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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu

Seal of Tamil Nadu

Coordinates: 13°05′N 80°16′E / 13.09°N

80.27°E / 13.09; 80.27 Tamil Nadu (Tamil:
????????? pronunciation , English: "Land of
the Tamils", IPA: [t̪ɐmɨɻ n̪aːɽɯ]) is one of the
28 states of India. Its capital is Chennai
(formerly known as Madras) and is the
largest city. Tamil Nadu lies in the southern-
most part of the Indian Peninsula and is
bordered by Puducherry (Pondicherry), Ker-
ala, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. It is
bound by the Eastern Ghats in the north, the
Nilgiri, the Anamalai Hills, and Palakkad on
the west, Bay of Bengal in the east, Gulf of
Mannar, Palk Strait in the south east and In-
dian Ocean in the south.
For over 2500 years, the region has been
the home of the last surviving classical civil-
Chennai ization of the world, the Tamil civiliza-
Location of Tamil Nadu in India
tion.[2][3][4] It is the homeland of Indian
Country Tamils and their 2500 year old classical lan-
guage Tamil.[5] Tamil Nadu is the eleventh
District(s) 32
largest state in India by area (about the size
Established 1956-11-01†
of Greece) and the seventh most populous
Capital Chennai state.[6] It is the fifth largest contributor to
Largest city Chennai India’s GDP[7] and the most urbanised state
Governor Surjit Singh Barnala in India.[8] The state has the highest number
Chief Minister M Karunanidhi
(10.56%) of business enterprises in India,[9]
Legislature (seats) Unicameral (235) compared to the population share of about
6%. It is one of the foremost states in the
Population 66,396,000 (7th)
country in terms of overall develop-
• Density • 511 /km2 (1,323 /sq mi)
ment.[10][11] It is home to many natural re-
Language(s) Tamil
sources, grand Hindu temples of Dravidian
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30) architecture, hill stations, beach resorts,
multi-religious pilgrimage sites and three
Area 130,058 km² (50,216 sq mi)
UNESCO World Heritage Sites.[12][13]
ISO 3166-2 IN-TN Tamil Nadu has lately emerged as the
Footnotes most Literate state in India as announced by
† Established in 1773; Madras State was formed in 1956 HRD Ministry.[14] As per 2001 census Liter-
and renamed as Tamil Nadu on January 14, 1969[1] acy Rate in Tamil Nadu is 73.45%.[15]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

oldest extant literature, dated between 300

BC and 600 BC mentions the exploits of the
kings and the princes, and of the poets who
extolled them. Cherans, who spoke Tamil lan-
guage ruled from the capital of Karur in the
west and traded extensively with West Asian
kingdoms. An unknown dynasty called
Kalabhras invaded and displaced the three
Tamil kingdoms between the fourth and the
seventh centuries CE. This is referred to as
the Dark Age in Tamil history. They were
eventually expelled by the Pallavas and the

Pallava Rule

The Brihadeeswarar temple at Thanjavur is

one of the largest monolithic temple com-
plexes in the world - a UNESCO World Herit-
age Site.

The Shore Temple in Mahabalipuram built by

Prehistory the Pallavas - a UNESCO World Heritage
Tamil Nadu’s history dates back to pre-his- Site.
toric times and archaeological evidence
points to this area being one of the longest Around 580 CE, the Pallavas, great temple
continuous habitations in India. In Adichanal- builders, emerged into prominence and dom-
lur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists inated the south for another 150 years. They
from the Archaeological Survey of India un- ruled a vast portion of Tamil Nadu with Kan-
earthed 169 clay urns containing human chipuram as their capital. They subjugated
skulls, skeletons and bones, plus husks and the Cholas and reigned as far south as the
grains of rice, charred rice and Neolithic Kaveri River. Among the greatest Pallava
celts, giving evidence confirming them to be rulers were Mahendravarman I and his son
of the Neolithic period, 3800 years ago.[16] Narasimhavarman I. Dravidian architecture
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that reached its peak during the Pallava rule.
the script used at that site is "very rudiment-
ary" Tamil Brahmi.[17] Adichanallur has been Pandya Rule
announced as an archaeological site for fur- Pallavas were replaced by the Pandyas in the
ther excavation and studies.[18] About 60% of 8th century. Their capital Madurai was in the
the epigraphical inscriptions found by the deep south away from the coast. Tirunelveli
ASI in India have been from Tamil Nadu and was their another important city which is the
most of which are in Tamil language[19] South India’s second largest producer of Rice
after Thanajavur. Nellaiappar temple,
Chera Rule Tirunelveli and Meenakshi Amman Temple,
From early pre-historic times, Tamil Nadu Madurai are some of the best examples of
was the home of the four Tamil kingdoms of Pandyan Temple architecture. Nellaiappar
the Chera, Chola, Pandya and Pallavas. The Temple, Tirunelveli is the first largest Shiva
temple in Tamil Nadu.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Chola Empire
See also: Early Cholas, Medieval Cholas, and
Later Cholas

Chola Empire under Rajendra Chola c. 1030


By the 9th century, under Rajaraja Chola and

his son Rajendra Chola, the Cholas rose as a
notable power in south Asia. The Chola Em-
pire stretched as far as Bengal. At its peak,
the empire spanned almost 250 million acres
(1,000,000 km2). Rajaraja Chola conquered Thirumalai Nayak Mahal at Madurai.
all of peninsular South India and parts of the
Sri Lanka. Rajendra Chola’s navies went even 1316. The invasion led to the establishment
further, occupying coastal Burma (now Myan- of the Madurai Sultanate.
mar), the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lak-
shadweep, Sumatra, Java, Malaya in South Vijayanagar Empire
East Asia and Pegu islands. He defeated These northern invasions triggered the estab-
Mahipala, the king of the Bengal, and to com- lishment of Vijayanagara Empire in the Dec-
memorate his victory he built a new capital can. It eventually conquered the entire Tamil
and named it Gangaikonda Cholapuram. country (c. 1370 CE). This empire lasted al-
The Cholas excelled in building magnifi- most three centuries.
cent temples. Brihadeshwara Temple in
Thanjavur is a classical example of the mag- Rule of Nayaks
nificent architecture of the Chola kingdom.
Brihadshwara temple is an UNESCO Herit- As the Vijayanagara Empire went into decline
age Site under "Great Living Chola after mid-16th century, the Nayak governors,
Temples."[20] Another example is the who were appointed by the Vijayanagar king-
Chidambaram Temple in the heart of the dom to administer various territories of the
temple town of Chidambaram. empire, declared their independence. The
Nayaks of Madurai and Nayaks of Thanjavur
were most prominent of them all in the 17th
Pandya Rule (Restored)
century. They reconstructed some of the old-
With the decline of the Cholas towards the est temples in the country such as the
end of the 11th century, the Pandyas rose to Meenakshi Temple.
prominence once again, under Maravarman
Sundara Pandya. Rule of Nizams and Nawabs
Around 1609, the Dutch established a settle-
Delhi Sultanate
ment in Pulicat. In 1639, the British, under
This restoration was short-lived as the the British East India Company, established a
Pandya capital of Madurai itself was sacked settlement further south, in present day
by Alauddin Khilji troops from the north in Chennai.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Fort Dansborg, built by the Danish, in Tran- A semi-arid wasteland near Tirunelveli. Mon-
quebar (now Tharangambadi). soon clouds pour torrents of rain on lush
forests that are only a few kilometers away in
The British exploited rivalries between the windward-facing Kerala, but are prevented
from reaching Tirunelveli by the Agas-
provincial rulers to expand their sphere of in-
thyamalai Range of the Western Ghats
fluence throughout the Nizam’s dominions.
The British fought and reduced the French
dominions in India to Pondicherry. Nizams
bestowed tax revenue collection rights on the
East India Company by the end of 18th cen-
tury. Some notable chieftains or Poligars who
fought the British East India Company as it
was expanding were Maveeran Sundaralinga
Kudumbanar , Veerapandya Kattabomman,
Pulithevan and Dheeran Chinnamalai.

British Empire
In early 19th century, East India Company
consolidated most of southern India into the
Madras Presidency coterminous with the
dominions of Nizam of Hyderabad. Pudukkot-
tai remained as a princely state under British

Independence Topographic map of Tamil Nadu

When India became independent in 1947,
Madras Presidency became Madras State, northwest and Andhra Pradesh to the north.
comprising present day Tamil Nadu, coastal To the east is the Bay of Bengal. The south-
Andhra Pradesh up to Ganjam district in ernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula is located
Orissa, northern Karnataka, and parts of Ker- in Tamil Nadu. At this point is the town of
ala. The state was subsequently split up Kanyakumari which is the meeting point of
along linguistic lines. In 1968, Madras State the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal, and the
was renamed Tamil Nadu, meaning Land of Indian Ocean. The western, southern and the
Tamil. north-western parts are hilly and rich in ve-
getation. Tamil Nadu is the only state in India
which has both the Western Ghats and the
Geography and climate Eastern Ghats and they both meet at the Nil-
Tamil Nadu covers an area of 130,058 square giri hills.[21] The Western Ghats dominate the
kilometres (50,216 sq mi), and is the eleventh entire western border with Kerala, effectively
largest state in India. The bordering states blocking much of the rain bearing clouds of
are Kerala to the west, Karnataka to the the South West Monsoon from entering the

