6
Lx = 6m
Ly = 8m
Ly / Lx =
1.3 < 2
Two way spanning slab

Select Corner panel Two adjacent edges discontinues


Moment Coefficients.
Short span, continues edge
0.069
Short span, at mid-span
0.051
Long span ,at continues edge
0.045
Long span, at mid-span
0.034
Maximum design moment per unit width
Msx

B sx n lx2

Msy

=
=
=
=
=

Bsy n lx2
34.97
25.85
22.81
17.23

Short span, continues edge


Short span, at mid-span
Long span ,at continues edge
Long span, at mid-span

kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m
kNm/m

5.5.1 Design of reinforcement


Let use 10 mm RF with 25 mm cover , fcu =30 N/mm2, d=145mm
Short way, mid span RF
K= M/bd2 fcu
= 0.041
Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =
0.96 d
Z=
137.75 mm
As(req) = M /0.87 fy Z

= 469 mm2

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-38

> 0.95d

Use T 10 @ 150
As provided = 520> As Req
Maximum spacing between bars < 3d
3d =

435

> 150 mm

Minimum R/F
100 As/ Ac =

0.13

As min=227 < As Provided


5.5.2 Deflection check
Maximum moment at mid span
Mmax

25.9 kNm/m

1.23

Service stress at steel Fs

343 N/mm2

M/bd

Modification factor for tension reinforcement


Ft
=
Basic (span / d )
Allowable (span / d)
Actual (span / d)

T 3.11
1.81

=
=
=

26
47
41

<

5.5.3 Short way, support (top R/F)


K= M/bd2 fcu
=
0.055
Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =0.953 d > 0.95d
Z=
138 mm
As = M /0.87 fy Z

634

mm2

Use T 12 @ 175
(As) provided =645 > 634 ,(As, required)

5.5.54 Long way, mid span (bottom R/F)


Effective depth

135

mm

K= M/bd2 fcu
=
0.027
Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =
Z=
128

0.966 d > 0.95d


mm

As = M /0.87 fy Z

mm2

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

336

Page-39

47

Use T 10 @ 200
(As) provided =

393

> 336, As, req

5.5.6 Long way, support (top R/F)


K= M/bd2 fcu
=
0.042
Z = d {0.5 + SQRT (0.25- K/0.9)} =
Z=
127
As = M /0.87 fy Z

0.94 d
mm

= 448 mm2

Use T 10 @ 150
(As) provided =523 > 442, As, req
100 As /Ac

0.13

Minimum As
For T 10 @ 250

228 mm2/m

(As) provided

314 mm2/m

5.5.7 Check for shear


Shear force induced at support V =

Short way support V =

Bv n lx

0.4 x 13.03
x6
v = V/bd

=
=

31.27 kN/m
0.216

100 As/bd =0.271


Vc =0.52 N/mm2
Vc >V T 3.17
No shear r/ f required

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-40

( T 3.9 )

5.5 Design Shear wall


Wall is classified as braced column
Top condition
Bottom condition
Value of for braced wall

=
=
=

2
1
0.75

o
e

=
3.25
= 0.95 x 3.25
= 3.1 m
Wall thickness at graound floor is 300mm.
e/h
= 3.1 / 0.3
= 10.3
< 15
Therefore the wall is short.
For all load combinations wall is subjected to compression only.
Calculation of Compression Capacity
Maximum axial load on wall
fcu

=
=
=

3384kN/m
54144
40

x 16
kN

fy
= 460 N/mm2
Assume 1% of reinforcement in the wall.
Total design axial load on wall,
nw
0.35 fcu Ac + 0.67 Asc fy
(0.35x40x300x16000) +
(0.67x0.01x300x16000x460)
81993kN
Hence compression capacity of wall with 1% of reinforcement is
satisfactory.
Design of vertical reinforcement
Required reinforement

=
=
=
=

1% of Ac
1x300x16000 / 100
48000mm2
2000 mm2/m/per layer

Provide T16 bars at 100 mm spacing. (Aspro = 2010 mm2/m)


Design of horizontal reinforcement
Required reinforcement

=
=
=
=

0.25% of Ac
0.25x300x1000 / 100
750 mm2/m
375 mm2/m/per layer

Provide T12 bars at 200 mm spacing. (As pro = 786 mm2/m)

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-41

6.0. References
1. B.S.8110 Part1:1985, The Structural Use of Concrete (Code of Practice for Design and
Construction)
2. B.S.6399 Part1:1996, Loadings on buildings( Code of Practice for dead and Imposed
loads)
3. AS1170.2-1989, Minimum Design Loads on Structures part 2: Wind Loads,
Standards Australia, New South Wales.
4. AS 1170.4-1993, Structural design actions Part 4: Earthquake actions , Standards
Australia, New South Wales.
5. Jayasinghe, M.T.R, Wind loads for tall buildings in Sri lanka, Seminar on structural
design for wind loading, Society of Structural Engineers, Sri lanka,2008.
6. Wijeratne, M.D., Jayasinghe, M.T.R., Wind loads for high-rise buildings constructed
in Sri Lanka, Transactions Part 2- Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka, 1998,

PG/DIP Structural Engineering

Page-42