Unit 6: Industry and Reform Questions 2009-2010 Honors/AP American Studies/Mr.

Willecke Chapter 12: Industry and the North AP Terms: Lowell, Massachusetts; Transportation Revolution, Erie Canal, Market Revolution, Putting-out system, McCormick’s Reaper, American System of Manufactures Part I: Preindustrial Ways of Working 1. What was Lowell, Massachusetts? What made it unusual? Evaluate the lives of those who lived there. (AP Term: Lowell, Massachusetts) AP Term: Lowell, Massachusetts Lowell, Massachusetts was a model factory town built in 1823. It had one of the first cotton factories, and was also one of the first areas to allow women to work. It was a transition place for unmarried women to go between the farm with their parents and entering a traditional marriage. For the women, it was a “philanthropic manufacturing college” which advertised the classes it provided after working hours. The investors wanted Lowell projected as a town “free of dirt, poverty, and social disorder” (382). They were very into perfection, and it was considered a community, not just a work place. This was the very first idea of a business selling itself to its workers. It died in 1850 after people began to turn towards the cheaper immigrant labor. 2. What are the important features of rural life before the industrial revolution (preindustrial)? What were the advantages and disadvantage of this way of living? Include the observations of your own in addition to those of the textbook authors. Rural: • Pros: o Sense of community and family o Determining your own product’s worth/bartering system o Personal marketplace (you know where everything came from, who made it…) o No fixed production schedule/seasonal o Run by skilled craftsmen • Cons: o Everything you do is under the microscope o Isolated values o Mixed home and work life o Fate is set (you’re not going to move very far from where you’re born) Industrial: • Pros: o Choice and freedom (you choose what you do) o Cosmopolitan o Very separate home and work life o Rise of the middle class • Cons: o Impersonal marketplace (lack of morality: you don’t care about the person in the sweatshop to make the product because they’re half a world away) o Very strict, monotonous work schedule o Assembly line—no skill needed, no specialization

Part II: The Transportation Revolution 3. AP Term: Transportation Revolution. What was problematic about transportation by road in the early republic? What advantages did Canals offer? Transportation during most of the year by roads was very difficult. Mud and snow made traveling by roads slow and uncomfortable. The canals made the shipping of bulky goods was made a lot easier. AP Term: Transportation Revolution The Transportation Revolution occurred between 1800 and 1840. There was a huge improvement in both travel by land and by water. The major government funded project that related to roads was the National Road in 1808. The local attempts to improve local roads were not as successful. The canals were a major part of the Transportation Revolution. They made shipping from east to west a lot cheaper, and the people who lived along the canals also gained profits. With the canals came the steamboats. These shortened the trips upstream, making travel faster. However, once the railroads were built, the canals were forgotten. These new methods of transportation allowed for economic growth and people to move west. However, it also brought disease and epidemics. 4. What happened to homespun cloth along the Erie Canal? What is the a larger metaphor for? How did the Erie Canal compare to other canals at the time? (AP Term: Erie Canal) The demand for homespun cloth along the Erie Canal decreased. It was cheaper to buy cloth from passing ships than to buy from people locals. This is a larger metaphor for the decrease in local products, and what would become the Industrial Revolution. AP Term: Erie Canal The Erie Canal was the most famous canal during that time period. It was proposed by New York governor DeWitt Clinton in 1817. It was finished in 1825. The Canal (40ft wide, 4 ft deep, 364mi long if you need to know that) made a huge impact. Settlers were drawn from the East to the area, as transportation for goods and people was made relatively easy. Small towns become cities as commerce increased, and the middle class began to form. The Erie Canal’s success lead to the construction of many other canals in the United States. 5. In what various ways did the construction of railroads stimulate industrial growth? The construction of the railroads required materials from very many industries, leading to the growth of those industries. The steel, logging, and mining industries were a few of many industries which benefitted from the construction. Part III: The Market Revolution 6. What were the three interrelated developments of the Market Revolution? Explain each. (AP Term: Market Revolution). AP Term: Market Revolution The Market Revolution was a combination of three separate revolutions: the Industrial Revolution, the Commercial Revolution, and the Transportation Revolution. Refer to Transportation AP Term for information about that. The Commercial revolution was the replacement of household self-sufficiency and barter with production in the cash market. The Industrial revolution was the use of power-driven machinery for mass production and take over jobs previously done by hand.