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Plains Hills
Max. 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) 32.3 °C (90.1 °F)
Min. 13.1 °C (55.6 °F) 3.0 °C (37.4 °F)

state. The Eastern parts are fertile coastal several protected areas of Tamil Nadu includ-
plains and the northern parts are a mix of ing wildlife and bird sanctuaries.[28]
hills and plains. The central and the south
central regions are arid plains and receive
less rainfall than the other regions.
Governance and
Tamil Nadu has a coastline of about administration
1,000 kilometres (600 mi) which forms about
18% of the country’s coastline (third longest). Top executives of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu’s coastline bore the brunt of the Governor Surjit Singh
2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami when it hit India, Barnala
which caused 7,793 direct deaths in the Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi
state.[22] Tamil Nadu falls mostly in a region
Chief Justice S. J. Mukhopadhaya
of low seismic hazard with the exception of
the western border areas that lie in a low to
moderate hazard zone; as per the 2002 Bur- Director General K. P. Jain[29]
eau of Indian Standards (BIS) map, Tamil of Police
Nadu falls in Zones II & III. Historically, Chief Secretary K. S. Sripathi[30]
parts of this region have experienced seismic
activity in the M5.0 range.[23] State Symbols of Tamil Nadu[31]
Tamil Nadu is heavily dependent on mon- Animal Nilgiri Tahr
soon rains, and thereby is prone to droughts
when the monsoons fail. The climate of the
state ranges from dry sub-humid to semi-ar- Bird Emerald Dove
id. The state has three distinct periods of
rainfall: (1) Advancing monsoon period,
South West monsoon (from June to Septem-
ber), with strong southwest winds; (2) North Dance Bharathanattiyam
East monsoon (from October to December),
with dominant northeast winds; and (3) Dry Flower Gloriosa Lily
season (from January to May). The normal
annual rainfall of the state is about 945 mm
(37.2 in)[24] of which 48% is through the Song Neerarum
North East monsoon, and 32% through the
South West monsoon. Since the state is en-
tirely dependent on rains for recharging its Sport Kabaddi
water resources, monsoon failures lead to
acute water scarcity and severe drought.[25]
Tamil Nadu is classified into seven agro-cli- Tree Palm Tree
matic zones: north-east, north-west, west,
southern, high rainfall, high altitude hilly, The Governor is the Constitutional head of
and Cauvery Delta (the most fertile agricul- the state while the Chief Minister is the head
tural zone). The table below shows the max- of the government and the head of the coun-
imum and minimum temperatures that the cil of ministers. The Chief Justice of the
state experiences in the plains and hills.[26] Madras High Court is the head of the judi-
Tamil Nadu has a wide variety of minerals ciary. The present Governor, Chief Minister
with the most lignite (almost 90% of India’s and the Chief Justice (acting) are Surjit Singh
reserves), magnesite (45%) and garnet (over Barnala, M. Karunanidhi and S. J. Mukho-
40%) reserves in India, among others.[27] padhaya respectively.[30][32][33] The major
Tamil Nadu contributes 15% of the total salt administrative units of the state constitutes
production in the country. Forests cover over 39 Lok Sabha constituencies, 234 Assembly
17% of the state’s geographical area with constituencies, 32 districts, 10 municipal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

corporations, 152[10] municipalities, 611

town panchayats and 12,618 village panchay-
ats. Chennai (formerly known as Madras) is
the state capital. It is the fourth largest city
in India and is also one of the five A1 Metro-
politan cities of India.
Tamil Nadu had a bicameral legislature
until 1986, when it was replaced with a uni-
cameral legislature, like most other states in
India. The term length of the government is 5
years, as is elsewhere in India. The present
government run by the DMK led alliance
came to power in 2006 and comprises a
council of 29 ministers, chaired by the Chief
Minister. Tamil Nadu legislative assembly is
chaired by the speaker Mr. R Avudaiappan
and is housed at the historical Fort St. Ge-
orge in Chennai. The state had come under
the President’s rule on four occasions - first
from 1976 to 1977, next for a short period in
1980, then from 1988 to 1989 and the latest
in 1991. Tamil Nadu has 10 Municipal Cor-
porations: Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai,
Tiruchirapalli,Salem Tirunelveli,Erode, Tiru- Districts of Tamil Nadu
pur, Vellore and Thoothukudi. There is a plan
to upgrade Tambaram and Ambattur as Mu- 2. Coimbatore 18. Sivagangai
nicipal Corporations. The Corporation of District District
Chennai, established in 1688, is the oldest 3. Cuddalore District 19. Thanjavur
Municipal Corporation not only in India but 4. Dharmapuri District
also in any commonwealth nations outside District 20. The Nilgiris
United Kingdom.[34] 5. Dindigul District District
Tamil Nadu has been a pioneering state of 6. Erode District 21. Theni District
E-Governance initiatives in India. A large 7. Kanchipuram 22. Thoothukudi
part of the government records like land District District
ownership records are digitised and all major 8. Kanyakumari 23. Tiruchirapalli
offices of the state government like Urban District District
Local Bodies — all the Corporations and Mu- 9. Karur District 24. Tirunelveli
nicipal Office activities — revenue collection, 10. Krishnagiri District
land registration offices, and transport of- District 25. Tiruvallur
fices have been computerised. Tamil Nadu is 11. Madurai District District
one of the states where law and order has 12. Nagapattinam 26. Tiruvannamalai
been maintained largely successfully.[35] The District District
Tamil Nadu Police Force is over 140 years 13. Namakkal District 27. Tiruvarur
old. It is the fifth largest state police force in 14. Perambalur District
India and has the largest strength of women District 28. Vellore District
police personnelin the country.[36] As of 15. Pudukkottai 29. Viluppuram
2003, the state had a total police population District District
ratio of 1:668, higher than the national aver- 16. Ramanathapuram 30. Virudhunagar
age of 1:717.[37] District District
31. Ariyalur district
Districts 32. Tirupur district
The 32 districts of Tamil Nadu are as listed Ariyalur district, which was created in 2001
below with the numbers corresponding to from the Perambalur district, was restored as
those in the image at the right. the 31st district of Tamil Nadu on the 23rd
1. Chennai District 17. Salem District November, 2007. The TN government has

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

also announced that Tirupur will be the new

headquarters of the Tirupur district which
will be formed by splitting the Coimbatore
and Erode district.[38]

Pre Independence
Prior to Indian independence Tamil Nadu
was under British colonial rule as part of the
Madras Presidency. The main party in Tamil
Nadu at that time was the Congress Party.
Regional parties have dominated state polit-
ics since 1916. One of the earliest regional
parties was the South Indian Welfare Associ-
ation, which was a forerunner to Dravidian
parties in Tamil Nadu, was started in 1916.
The party was called after its English organ, Present chief minister M.Karunanidhi
Justice Party, by it opponents and later the (centre) with ex-chief ministers C. N. An-
same was adopted as its official name. The nadurai (left) and M. G. Ramachandran
reason for victory of the Justice Party in elec- (right).
tions was the non-participation of the Con-
gress Party, demanding complete independ- AIADMK+ 69 (29.4%) 0 (0%)
ence of India. Freedom movement saw great Independent/ 2 (0.8%) 0 (0%)
leaders like Subramania Bharathiar (Poet Other
who inspired freedom movement by his poet-
Source: Indian Elections / Election Commis-
ic skills), Subramania Siva, V O Chidham-
sion of India.[39][40]
daranar (Industrialist, who managed ships
In the 19th century, western scholars dis-
under the free India banner), Thirupur Ku-
covered that the Dravidian languages that
maran, Rajagopalachariar (Rajaji) and
dominate the south of India formed a differ-
Sathyamurthi to name a few.
ent linguistic group to that of the Indo-Aryan
E.V.Ramaswami Naicker popularly known
languages that are predominant in the north
as EVR and also as Periyar, believed in agita-
of the country. They also classified Indians
tional politics and he took the Justice Party
into distinct Aryan and Dravidian races. It
away from its original path. The Justice Party
was proposed that the generally darker-
which had a moribund existence under
skinned Dravidians constituted a distinct
E.V.Ramaswami Naicker, died at last in 1944
race. This concept has affected thinking in
which he renamed the party Dravidar
India about racial and regional differences
Kazhagam (DK for short) in 1944. DK was a
and had an impact on aspects of Tamil na-
non-political party which demanded the es-
tionalism, which has appropriated the claim
tablishment of an independent state called
that Dravidians are the earliest inhabitants of
Dravida Nadu. However, due to the differ-
India, and the Aryan population were op-
ences between its two leaders Periyar and
pressive interlopers from whom Dravidians
C.N. Annadurai, the party was split. An-
should liberate themselves.[41]
nadurai left the party to form the Dravida
Re-organisation of Indian states according
Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK). The DMK de-
to linguistic and ethnic basis has moderated
cided to enter politics in 1956.
Tamil nationalism, especially the demand for
separation from the Indian Union. The Anti-
Dravidian Politics Hindi agitations in mid-1960s made the DMK
Political Assembly Lok more popular and a more powerful political
Alliance Elections Sabha force in the state. The DMK routed the Con-
Elections gress Party in the 1967 elections and took
DMK+ 163 39 (100%) control of the state government, ending Con-
(69.6%) gress’ stronghold in Tamil Nadu. C.N.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Tamil Other languages Total

Hindu 81% 7%1 88%
Christian 4% 1%2 5%
Muslim 3% 2%3 5%
Other religions 1% 1% 2%
Total 89% 11% 100%
Note 1: mainly Telugu
Note 2: mainly Malayalam
Note 3: mainly Urdu

Annadurai became the DMK’s first Chief populous states (states whose population ex-
Minister. ceeded 20 million in 2001). Its decadal rate
Muthuvel Karunanidhi took over as Chief of population growth has declined in every
Minister and party leader after Annadurai’s decade since 1971, one of only three popu-
death in 1969. Karunanidhi’s leadership was lous states (along with Kerala and Orissa) to
soon challenged by M.G. Ramachandran, show this trend. The state has registered the
popularly known as MGR. In 1972, he split lowest fertiliy rate along with Andhra
from DMK and formed the Anna Dravida Pradesh and Goa in India in year 2005-06
Munnetra Kazhagam (ADMK) and later re- with 1.8 children born for each woman, lower
named the party as All India Anna Dravid than required for population sustainabil-
Munnetra Kazhagam. He was the Chief Min- ity.[46] According to National Family Health
ister of the state from 1977 until his death in Survey-3 (NFHS-3), Tamil Nadu registered a
1987. After the death of MGR and the defeat fertility rate of 1.8, the lowest in India in year
of AIADMK in the 1989 assembly polls, J. Jay- 2005-2006.[47][48]
alalithaa took control of the party. She was
elected as the General Secretary of the uni-
fied AIADMK. There have been several splits
Education and social
in both the DMK and the AIADMK, but since development
1967 one of those two parties has held power
in the state. The rise of Congress Party, Vi-
jayakanth’s DMDK and Dr. Ramdoss’s PMK
in the recent years has ensured that no single
party is in majority to run a government and
thereby giving rise to coalition politics.

