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TRAINING PRESTRESSING BASIC - RM PART2: EC

RM Bridge V8i
October 2010

RM Bridge Professional Engineering Software for Bridges of all Types

RM Bridge
Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

Contents
1

1.1

1.2

1.2.1

1.2.2

1.2.3

1.2.4

1.2.5

1.3

1.4

1.4.1

1.4.2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.3.1

4.3.2

Calculation and superposition of the tandem system............................... 4-32

Bentley Systems

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RM Bridge
Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

II

4.3.3

4.3.4

5.1

5.2

10 Lesson 20: Shear Capacity Check ..................................................................... 10-48

11 Lesson 22: Fatigue Check .................................................................................. 11-49
12 Lesson 23: Lists and Plots ................................................................................. 12-50

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1-1

General

1.1 Design Codes

The bridge design is done according to the following design codes:
Table 1: Overview of used standards.
EN 1990

EN 1990 A2

EN 1991-1-4

EN 1991-1-5

EN 1991-2

Eurocode 1: Actions on structures: Part 2: Traffic loads on bridges

EN 1992-1-1

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures: Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings

EN 1992-2

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures: Part 2: Concrete bridges - Design and detailing rules

1.2 Actions
1.2.1 Permanent actions and Creep & Shrinkage
See Prestressing Basic Training Analyzer Part 1; Chapter 1.7.
The traffic load application is done accordingly to EN 1991-2.
1.2.2.1

According to EN 1991-2, 4.2.3.

Carriageway width w = 11.0 m ( 6 m)
Number of notional lanes: nl = Int (w / 3) = Int (11.0 m / 3) = 3
Width of one notional lane: wl = 3 m
Width of remaining area: w 3.0 m nl = 11.0 m 3.0 m 3 = 2.0 m
The lane giving the most unfavorable effect is Lane Number 1; the lane giving the
second most unfavorable effect is numbered Lane Number 2, etc.

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1.2.2.2

1-2

According to EN 1991-2, 4.3.2.

Part 1: Double-axle concentrated loads (tandem system: TS)
Each axle having the following weight: Q Qk [kN]
This load should be applied on each lane at the most unfavorable position.
Part 2: Uniformly distributed load (UDL system)
Having the following weight per square meter of notional lane: q qk [kN/m2]
This load should be applied on whole bridge length.
The factors Q and q are the adjustment factors depending on the notional lane. The
same apples for the loads Qik and qik. The live load application for each notional lane is
shown in the table below. The Figure 1-1 shows this load application and subdivision
also graphically.
Table 2: Application of Load model 1.
Tandem system TS

UDL system

Lane Number 1

Lane Number 2

Lane Number 3

Other lanes

qr qrk = 1.0 2.5 kN/m2 = 2.5 kN/m2

Location

1.2
0.5
3.0

2.0
0.5

Lane Number 1

Q1 Q1k = 300 kN
q1 q1k = 9.0 kN/m2
Lane Number 2

Q2 Q2k = 200 kN
q2 q2k = 2.5 kN/m2
Lane Number 3

Q3 Q3k = 100 kN
q3 q3k = 2.5 kN/m2
Remaining area
qr qrk = 2.5 kN/m2

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1.2.2.3

1-3

Preparation of Traffic Lanes and Trains for the calculation

The wheel loads of the tandem system can be simplified into two axial loads for the
calculation on a global one-beam system. The same applies for the UDL load, in which
To simplify the input the following principle will be used. The UDL load will be applied over the whole carriageway width by two traffic lanes (one on each side) and one
load train with constant load of 2.5 kN/m2. The difference to the Lane number 1 (9.0
kN/m2) will be applied with an additional load train (9.0 2.5 = 6.5 kN/m2) on both
outer sides of the carriageway (see Figure 1-1). For the longitudinal bending moment
and shear force the subdivision in the transversal direction is irrelevant. However, the
maximum and minimum torsion moments are covered within this subdivision.
Same applies for the positioning of the different TS Loads. They have to be positioned
only at the outermost edges (left and right) of the carriageway.
The combination of the different TS loads and different UDL loads will be done by superposing of them. Different superposition rules will be used for this (see Table 3) to
determine the most unfavorable internal forces.
The UDL loads and TS loads are factored in the combinations with different factors
which is why they have to be superposed into different envelopes.
The figures from Figure 1-1: Schematic presentation of Load model 1. to Figure 1-9

YL
ZL
L2

L1

-2.00 m

L3

+1.00 m

+4.00 m
T1: 2300kN
T2: 2200kN

T3: 2100kN

3.0 m

3.0 m

3.0 m

5.5 m
1.0 m

2.0 m

5.5 m
11.0 m

1.0 m

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1-4

YL
ZL
S13

L12

L11

+2.00 m
-1.00 m

-4.00 m
T1: 2300kN
T2: 2200kN

T3: 2100kN

2.0 m

3.0 m

3.0 m

5.5 m
1.0 m

3.0 m
5.5 m
1.0 m

11.0 m

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1-5

YL
ZL
L1

L4

+2.75 m

-2.75 m

+4.00 m

-4.00 m

L14

L11

T5: 13.75 kN/m

6.5 kN/m2

2.5 kN/m2

6.5 kN/m2

2.5 kN/m2

3.0 m

3.0 m
5.5 m

5.5 m

1.0 m

1.0 m

11.0 m

Figure 1-9: Load Train 6: UDL 2.5kN/m2 (x3.0m).

Table 3: Live load superposition scheme.

UDL

TS

Model

Bentley Systems

Envelope

Superposition rule

LL-L1-T1
LL -L2-T2

AND
AND

LL -L3-T3
LL -L11-T1

AND
AND

LL -L12-T2
LL -L13-T3

AND
AND

LL -L1-T6
LL -L11-T6

OR
OR

LL -L4-T5
LL -L14-T5

AND
AND

Envelope

Superposition rule

LM1-TS-A

OR

LM1-TS-B

OR

Envelope

LM1-TS

LM1-UDL

Austria

1.2.2.4

1-6

According to EN 1991-2, 4.6.4.

This load model is to be used for the Fatigue check (see Figure 1-10 to Figure 1-12).
120 kN 120 kN

1.20

120 kN 120 kN

6.00

1.20

0.40

3.00

0.40

2.00

YL
ZL
L1
+4.00 m
T90

0.00 m

-4.00 m
T90

T90

3.0 m

3.0 m
5.5 m
1.0 m

L11

L21

3.0 m
5.5 m

11.0 m

1.0 m

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1.2.2.5

1-7

The braking load is to be calculated according to EN 1991-2, 4.4.1 as follows:

Qlk = 0.6 Q1 (2 Q1k) + 0.10 q1 q1k wl L =
= 0.6 1.0 (2 300) + 0.10 1.00 9.0 3.0 140 = 738.0 kN.
180 Q1 Qlk 900 kN 180 1.0 738.0 900 kN 180 738.0 900 kN
The braking load will be defined as a uniformly distributed load. It will be applied along
the middle line of the bridge, horizontal and in both directions
( Braking and Acceleration).
qlk = 738.0 kN / 140 m = 5,27 kN/m.

1.2.2.6

Centrifugal force is in this example not considered.

