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Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Objectives

This tutorial covers the following subjects in detail: • Loading a DTF file into CFD-ACE-GUI. • Setting properties of a fluid. • Setting Boundary and Initial conditions. • Setting Solution Controls such as iteration count; requesting graphics output etc. • Submitting the model for solution. • Post-processing for drag force. Assumptions (requirements) for working this tutorial: 1. You are working in the directory where the tutorial problem resides.

Problem Description

U = 1.0 m/s

D = 0.2 m

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

The problem to be simulated consists of laminar flow at a Reynolds number of 1.0 around an infinite stationary cylinder. The “infiniteness” of the cylinder is captured by performing a 2D simulation (i.e. thus assuming it to be infinite in the 3rd dimension.) The goal of the simulation is to determine the drag force on the cylinder. The Reynolds number can be calculated as: UD - , Re = -------n where U is the average inlet velocity, D is the cylinder diameter, and n is the kinematic viscosity. For this simulation the cylinder diameter is 0.2 m. We will use an inlet velocity of 1.0 m/s and a kinematic viscosity of 0.2 m2/s2 to produce the desired Reynolds number of 1.0.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

**Modules and Features Used
**

Modules Major Features Gas Phase Reaction Surface Reaction Arbitrary Interface BC Thin Wall BC Cyclic BC Fan Model Momentum Resistance Rotating System Parallel Processing User Subroutines Transient Other Features 3D

• Flow

Heat Transfer (Heat) Turbulence (Turb) Chemistry User Scalar (Scalar) Radiation (Rad) Spray Free Surface (VOF) Two-Phase (Fluid2) Cavitation (Cav) Grid Deformation (Deform) Stress Plasma Electric (Electr) Magnetic (Magnet) Kinetics Semi Device

• 2D Planar

2D Axisym

Procedure

1. Load the DTF File.

From the File menu, select Open or click on the open button located on the tool bar. A File Open dialog box appears showing the files in the current directory.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Select the file named “cylinder.DTF” and press The DTF file is read into CFD-ACE-GUI and a the “Accept” button to read the file. wireframe outline of the model appears in the viewing window. Note that since we expect a symmetric solution, we have only gridded one-half of the geometry. This is done to save computational time. The control panel on the right is in the Problem Type (PT) setting mode.

Place the mouse cursor in the Viewer Window and press the Right-mouse button.

A right-click menu is provided.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Select the option “Simulation Properties...” from A “Simulation Properties” window will appear. the right-click menu.

In the General tab, change the Description type- The title will be echoed to the model output file in field to “Reynolds Number = 1” when the solution is run.

**2. Specify the Problem Type Settings.
**

Ensure that the Problem Type [PT] tab is active so that the control panel is in Problem Type setting mode. Under Available Modules activate the Flow module.

.

Activation of the Flow Module implies solution of the U, V, and Pressure Correction equations for this 2D simulation

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

**3. Specify the Model Options.
**

Press the Model Options [MO] tab to activate the The Model Options page has a tab for each of Model Options setting page. the Modules that were activated earlier. In this case, there will only be one tab for Flow.

Under the Shared tab ensure the following: • Time Dependence set to Steady. • Gravity and Rotation body forces are off. • Polar option set to Non Axisymmetric. Under the Flow tab ensure the following; • Simplified Flow Model is off • Slip Walls is off • Reference pressure is 100000

These are generally the defaults.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

**4. Specify the Volume Condition Properties.
**

Click on the Volume Conditions [VC] tab. The Volume Conditions page is presented and the Model Explorer changes to the VC mode to list all of the volume conditions in the currently loaded simulation.

There is only one fluid volume condition. Pick The volume condition is highlighted in the the fluid VC from either the Viewer Window or Viewer Window. The Control Panel changes to the VC explorer. show the volume condition properties. Assign the following property values in the VC panel: • Setting Mode: Properties • Density: Constant, 1.0 kg/m3 • Viscosity: Constant (Kinematic), Nu = 0.2 m2/s • Click Apply.

**5. Specify the Boundary Condition Values.
**

Click on the Boundary Condition [BC] tab. The Boundary Condition page is presented and the Model Explorer changes to the BC mode to list all of the boundary conditions in the currently active simulation.

Ensure that the Setting Mode is set to General. The Boundary Condition Page has several setting modes. The General mode allows us to assign the values of each boundary condition.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

In the BC Explorer, locate and select the BC type “Inlet”.

The position of the inlet (assigned when the grid was generated in CFD-GEOM) is highlighted in bold in the Viewer Window.

In the panels that open up on the right side, assign the following values: • Fixed Vel. (Cartesian) • X-Direction Velocity: Constant, U=1.0 m/s • Y-Direction Velocity: Constant, V=0 m/s • Pressure: Constant, P = 0 N/m2 • Temperature: Constant, T = 300 K • Click Apply to accept the assigned values.

In the explorer window, locate and select the boundary type ‘Outlet’.

The position of the Outlet is highlighted in bold in the Viewer Window.