Demographics and
Tamil Nadu is the seventh most populous
state in India with a population of
66,396,000,[43] as of July 1, 2008 (approxim-
ately 5.79% of India’s population). It is the el-
eventh most densely populated state in India. The main entrance of IIT Madras, showing its
logo and its motto.
In 2008, its population density was 511 per-
sons per square kilometre,[43] having in-
Tamil Nadu has performed reasonably well in
creased from 429 in 1991, significantly high-
terms of literacy growth during the decade
er than the Indian average of 324 persons
1991-2001. The state’s literacy rate in-
per square kilometre.[44] 44% of the state’s
creased from 62.66% in 1991 to 73.47% in
population live in urban areas, the highest in
2001.[44] which is above the national aver-
age. A survey conducted by the Industry body
Tamil Nadu’s population grew by 11.19%
Assocham ranks Tamil Nadu top among Indi-
between 1991 and 2001, the second lowest
an states with about 100% Gross Enrollment
rate for that period (after Kerala) amongst

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Ratio (GER) in primary and upper primary alarming level of hunger according to the
education.[49] 2008 Global Hunger Index.[61][62]
Tamil Nadu has 19 universities,[50] 250
engineering colleges[51] and 1150 arts col-
lege, 2550 schools and 5000 hospitals. Some
of the reputed institutes include University of Tamil Nadu has a long tradition of venerable
Madras, IIT Madras, Anna University in- culture. Tamil Nadu is known for its rich tra-
cludes MIT Chennai , SVCE, NIT Tiruchi, dition of literature, music and dance which
Madras Medical College and Tamil Nadu continue to flourish today. Unique cultural
Agricultural University. The Indian Institute features like Bharatanatyam (dance), Tanjore
of Management is scheduled to open in painting, and Tamil architecture were de-
Trichy by 2009-2010.[52] Tamil Nadu pro- veloped and continue to be practised in Tamil
duces the highest number of engineering Nadu.
graduates in India (around 30,000) every
year which attracts many software compan- Language and Literature
ies to set up their shop in south India. Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu
India has a human development index cal- which was the first language to be declared
culated as 0.619, while the corresponding fig- as classical language of India, the other be-
ure for Tamil Nadu is 0.736, placing it among ing Sanskrit.Tamil is also one of the official
the top states in the country.[53][54] The life languages of India.[63] Most of the older
expectancy at birth for males is 65.2 years works are in verse form, and prose gained
and for females it is 67.6 years.[55] However, popularity later. All through history, Tamil lit-
it has a number of challenges, significantly, erature has sought to inform and inspire,
the poverty is high, especially in the rural educate and entertain. Tamil poetry has uni-
areas. As of 2004-2005, the poverty line was versal appeal as evidenced by many
set at Rs. 351.86/month for rural areas and examples.
Rs. 547.42/month for urban areas.[56] ????????? ?????????????? ??????????
Poverty in the state dropped from 51.7% in ?????????
1983 to 21.1% in 2001[57] For the period ???????????? ????? ?????
2004-2005, the Trend in Incidence of Poverty
in the state was 22.5% compared with the na- ’The mark of wisdom is to discern the truth
tional figure of 27.5%.[58] The World Bank is From whatever source it is heard.’
currently assisting the state in reducing - (Tirukkural - 423)
poverty[59] High drop-out and low completion Tirukkural which was written nearly two mil-
of secondary schools continue to hinder the lennia ago portrays a universal outlook. This
quality of training in the population. Other is evident as the author, Thiruvalluvar, does
problems include class, gender, inter-district not mention his religion, land, or the audi-
and urban-rural disparities. ence for his work. He is portrayed as a holy
The Dravidian movement, which cham- saint of Tamil Nadu today. There is an evid-
pioned the causes of educating the people ential history that the kings of olden days
and eradicating superstitions, began in Tamil rolled out Tamil Sangam (Tamil organisation)
Nadu. In addition, it aimes to uplift the so- to develop literature works in Tamil. The
cially repressed Dravidian people and drew Sangam headquartered in Madurai gener-
considerable support from the middle classes ated a large amount of notable literary
for their efforts in this matter. The movement works. The first Tamil printing press was es-
was committed to social justice which led to tablished at Tarangambadi by the Danish
the expansion of reservations for the de- missionaries.
prived communities. Tamil Nadu now has a During the Indian freedom struggle, many
69% reservation in educational institutions, Tamil poets and writers provoked national
the highest among all Indian states.[60] spirit, social equity and secularist thoughts
The Mid-day Meal Scheme program in among the common man, notably Subraman-
Tamil Nadu, initiated by Kamaraj, was expan- ya Bharathy. Even today, Tamil Nadu is home
ded considerably during the rule of the to creative writers like Bharathidasan,
AIADMK in 1983. It feeds over a fifth of the Jayakanthan, Jayamohan, Sujatha, Indira
state’s population. Despite this, the state is Parthasarathy.
among the 12 states in India that have

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

English Language is also widely spoken concentrated in the southern districts of Kan-
across Tamil Nadu in Educational institutions yakumari, Thoothukudi and Tirunelveli. St.
and by white collar professionals. Famous Thomas Mount in Chennai, the place where
carnatic music composer & poet Thyagayya St. Thomas, one of the disciples of Jesus
is from Tamil Nadu. Christ, was believed to have been mar-
tyred,[65] is an important pilgrimage site for
Religions Indian Christians. The Santhome Basilica,
supposedly built atop the tomb of
St. Thomas, and the Vailankanni Basilica of
Our Lady of Good Health — revered churches
by India’s Roman Catholics — are good ex-
amples of majestic church architectures in
Tamil Nadu. The Church of South India is
headquartered in Chennai.
Muslims are mainly concentrated in areas
such as Kayalpatnam, Keelakarai, Ambur,
Vaniyambadi, Madurai, Nagore and Melap-
alayam, with the state capital Chennai also
home to a good number of Muslims. In Chen-
nai, the most popular areas with Muslim pop-
ulation include Triplicane, Royapettah, Ice
With Hindus forming over 90% of the popula- House, Adam Market, Zam Bazaar, Ellis
tion, Hindu temples are ubiquitous in Tamil Road, Supari Gunta - part of three important
Nadu earning it the sobriquet ’The Land of Assembly Constituencies, Chepauk, Trip-
Temples’. Shown here is the Meenakshi Am- licane & Thousand Lights. Among Muslims,
man Temple complex in Madurai, which is 97.5% are Tamil speaking Sunni and the rest
one of the grandest temples in the country.
are Urdu speakers. All Tamil Muslims are
Sunnis, who adhere to either Hanafi or Shafi
Tamil Nadu was the home of several Hindu
schools of thought. Erwadi in Ramanath-
movements not in the usual mainstream.
apuram district and Nagore in Nagapattinam
About 90% people follow Hinduism. These in-
district are important pilgrimage site for
clude Shankara’s Advaita, Ramanuja’s
Muslims, while the Thousand Lights Mosque
Vishistadvaita, Alwar Sri Vaishnavism, Nay-
in Chennai is one of the largest mosques in
anar Shaivism, Several important Hindu
the country. Karpudaiyar masjid in Kayalpat-
Tamil figures became important figures for
nam is the oldest mosque in Tamil Nadu.
Hinduism as a whole (e.g.Ramanuja.) In mod-
ern times, worldwide important figures for
Hinduism were Ramana Maharishi and Sri
Sri Ravi Shankar. Other saints known more Pongal, also called as Tamizhar Thirunaal
locally to Hindus within India are Raghav- (festival of Tamils) or Makara Sankranti else-
endra Swami the Dvaita Vaishnava, Parama- where in India, a four-day harvest festival is
hamsa Sri Nithyananda or the Nithyananda one of the most celebrated festival of Tamil
Foundation, Sivananda the expert of yoga Nadu. The Tamil language saying Thai Pir-
and Vedanta. andhal Vazhi Pirakkum — literally meaning,
Main god for tamil peoples Murugan, oth- the birth of the month of Thai will pave way
er Popular forms of God include Vishnuand, for new opportunities — is often quoted with
Shiva, although many other forms are also reference to this festival. The first day, Bhogi
worshiped. These other forms of God include Pongal, is celebrated by throwing away and
Rama, Krishna, Ganesh, Paravati, Surya, and destroying old clothes and materials by set-
others. There is even a temple dedicated to ting them on fire to mark the end of the old
the form of Hanuman and Ganesh in one and emergence of the new. The second day,
form - Adianta Prabhu.[64] The government Surya Pongal, is the main day which falls on
emblem of Tamil Nadu contained the popular the first day of the tenth Tamil month Thai
Hindu temple of Srivilliputhur. (January 14 or January 15 in western calen-
Christians and Muslims form roughly over dar). The third day, Maattu Pongal, is meant
8% of the population. Christians are mainly to offer thanks to the cattle, as they provide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