According to EN 1991-1-4 Section 8.
Force in x-direction (Simplified Method) according to 8.3.2 is defined as follows:

where:

1.25 kg/m3 is the density of air (According to EN 1991-1-4 Section 4.5)

vb = cdir cseason vb,0 - the basic wind speed (Accordingly to EN 1991-1-4 Section 4.2)
-

cdir = 1.0 - the directional factor (Accordingly to EN 1991-1-4 Section 4.2)

cseason = 1.0 - the season factor (Accordingly to EN 1991-1-4 Section 4.2)
vb,0 = 25 m/s - the fundamental value of the basic wind velocity

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1.2.3.1

1-8

The reference area Aref,x according to EN 1991-1-4 Section 8.3.1(4)

Aref,x =dtot L = (d(max) + 2d1)1 L (5.0 + 2 0.9) 140 = 952 m2
Wind load factor C (Section 8.3.2 Table 8.2):
-

With the linear interpolation C = 4.744

The resulting wind force in x-direction is:

0.9
m
w = 1.85 kN/m2
H (var)

1.2.3.2

The reference area Aref,x according to EN 1991-1-4 Section 8.3.1(4)

Aref,x =dtot L = (d(max) + d1) L (5.0 + 2.0) 140 = 980 m2
Wind load factor C (Section 8.3.2 Table 8.2):
-

With the linear interpolation C = 4.91

Solid safety barier on both sides therefore is the depth used for Aref,x taken as d +2 d1

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1-9

And the wind pressure is:

2.0m

w = 1.92 kN/m2
H (var)

According to EN 1991-1-5 Section 6.
1.2.4.1

Uniform temperature component

According to 6.1.3
The minimum and maximum shade air temperatures will be taken as follows:
Tmin = -24C and Tmax = +37C (Assumption for this example)
The resulting minimum and maximum uniform bridge temperature (6.1.3.1 Figure 6.1)
are:
Te,min = -17C and Te,max = +37C (Type 3: Concrete deck - Concrete box girder)
Initial temperature: T0 = 10C (Appendix A1 (3))
The maximum and minimum temperature differences are therefore:
TN,con = Te,min T0 = -17 10 = -27C
TN,exp = Te,max T0 = +37 10 = 27C

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1.2.4.2

1-10

According to 6.1.4.1 (Vertical linear component (Approach 1)).

For road bridges of type 3 with a concrete box girder as the superstructure and with a
depth of surfacing of 120 mm the values of linear temperature difference are as follows
(considering the table 6.1 and the corrections factors from table 6.2):
TM,cool = TM,cool,50mm ksur,120mm = -5 C 1.0 = -5 C
TM,heat = TM,heat,50mm ksur,120mm = 10 C 0.62 = 6.2 C

1.2.4.3 Combination of uniform temperature component and temperature difference component

The unfavorable component has to be considered:
TM,heat (or TM,cool) + 0.35 TN,exp (or TN,con)
or
0.75 TM,heat (or TM,cool) + TN,exp (or TN,con)
This will be taken into account via superposition of each temperature component.

1.2.5 Settlements
For all 4 Axes a pier settlement of 1.0 cm will be assumed.

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

1-11

1.3 Combinations
The application of the combinations with the corresponding partial factors and reduction
factors is done according to EN 1990 including Annex A2.
The characteristic values of the multi-component action of live loads are considered
according to 1991-2, 4.5.1 (group 1a and group 2).
The effects of pre-stressing at serviceability limit state and limit state of fatigue are also
taken into account according to EN 1992-1-1, 5.10.9.
In the context of this example a detailed combination application will not be done. This
will be on one hand a bit of a conservative approach, but on the other hand it will be
very compact. Therefore it will be a clear approach which meets the purpose of this
example.
The required combinations are shown in the table below.
SW

PT

C+S

C+S

LM1-TS LM1-UDL E-LM3 Brake W-w ithoutV W-mithV

Temp Settlement

SLS
Characteristic Comb.
Comb. 1 (t=0, t=) (Pm)

(AND) 1

0.6

0.6

0.9 / 1.1

0.6

0.6

0.9 / 1.1

0.6

0.6

Comb. 4 (t=0)

0.9 / 1.1

0.75

0.4

0.5

Comb. 5 (t=)

0.9 / 1.1

0.75

0.4

0.5

Comb. 6 (t=0)

0.9 / 1.1

0.5

Comb. 7 (t=)

0.9 / 1.1

0.5

Comb. 8 (gr1a)

1.0 / 1.35

(AND) 1

1.35

1.35

1.5*0.6 1.5*0.6

Comb. 9 (gr2)

1.0 / 1.35

1.35

1.5*0.6 1.5*0.6

0.9 / 1.1

0.5

0.9 / 1.1

0.5

0.9 / 1.1

0.5

0.9 / 1.1

0.5

Frequent Comb.

Quasi permanent Comb.

ULS
Basic Comb.

Fatigue

To save on the number of combinations the final creep and shrinkage effects are superposed with the (superposition) rule And for all combinations where it is not necessary to
separate creep and shrinkage at t=0 and t=. Using this approach the most unfavorable
case (t=0 or t=) is automatically considered.

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1-12

1.4 Design checks

According to EN 1992-1-1 Section 6 and 7 and EN 1992-2 Section 6 and 7.
1.4.1 Servicebility limit state
Accordingly to EN 1992-1-1, 7.1(2) the cross-sections should be assumed to be
un-cracked if the flexural tensile stress does not exceed fctm.

1.4.1.1

Stresses

Accordingly to EN 1992-1-1, 7.2 and 1992-2 7.2.

Concrete compressive stresses
For prevention of longitudinal cracking, which can lead to reduction of durability, the
compressive stresses are limited to
|c| 0.6 |fck|

XD, XF and XS.

|c| 0.45 |fck|

|c| > 0.45 |fck|

s 0.80 fyk

p 0.75 fpk

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1.4.1.2

1-13

Crack control

wact wmax

wmax = 0.20 mm for frequent load combination

Decompression

c 0

The decompression limit requires that all parts of the tendons
or duct lie at least 25 mm within concrete in compression.

c fctm

1.4.2 Ultimate limit state

Accordingly to EN 1992-1-1 and 1992-2 section 6.
Bending and axial force
Shear
Torsion
Fatigue

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2-14

2.1 Definition of Settlement Load Cases

The settlement of foundations will be done for each axis. 4 separate load cases will be
created. Later the superposition of those load cases will be done to get the most unfavorable case.
Schedule
Cases

Name
Type
Manager
Description

Settle-A1
Permanent

Settle-A2
Permanent

Settle-A3
Permanent

Settle-A4
Permanent

Settlement of
abutment axis
1

Settlement of
abutment axis
2

Settlement of
abutment axis
3

Settlement of
abutment axis
4

Settle-A1
Actions on
the elements
ends
Element end
displacements
1100
1100
1
0
-0.01
0
Global
0
0
0
End

Settle-A2
Actions on
the elements
ends
Element end
displacements
1200
1200
1
0
-0.01
0
Global
0
0
0
End

Settle-A3
Actions on
the elements
ends
Element end
displacements
1300
1300
1
0
-0.01
0
Global
0
0
0
End

Settle-A4
Actions on
the elements
ends
Element end
displacements
1400
1400
1
0
-0.01
0
Global
0
0
0
End

Top Table
Schedule
Definition of
Cases

Bottom Table

Bentley Systems

Number

Type
From
To
Step
Vx [m]
Vy [m]
Vz [m]
Direction
Ry [m]
Rz [m]
Where

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2-15

2.2 Definition of Temperature Load Cases

All temperature loads, the positive and negative uniform temperature loads and gradients, will be defined in separated load cases. To get the most unfavorable case the
Schedule
Cases

Temp-UnifMinus
Nonpermanent

Temp-UnifPlus
Nonpermanent

Nonpermanent

Nonpermanent

Manager

-.

