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In this course we are asked to create our own Digital Language Learning Material
and it is actually a useful tool that we can use during our teaching learning in the

to create motivating, memorable and inclusive learning experiences.
to enhance students' classroom experiences and improve learning outcomes.
Varying the delivery method of instruction.
They are more flexible, and therefore better for teaching and learning.
They can be kept up to date while textbooks in areas other than math can
become dated quickly.
Can reduce costs-paper waste.
Theories of teaching and learning

A search in contemporary dictionaries reveals that learning is "acquiring or

getting of knowledge of a subject or a skill by study, experience, or instruction."
A more specialized definiton might read as follows: "Learning, is relatively
permanent change in behavioral tendency and is the result of reinforced
practice"(Kimble and Garmezy 1963:133).

Teaching may be defined as

"showing or helping someone to learn how to do something, giving instructions,

guiding in the study of something, providing with knowledge, causing to know or

Teaching cannot be defined apart from learning. Nathan Gage (1964:269) noted
that "to satisfy the practical demands of education, theories of learning must be
'stood on their head' so as to yield theories of teaching." Teaching is guiding and
facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn, setting the conditions for
learning. If, like B.F. Skinner, you look at learning as a process of operant
conditioning through a carefully paced program of reinforcement, you will teach
accordingly. If you view second language learning basically as a deductive

rather than an inductive process, you will probably to choose present copious
rules and paradigms to your students rather than let them "discover" those rules
inductively Jerome Bruner (1966b:40-41).

Based on the theories above, it clearly stated that teaching and learning should engage,
challenge and motivate learners. By using the digital language learning material we
believe that pupils can get all the benefits and could achieve all the aims and goals
needed by Ministry of Education as well.

Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic
achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional periodtypically at the end of a project,
unit, course, semester, program, or school year. Generally speaking, summative assessments are
defined by three major criteria:

The tests, assignments, or projects are used to determine whether students have learned
what they were expected to learn. In other words, what makes an assessment summative
is not the design of the test, assignment, or self-evaluation, per se, but the way it is used

i.e., to determine whether and to what degree students have learned the material they have
been taught.

Summative assessments are given at the conclusion of a specific instructional period, and
therefore they are generally evaluative, rather than diagnostici.e., they are more
appropriately used to determine learning progress and achievement, evaluate the
effectiveness of educational programs, measure progress toward improvement goals, or
make course-placement decisions, among other possible applications.

Summative-assessment results are often recorded as scores or grades that are then
factored into a students permanent academic record, whether they end up as letter grades
on a report card or test scores used in the college-admissions process. While summative
assessments are typically a major component of the grading process in most districts,
schools, and courses, not all assessments considered to be summative are graded.


When giving tests it is important that everything possible be done to obtain valid results.
Cheating, poor testing, conditions, and test anxiety, as well as errors in test scoring procedures
contribute to invalid test results. Many of these factors may be controlled by practicing good test
administration procedures. Practicing these procedures will prove to be less time consuming and
less troublesome than dealing with problems resulting from poor procedures.
The following guidelines are intended to:

Ensure that examinees do their own work.

Create a comfortable physical and mental test climate.
Provide order and control.
Before the Test:
Take the test yourself or have a colleague do so.
Check the room conditions, i.e. temperature, lighting, and space.
Check materials inventory, i.e. tests, answer sheets, spare pencils etc.
Arrange for proctors who know the examinees.
Sequentially number the tests ( facilitates counting, distribution of tests, preparation of seating
and verification all tests have been returned).


Test instructions should include information about guessing, use of time, and marking the
answer sheets. It maybe helpful to warn examinees to do their own work. Caution
students to double check coding of Name and ID Number and Section Number on each

test - especially the first test if a cumulative record is to be maintained.

Distribute tests systematically by sequence number, accounting for all materials at all
times. If possible, distribute and collect alternate forms by rows with adjacent rows
receiving different test forms. Be observant to prevent test booklet and/or answer sheet
exchanges. Color coding of alternate forms may be helpful in this regard.

After the Test:

Account for all materials immediately. Record counts.
Double check accuracy of the key
Separate answer sheets by test form.