milk and are used to plough the lands. Jal- are Pushpuvanam Kuppuswamy, Dr
likattu, a bull taming contest, marks the main Navaneethakrishnan, Chinnaponnu, Paravai
event of this day. During this final day, Kaan- muniammal etc.
um Pongal — the word "kanum", means ’to Carnatic music is the classical music of
view’ in Tamil — youths used to gather at Southern India. The basic form is a mono-
river banks to view and select their future life phonic song with improvised variations.
partners, but that practice has declined. There are 72 basic scales on the octave, and
The first month in the Tamil calendar is a rich variety of melodic motion. Both melod-
Chitterai and the first day of this month in ic and rhythmic structures are varied and
mid-April is celebrated as Tamil New Year. compelling. This is one of the world’s oldest
Thiruvalluvar Calendar is 31 years ahead of & richest musical traditions. Carnatic music
Gregorian Calendar, that is 2000A.D. in abounds in structured compositions in the
Gregorian calendar is represented as 2031 in different ragas. These are songs composed
Thiruvalluvar Calendar. Aadi Perukku is cel- by great artists and handed down through
ebrated on the 18th day of the Tamil month generations of disciples. Three saint com-
Aadi, which celebrates the rising of the water posers of the nineteenth century, Tyagaraja,
level in the river Cauvery. Apart from these Muthuswami Dikshitar and Shyama Shastri,
major festivals, in every village and town of have composed thousands of songs that re-
Tamil Nadu, the inhabitants celebrate fest- main favourites among musicians and audi-
ivals for the local gods once a year and the ences. The composers belonging to the Tamil
time varies from place to place. Most of these Trinity of Muthu Thandavar (?1560 - ?1640
festivals are related to the goddess Maar- CE), Arunachala Kavi (1712-1779) and Mar-
iyamman, the mother goddess of rain. imutthu Pillai (1717-1787) composed hun-
Additional major Hindu festivals including dreds of devotional songs in Tamil and
Deepavali ( Death of Narakasura, Ayudha helped in the evolution of Carnatic music.
Poojai, Saraswathi Poojai (Dasara), Krishna Today, Tamil Nadu has hundreds of notable
Jayanthi and Vinayaka Chathurthi are celeb- carnatic singers who spread this music all
rated widely. The Ayyavazhi Festival Ayya over the world. M. S. Subbulakshmi, a
Vaikunda Avataram is celebrated by the renowned carnatic singer, had the honour of
Ayyavazhi followers throughout the singing a song in the UN Security Council.
state, [66][67][68] grandly in the southern dis- In terms of modern music (light, film, pop,
tricts.[69][70][71][72] In addition, Christmas, etc.), the music of Tamil Nadu is praised very
Eid ul-Fitr, Easter and Bakrid are celebrated highly. Ilaiyaraaja was the most prominent
by Christians and Muslims in the state. composer of film music in Tamil cinema dur-
ing the late 1970s and 1980s. His work high-
Music lighted Tamil folk lyricism and introduced
See also: Ancient Tamil music broader Western musical sensibilities to the
The Kings of the olden days created sangams South Indian musical mainstream. Tamil
for Iyal Isai Nadagam (Literature, Music and Nadu is also the home of Oscar Winner A.R.
Drama). Music plays a major role in sangams. Rahman who is recognised worldwide and
Music in Tamil Nadu had different forms. In has composed film music in Tamil, Hindi
villages where farming was the primary films, English and Chinese films .
work, the ladies who work in the fields used
to sing kulavai songs. Odhuvars, Sthanikars Arts and dance
or Kattalaiyars offer short musical pro- Tamils have a large number of folk dances.
grammes in the temples by singing the devo- These are performed for every possible occa-
tional Thevaram songs. In sharp contrast sion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth
with the restrained and intellectual nature of of a child, weddings and festivals. Tamil
carnatic music, Tamil folk music tends to be dance is closely intertwined with the Tamil
much more exuberant. Popular forms of theatrical tradition. The most celebrated of
Tamil folk music include the Villuppāṭṭu, a these is karakattam. In its religious form, the
form of music performed with a bow, and the dance is performed in front of an image of
Nāṭṭuppur̲appāṭṭu, ballads that convey folk- the goddess Mariamman. The dancer bears
lore and folk history. Some of the leading on his or her head a brass pot filled with un-
Tamil folk artists in the early 21st century cooked rice, decorated with flowers and

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

purity, tenderness, and sculpturesque poses.

It continues to be a popular and widely per-
formed dance style at present times and is
practised by male and female dancers all
over India. Therukoothhu (street dance) is a
folk tradition of dance-drama.

Film industry
Tamil Nadu is also home to the Tamil film in-
dustry, the second largest film industry in In-
dia after Hindi films. It is based in Chennai in
Kodambakkam, the section of Chennai that
houses cinema-related facilities, hence the
portmanteau Kollywood.


A Bharatanatyam dancer

surrounded by a bamboo frame, and tumbles

and leaps to the rhythm of a song without
spilling a grain. Karakattam is usually per-
formed to a special type of song known as
temmanguppāṭṭu or thevar pāṭṭu, a folk song
Chettinad cuisine. Food is typically served on
in the mode of a lover speaking to his be-
banana leaves.
loved, to the accompaniment of a
nadaswaram and melam. Other Tamil folk
Traditionally Tamil dishes are served on a ba-
dances include mayilāṭṭam, where the dan-
nana leaf instead of a plate and eaten with
cers tie a string of peacock feathers around
the right hand. Rice is the staple food of
their waist; ōyilāttam, danced in a circle
Tamils and accompanied with various sauces
while waving small pieces of cloth of various
along with meat and/ or vegetarian dishes.
colours; poykkāl kuthiraiyaaṭṭam, where the
Traditional Tamil cuisine includes Dosai,
dancers use dummy horses; mān̲āṭṭam,
Idly, Vadai, Pongal and Uthappam. These
where the dancers imitate the graceful leap-
dishes are served along with Sambar, Rasam,
ing of deer; par̲aiyāṭṭam, a dance to the
Kootu, Aviyal, Chatni and Poriyal. Tradition-
sound of rhythmical drumbeats, and thīp-
ally prepared Filter Coffee is quite famous,
pandāṭṭam, a dance involving playing with
which is unique in taste.
burning wooden torches.
The Chettinad region is famous for its
Bharatanatyam is a classical dance form
spicy non-vegetarian cuisine, while
originating from Tamil Nadu. Bharatanatyam
Tirunelveli is famous for its unique wheat
is thought to have been created by Bharata
halwa. The fast food culture is witnessing a
Muni, a Hindu sage, who wrote the Natya
steady growth in Tamil Nadu in recent years.
Shastra, the most important ancient treatise
on classical Indian dance. In ancient times it
was performed in Hindu temples by Deva- Economy
dasis. In this form, it as also been called sadir
or chinna melam. Many of the ancient sculp- Macro-economic trend
tures in Hindu temples are based on Bharata Tamil Nadu’s gross state domestic product
Natyam dance postures. Bharatanatyam is a for 2007 is estimated at 275,000 crores (70
traditional dance-form known for its grace, billion USD) in current prices.[73][74] The

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

2002 - 155,099 6.85%

03 09.92%
2004 - 188,921 6.61%
05 21.81%
According to the 2001 Census, Tamil Nadu
has the highest level of urbanisation
(43.86%) in India, accounting for 6% of In-
dia’s total population and 9.6% of the urban
population.[84] and is the most urbanized
Per Capita Income of Tamil Nadu and India
state in India.[8] Services contributes to 45%
of the economic activity in the state, followed
state experienced a GDP growth rate of by manufacturing at 34% and agriculture at
12.1% for this period.[49] Possessing the 21%. Government is the major investor in the
third largest economy (2007-2008) among state with 51% of total investments, followed
states in India,[75] Tamil Nadu is also the by private Indian investors at 29.9% and for-
most industrialised state in India.[76] The per eign private investors at 14.9%. Tamil Nadu
capita income for the period 2007 - 2008 for has a network of about 110 industrial parks
the state was Rs.43,000 ranking second and estates offering developed plots with
among the South Indian states.[77] It ranks supporting infrastructure.[85] Also, the state
third in foreign direct investment approvals government is promoting other industrial
(cumulative 1991-2002) of Rs.225,826 million parks like Rubber Park, Apparel Parks, Flori-
($5,000 million), next only to Maharashtra culture Park, TICEL Park for Biotechno-
(Rs.366,024 million ($8,100 million)) and Del- logy,[86] Siruseri IT Park, and Agro Export
hi (Rs.303,038 million ($6,700 million)) and Zones among others.
the State’s FDI investment constitutes 9.12% Annual Plan outlays have increased by a
of the total FDI in the country.[78] Tamil record 75% from Rs.52,000 million ($1,100
Nadu was the winner of fDimagazine’s Asian million) in 2001-2 to Rs.91,000 million
Region of the Future award 2005/06 in terms ($2,000 million) in 2005-6. Based on URP -
of FDIs, surpassing Australia’s New South Consumption for the period 2004 - 2005, per-
Wales.[79] Chennai was ranked the top met- centage of the state’s population Below
ropolitan city to invest in Asia Pacific and Poverty Line was 27.5%.[56]
Tamil Nadu was ranked 9th region to invest
in 2008.[80] Unlike many other states, the Agriculture and Irrigation
economic resources are quite spread out,
rather than concentrated in a small industri-
alised area. The overall unemployment is rel-
atively low with 2.8% rural and 4.8% urban
from CSI.[81] The graph at right shows how
the Per capita income of Tamil Nadu has
grown steadily keeping above the national
Gross State Domestic Product in Rs.
Crores and Current Prices[83]
Year GSDP Change Share of
1994 - 68,666 7.49%
95 19.32%
Paddy fields in Theni District across the
1996 - 89,237 7.18% backdrop of the Western Ghats.
97 29.96%
1998 - 118,209 7.40% Tamil Nadu has historically been one of the
99 32.47% agricultural states;its advances in other fields
launched the state into competition with oth-
2000 - 141,100 7.33% er states. Even so, Tamil Nadu is a leading
01 19.36% producer of agricultural products in India. At