Description

Uniform
temperature

Uniform
temperature

Temperature
+6.2C

Temperature
-5C

Name
Type

Top Table

Uniform temperature load (-27C and +27C)

Schedule
Bottom Table

Number
Type
From
To
Step
Alpha
DT-G [C]
DT- Y [C]
H-Y [m]
DT- Z [C]
H-Z [m]

Temp-Unif-Minus
Initial stress/strain
101
135
1
0*
-27
0
0
0
0

Temp-Unif-Plus
Initial stress/strain
101
135
1
0*
27
0
0
0
0

* If the input for Alpha is defined as 0, the value for the temperature expansion coefficient is taken from the material definitions.

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

2-16

Schedule
Bottom Table

Note:

Bentley Systems

Number
Type
From
To
Step
Alpha
DT-G [C]
DT- Y [C]
H-Y [m]
DT- Z [C]
H-Z [m]

Initial stress/strain
101
135
1
0*
0
6.2
0
0
0

Initial stress/strain
101
135
1
0*
0
-5
0
0
0

For each load there is a load explanation which can be found under manuals, under F1
help or by clicking the load explanation check box located at each load input window.

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2-17

2.3 Definition of Wind Forces

Schedule
Cases

Name
Type

Description

Wind+T
Nonpermanent
Wind with
traffic

Wind-T
Nonpermanent
Wind without
traffic

Top Table

Cases for Wind Forces
with Traffic

Schedule
Bottom Table

Name
Type
From
To
Step
Qx [kN/m]
Qy [kN/m]
Qz [kN/m]
Direction
Eccentricity
Ey [m]
Ez [m]
Definition

Wind+T
Uniform eccentric eleUniform eccentric element load
101
101
135
135
1
1
0
0
0
0
1.92 [kN/m2]
3.84 [kN/m]
Local
Local
Local
Local+Y Elem-Ecc
0
1.00
0
0
Real length
Real length
depth

The load case for wind with traffic consists of two load definitions. The first one defines
the wind load directly on superstructure, and the second one defines the wind load on
the traffic.
The variation of the wind load on the superstructure due to the variable height can be
defined with the option Load multiply with cross-section depth where the wind pressure (kN/m2) is defined. The program then internally calculates the uniform wind load
and applies it on the elements (the load is applied to the centre of gravity, and the actual
application point of the load is neglected).
For the wind load acting on the traffic, the wind pressure has to be first multiplied with
the traffic height (2.0 m) and then defined as uniform load. Load application is one meter above the road surface and has to be defined accordingly. This can be done with local Y element eccentricity (this represents the distance from the element centre of gravity to the node) and an additional eccentricity 1 m above the road way relative to the
node.

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

2-18

The definition of the wind load without traffic (together with the wind load on the concrete barriers) follows the same principle as the definition of the wind load with traffic.
Cases for Wind Forces
without Traffic

Schedule

Name

Type

Bottom Table

From
To
Step
Qx [kN/m]
Qy [kN/m]
Qz [kN/m]
Direction
Eccentricity
Ey [m]
Ez [m]
Definition

Wind-T
Uniform eccentric eleUniform eccentric element load
101
101
135
135
1
1
0
0
0
0
1.85[kN/m2]
1.67 [kN/m]
Local
Local
Local
Local+Y Elem-Ecc
0
0.45
0
0
Real length
Real length
depth

To consider wind from both sides it possible to define the same load case with a different sign. Another possibility is to define the loads with load sets and to use these load
sets for both direction (once with positive and once with negative factor).
Within this example the third option will be used where this will be achieved with the
superposition of the above created load cases. This is done with the corresponding superposition rule (AndX, AddX or OrX) which superposes the effects once with a positive sign and once with a negative sign.

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2-19

2.4 Definition of Braking Forces

The braking load will be applied as a uniform load in the longitudinal (x) direction
along the whole bridge length. Both application directions will be considered using the
same principle as the wind load by superposing the load case with corresponding superposition rule.
Schedule

Name
Type
Description

Braking
Non-permanent
Braking forces

Schedule

Name

Type

Braking
Uniform eccentric
101
135
1
5.27 [kN/m]
0
0
Local
0
Local+Y ElemEcc
0
0
Real length

Cases
Top Table

Cases for Braking
Forces

Bottom Table

From
To
Step
Qx [kN/m]
Qy [kN/m]
Qz [kN/m]
Direction
X/L
Eccentricity
Ey [m]
Ez [m]
Definition

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3-20

Lesson 14: Calculation and Superposition of additional

The arrangement of the subsequent Construction stages can be made freely. They are
actually not real construction stages because there will be no elements activated or time
depended calculations made. They will be only recalculation stages. However, it is
recommended to group them with some logical principle.
Each type of additional load will be grouped together this means that for each a calculation stage will be generated where the loads will be calculated and superposed into
one envelope. In this envelope the minimum and maximum results will be saved. The
same envelope will be used for the load combinations.

3.1 Calculation and superposition of Settlement loads

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Settlement

Description

Calculation and superposition

of pier settlement

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Insertion of the Calculation Actions to the

Construction Stage
Settlement

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculations (Static)
Calc
Settle-A1
*
0

Calculations (Static)
Calc
Settle-A2
*
0

Calculations (Static)
Calc
Settle-A1
*
0

Calculations (Static)
Calc
Settle-A2
*
0

First all settlement load cases are calculated with the Calc action. Only now can these
load cases be superposed this will be done with following actions.
If in the output field a star is defined (*) the created list file will have the default name
LC Name.lst (e.g.: Settle-A1.lst). The name of the list file can be changed by defining
the name of it in the corresponding output window.

