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Module II : Reading & Writing

by Pradeep Kumar Sahoo

Dept. of English, CUTM

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Chapter - 5


To develop the skill to
write a well structured

5.1 Topic sentence:

A topic sentence states the gist of the idea to be developed in the paragraph. The other
sentences of the paragraph develop, support, exemplify and explain the central theme.
The topic sentence may be placed either at the beginning or end or in the middle portion of
the paragraph depending on the logical organization in the paragraph. Sometimes, a topic
sentence may not be included and the main idea is expressed through details only. In order to
write an appropriate topic sentence, the writer should concentrate on the theme of the

5.2.1 Unity
Unity is the principle of oneness. Unity in communication means that the components, as
well as the whole, deal with one main idea, thought or thesis. Any writing, which does not
have unity, distracts the reader and ceases to be purposeful.
A paragraph develops a single idea related to the central theme. Each sentence in the
paragraph is directly related to that idea and contributes to its development. In order to
maintain the unity of a paragraph, only one main thought should be expressed in a paragraph.
The related ideas should be subordinated. There should be no digression and the main idea of
the paragraph should not be sidelined or forgotten.
5.2.2 Coherence:
Coherence is very important paragraph writing. In cohesive paragraph, ideas are linked, and
one idea logically leads to the next. As one word in a sentence naturally leads to another one
sentence in a paragraph leads to another. In order to achieve coherence in a paragraph, one
needs to use appropriate cohesive devices that may include covert linkers such as pronouns
and overt transitional expressions such as sentence linkers and sequence words and phrases.
Dept. of English, CUTM

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5.3 Using connectives for clear and easy understanding

A sentence linker connects two sentences in a paragraph. It may consist of a single word or a
phrase. One may use common pronouns such as: they, we, it or demonstrative pronouns such
as this, that, these and those in order to achieve coherence in a paragraph.
The sentence linkers/transitional signals are used in a paragraph to connect the phrases and
sentences together and show the logical relation between them, thus, ensuring coherence,
order and continuity of thought.
Usually the words like first, firstly, second, secondly, then, next etc are used as the
sequence words.

5.4 Organizing a Paragraph

A paragraph has a logical structure where the central theme contained in the topic sentence in
expanded. As one word in a sentence leads to another word, one sentence in a paragraph
leads to another. As a sentence cannot be meaningful without the correct arrangement of
words, a paragraph cannot be meaningful without the correct arrangement of sentences. Thus
organization of sentences in a paragraph is determined by nature of information and style of

5.5 Adequate Development of Supporting Details

A paragraph should be developed in a logical manner. It should be organized in such a way
that one sentence leads on naturally to the next. The main idea is reflected in the topic
sentence. The supporting details are expressed in the other sentences in a very logical manner
to make the paragraph a cohesive one.

5.6 Cohesion and Coherence in a Paragraph

The sentences in a paragraph should be linked to each other through the use of grammatical
devices, such as the use of articles, pronouns, conjunctions etc. the repetition of key-words in
a paragraph also helps to provide cohesion.
For example:
John has scored a century in this match. He will be declared as the man of the match.
The different sentences in a paragraph should be logically connected to each other by a
common thread of meaning.
For example:
Its a good practice to be a vegetarian. Many of the celebrities in India are vegetarians.

Dept. of English, CUTM

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Long Answer Type Questions:
1. Read the passage and answer the following questions.
Passage- 1
I climbed into bed and rolled myself in my blankets, first extinguishing the light that burned
steadily near the door. I lay still trying to get to sleep but my fear made that impossible and
soon I sat up in bed peering into the darkness aid occasionally glancing at the round window
in the sick of the ship which seemed like a plate suspended in the darkness. For an hour I
must have sat like this, and then I was suddenly roused by a draught of cold air. I jumped out
of bed, not having allowed for the motion of the ship. I was instantly thrown violently across
the room.
a. The author sat peering into the darkness, because:
a. He had put out the light
b. He wished to see the window
c. The window had looked like a plate
d. He was afraid
b. The author jumped out of bed because:
a. He heard a faint sound
b. He saw someone coming towards him
c. A cold breeze blew past his face
d. He was pushed by someone
c. The author was thrown across the room, because:
a. He was lying at the edge of the bed
b. The ship started moving
c. He tried to jump from the bed
d. A storm rose at the sea
d. Which one of the following did the author do first?
a. Closing a door
b. Climbing into bed
c. Rolling himself into blankets
d. Putting out the lamp
e. The phrase not having allowed for means:
a. Not pennitting the ship to move
b. Refusing to come out of bed
c. Not being prepared for the fall
d. Refusing to light the lamp again
Passage- II