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

present, Tamil Nadu is India’s fourth biggest hectares of land under oil palm cultivation,
producer of Rice, next to West Bengal, the second highest in India.[98] Currently,
Andhra Pradesh, Punjab and Uttar Tamil Nadu is the only state to have a formal
Pradesh.[87] The Cauvery delta region of the bio-diesel policy using jatropha plant crops
composite Thanjavur district is known as the and to distribute wasteland to the poor farm-
Rice Bowl of South India. Next to Thanjavur, ers for planting.[99]
is the Tirunelveli which is the second largest Tamil Nadu is the home to Dr M.S. Swam-
producer of Rice due to the undrainable river inathan, known as the "father of the Green
Thamirabarani. Tamil Nadu accounts for Revolution" in India.[100] Tamil Nadu Agricul-
nearly 6% of the area under fruits and 4% of tural University with its seven colleges and
the area under vegetables in the country. In thirty two research stations spread over the
terms of production, the State’s share is entire state contributes to evolving new crop
nearly 10% in fruits and 6% in vegetables.[88] varieties and technologies and disseminating
Tamil Nadu is also a leading state in the pro- through various extension agencies. The net
duction of flowers. The total production of sown area is 36% of the total geographic
horticultural crops is 99.47 Lakhs during area (National average of 46%). The gross
2003-04. The main flowers grown in Tamil cropped area is 53,200 km² with a cropping
Nadu are Jasmine, Mullai, Chrysanthemum, intensity of 119. Irrigation covers 46% of the
Marigold and Rose. Mango and Banana are cropped area and the remaining 54% is rain-
the leading fruit crops in Tamil Nadu ac- fed. Tamil Nadu’s agriculture is heavily de-
counting for over 84% of the area under fruit pendent on river water and monsoon rains.
and over 87% of the total fruit production.
Off-season production of mango and round-
the-year production of grapes is unique to
Tamil Nadu. The main vegetables grown are
tapioca, tomato, onion, brinjal and drumstick.

Mathur Aqueduct is one of the largest in Asia

and irrigates portions of Kanyakumari dis-

The perennial rivers are Palar, Cheyyar

River, Ponnaiyar, Kaveri, Meyar, Bhavani,
Amaravati, Vaigai, Chittar River &
Vegetable plantation in Nilgiris district.
Tamaraparani. Non-perennial rivers include
the Vellar, Noyal, Suruli, Gundar, Vaipar, Val-
The state is the largest producer of bana-
parai and Varshali. Canals, tanks and wells
nas,[89] flowers,[90] tapioca,[90] the second
form the sources of Irrigation for farmers in
largest producer of mango,[90] coffee,[91] nat-
the state. As of 2005-2006, the state had
ural rubber,[92] coconut,[93] groundnut and
2395 canals with a length of 9,747 km,
the third largest producer of sapota,[90]
40,319 tanks, 670 ordinary government
Tea[94] and Sugarcane.[95] Tamil Nadu is also
wells, 1,620,705 ordinary private wells and
a leading producer of spices, kambu, corn,
290,611 tube wells.
rye and oil seeds.[96][97] The main spices
Irrigated Agriculture Modernization and
grown are chillies, coriander, tamarind, tur-
Water-bodies Restoration and Management
meric and curry leaves. Tamil Nadu’s sugar-
(IAMWARM) project is a World Bank aided
cane yield per hectare is the highest in In-
project being implemented in Tamil Nadu at
dia.[95] A host of sugar companies have their
a cost of INR 2500 crores. Duration of the
operations here including EID Parry I Ltd.,
project April 1 2007 to March 31 2013. The
Thiru Arooran Sugars Ltd., Sakthi Sugars
main aim of the project is to restore the exist-
Ltd., Bannari Amman Sugars Ltd. and
ing 40319 tanks to save water to their full
Rajshree sugars Ltd. The state has 17,000

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Cattle Buffalos Sheep Goats Pigs Horses & Donkeys Total Total
ponies livestock poultry
9141 1658 5593 8177 321 25 26 15800 86591

capacity as it was created by ancient fore-

fathers of tamilnadu some 2000 years be-

Livestock, poultry and fisheries

Among states in India, Tamil Nadu is one of
the leaders in livestock, poultry and fisheries
production. The table below gives the data on
the total number of livestock and poultry in
2003 (All figures in thousands).[104]
As per this data, Tamil Nadu had the second
largest number of poultry amongst all the
states and accounted for 17.7% of the total
poultry population in India. The town of Na-
Hyundai’s manufacturing plant at Irungat-
makkal is also known as the poultry hub cur-
tukottai near Sriperumbudur.
rently it produces about 3 crore eggs a day.
In 2003 - 2004, Tamil Nadu had produced
37,836 lakhs of eggs, which was the second the suburbs of Chennai (nicknamed, "The
highest figure among all the states in India, Detroit of Asia"). Chennai has been able to
and represented 9.37% of the total egg pro- get a large number of investments due to a
duction in the country.[105] In 2003-2004, combination of infrastructure (ports, road,
Tamil Nadu had produced 4,752,000 tonnes power), investment climate, low cost and
of milk, with a per capita availability of 198 good availability of man power.[114] Chennai
grams/day, much lesser than the all-India fig- has the presence of global vehicle manufac-
ure of 231 grams/day.[106][107][108] During turing giants like Ford, Renault-Nissan,
2002-2003, the state had produced Caterpillar, Hyundai, Michelin, Komatsu,
609,000 kg of wool.[109] The total fodder pro- BMW, and Mitsubishi as well as domestic
duced in the state during 2002-2003 was heavyweights like MRF, TI Cycles, Ashok
31,929,000 tonnes, out of which 21,429,000 Leyland, Royal Enfield, Mahindra &
tonnes was dry fodder and 10,500,000 tonnes Mahindra(JV with Renault-Nissan to produce
was green fodder.[110] The total number of Logan brand of cars), TAFE Tractors, and
vertinary institutions in the state in 2006 was TVS.It also has a railway coach factory,
1854.[111] With the third longest coastline in ICF(Integral Coach Factory). Recently in an
India, Tamil Nadu is also among the leaders equal joint venture agreement, Renault and
in fisheries and in the production and exports Nissan have decided to invest Rs. 4,500 crore
of related products. For the year 2005-2006, ($1,140 million) to set up an integrated
total inland fish catchment was 155,944 greenfield automotive facility at Oragadam
tonnes and marine fish catchment stood at near Chennai. The plant will have an in-
389,714 tonnes.[112] For the same period, the stalled capacity of four lakh vehicles annually
total fish and fishery products exported by by 2010. Daimler has chosen Chennai for es-
the state was 72,418 tonnes which was val- tablishing a truck manufacturing plant in
ued at Rs. 19.96 billion. This figure represen- Oragadam with an investment of Rs 4,400
ted 27.54% of the total value of fish and fish- crores ($1,100 million).[115] Signet Solar is in
ery products exported by India for that peri- the process of setting up a manufacturing
od.[113] plant for 300 MW of thin-film photo-voltaic
modules in a project worth an estimated
Industry $500 million.[116] Sterlite Industries have
their copper smelter (in Tuticorin) and alu-
Tamil Nadu is a highly industrialised state. minium (in Mettur) factories here. A large
Many heavy engineering and manufacturing- number of textile mills and engineering in-
based companies are centred in and around dustries are present around the city of

