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CONTENTS

PART I
1

Fundamentals
Hazardous Waste
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.
1.6.
1.7.
1.8.
1.9.

The Legal Framework


2.1.
2.2.
2.3.
2.4.
2.5.
2.6.

Environmental Law
Resource Conservation and Recover Act
Federal Hazardous Waste Regulations under RCRA
Superfund
Other Federal Statues
International Perspectives
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Process Fundamentals
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

Working Definition
Historical Roots
Landmark Episodes
Regulatory Initiatives
Classification
Generation
Contaminated Sites
Future Endeavors
Toward an Environmental Ethic
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

A Little Chemistry
Physical-Chemical Properties
Energy and Mass Balances
Reactions and Reactors
Geochemical Modeling and Analysis Programs
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Fate and Transport of Contaminants


4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.

Contaminant Release
Transport of Contaminants in the Subsurface
Fate of Contaminants in the Subsurface
Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion of Contaminants
Discussion Topics and Problems

References
Additional Reading
5

Toxicology
5.1.
5.2.
5.3.
5.4.
5.5.
5.6.

PART II
6

Current Management Practices


Environmental Audits
6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.
6.5.
6.6.

Introduction
Program Planning
Pre-audit Preparation
On-Site Audit
Evaluation and Presentation
Other Types of Audits
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Pollution Prevention
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.
7.5.
7.6.

Exposure
Toxic Effects
Dose-Response Relationships
Non-carcinogens
Carcinogens
Ecotoxicology
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

General Considerations
Management Strategies
Life Cycle Analysis
Volume Reduction
Toxicity Reduction
Recycling
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Facility Development and Operations


8.1.
8.2.
8.3.
8.4.
8.5.
8.6.

Facility Types
Facility Operations
Needs Assessment
Site Selection
Public Participation
Permitting
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

PART III
9

Treatment and Disposal Methods


Physicochemical Processes
9.1.
9.2.
9.3.
9.4.
9.5.
9.6.

10

Biological Methods
10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.
10.6.
10.7.
10.8.
10.9.
10.10.

11

Basics of Microbial Metabolism


Biodegradation of Xenobiotics
Growth Kinetics
Ex Situ Systems Treatment of Liquids
Ex Situ Systems Slurry-Phase Treatment
Ex Situ Systems Solid-Phase and Vapor-Phase Treatment
In Situ Biological Treatment Systems Monitored Natural Attenuation
In Situ Biological Treatment Systems Enhanced Degradation
Major Classes of Xenobotic Compounds Amenable to Biological Treatment
Biological Treatment Treatability Studies and Other Considerations
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Stabilization and Solidification


11.1.
11.2.
11.3.
11.4.
11.5.
11.6.
11.7.

12

Air Stripping
Carbon Adsorption
Steam Stripping
Chemical Oxidation
Supercritical Fluids
Membrane Processes
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Introduction
Mechanisms
Technology
Testing
Field Implementation
Design
Case Studies
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Thermal Methods
12.1.
12.2.
12.3.
12.4.
12.5.

Introduction
Regulations
Combustion
Gases and Vapors
Liquid Injection Incinerators

12.6.
12.7.
12.8.
12.9.
12.10.
12.11.
12.12.
12.13.

13

Land Disposal
13.1.
13.2.
13.3.
13.4.
13.5.
13.6.
13.7.
13.8.
13.9.
13.10.

PART IV
14

Introduction
Landfill Operations
Site Selection
Liner and Leachate Collection Systems
Cover Systems
Materials
Contaminant Transport through Landfill Barriers
Landfill Stability
Surface Impoundments and Deep Well Injection
Closure and Post-closure Care
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Site Remediation
Quantitative Risk Assessment
14.1.
14.2.
14.3.
14.4.
14.5.
14.6.
14.7.
14.8.
14.9.

15

Solid Waste Incineration


Storage and Feed Systems
Flue Gas Temperature Reduction
Air Pollution Control
Instrumentation
Continuous Emission Monitors
Trial Burns
Mobile Systems
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Risk
Hazard Identification
Exposure Assessment
Toxicity Assessment
Risk Characterization
Risk Communication
Ecological Risk Assessment
Monte Carlo Methods
Case Study
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Site and Subsurface Characterization


15.1.
15.2.
15.3.

Introduction
Methodology
Planning

15.4.
15.5.
15.6.
15.7.
15.8.
15.9.

16

Remedial Technologies
16.1.
16.2.
16.3.
16.4.
16.5.
16.6.
16.7.
16.8.
16.9.
16.10.

17

Methods of Site Characterization


Geophysical Methods
Boring and Sampling
Monitoring Wells
Geographic Information System
Case Study
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Introduction
Remedial Objectives
Passive Contaminant Control Systems
Surface Water Control Technologies
Groundwater Control: Vertical Barriers
Groundwater Control: Horizontal Barriers
Active Remediation Systems
Soil Vapor Extraction
Permeable Reactive Treatment Walls
Other Remedial Technologies
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading

Evaluation and Selection of Remedial Actions and Corrective Measures


17.1.
17.2.

Overview of Remedy Selection Process


Case Study 1 Evaluation and Selection of a Remedial
Action for a Model Superfund Site
17.3. Site Conceptual Model
17.4. Remediation Objectives
17.5. Development of Alternatives
17.6. Analysis of Alternatives
17.7. Regulatory Guidance
17.8. Case Study 2 Focused Evaluation and Selection of an Interim Corrective
Measure at an operating Chemical Plant
Discussion Topics and Problems
References
Additional Reading
Appendices
A

Basel Convention

Contaminant Properties

Thermodynamic Properties

Conversion Factors

Ch : Nhng mc nn c trc:
Chapter 1 PCB and PBB (5)
Chapter 2 PCB (65)
Chapter 3 Partition Coefficients (113)
Chapter 4 Landfill Leachate (157)
Chapter 4 Groundwater modeling (191)
Chapter 5 Toxicology (242,243)
-

NOAEL (275,276,277)

Chapter 10 Composting (604, 605)