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Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

3-21

LC/Envelop LC/Envelop LC/Envelop LC/Envelop LC/Envelop

e action
e action
e action
e action
e action
SupInit
SupAndLc
SupAndLc
SupAndLc
Settle-A1
Settle-A2
Settle-A3
Settle-A4
Settle.sup
0
0
0
0
0

With the LC/Envelope action SupInit (Superposition file Initialization) an envelope file
with name defined in Output-1 will be generated. All envelope files have, unlike load
cases, an extension *.sup.
In each envelope the maximum and minimum values/results for six internal forces (Nx,
Qy, Qz, Mx, My, and Mz) and six deformations (Vx, Vy, Vz, Rx, Ry, and Rz) are saved
for each element (e.g.: MinNx, MaxNx, MinRz, MaxRz). As it can be
seen this is a 12*12 result matrix. There is always a leading result component
(e.g.: Max and Min for Mz MinMz and MaxMz) and other values that are corresponding values (MinMz:Qy).
Therefore, in addition to the result component (e.g.: Qy or Mz), the leading (superposition) component (e.g.: MinQy or MaxMz) has to be defined when presenting envelope
results. If we want to see the maximum or minimum bending moments around the z axis
of an envelope the definition is as follows: MinMz:Mz for minimum bending moments
and MaxMz:Mz for maximum bending moments. To see the corresponding shear forces
the definition is: MinMz:Qy and MaxMz:Qy.
There are different ways of superposing certain load cases/envelopes superposition
rules. Depending on the chosen rule the end results can be different. Therefore the engineer has to chose with which rule the superposition has to be done. All superposition
rules are explained in the table below.
Rule

Description

Application Example

new result is favorable or unfavorable compared to the
existing result.

pre-stressing, etc.)

Conditional adding/superposing here the values are

added/superposed only if the new result is unfavorable
compared to the existing value.

situation.

Substitution if unfavorable using this rule the values

are compared to each other, and if the value to be added
is unfavorable it will replace the existing one. In other
cases the existing value will remain.

SupAnd

SupOr

Bentley Systems

Traffic etc.

Traffic etc.

Austria

SupAndX
SupOrX

Both have the same functionality as their basic rules

(SupAnd and SurOr). The difference is that the values to
be added are superposed once with positive factor (+1)
and once time with negative factor (-1).

3-22

which are defined only from one
side.

Depending on the file to be added, load case or envelope, there are different actions
SupAndLc or SupAndSup.
For further and more detailed information about the superposition rules see the RM
Bridge Analysis User Guide, Section 7.2.5.
In this particular example (Settlement of each axis) the values are conditionally superposed with the actions SupAndLc (to the Settle envelope a load case will be added with
the rule And conditional adding). This means that individual result components (Nx,
Qy, Mz) are added only if the respective maximum or minimum result value becomes unfavorable.
Note:

By the definition of the envelope file (Output 1) using the SupInit action the extension
doesnt have to be defined because it will be automatically added. This doesnt apply for all
other superposition actions it is necessary to write the extension (or selection from the
Selecting the envelope from the drop down menu is possible only if the envelope already
exists (that it was created/initialized). To avoid a complete recalculation, the action for
creating the envelope can be started separately by clicking the Run Action button on the
right side between the top and bottom table. By clicking on it a new window opens where
the Run Action button has to be clicked and the currently selected action will be performed.
Using this principle the created envelope can be selected from the drop down menu.
For easier and faster definition the action can be copied and modified. The input can also
be defined by the copy-paste function.

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3-23

3.2 Calculation and superposition of temperature loads

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Temperature

Description

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Schedule

Insertion of the Calculation Actions to the

Construction Stage
Temperature

Type
Action

Stages

Inp1

Schedule Actions

Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Bottom Table

Calculations (Static)
Calc
Temp-UnifMinus
*
0

Calculations (Static)
Calc
Temp-UnifPlus
*
0

Calculations (Static)
Calc
*
0

Calculations (Static)
Calc
*
0

First the temperature load cases are calculated. This must be done before they can be
superposed.

Type

LC/Envelope
action

LC/Envelope
action

LC/Envelope
action

LC/Envelope
action

Action

SupInit
-

Inp2

SupOrLc
Tempunif.sup
Temp-UnifPlus

SupInit

Inp1

Tempunif.sup
Temp-UnifMinus

Inp3

Tempunif.sup
0

Out1
Out2
Delta-T

0

LC/Envel
ope action
-

LC/Envel
ope action
SupOrLc
-

superposed with the Or role into separated envelopes.
Using that principle we get two envelopes one for the uniform temperature loads and
another one for the gradient temperature loads where the maximum and minimum values from each temperature load type are saved. Those have to be superposed (combined
with each other with different factors) according to the code into one final temperature
envelope which will be used for the combinations.
For that two intermediate envelopes will be created into which the two temperature envelopes will be combined using two different principles. Into the first envelope the uni Bentley Systems

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

3-24

form temperature envelope will be added with factor 1.00 and the gradient temperature
intermediate envelope the same principle follows only vice versa, where the second
combination factor is not 0.35 but 0.75.
In the end the two intermediate envelopes will be superposed to one final envelope using the Or rule substitution if unfavorable.
Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2

Note:

LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve LC/Enve

lope action lope action lope action lope action lope action lope action lope action lope action lope action
SupInit
SupInit
SupOrSup
Sup
Sup
Sup
Sup
Sup
TempTempTempTempTemp.sup Temp.sup
1.sup
1.sup
2.sup
2.sup
unif.sup
unif.sup
1.sup
2.sup
1,1
0.35,0.35
1,1
0.75,0.75
TempTempTemp.sup
1.sup
2.sup
-

The factor 1.0 for the input is defined only for clear demonstration the input can be left as
per default (blank). In this case the factor used for the superposition is 1.0.

3.3 Calculation and superposition of wind loads

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Wind

Description

Superposition)

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Insertion of the Calculation Actions to the

Construction Stage
Wind

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Bentley Systems

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculations
(Static)
Calc
Wind-T
*
0

Calculations
(Static)
Calc
Wind+T
*
0

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3-25

Both load cases for wind with and without traffic are first calculated. Afterwards both
wind loads will be superposed into separate envelopes with the AndX rule the load
case is once added with the positive factor and then with negative factor (-1.0).
Type

LC/Envelope
action

LC/Envelope
action

LC/Envelope
action

LC/Envelope
action

Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

SupInit
Wind-T.sup
0

SupAndXLc
Wind-T.sup
Wind-T

SupInit
-

SupAndXLc
Wind+T.sup
Wind+T

Wind+T.sup
0

3.4 Calculation and superposition of braking loads

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Braking

Description

and Superposition)

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Insertion of the Calculation Actions to the

Construction Stage
Wind

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Type
Acion
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculations
(Static)
Calc
Braking-LC
*
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
Braking.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndXLc
Braking.sup
Braking
0

Same principle that was used for the wind load applies also for braking load first the
load case is calculated and then superposed to an envelope with the AndX rule.
Note:

Bentley Systems

It would be possible to define the braking load as live load. For that a traffic lane and load
train (e.g.: concentrated load) have to be defined and calculated. The principle of calculation of live load is defined in next section.

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of load cases Traffic lanes and Load trains have to be defined. First the traffic lines are
evaluated in schedule actions influence lines are calculated. Then the load trains are
combined with traffic lanes, and the results are saved into envelopes which are superposed into the final envelope(s).
The procedure is outlined below:
1) Definition of traffic lanes (Schedule Load definition Traffic Lanes) via
different macros.
Schedule actions
3) Evaluation of Traffic Lanes calculation of influence lines (Action Infl).
4) Initialization of envelopes used for evaluating load trains on influence lines (Action SupInit).
5) Evaluation of load trains and influence lines (Action LiveL). The results are
saved into the previously created envelopes.
6) Superposition of envelopes where individual results of the evaluation are stored
to get the combination of (different) load trains in different positions. The final
result of the superposition is/are envelope(s) which is/are used later during the
calculation of combinations.