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Coimbatore. Coimbatore is the headquarters linens, toilet linens, table linens and wall
for Pricol, LMW, ELGI, Roots industries, and hangings.
Shanti gears. Coimbatore is known for its Erode is also the major inland textile hub
motor pump industries like Texmo, Deccan of India especially for woven garments &
pumps and CRI pumps. Karur is known for its sarees. Madurai and Kanchipuram are fam-
bus body building industries. Truck bodies ous for their handloom and silk saris.
are built in Tiruchengode and Namakkal near
Over 11.2% of the S&P CNX 500 conglom-
erates have corporate offices in Tamil Nadu.
The Kalpakkam Nuclear Power Plant, Ennore
Thermal Plant, Neyveli Lignite Power Plant,
many hydroelectric plants including Mettur
and the Narimanam Natural Gas Plants are Wind turbines at Muppandal in Nagercoil
major sources of Tamil Nadu’s electricity. It Kanyakumari District. In the background are
is presently adding the Koodankulam Nuclear hills of the Western Ghats.
Power Plant to its energy grid. Tamil Nadu
sources[117] a significant proportion of its Electronics manufacturing is a growing in-
power needs from renewable sources with dustry in Tamil Nadu. Companies like Nokia,
wind power installed capacity at over 3600 Flextronics, Motorola, Sony-Ericsson, Fox-
MW[118] or over 40% of the maximum peak conn, Samsung, Cisco, Moser Baer and Dell
demand. As of 2005, Tamil Nadu is one of the have chosen Chennai as their South Asian
few Indian states with surplus power electri- manufacturing hub. Products manufactured
city, enabling the electrical authority to sell it include circuit boards and cellular phone
to neighbouring states of Andra Pradesh & handsets.[121] Ericsson also has a Research
Karnataka. Tamil Nadu ranks first nationwide and Development facility in Chennai.[122] Big
in diesel-based thermal electricity generation EPC companies have set up their Engineer-
with national market share of over 34%. ing centres which include Saipem, Technip,
The textile industry plays a significant role Foster Wheeler, Mott Macdonald, Petrofac
in the Indian economy by providing direct and Tecnimont ICB. The Austrian company
employment to an estimated 35 million Austrian Energy and Environment also have
people, and thereby contributing 4% of GDP a design office here besides local giant ECC
and 35% of Gross Export Earnings. The tex- {Larsen & Toubro}. Sanmina-SCI is the
tile sector contributes to 14% of the manufac- latest company to invest in Tamil Nadu to
turing sector. There are a lot of Textile mills create a state of the art manufacturing facil-
located in Coimbatore. The city of Tirupur, in ity.[123] Nokia Siemens Networks has de-
Tamil Nadu is the country’s largest exporter cided to build a manufacturing plant for wire-
of knit wears[119] and sometimes karur to less network equipment in Tamil Nadu.[124]
tiruppur area referred to as Textile valley of Moser Baer has decided on setting up a facil-
India.[120] In 2004, the export turnover from ity to manufacture silicon-based photovoltaic
the town was more than Rs. 50,000 million thin film modules and allied products with an
($1,000 million). Some 7,000 garment units investment of $500 million.[125]
in the town provides employment opportunity Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, a global
to 7,50,000 people. 56% of India’s total knit- electrical equipment manufacturing public
wear exports come from Tirupur. The Export sector company, has manufacturing plants at
Import Policy of 2002-2007 acknowledges Tiruchirapalli and Ranipet. The construction
Tirupur for its contribution to the export industry also saw new entrants like BGR En-
efforts. ergy systems ltd, Consolidated construction
The home textile capital of India - city of consortium.
Karur generates around (35,500 million) The state government owns the Tamil
$750 million a year in foreign exchange and Nadu Newsprint and Papers (TNPL),[126] the
give the opportunity to 3,50,000 peoples for world’s biggest bagasse based Paper mills in
work.Over 60% of total India’s exports come Karur, as well as the world’s sixth largest
from karur. The Karur exports of Home-Tex- manufacturer of watches together with TATA
tile products such as bed linens, kitchen at hosur, under the brand name of
"Titan".[127] 55% of all wind-generated

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

electricity in India is created by windmills in second only to Karnataka and Maharashtra.

Tamil Nadu. Renowned Danish wind power India’s largest IT park is in Chennai. Soft-
company NEG Micon has established its man- ware exports from Tamil Nadu more than
ufacturing unit in Chennai.[128] doubled from Rs. 76 billion ($1.6 billion) in
Tamil Nadu is a leading producer of Ce- 2003-04 to Rs. 141.15 billion {$3.53 billion}
ment in India. It is the home of leading ce- in 2005-06 and zoomed to Rs. 207 billion {$5
ment brands in the country such as Chettinad billion} by 2006-07 according to
Cements (in Karur), Dalmia Cements (in Ariy- NASSCOM.[131] Chennai is a hub for e-pub-
alur), Ramco cements (Madras Cement Ltd), lishing with 47 e-publishing units registered
India cements (in Sankari, Ariyalur), Grasim with the STPI in Chennai. Companies such as
etc. Big companies like MICO and Cognizant Symantec, Fidelity National Information Ser-
solutions have set up their design offices vices, eBay, Hewlett-Packard, Computer
here. L&T is setting up big manufacturing Sciences Corporation, Virtusa, HCL, Wipro,
units with an investment of 500 crores. Even TCS, Temenos, Satyam, Infosys, Polaris Soft-
temple city Madurai has attracted Honeywell ware Lab, Cognizant Technology Solutions,
to set up their centre here. Acme Technology Pvt Ltd, Covansys, Cap-
The town of Sivakasi is a leader in the gemini, Ford Information Technology,
areas of printing, fireworks, and safety Xansa,Changepond, Verizon, iSoft,insoft,
matches.[129] It was fondly called as Kutty iNautix, MphasiS(Electronic Data Systems),
Japan or "little Japan" by Jawaharlal Nehru. It Bally and many others have offices in Chen-
contributes to 80% of India’s production of nai. Infosys Technologies has set up India’s
safety matches as well as 90% of India’s total largest software development centre to house
fireworks production. Sivakasi provides over 25,000 software professionals at an estim-
60% of India’s total offset printing solutions ated investment of Rs. 12,500 million ($270
and ranks as one of the highest taxpaying million) in Chennai. Chennai is also the pre-
towns in India. Sivakasi also is a 100% em- ferred destination for companies outsourcing
ployed town, putting it in the company of their high-end knowledge intensive opera-
very few towns in India. tions. Testimony to this is the presence of
Tamil Nadu has a significant amount of major market research companies such as
mineral reserves such as lignite (87%), ver- Frost & Sullivan and equity research com-
miculite (66%), garnet (42%), zircon (38%), panies such as Irevna in Chennai. This is the
graphite (33%), ilmenite (28%), rutile (27%), next high growth area that Chennai is
monazite (25%), and magnesite (17%). The witnessing.
numbers in the brackets indicate the percent-
age contribution to the national share. India’s
leading steel producer, SAIL has a steel plant
in Salem.[130]

Tidel Park in Chennai is one of the largest The Pamban rail and road bridges, across the
software parks in India. Palk Strait connects the Pamban Island with
the Indian mainland. The rail bridge (right),
Tamil Nadu is a leading contributor in the opened in 1914, is considered to be one of
IT and BPO sectors. Tamil Nadu is the third the marvels of modern engineering.[132]
largest software exporter by value in India,

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu has a well established transport- Tamil Nadu has three major ports at Chen-
ation system that connects all parts of the nai, Ennore and Tuticorin, as well as one in-
state. This is partly responsible for the invest- termediate port, Nagapattinam, and seven
ment growth in the state. Tamil Nadu is minor ports, Rameswaram, Kanyakumari,
served by an extensive road network, provid- Cuddalore, Colachel, Karaikal, Pamban and
ing links between urban centers, agricultural Valinokkan which are currently capable of
market-places and rural areas. There are 24 handling over 73 million metric tonnes of
national highways in the state, covering a cargo annually (24 per cent share of India).
total distance of 2,002 km.[133] The state is All the minor ports are managed by the Tamil
also a terminus for the Golden Quadrilateral Nadu Maritime Board.[138] Chennai Port is
project that is scheduled to be completed in an artificial harbour situated on the Coro-
2008. The state has a total road length of mandel Coast in South-East India and it is
167,000 km, of which 60,628 km are main- the second principal port in the country for
tained by Highways Department. This is handling containers. Ennore Port was re-
nearly 2.5 times higher than the density of cently converted from an intermediate port
all-India road network.[134] It is currently to a major port and handles all the coal and
working on upgrading its road network, ore traffic in Tamil Nadu. The volume of
though the pace of work is considered cargo in the ports grew by 13 per cent during
slow.[135] 2005.[139][140]
Tamil Nadu has a well developed rail net-
work as part of Southern
Headquartered at Chennai, the Southern
Fauna and Flora
Railway network extends over a large area of
India’s Southern Peninsula, covering the
states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Pondicherry, a
small portion of Karnataka and a small por-
tion of Andhra Pradesh. Tamil Nadu has a
total railway track length of 5,952 km and
there are 532 railway stations in the
state.[136] The system connects it with most
major cities in India. Main rail junctions in
the state include Chennai, Erode, Coim-
batore, Tirunelveli Madurai, Tiruchirapalli
(Trichy) and Salem. Chennai has a well-estab-
lished suburban railway network and is in the
process of developing a metro.
Tamil Nadu has a major international air-
port, Chennai International Airport, that is
connected with 19 countries with more than
169 direct flights every week. This is cur-
rently the third largest airport in India after
Mumbai and Delhi and has a passenger
growth of 18%. Other international airports
present in the state are Coimbatore Interna-
tional Airport and Tiruchirapalli International
Airport. Madurai Airport and Tuticorin Air-
port are domestic airports which connect
their respective cities to other parts of the
country. Apart from these, there are Air
Force bases at Thanjavur and Sulur(Suburb Lion-tailed macaque, an endangered species.
of Coimbatore), and a Naval air station at
Arakkonam. Increased industrial activity has The state has a wide range of flora and
given rise to an increase in passenger traffic fauna. There is a wide diversity of wildlife.
as well as freight movement which has been There are many Protected areas of Tamil
growing at over 18 per cent per year.[137] Nadu, including 2 Biosphere Reserves, 5

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

National Parks and several Wildlife Sanctuar-

ies, where many unique species and their
habitats are protected[141] Tamil Nadu in-
cludes a wide range of Biomes, extending
east from the South Western Ghats montane
rain forests in the Western Ghats through the
South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests
and Deccan thorn scrub forests to tropical
dry broadleaf forests and then to the
beaches, estuaries, salt marshes, mangroves,
and coral reefs of the Bay of Bengal.