7. The textbook describes the Market Revolution as “the most fundamental change American communities ever experienced.” Explain how it changed daily lives. • Introduction of a wage system • Rise of the middle class • Increase in waste-output • Deterioration of community relationships 8. The textbook discusses capital at length, but fails to really define it or put it in the broad context of the field of economics. Do some research and be ready to discuss capital in broad economic terms. What is the connection between capital and industrialization? Industrialization caused a huge increase in capital. 9. What was the Putting-Out-System? Why did it happened when it did (or why didn’t people do these things before)? How, specifically, did it contribute to more formal industrialization? How did farmers feel about it? (AP Term: Putting out system) AP Term: Putting-Out System The putting-out system was devised by cheap people who found a way to gain cheap labor. It was an geographically diffused assembly line. A merchant would go around to farms and drop off a few raw materials. The people on the farm, usually the women, would use the raw materials to make a specific part of a product. The merchant would then come around and pay the family a certain sum per finished piece. The pieces of the product would all be collected from the various locations, and would be assembled at a certain place, and then sold. It wasn’t previously done due to specialization. You had artisans to make them. However, the putting out system made production cheaper for the merchants (you only had to pay the workers for the product, not the materials, and there was no value added, because it wasn’t a finished product), and also a lot faster. This was an early form of the assembly line which was essential to the Industrial Revolution. Farmers were fine with it, it gave them more money. Artisans hated it, because the system destroyed their business. 10. What was so impressive about McCormick’s reaper? What paradox did it create in the lives of farmers regarding wealth and debt? (AP Term: McCormick’s Reaper) AP Term: McCormick’s Reaper McCormick’s Reaper was patented in 1834. It basically allowed a farmer to harvest four times as much wheat than if he were to do it by hand. Farmers rushed to buy it, and in the years that there was a good harvest, they were fine. However, the years when they had a bad harvest thrust the farmer into more debt, possibly facing foreclosure. This made the farmers more economically vulnerable, but they farmer also couldn’t not buy the reaper because he wouldn’t be able to keep up with other farmers, and would die anyways. 11. What was “The American System” and how did it come to be? What did Americans figure out how to do that the British had not? (AP Term: American System of Manufactures). AP Term: American System of Manufactures The American System was the concept of interchangeable parts. A product would be separated into component parts, and an exact mold was made for each. A uniform standard was then established. If a product malfunctioned, you could then easily replace that part, instead of having to buy a whole new one. The British had not yet figure out how to standardize manufacturing of parts, requiring fewer products to be made.

Part IV: From Artisan to Worker 12. What effect did industrialization and mechanization have on skilled, male workers? Women? Children? Industrialization lead to the breakdown of the family work system and the relationship between master craftsmen and his workers, which ultimately hurt artisans. Time and skill was no longer required in order to make a product. Women were no longer to spin or weave inside the home. Instead, they could do textile work on the factories, or do something else. But in the factories, the hours were long, and the wages low, especially due to overcrowding. The invention of the sewing machine only brought wages lower. Also, the women no longer returned to the farm, but married one of the urban men, or just continued to work. For children, they were no longer needed as apprentices. Both women and children found more voices now that the patriarchal system was gone, but apprenticeship was then replaced by slave labor. 13. How did time, work, and leisure change with the switch from preindustrial to industrial work? Which do you think is better and why? Are there any parallels to changes in work today (perhaps accurately labeled as post-industrial)? Preindustrial work was flexible and seasonal. You could take a few hours off when you wanted to, and you followed the seasons. During the winter, you could slack off, while in the summer you worked full hours. Leisure was mixed with work. Meanwhile, the factories had very clear conditions. You would work twelve hours a day for six days, and would work for the full time. Leisure and work were now two separate activities, you could not mix the two. Part V: A New Social Order 14. In what ways was the new Middle-Class family different from what had come before? How did the concept of a home change? What traits came to be valued in middle-class man? Middle-class woman? The middle-class family roles were shaped by the market revolution. There was the breadwinning father and the nurturing mother. The husbands now spent more time away from home than at home, in order to work and earn money. They were no longer the undisputed head of a family unit that combined work and personal life. Men were to be steady, industrious, responsible and painstakingly attentive to their work. The women stayed at home to raise the children, but what they did no longer directly contributed to the family income. Their “woman’s sphere” (the home) was all that they could operate in. They were expected to nurturing, gentle, kind, moral and selflessly-devoted to their families. 15. In what various ways did parents come to think differently about children as a result of industrialization and new middle-class realities? Children were now more of a burden than a help. Less children were born, and they required more family resources to raise. 16. The last two sections, From Artisan to Worker and A New Social Order, described the creation of modern industrial social structure? Do you think this is essentially the current modern reality, or have we changed enough to be called something like “post-industrial”? Explain your thinking. I think we are a post-industrial period. The definition of the roles of men and women has shifted.

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