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4.1 Definition of Traffic Lanes

Lanes to be defined were explained in section 1.2.2.
Schedule
Definition of Lanes

Number
Output-File
Info-File
Description

1
ez = +4.0 m

2
ez = +1.0 m

3
ez = -2.0 m

4
ez = +2.75 m

Traffic Lanes
Top Table

Number
Output-File
Info-File
Description

11
ez = -4.0 m

12
ez = -1.0 m

13
ez = +2.0 m

14
ez = -2.75 m

21
ez = 0.0 m

A traffic lane is defined through an element series (normally all elements of the superstructure). Information about the load direction and position (eccentricity) is required
for each element at least at one point. Normally it is done at two points on the element begin and element end. These points can be generated very easily using different
macros.
In this example Macro 2 will be used for generation of all traffic lanes (vertical load
with eccentricity).
Note:

The basic direction (x,y,z longitudinal, vertical, transversal) of the live load is defined
via the lane definition different macros. The load intensity and orientation (positive or
negative) is defined via the definition of the load train.
In case of grillage models the transversal elements can be loaded directly (Macro3) or the
load is distributed from the transversal to the longitudinal girders (Macro4).
For more detailed information about traffic lanes please see RM Analysis user guide section 7.2.9.
The procedure of creation of the Traffic Lanes can be different than shown here the lane
can be created (upper table) and immediately defined (bottom table)

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

Definition of the
Lanes by Macros

Schedule

Lane
Macro

Eccentricity

Traffic Lanes
Bottom Table

Lane
Macro
Eccentricity
El-from
El-fo
El-step
ey [m]
ez [m]
Phi
Ndiv

4-28

El-from
El-fo
El-step
ey [m]
ez [m]
Phi
Ndiv

1
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
+4.0
1.00
1

2
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
+1.0
1.00
1

3
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
-2.0
1.00
1

4
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
+2.75
1.00
1

11
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
-4.0
1.00
1

12
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
-1.0
1.00
1

13

14

Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
+2.0
1.00
1

Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
-2.75
1.00
1

21
Macro2
EYel
EZel
101
135
1
0
0
1.00
1

The lane eccentricities are defined in the local coordinate system of the element (EYel
and EZel). Lane eccentricities (ey and ez) can be referenced to the node by using the
local vertical and transversal eccentricities. For a vertical load, only the transversal load
eccentricity has an effect.
The input sequence is as follows:
Select the lane to be defined in the upper table and click on the insert after button in the
bottom table. A window with macros opens and Macro2 has to be chosen. In the newly
opened window click again on the insert after button and make the input as is shown in
the table above. With this the definition of one influence line is finished. The same has
to be repeated for all other lanes also.
The macro creates the information in the bottom table where for each element there are
4 definitions two at the element begin (x/l = 0.00001) and two at the element end (x/l
= 0.99999). One defines the position of the lane relative to the element (eccentricities),
and the other defines the load position (which is the same as the lane position) and direction. This information allows the program to calculate influence lines.

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trains to be defined were explained in section 1.2.2.
Schedule
Trains

Number
Fact-min
Fact-max

1
1
1

2
1
1

Description

LT2: TS 2x200 kN/m

5
1
1
LT5: UDL 2.5 kN/m2
(x5.5m)

6
1
1
LT6: UDL 2.5 kN/m2
(x3.0m)

3
1
1
2x100 kN/m

Top Table

Number
Fact-min
Fact-max
Description

90
1
1
LT90: LM3 4*120 kN/m

The load trains have been created and now they have to be defined.

Train Properties

Schedule

LTrain
Q [kN/m]
F [kN/m]
Free length
L-from
L-to
L-step

1
0
-300
1.2
0
0

0
-300
0
0
0

Bottom Table

A certain load train is defined by a load and length to the next load. Therefore the first
input for load train 1 is defined by a concentrated load F = -300 kN (negative
y-direction) and a fixed length of 1.2 m (L-from = 1.2). The next input for the first load
train consist only of a concentrated load F = -300 kN.
Using the same principle, load train number 2, 3 and 90 have to be defined.
as is shown in the table below. The length of the uniformly distributed load is set to free
the program will automatically calculate the unfavorable position and length and load
the structure with it.

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

LTrain
Q [kN/m]
F [kN/m]
Free length
L-from
L-to
L-step

2
0
-200
1.2
0
0

3
0
-200
0
0
0

0
-100
1.2
0
0

0
-100
0
0
0

4-30

5
-13.75
0

6
-19.50
0

90
0
-120
1.2
0
0

0
-120
6
0
0

0
-120
1.2
0
0

0
-120
0
0
0

The input fields on the right side of the window for the definition of the load trains are
for two dimensional definition of the load trains and are irrelevant for the one-beam
model. This input is generally used for FEM models (it can be used also for grillage
model).
Pre-defined load train definitions according to Eurocode can be imported via Extras

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4.3 Traffic Calculation

4.3.1 Calculation of influence lines
Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

InflCalc

Description

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Insertion of the Calculation Actions to the

Construction Stage
InflCalc

Schedule

Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculation (Static)
Infl
1
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
2
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
3
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
4
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
11
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
12
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
13
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
14
*
0

Calculation (Static)
Infl
21
*
0

Type

Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

First the influence lines for the defined Traffic Lanes are calculated with the Infl action.
The results of the calculations are saved to list files and also to binary files which can be
graphically presented under Results Influence Lines Corresponding influence
line.
Note:

Bentley Systems

The graphical presentation is possible only if the influence lines were actually calculated.

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4-32

4.3.2 Calculation and superposition of the tandem system

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Trafic-TS

Description

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

The definitions in the bottom table are as follows:

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L1-T1.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L2-T2.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L3-T3.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L11-T1.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L12-T2.sup
*
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L13-T3.sup
*
0

Here the envelopes are created/initialized, which is necessary for the evaluation of load
trains and traffic lanes. It is highly recommended to use a systematic numbering/naming. In this example the envelopes are named with the numbers of the lanes and
trains that will be combined with each other.
When the influence lines are calculated and the envelopes initialized the load trains can
be combined with the traffic lanes.
Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
1
1
VLL-L1-T1.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
2
2
VLL-L2-T2.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
3
3
VLL-L3-T3.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
11
1
VLL-L11-T1.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
12
2
VLL-L12-T2.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
13
3
VLL-L13-T3.sup
*
0

The action LiveL combines the chosen load train (Input2) with the selected traffic lane
(Iput1). The results of the calculation are saved not only into the previously generated
envelope (Output1) file but also to a list file.
These envelopes can be superposed to the final envelope for the tandem system.

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

4-33

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
LM1-TS-A.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-TS-A.sup
VLL-L1-T1.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-TS-A.sup
VLL-L2-T2.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-TS-A.sup
VLL-L3-T3.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
LM1-TS-B.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-TS-B.sup
VLL-L11-T1.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-TS-B.sup
VLL-L12-T2.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-TS-B.sup
VLL-L13-T3.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
LM1-TS.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
LM1-TS.sup
LM1-TS-A.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
LM1-TS.sup
LM1-TS-B.sup
0

The load application A and B are superposed with And into two separate envelope files
and at the end with Or to the final envelope.