There are about 2000 species of wildlife that
are native to Tamil Nadu. Protected areas
provide safe habitat for large mammals in-
cluding Elephants, Tigers, Leopard, Wild dog, World Chess Champion Vishwanathan Anand.
Sloth bears, Gaurs, Lion-tailed macaques,
Nilgiri Langurs, Nilgiri Tahrs, Grizzled Giant operates a number of world class stadiums
Squirrels and Sambar deer, resident and mi- and organizes various sporting events.[145] It
gratory birds such as Cormorants, Darters, also accommodates various sporting events,
Herons, Egrets, Open-billed Storks, Spoon- both at domestic and international level, or-
bills and White Ibises, Little Grebes, Indian ganized by other sports associations at its
Moorhen, Black-winged Stilts, a few migrat- venues.[146] The YMCA College of Physical
ory Ducks and occasionally Grey Pelicans, Education at Nandanam in Chennai was es-
marine species such as the Dugongs, Turtles, tablished in 1920 and was the first college
Dolphins and Balanoglossus and a wide vari- for physical education in Asia.[147]
ety of fish and insects. Cricket is the most popular sport and
Kabaddi is the state game of Tamil Nadu. M.
Flora A. Chidambaram Stadium in Chennai is an in-
Tamil Nadu is the home to 3000 plant species ternational cricketing arena with a capacity
including Eucalyptus, Palmyra, Rubber, Cin- of 50,000 and houses the Tamil Nadu Cricket
chona, Clumping Bamboos (Bambusa Association. Popular cricketers from Tamil
Arundinacea), Common teak, Anogeissus lati- Nadu who have represented the national
folia, Indian Laurel , Grewia, and blooming team include S. Venkataraghavan,
trees like Indian labumusum, Aredesia, and Kris Srikkanth, Robin Singh, Lakshmipathy
Solanancea. Rare and unique plant life in- Balaji Subramaniam Badrinath and Dinesh
cludes Combretum ovalifolium, Ebony Karthik. Cricket contests between local clubs
(Dispyros nilagrica), Habebarai reriflora and teams is also popular across the state.
(Orchid), Alsophila, Impatiens elegans, Ra- The MRF Pace Foundation in Chennai is a
nunculus reniformis, and Royal fern. Tamil much sought after fast bowling academy by
Nadu ranks first in Angiosperm diversity pace bowlers all over the world. The tradi-
amongst all the states in the country with tional sport of Kabaddi, called Sadu Gudu in
5640 species (32%) of the total 17,672 spe- Tamil, is another popular sport played ex-
cies, which includes 230 red-listed species tensively in the rural areas. Silambam is an-
and 1559 species of medicinal plants.[142] other popular traditional sport played in the
rural areas.
The ATP Chennai Open tournament held
Sports in Chennai every January is the biggest Ten-
Tamil Nadu has made fair strides in the field nis event in South Asia.[148] Tennis players
of sports. The Sports Development Authority from Tamil Nadu who had made it to the big
of Tamil Nadu (SDAT) is the government stage include Ramanathan Krishnan, Ramesh
body that is vested with the responsibility of krishnan, Vijay Amritraj, Mahesh Bhupathi
developing sports and related infrastructure and Prakash Amritrajand more recently Som-
in the state.[143][144] The SDAT owns and dev Devvarman was runner up in ATP 2009.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu has a long standing motorsports the Kodaikanal Golf Club, established in
culture. The sport was pioneered by 1895, and Gymkhana Club, Chennai. The
Sundaram Karivardhan in its early days. Not- Madras Boat Club, set up in 1867, hosts reg-
able sportspersons from Tamil Nadu in the ular rowing races on the Adyar River.[158]
field are Narain Karthikeyan, the first Indian The 232 year old Guindy race course in Chen-
to participate in F1 racing, and Karun Chan- nai is popular horse racing venue. Apart from
dok. Motor racing events are held at the these, the Multi-Purpose Indoor Games Com-
Irungattukottai track (near Sriperumbudur), plex in Chennai hosts international events for
Sholavaram track and Kari Motorspeedway Volleyball, Basketball, Badminton and Table
near Coimbatore. Tennis. In the recent years, adventure sports
have also gained popularity, especially
amongst the tourists visiting the state.[159]


Kari Motorspeedway near Coimbatore.

The Tamil Nadu Hockey Association is the

governing body of Hockey in the state. The
Mayor Radhakrishnan Stadium in Chennai
hosts international hockey events and is re-
garded by the International Hockey Federa-
tion as one of the best in the world for its
state-of-the-art infrastructure.[149] Chennai
hosted the SAF Games in 1995. Anju Bobby
George, bronze medalist from Sydney
Olympics, represents Tamil Nadu in the na- Courtallam waterfalls in Tirunelveli district.
tional arena.[150] Shanthi Soundararajan, sil-
ver medalist (later stripped) from Doha Asian Tamil Nadu’s tourism industry is the second
Games, also hails from the state.[151] The largest in India, with an annual growth rate
Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium in Chennai is a of 16%.[160] Tourism in Tamil Nadu is pro-
multipurpose stadium hosting Football and moted by Tamil Nadu Tourism Development
Track & Field events. The Indian Triathlon Corporation (TTDC), a Government of Tamil
Federation and the Volleyball Federation of Nadu undertaking. The tagline adopted for
India are headquartered in Chennai.[152] promoting tourism in Tamil Nadu is En-
Chennai hosted India’s first ever Internation- chanting Tamil Nadu. Approximately
al Beach Volleyball Championship in 1,753,000 foreign and 50,647,000 domestic
2008. [153]
tourists visited the state in 2007.[161]
Chess and Carrom are popular indoor Tamil Nadu is a land of varied beauty. It
sports. World Chess champion and Indian boasts some of the grandest Hindu temples
Grand Master Viswanathan Anand and Ar- of Dravidian architecture in the World. The
juna Awardee and two-time world carrom temples are of a distinct style which are fam-
champion Maria Irudayam hail from Tamil ous for their towering Gopurams. The Bri-
Nadu. Snooker was invented by General Sir hadishwara Temple in Thanjavur, built by the
Frederick Roberts at the Ooty Club in Ud- Cholas, the Airavateswara temple in Daras-
hagamandalam.[154][155] The Velachery uram and the Shore Temple, along with the
Aquatics Sports Complex in Chennai hosts collection of other monuments in Ma-
different kinds of water sports. The SDAT - habalipuram have been declared as UNESCO
TNSRA Squash Academy in Chennai, one of World Heritage Sites.[162][163] The Rajagop-
the very few modern squash facilities in uram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple in Sri-
South Asia,[156] hosts international squash rangam — the largest functioning Hindu
events. Tamil Nadu has six 18-hole Golf temple in the world — is the tallest temple
courses,[157] the most popular of which are gopuram in the world[164] Madurai is home

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

to one of the grandest Hindu temples in the theme parks and eateries. The Waterfalls in
World — Madurai Meenakshi Amman the state include Courtallam, Hogenakal,
Temple. Rameshwaram, Kanchipuram and Papanasam and Manimuthar. The Chettinad
Palani are important pilgrimage sites for Hin- region of the state is renowned for its Palatial
dus. The largest Shiva Temple in TamilNadu houses and cuisine. In recent years, Tamil
is Nellaiappar Temple situated in the heart of Nadu is also witnessing a growth in Medical
Tirunelveli city. Other popular temples in tourism, as are many other states in India.
Tamil Nadu include those in Gangaikonda
Cholapuram, Chidambaram, Thiruvan-
naamalai,Tiruchengode, Aragalur, Tiruttani,
See also
Swamithoppe, Tiruchendur and Tiruvallur. • Tamil people
• Tamil language
• Dravidian people
• South India
• Tamil cinema

[1] Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.
[2] The Story of India: South India.
[3] History of Tamil Nadu.
[4] TAMIL HERITAGE... the Tamils are an
ancient people.
[5] Tamil Nadu’s Ancient Cities May Predate
Mesopotamian Civilization.
Kanyakumari, the Southernmost tip of Main- [6] Population of Tamil Nadu as of 01/07/
land India, at sunrise. 2008.
[7] Gross Domestic Product by prices as of
Tamil Nadu is also home to many beautiful 28 February, 2008.
hill stations. Popular among them are Ud- [8] ^ Tamil Nadu the most urbanised State:
hagamandalam (Ooty), Kodaikanal, Yercaud, Minister.
Coonoor, Topslip, Valparai, Kolli Hills and [9] Enterprises in India.
Yelagiri. The Nilgiri hills, Palani hills, [10] India Today, dated 24th September,
Shevaroy hills and Cardamom hills are all 2007.
abodes of thick forests and wildlife. Mukurthi [11] "Tamil Nadu, The best place to do
National Park & Kalakkad Mundanthurai Ti- business". November 12, 2005.
ger Reserve are the two tiger reserves in the
state. Tamil Nadu has many National Parks, 12guest2.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
Biosphere Reserves, Wildlife Sanctuaries, [12] Press Information Bureau.
Elephant and Bird Sanctuaries, Reserved [13] UNESCO World Heritage List.
Forests, Zoos and Crocodile farms. Promin- [14] Tamil Nadu India’s most literate state:
ent among them are Mudumalai National HRD ministry.
Park, The Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve, [15] LITERATES AND LITERACY
Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and Nation- RATES-2001 CENSUS (PROVISIONAL).
al Park, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary and [16] "Skeletons dating back 3,800 years
Arignar Anna Zoological Park. The mangrove throw light on evolution". The Times of
forests in Pichavaram are also eco-tourism India.
spots of importance. articleshow/
Kanyakumari, the southern most tip of msid-1354201,prtpage-1.cms. Retrieved
peninsular India, is famous for its distinct on 2008-06-11.
and beautiful sunrise, Vivekananda Rock Me- [17] "The Hindu : National : ’Rudimentary
morial and Thiruvalluvar’s statue built off the Tamil-Brahmi script’ unearthed at
coastline. Marina Beach in Chennai is one of Adichanallur". The Hindu.
the longest beaches in the world.[165] The
stretch of beaches from Chennai to Ma- stories/2005021704471300.htm.
habalipuram are home to many resorts, Retrieved on 2008-06-11.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