Ensure that “Fixed Pressure” is selected (default) in the drop-down menu of the Flow tab and assign the following values: • Fixed Pressure: Constant, P = 0 N/m2 • Temperature: Constant, T = 300 K

**Click Apply to accept the assigned properties.
**

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

**6. Specify the Initial Condition Settings.
**

Press the Initial Conditions [IC] tab to activate the Initial Condition setting page.

Enter the following values in the appropriate type-in fields: • X-Direction Velocity: Constant, U=1.0 m/s • Y-Direction Velocity: Constant, V=0 m/s • Pressure: Constant, P = 0 N/m2 • Temperature: Constant, T = 300 K

**7. Specify the Solver Control Settings.
**

Press the Solver Control [SC] tab to activate the The Solver Control Page is presented. Solver Control setting page. There is a tab for each major type of solver control setting. There are also tabs for the solver output options available from this page.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Under the Iterations tab, set the number of solver iterations to 200.

This instructs the solver to run through the main iteration loop 200 times. The full set of equations will be solved at each iteration and we will look for a 3-5 order of magnitude drop in the residuals for each equation solved.

All necessary solution parameters are now set.

**8. Specify the Output Options.
**

Under the Output tab, select output results with The results will be written to the DTF file only the “End of Simulation” option. at the very end of the simulation. Alternatively you may request that the results be output at a specified iteration frequency. Under the Print tab activate the following: • Shared • • Diagnostics Basic

Iteration Frequency = 1 • Mass Flow Summary • Force Summary

Under the Graphics tab, select any desired variables to be output to the DTF file for postprocessing in CFD-VIEW. For this simulation, the following variables are of interest: • Velocity Vector • Static Pressure • Total Pressure • Stream Function

These variables will be written to the DTF file at the frequency specified under the Output tab. The variables will be interpolated to the grid nodes from the cell-centered values computed by the solver.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

**9. Run the Simulation.
**

Press the RUN tab to activate the Run Control page. The Run Control Page opens.

Press the “Submit to Solver” button to start the A dialog panel is presented. solution process.

Because we have modified the simulation data The data is saved to cylinder.DTF and the solver during the solution setup process, the data must is started. first be saved to a DTF file before the solver can start. Press the “Submit Job Under Current Name” button to save the information and to launch the flow solver using that same file. You can press the “View Residuals” and “View Output” buttons to see real-time displays of the residual history and output file contents.

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

Figure 10-1. Residual History

**10. Post Processing.
**

The mass flow summary found in the output file The amount of mass imbalance is a good indicates that the mass flow into and out of the indication of the level of convergence. system are equal to 5.0 kg/s/m

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

CFD-VIEW can be used to post-process the results: • Maximum U-Velocity » 1.09 m/s • Maximum Static Pressure » 2.107 N/m2 • Minimum Static Pressure » -1.517 N/m2

V-m/s

Figure 10-2. U-Velocity Contours

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

The drag force on the cylinder can be determined by the force summary in the output file. Summing the Pressure and Shear force on the cylinder in the X-direction yields 0.586 N. Since we used symmetry and only modeled half of the cylinder, then we need to multiply this value by 2 to get the total force on the full cylinder: Drag Force » 1.172 N

11. This tutorial is now finished.

**Quick Start Instructions
**

If you are already comfortable with CFD-ACE-GUI operations, then you may follow these “quick start” instructions to very quickly work through the steps of this tutorial. If you have any questions about how to perform these steps, then consult the relevant step in the “Procedure”.

**1. Load the DTF file.
**

• Select File -> Open and read transcyl.DTF.

**2. Specify the Problem Type Settings.
**

• PT -> Modules -> Activate Flow

**3. Specify the Model Options.
**

• MO -> Shared -> Transient Conditions -> Steady

**4. Specify the Volume Condition Properties.
**

• VC -> Properties -> Shared • Select all VC's and group • Density: Constant 1 kg/m3 • Viscosity: Constant (Kinematic) 0.2 m2/s

**5. Set the Boundary Conditions.
**

• BC -> General

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

• Group Inlets together, Top1-4 and Bottom1-4 together, Outlets together, and Walls together • Select Inlet -> Flow -> Fixed Vel. (Cartesian) -> X-Direction Velocity: Constant 1 m/s • Select Top1 -> Flow -> Farfield -> X-Direction Velocity: Constant 1 m/s • Select Outlet -> Default Settings

**6. Specify the Initial Conditions.
**

• IC -> Flow -> Default Settings

7.

**Specify the Solver Control Settings.
**

• • • Spatial: Velocity and Density = Upwind Print: Mass flow and Force Summaries Graphic: Velocity Vector, Static Pressure

• SC -> Iterations: 200

**8. Run the Simulation.
**

• RUN -> Submit to Solver -> Submit Job Under Current Name

**9. Post Processing the Simulation.
**

• CFD-VIEW can be used to post-process the solution

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Tutorial 10: Low-Re Flow Past an Infinite Stationary Cylinder

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