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4-34

4.3.3 Calculation and superposition of the UDL loads

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Traffic-UDL

Description

Superposition)

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

The definitions in the bottom table are as follows:

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L1-T6.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L4-T5.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L11-T6.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L14-T5.sup
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
1
6
VLL-L1-T6.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
4
5
VLL-L4-T5.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
11
6
VLL-L11-T6.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
14
5
VLL-L14-T5.sup
*
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
LM1-UDL.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
LM1-UDL.sup
VLL-L1-T6.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
LM1-UDL.sup
VLL-L11-T6.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM1-UDL.sup
VLL-L4-T5.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAnd
LM1-UDL.sup
VLL-L14-T5.sup
0

First both of the outermost differential loads (6.5 kN/m2) are superposed with the Or
rule they are exclusive because they cant act at the same time. Both other (missing")
differential loads (one on the left side and another on the right side; 2.5 kN/m2 on the
complete left and on the complete right side) are conditionally added afterwards with
the And rule.

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4-35

4.3.4 Calculation and superposition of the Fatigue load models

Schedule

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Name

Traffic-LM3

Description

Superposition)

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

The definitions in the bottom table are as follows.

Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
-

Out1

VLL-L1-T90.sup

Out2
Delta-T

Type

Type
Action
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
LM3-Fatigue.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L11T90.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
LM3-Fatigue.sup
VLL-L1-T90.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
VLL-L21T90.sup
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
1
90
VLL-L1-T90.sup

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
LM3-Fatigue.sup
VLL-L11-T90.sup
0

*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
1
90
VLL-L11T90.sup
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
LiveL
1
90
VLL-L21T90.sup
*
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupAndSup
LM3-Fatigue.sup
VLL-L21-T90.sup
0

All three load train positions (left, right and middle) are superposed with the action Or
into the final envelope the load trains are exclusive of each other because they cannot
act on the structure at the same time.

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5-36

5.1 Definition of the Load Combination

The results of the calculated loads are saved into load cases or envelopes. They can now
be used for the definition of the Load Combinations. The definition of load combinations is done under menu Schedule Load definition Combination table.
It is possible to define up to 48 different combinations. Using the buttons on the top left
side allows you to change between different pages 6 load combination definitions per
page.
The first column represents the load cases and/or envelopes to be combined into a certain combination. In the second column the rule of the superposition for each load case
and/or envelope is defined. Afterwards there are 2 columns for each combination that
represent the favorable and unfavorable factors.
The input of the combinations is not combination oriented but instead is load case
oriented. This means simply that the input is done for each load case separately where
favorable and unfavorable factors have to be defined for all combinations.
The load combinations to be defined are explained in section 1.3 and are again displayed in the table below.
LC/Envelope
SW-SUM
SDL-SUM
PT-SUM
CS-SUM
CS-INF
CS-INF
LM1-TS.sup
LM1-UDL.sup
LM3-Fatigue.sup
Braking.sup
Wind-T.sup
Wind+T.sup
Temp.sup
Settle.sup

Bentley Systems

COMBINATION
Rule
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1.35
1/1.35
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1.35
1/1.35
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1
1/1
1/1
0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1 0.9/1.1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
AndLc
1/1
1/1
1/1
AndSup 1/1
1/1
1/1 0.75/0.75 0.75/0.75
1.35/1.35 1.013/1.013
AndSup 1/1
1/1
1/1
0.4/0.4 0.4/0.4
1.35/1.35 0.54/0.54
AndSup
1/1
1/1
AndSup
1.35/1.35
AndSup
AndSup 0.6/0.6 0.6/0.6 0.6
0.9/0.9
0.9/0.9
AndSup 0.6/0.6 0.6/.06 0.6
0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 0.9/0.9
0.9/0.9 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5 0.5/0.5
AndSup 1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1
1/1

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

Definition of
Combinations

Schedule

LC/Envelope
Comb
Type
Comb I
Comb II
Comb III
Comb IV
Comb V
Comb VI
Comb VII
Comb VIII
Comb IX
Comb X
Comb XI
Comb XII
Comb XIII

Combination Table
Top Table

LC/Envelope
Comb
Type
Comb I
Comb II
Comb III
Comb IV
Comb V
Comb VI
Comb VII
Comb VIII
Comb IX
Comb X
Comb XI
Comb XII
Comb XIII

Bentley Systems

PT-SUM
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
1
1
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1
1
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.1

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CS-SUM
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

SW-SUM
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.35
1.35
1
1
1
1

CS-INF
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
1
1
1
1

SDL-SUM
F-fav.
F-unfav.

1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1.35
1.35
1
1
1
1

CS-INF
SupAndLc
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
1
1
-

1
1
1
-

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Training Prestressing Basic - RM - Part2: EC

LC/Envelope
Comb
Type
Comb I
Comb II
Comb III
Comb IV
Comb V
Comb VI
Comb VII
Comb VIII
Comb IX
Comb X
Comb XI
Comb XII
Comb XIII

LM1-TS.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-unfav.

LC/Envelope
Comb
Type
Comb I
Comb II
Comb III
Comb IV
Comb V
Comb VI
Comb VII
Comb VIII
Comb IX
Comb X
Comb XI
Comb XII
Comb XIII
Comb XIV

Wind-T.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-unfav.

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1
1
1
0.75
0.75
1.35
1.013
-

1
1
1
0.75
0.75
1.35
1.013
-

LM1-UDL.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-fav.
1
1
1
0.4
0.4
1.35
0.54
-

1
1
1
0.4
0.4
1.35
0.54
-

Wind+T.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-unfav.
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
-

0.6
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.9
-

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LM3-Fatigue.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
1

1
1

Temp.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-unfav.
0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

0.6
0.6
0.6
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.9
0.9
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5

Braking.sup
SupAndSup
F-unfav. F-unfav.
1.35
-

1.35
-

Settle.sup
SupAndSup
F-fav.
F-unfav.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

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5.2 Calculation of the load combinations

Up to now the load combinations have only been defined and have not yet been calculated. To calculate them a schedule action has to be defined SupComb. With this action all defined load cases and envelopes with their corresponding superposition rule
and defined favorable and unfavorable factors are superposed into the final (combination) envelope.
For a better overview a separated calculation stage will be created where all 13 combinations will be calculated.
Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Combos

Description

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Insertion of the Calculation Actions to the

Construction Stage
Combos

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Type
Acion
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Type
Acion
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Bentley Systems

Type
Acion
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
1
Comb1.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
4
Comb4.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
5
Comb5.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
6
Comb6.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
7
Comb7.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
10
Comb10.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
11
Comb11.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
12
Comb12.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
13
Comb13.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
2
Comb2.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
8
Comb8.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
3
Comb3.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupComb
9
Comb9.sup
0

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Lesson 17: Fibre Stress Check

Definition of the
Required Construction Stage

Schedule

Name
Description

Stages

SLS

SLS-Fibre Stress
Check - Concrete
compression stresses
and decompression

Activation
Top Table

Insertion to the construction schedules:

Definition of the
Fibre Stress
Check actions

Schedule
Stages
Schedule Action
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Check
actions(SUP)
FibSup
Comb1.sup
1
*
0