[18] "The Hindu : National : Skeletons, script [44] ^ The Tamil Nadu picture on Frontline
found at ancient burial site in Tamil Magazine.
Nadu". The Hindu. [45] Tamil Nadu the most urbanised state. [46] National Family Health Survey, India.
stories/2004052602871200.htm. [47] Distribution by Language - States and
Retrieved on 2008-06-11. Union Territories - 2001.
[19] Staff Reporter (November 22, 2005). [48] Population by religious and linguistic
"Students get glimpse of heritage". The communities.
Hindu. [49] ^ Tamil Nadu boasts of best school
11/22/stories/2005112215970400.htm. enrollment figures.
Retrieved on 2007-04-26. [50] Universities in Tamil Nadu.
[20] Great Living Chola Temples. [51] Engineering colleges in Tamil Nadu.
[21] Geography of India by Joel Anderson. [52] Opening of IIM Trichy.
[22] Damage to tsunami-hit countries - India. [53] Glaring regional disparities in human
[23] Amateur Seismic Centre, Pune. development index.
[24] Assessment Report from the National [54] Human Development Reports.
Drought Mitigation Center, Univ. of [55] " Top three States — a socio-economic
Nebraska-Lincoln. comparison" - BusinessLine.
[25] United Nations, System of Organizations. [56] ^ "Number and Percentage of Population
[26] Below Poverty Line By States- 2004-05".
[27] Department of Geology and Mining, [57] Tamil Nadu Poverty.
Government of Tamil Nadu. [58] Poverty Profile.
[28] Tamil Nadu Forest Department. [59] World Bank Poverty Reduction Project.
[29] [1]. [60] "Education is the means of social
[30] ^ Secretaries to Government of Tamil mobility" - Rediff India Abroad.
Nadu. [61] Tamil Nadu Hunger Problem Alarming.
[31] "National Symbols of India". High [62] Tamil Nadu Hunger Level in Danger List.
Commission of India, London. [63] India at a Glance - National Portal of India.
land-people/national-symbols.html. [64] Madhya Kailash temple, Chennai.
Retrieved on 2007-09-03. [65] St. Thomas in India.
[32] Government of Tamil Nadu. [66] "The Hindu" (’Engagements’). Ayya
[33] Chief Justice of Madras High Court. Vaikunda Dharmapathi.
[34] Brief Note on Corporation Of Chennai.
[35] Tamil Nadu crime trends. stories/2007030218740300.htm.
[36] TN Police. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
[37] [2]. [67] "The Hindu" (’In Coimbatore today’).
[38] Tirupur district shortly from The Hindu. Ayya Vaikunta Sivapathi.
[39] "Election results". Indian Elections. thscrip/
result-06.html. 03/04/&prd=th&. Retrieved on
[40] "Parties Statistics". Election Commission 2007-02-07.
of India. [68] "satrumun" (’?????????’). ???
StatisticalReports/ElectionStatistics.asp. ??????????????? 175-??? ????? ????????.
[41] The Quest for the Origins of Vedic
Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration 175.html. Retrieved on 2007-03-07.
Debate By Edwin Bryant. [69] Report on declaration of the holiday
[42] "Census Population" (PDF). Census of "Dina Malar".
India. Ministry of Finance India. 2006mar03/general_tn3.asp Report on declaration of the holiday. Retrieved on
chapt2007/tab97.pdf. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
2008-12-18. [70] Daily Thanthi, Tamil daily, Nagercoil
[43] ^ Updated population estimates for edition, 5/3/2006.
Tamil Nadu as of 01/07/2008. [71] Thamizh Murasu, Tamil evening daily,
Nagercoil edition, 4/3/2006.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

[72] Declaration of holiday on the event of [103]Irrigation in Tamil Nadu.

birth anniversary of Vaikundar in The [104][3] Livesotck & Poultry Statistics from
Hindu. Ministry of Agriculture, Department of
[73] "Official site". Government of Tamil Animal Husbandry Dairying & Fisheries,
nadu. Government of India.
[105]"Estimates Of Egg Production".
Retrieved on 2007-03-23. [106]"Per Capita Availability Of Milk.
[74] GDP from TN Govt. site. [107]"Estimates of Milk Production".
[75] 3rd largest economy. [108]"Share Of Milk Production By Cows,
[76] Most Enterprises in India. Buffaloes & Goats".
[77] Per capita income from TN Govt. site. [109]"Estimates Of Wool Production".
[78] Tamil Nadu ranks third in FDI, favoured [110]"Dry & Green Fodder Production".
destination. [111][
[79] FDI Magazine. NoOfIns&InfraData2006.pdf Number of
[80] Top Places to invest in. Veterinary Institutions and
[81] "Tamil Nadu Unemployment Rate". Infrastructure Data of Animal Husbandry
[82] State-wise Per Capita Income At Current (Year-2006)].
Prices. [112]"Milk, Egg Production and Fish
[83] Gross Domestic Product of states as of Catchment: By Districts".
21 November 2006. [113]"Inland Fish Production".
[84] "e-CENSUSIndia". [114]Chennai Advantage in Investment. [115]Daimler-Hero zeros in on Chennai for
Retrieved on 2006-08-16. [116]Signet Solar to setup manufacturing
[85] Example include Tidelpark and ITP plant in Tamil Nadu.
Chennai. [117]TEDA - Projects of TEDA TamilNadu
[86] TICEL Park for Biotechnology. Energy Development Agency by TEDA.
[87] Rough rice production (000 t) in India, [118]Policy Note 2008 - 2009 of Energy
by state, 1961-2006. Department, Tamil Nadu, India by Govt.
[88] National Horticulture Mission - Action of TamilNadu.
Plan for Tamil Nadu. [119]The Challenge of Reform: How Tamil
[89] Banana Production Statistics. Nadu’s Textile and Apparel Industry is
[90] ^ National Horticulture Mission Action Facing the Pressures of
Plan for Tamil Nadu. LiberalizationPDF (471 KB) by Meenu
[91] Coffee Data - Tewari for the Government of Tamil
[92] "Rubber Statistical News" - Rubber Nadu, India and the Center for
Board. International Development, Harvard
[93] Coconut statistical info from University, Cambridge MA. [120]Tirupur: India’s Textile Valley! by George
[94] "Production Of Tea In India During And Iype for
Upto August, 2002 - [121]Flextronics signs pact for Chennai
[95] ^ Sugar statistical info from facility. [122]Ericsson India Private Ltd.
[96] Information on Mango from National [123]Sanmina sets up manufacturing plant in
Horticulture Board. Tamil Nadu.
[97] Spices in India. [124]Nokia Siemens to invest in Tamil Nadu.
[98] Oil Palm Sector in India - World Wildlife [125]Moser Baer Manufacturing Plant in
Fund - India. Tamil Nadu.
[99] "Clean Green Energy from Tamil Nadu, [126]TNPL.
India". [127]Titan Website. [128]Vestas Web page.
Retrieved on 2006-11-15. [129][4]
[100]M. S. Swaminathan Research [130]SAIL Plant.
Foundation. [131]The Hindu Business Line : TN software
[101]The southern tip of India - Kanyakumari. exports clock 32 pc growth.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Tamil Nadu

[132]The Hindu Business Line : Pamban [150]Anju B George to be felicitated.

Bridge to be pulled down for gauge [151]The Sad Case of a South Indian Girl
conversion. Athlete.
[133]Economy and Business in Tamil [152]All Presidents, National Sports
NaduPDF (1.21 MB) Federation.
[134]Official site for Tamil Nadu Highways. [153]India seeks to popularise beach
[135]Highways, roads to be upgraded in Tamil volleyball.
Nadu. [154]The History Of Snooker.
[136]Tamil Nadu Railway Statistics. [155]THE ORIGIN OF SNOOKER : THE
[137]Transportation in Tamil Nadu. NEVILLE CHAMBERLAIN STORY.
[138]Creation of the Tamil Nadu Maritime [156]Opening up new vistas for squash talent.
Board. [157]Golf Courses in Southern India.
[139]Official website for Ennore Port. [158]Sports in Chennai.
[140]Official website for Tuticorin Port. [159]Adventure Tourism.
[141]Tamil Nadu Forest Department, [160]8 Steps to India
retrieved 7/29/2007Tamil Nadu Wildlife [161][9]
Tourism. [162]Great Living Chola Temples - UNESCO
[142]Tamil Nadu Dept. of Forests, Retrieved World Heritage Centre.
9/9/2007 Biodiversity. [163]Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram.
[143][5]. [164]Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple website.
[144][6]. [165]Marina Beach, Chennai - One of the
[145][7]. Longest Beaches in the World.
[147]Y.M.C.A. College of Physical Education
External links
[148]Nadal, other tennis greats arrive for • Tamil Nadu Government Website
Chennai Open 2008. • Tamil Nadu at the Open Directory Project
[149]Radhakrishnan Stadium to have new

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Categories: Tamil Nadu, States and territories of India, States and territories established in

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