Dept. of English, CUTM

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Ordinarily, nothing upset the equilibrium of the pandit. But the loss of the necklace which his
wife had borrowed from a neighbor, and the fact that he had to replace it worried him. He
spent all his time in devising ways and means to repay the debt. Six months later, he gave his
wife a gold necklace. It was exactly what she had yearned for. There is no need to repay it,
she said. The pandit was surprised. She explained, The necklace was not stolen. That was the
only way I could think of making you get me one.
1. The pandit was almost never upset as he:
a. Had the courage to face a problem
b. Had a balanced attitude
c. Was indifferent to ordinary incidents
d. Always succeeded in finding a solution to his problem
2. What worried the pandit most was that:
a. His wife had lost the necklace
b. He had to replace the necklace
c. His wife was so foolish and careless
d. The necklace was very expensive
3. The pandit struggled for six months so that:
a. He could present a necklace to his wife
b. He could lend the necklace to others
c. His wife could replace the lost necklace
d. His wife could satisfy her desire to own a necklace
4. The reason why pandits wife refused to return the necklace was that:
a. She had always wanted one like it
b. The real owner did not expect it back
c. She had not lost any necklace
d. She was tempted to keep this one for herself
5. The pandits wife wad told him a lie in order to:
a. Trick him into satisfying her yearning
b. Punish him for refusing to get her what she desired
c. Make him repay a debt.
d. Force him to work hard to earn more and more
Passage -III
Since modern industrial society is highly organized, if there is a strike a vital industry, the
whole community suffers. I am not arguing that the right to strike should be abolished. I am
only arguing that, if it is to be preserved, it must be for reasons concerned with this particular
matter, and not on general grounds of personal liberty. In a highly organized country to
everybody, and without which there would be widespread hardship.
1. A strike is generally regarded as:
a. An act of indiscipline
b. An expression of individual freedom
c. A gross violation of rules

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d. An undemocratic act
The author is of the opinion that
a. All strikes are bad
b. Strikes should always be encouraged
c. Strikes should be suppressed by all means
d. Strikes may be there in the interest of the general good
In the light of this passage, if there is a strike in a soap factory, it may be viewed as:
a. A serious matter
b. A matter of deep concern
c. Not a serious matter
d. A thing not likely to happen
The phrase this particular matter refers to:
a. The unity of the strikers
b. The fact that industrial society is highly organized
c. The suffering of the strikes
d. The interests of the factory owners
According to the author which one of the following best describes the industrial
a. In an industrial society the individual member is not important
b. In an industrial society power is concentrated in the hands of a few
c. In an industrial society members are dependent on each other
d. Industrial society is blind to the needs of its members

Passage IV
Pablo Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent from a very young age. His first word was
lapiz (Spanish for pencil) and he learnt to draw before he could talk. He was the only son in
the family and very good-looking, so he was thoroughly spoilt. He hated school and often
refused to go unless his doting parents allowed him to take one of his fathers pet pigeons
with him.
A part from pigeons, his great love was art, and when in 1891 his father, who was an
amateur Pablo went with him to the college. He often watched his father paint and sometimes
was allowed to help. One evening his father was painting a picture, of their pigeons when he
had to leave the room. He A returned to find that Pablo had completed the picture, and it was
so amazingly beautiful and life-like that he gave his son his own palette and brushed and
never painted again. Pablo was just 13.
1. As boy Pablo Picasso was:
a. Ordinary looking
b. Handsome and talented
c. Handsome and studious
d. Handsome and hardworking
2. He was spoilt mostly because he was:
a. A smart boy