Check
actions(SUP)
FibSup
Comb2.sup
1
*
0

Check
actions(SUP)
FibSup
Comb6.sup
2
*
0

Check
actions(SUP)
FibSup
Comb7.sup
2
*
0

The compressive stresses in concrete have to be checked to see if they exceed some
limit under a certain combination (see section 1.4.1.1.1). The compression stresses due
to load combinations 1 and 2 (Comb1.sup and Comb2.sup; characteristic combinations)
should not exceed 0.6fck and the compression stresses under load combinations 6 and 7
(Comb6.sup and Comb7.sup; quasi permanent action) should not exceed 0.45fck.
The schedule actions for various checks are separated into different menus for load cases and for envelopes Check actions (LC) and Check actions (SUP).
The schedule action for checking the stresses in predefined fibers is Fib. The suffix defines for what the check is done for load case (FibLc) or for envelope (FibSup).
The first input field (Input-1) defines for which load case or for which envelope the
check will be done.
Next input field defines the stress limit. The input is a number which references the
stress limit defined in the material data (Properties Material data Corresponding
material; stress limits are defined in the small table in the bottom right corner).
If the stress limits are not defined the stress check cannot be done. To define the stress
limits for a material the insert after button has to be chosen (it is on the right side above
the stress limit table). The stress limit number is automatically assigned (serial number),
and two other inputs represent the maximum (tension-positive) and minimum (pressurenegative) allowed stress limit.
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In this case the stress limits are already defined. The stress limit number 1 corresponds
to 0.6fck, and the stress limit number 2 corresponds to 0.45fck.
The check determines the minimum and maximum stresses under the defined load
case/envelope in all stress check points defined in the cross-sections and compares them
with stress limits. Results are saved into a list file (Output-2). Those exceeding the limits (if there are any) are saved into the list file (values marked with #), and a warning is
displayed after completion of the calculation.
The same check can also be done graphically. It can be seen at which places the requirements are not satisfied. This is done by creating a diagram via RMSet. On this diagram certain stresses in certain fibers are plotted along with stress limits.

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Reinforced concrete checks General

The results of different design check actions are reinforcement areas that are saved into
their corresponding Attribute-Sets. They can be seen under menu Structure Elements Checks for each element.
In the upper table the element is selected and in the bottom table the results can be seen
by selecting one of the corresponding Attribute Set.
Some Attribute Sets have more than one result component (e.g.: Attribute Set for ShearLongitudinal reinforcement which has two result components one for the top and
another for the bottom reinforcement).
The calculated reinforcement areas are stored and displayed under the A2 reinforcement
area. The A1 reinforcement area represents an input where a predefined reinforcement
area (e.g.: minimum reinforcement) can be defined (double click on the Attribute Set or
select it and click on the modify button). It is possible to define that this reinforcement
area is fixed or variable. If it is set to fixed, then the program will not increase the values even if it is necessary according to a certain design check. In the other case the reinforcement area will be increased by the necessary reinforcement area calculated by a
certain design check.
The reinforcement areas can be displayed also graphically via RM-Sets. The corresponding elements and attribute sets have to be defined. In addition the results can be
presented numerically by creating an excel sheet or a list file.
It is also possible to specify for which elements certain design checks should not be
done (double click on an element in the upper table and check the OFF button next to a
certain design check). By default all design checks are ON for all elements. The program distinguishes between beam elements and other elements (spring elements, stiffness elements, tendons, etc.). In addition it is also possible to make a detailed list file
(export) for each design check.
In principal the reinforcement area calculated by previous design actions (depending on
the schedule sequence defined in under schedule actions) is taken into account in the
subsequent design actions.
The data of the calculated reinforcement area (A2) remains as an existing reinforcement
area even when a new recalculation of the project is run (it is also exported into TCL
files). Therefore it is necessary to initialize (delete) the A2 reinforcement areas (calculated areas) before the first design action. This is done with the ReinIni action (Reinforcement Initialization) where the A2 reinforcement area of a certain or all Attribute
sets is set to 0 for all elements.

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For clarification and clear overview a new (calculation) stage will be created:
Definition of the
Required Construction Stage

Schedule

Name

ReinIni

Description

Reinforcement initialization

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Initialization of the
A2
Reinforcement areas

Schedule
Stages
Schedule Action
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Check
actions(SUP)
RenIni
0

The action ReinIni is located in the menu for load case check actions (Check Actions
(LC)). It is also found in the envelope check actions (Check Actions (SUP)).
If the first input (Input-1) remains empty (or a * is defined) all Attribute-Sets will be
initialized. To initialize a certain Attribute-Set, it has to be selected from the drop down

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Lesson 18: Crack Check

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

Crack

Description

Crack control

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Definition of the
Cracking Check

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
Crack-Char.sup
0

LC/Envelope action LC/Envelope action LC/Envelope action

SupInit
SupOrSup
SupOrSup
Crack-Frequent.sup
Crack-Frequent.sup
Comb4.sup
Comb5.sup
Crack-Frequent.sup
0
0
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
Crack-Char.sup
Comb2.sup
-

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
Crack-Char.sup
Comb3.sup
-

Check actions (SUP)

CrackSup
Crack-Frequent.sup
0.2
-

Crack-Char.sup
PT-SUM
*
0

The check action for crack control for envelopes is CrackSup. Here two envelopes have
to be defined under Iinput-1.
According to EN 1992-1-1, 7.3.2 (4) first the stresses under the characteristic load combinations are checked second envelope under Input-1. If concrete is in tension (or the
stresses are above ct,p = fct,eff) the program will calculate the minimum reinforcement
under the frequent load combination fist envelope under Input-1.
Therefore both characteristic load combinations (load combination number 4 and 5) are
superposed into one final characteristic load combination (which is used as the second
envelope under Input-1) with the Or rule substitute if unfavorable. The same follows
Furthermore, for the correct definition of the check action, the maximum allowable
crack width also has to be defined (first field of Input-2).

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The last necessary input for the check action is the Initial-strain load case (for more information see section 9 because the crack check is based on the ultimate load check).
To perform the check the maximum reinforcement bar diameter has to be defined. This
diameter is referenced to the corresponding Attribute-Set. It can be defined under menu
Properties Groups / Attribute Sets.

Change into menuProperties Groups / Attribute Sets.

Select the group GP-AttrSet in the top table.
Modify the corresponding Attribute-Set in the bottom table by clicking on it.
Define the bar diameter Max D 0.02 m for all Attribute-Sets which serve as
crack reinforcement (in this case for all which are defined as Longitudinal reinforcement).
Group

AttrSet

Material

Type

MaxD

GP-AttrSets

Rein-Top

En_Eurocode:St550(B)

Longitudinal

0.02

GP-AttrSets

Rein-Bot

En_Eurocode:St550(B)

Longitudinal

0.02

GP-AttrSets

Reinf-Mz-Top

En_Eurocode:St550(B)

Longitudinal

0.02

GP-AttrSets

Reinf-Mz-Bot

En_Eurocode:St550(B)

Longitudinal

0.02

GP-AttrSets

Reinf-My-Left

En_Eurocode:St550(B)

Longitudinal

0.02

GP-AttrSets

Reinf-My-Right

En_Eurocode:St550(B)

Longitudinal

0.02

In this example the same Attribute-Set is used for cracking and for bending reinforcement. Therefore the results (reinforcement area) coming from both checks (crack check
and ULS check) are saved to the same Attribute-Set.
In order to distinguish between the results it is possible to make a diagram plot of the
reinforcement area immediately after the first check (or before subsequent check) in
this case Crack check. For that a reference set has to be defined where the corresponding Attribute-Set has to be chosen. The subsequent check (ULS check) will, if necessary, add additional needed reinforcement to the same Attribute-Set. Now the same diagram has to be plotted again in this second plot the updated Attribute-Set will be presented. In this way it is possible to distinguish between results (reinforcement areas).
Note:

The output files for the diagrams have to be named differently. If not, the subsequently
created diagram will overwrite the previously created one. For better understanding please
see the finished training example.

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9-46

Lesson 19: Ultimate Load Capacity Check

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

ULS-Ult

Description

Carrying Capacity

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Definition of the

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Nachweis-Aktionen
UltSup
ULS.sup
*
Rein
*
0

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
ULS.sup
0

LC/Envelope action
SupInit
Ult-ULS.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
ULS.sup
Comb8.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
ULS.sup
Comb9.sup
0

Check actions (SUP)

UltSup
ULS.sup
UltMz
*
Ult-ULS.sup
*
0

For the ULS check the unfavorable effects of load combinations 8 and 9 have to be considered. Therefore these combinations are superposed into the final ULS.sup envelope
with the Or rule (substitute if unfavorable).
The first check action performs the design check by selection of the Rein option (Reinforcement design). With this input the necessary reinforcement will be calculated and
added to the corresponding Attribute-Set. The reinforcement amount can be displayed
as was already explained (diagram creation via RM-Set). In addition, the results are
exported/saved also to a list file. Also for this check a detailed list can be made (at same
In next steps first an envelope file (Ult-ULS.sup) is initialized. Into this envelope the
results of the following ultimate load capacity check (UltSup check action with option
Ultimate load check for UltMz) are saved. This action calculates the maximum capacity
of the bending moment Mz of the cross-section (structure respectively). For this calculation both other internal force components for the ultimate load check (Nx and My) are
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fixed, and only the bending moment Mz is increased until the maximum capacity of the
bending moment is reached. The iteration process varies the strain planes which are
based on the stress-strain diagram of the corresponding element (concrete, reinforcement steel and pre-stressing steel). These diagrams are defined under material properties. Also these results are saved to a list file.
For pre-stressed structures the initial strain load case has to be defined to correctly consider the initial strain of the pre-stressing steel caused by the primary state of prestressing (V*e) when evaluating the stress-strain diagram. This state is saved in the
summation load case of pre-stressing (PT-SUM).
To consider the initial strain of creep and shrinkage and relaxation also, the total summation load case (STG-SUM) should be defined as the initial strain load case.
Furthermore, it is possible to consider the initial strain state from the envelope (load
case respectively) used for the design check. To do so, a * has to be defined, instead
of certain load case in the corresponding input field. This option considers also the factored initial strain of time effects. However, this is not allowed if the envelope includes
factored pre-stressing load cases and time effects and is not relevant in this form for
consideration of initial strain (see combination factors for combination used for crack
check).
If no initial strain load case is defined, then the load case defined in the recalc pad is
used as initial strain load case. If no load case is defined in the recalc pad, then the initial strain is not considered.
with or without pre-stressing see RM Analysis User Guide section 15.3 and 15.4.
A very instructive graphical comparison between demand moments (ULS.sup) and ultimate moments (Ult-SUL.sup) is done in the corresponding example.

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10 Lesson 20: Shear Capacity Check

Definition of the
Required Construction
Stage

Schedule

Name

ULS-Shear

Description

Shear capacity
check

Stages
Schedule Actions
Top Table

Capacity Check

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Check actions (SUP)

ShearSup
ULS.sup
PT-SUM
*
0

To perform a check for shear force and torsion (Shear check) for an envelope, the check
action ShearSup has to be used (ShearLc for load cases). The envelope for the ULS
checks was already generated and can be used. Also for this check an initial strain load
case has to be defined.
The results are, same as for all other checks, saved to the corresponding Attribute-Set as
well as to a normal or extended list file.
If the tendon geometry is not defined in a detailed manner (the tendons are grouped together into one tendon geometry), the nominal web thickness is not calculated automatically. Therefore the reduction of the web thickness has to be defined manually. This
reduction is defined via the parameters b-beg and b-end (reduction at element begin and
end) under menu Structure Elements Checks. These two parameters are referenced to elements and via this to the assigned cross-sections. In case of multiple webs,
the defined values will be subdivided on the individual webs taking into account the
number and width of the web (the thinnest web will have the smallest reduction and
vice versa for thickest web).
For grouted tendons the reduction of the web thickness according to EN 1992-1-1,
6.2.3(6) is defined as 0.5. In our case with arrangements of 3 tendons at same level
(parallel; side by side) with 8 cm diameter the reduction is (0.5230.08 =) 0.24 m.
To define the reduction change, go to the top table under Structure Elements
Checks and double click (or modify) one of the superstructure elements (elements
from 101 to 135). Define as follows: El-from:101; El-to:135; El-step:1; b-beg (m):0.24;
b-end (m):0.24.
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11 Lesson 22: Fatigue Check

Schedule

Definition of the
Required Construction Stage

Name

ULS-Fatigue

Description

Fatigue check

Stages
Activation
Top Table

Schedule

Definition of the
Fatigue Check

Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom Table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope action
SupOrSup
Fatigue.sup
Comb12.sup
0

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

LC/Envelope
action
SupInit
Fatigue.sup

LC/Envelope action
SupOrSup
Fatigue.sup
Comb13.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
Fatigue.sup
Comb10.sup
0

LC/Envelope
action
SupOrSup
Fatigue.sup
Comb11.sup
0

Check actions (SUP)

FatigSup
Fatigue.sup
*
0

All 4 load combination are superposed to one final envelope with the Or rule with
which the check will be done.
The action FitigSup performs a fatigue check only for a superposition file (envelope).
This is because only envelope can contain the maximum/minimum internal forces for
the traffic loads relevant for fatigue. The difference between maximum and minimum is
taken as a relevant stress range value Delta-sigma.
The results are saved to the list file which contains the stress difference for each element
in all stress check points, longitudinal reinforcement and tendons.

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12-50

12 Lesson 23: Lists and Plots

The different possibilities of post processing (RM-Sets and Plot Conatiners) were
shown already in section 11 of Part1. In the corresponding example there are multiple
Rm-Sets and Plots for presentation of internal forces, stresses and reinforcement areas
defined and created/plotted in schedule actions. This definition can be seen directly in
the program.
In addition a new stage is created (last stage) in which additional predefined plot actions
(Schedule Stages Schedule actins; Bottom table List/Plot actions) are defined
for plotting: working diagrams, creep and shrinkage diagrams, cross-sections, tendon
geometry, tendon scheme, tendon positions in cross-sections, stressing actions, load
trains, influence lines, etc. Also these definitions can be seen directly in the program.

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