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b. Loved by one and all

c. The only son in the family
d. Always surrounded by notorious boys
3. Picasso went to school only when:
a. His friends accompanied him
b. His father went with him
c. He was allowed to paint at
d. He was allowed to carry a pet with turn
4. When his father painted in the college, Pablo:
a. Occasionally helped him
b. Rarely helped him
c. Always helped him
d. Invariably helped him
5. Pablos father gave up painting because he:
a. Did not like the job
b. Retired from the college
c. Was impressed by his sons talent
d. Lost interest in painting
Passage V
Ravi Shankar has a large circle of friend and is very popular at parties. Everybody admires
him for his fine sense of humor,except his six-year old daughter Meenakshi. Recently one of
Ravisfriend asked him to make a speech at a reception on the sort of thing that Ravi loves.
He prepared the speech carefully and went the party with Meenakshi. He had included a large
number of funny story in the speech and, of course, it was a great success. As soon as he had
finished Meenakshi told him she wanted to go home. Ravi was a little disappointed by us but
he did as his daughter asked. On the way home, he asked Meenakshiif she had enjoyed the
speech. To his surprise, she hadnt. Ravi asked her why this was so and she told him that she
did not like to see so many people laughing at him.
1. Ravi was popular because
a. He made speeches
b. He told stories
c. He had good sense of humor
d. He loved parties
2. Ravi loves to
a. Meet people
b. Talk to his daughter
c. Make a speech
d. Make people laugh
3. Ravi went to the party
a. With his wife
b. With his daughter
c. With his mother
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d. With his friend

4. Ravi was disappointed because
a. Meenakshi did not enjoy his speech
b. Meenakshi wanted to go home immediately after the speech
c. People did not like this speech
d. Meenakshi did not like people laughing at Ravi
5. Meenakshi failed to realize that
a. The party was over
b. Everyone had been laughing at Ravis stories, not at Ravi
c. Ravi had finished his speech
d. It was a reception party

Passage VI
Jogging, or running at an easy pace, is really popular now. Its fun, free and a quick way to
get fit. Its very good for suppleness or upper body strength.
Theres some risk of overuse injury to feet, knees, ankles and hips. But if you dont
overdo it, at first, and run on soft surface like grass when you can, you shouldnt have serious
problems. If you have arthritis in your legs, hips or back or if you are overweight, try cycling
or swimming instead.
The only expense is a good pair of running shoes. Avoid busy roads and jogging at
nigh if possible. Wear light-colored clothes so as not to feel uneasy a d a cyclists reflective
chest band.
1. Jogging is a popular exercise because it
a. Makes the body strong
b. Is an easy way to keep oneself fit
c. Is eminently enjoyable
d. Makes the body supple
2. Sometimes jogging can become risky when
a. The person is suffering from arthritis
b. It is done speedily
c. It is overdone
d. It is done on a lawn
3. Jogging is not advised for people who
a. Are overweight
b. Are very busy
c. Have bad legs
d. Are not very strong
4. Everybody can afford to jog as it
a. Does not require expensive outfit
b. Required less effort

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c. Requires less space

d. Does not need strength
5. While jogging, one should wear light-coloured clothes
a. As a protection from the sun
b. To feel light
c. To feel easy
d. To feel comfortable

Answer the following questions:

1) What are the importance developing reading skills? What is the difference between
local and global reading?
2) Discuss about the tips for improving reading speed.
3) What do you mean by reading between the lines?
4) What is the difference between skimming and scanning?
5) What do you mean by understanding the writers point of view?

Short Questions:

What do you mean by topic sentence in a paragraph?

Topic Sentence generally occurs in the beginning of a paragraph. (True/ False)
What are the main contents of a paragraph?
What do you mean by cohesion in a paragraph?
What do you mean by coherence in a paragraph?

Dept. of English, CUTM

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