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TRAINING PRESTRESSING BASIC

ANALYZER PART 1: AASHTO

RM Bridge V8i
December 2011

RM Bridge Professional Engineering Software for Bridges of all Types

RM Bridge
Training Prestressing Basic ANALYZER Part 1: AASHTO

Contents
1

General ................................................................................................................... 1-1


1.1

Starting the Program ...................................................................................... 1-1

1.2

Subjects Covered in this Training .................................................................. 1-1

General Example Data ........................................................................................... 2-1


2.1

Structural Model ............................................................................................ 2-1

2.2

Cross-Section ................................................................................................. 2-4

2.3

Substructure ................................................................................................... 2-6

2.4

Pre-Stressed Tendon Layout for Internal Tendons ........................................ 2-7

Lesson 6: Analyzer ................................................................................................ 3-1

Lesson 6: Tendon Definitions ................................................................................ 4-3


4.1

Tendon Material Import ................................................................................. 4-3

4.2

Definition of Tendon Groups ......................................................................... 4-4

4.3

Assign the Tendon Group to the Elements .................................................... 4-5

4.4

Definition of the Cable Geometry ................................................................. 4-6

4.5

Definition of the Tendon Stressing Schedule ................................................ 4-9

Lesson 7: Load Management ................................................................................. 5-1

Lesson 8: Load Definitions .................................................................................... 6-3

6.1

Definition of Load Cases for Self Weight ..................................................... 6-3

6.2

Definition of Load Cases for the Additional Loads ....................................... 6-5

6.3

Definition of Load Cases for the Tendons ..................................................... 6-6

6.4

Definition of Load Cases for the Creep and Shrinkage Effects ..................... 6-7

Lesson 9: Definition of Construction Stage 1 ........................................................ 7-1


7.1

Creation of construction stages ...................................................................... 7-1

7.2

First construction stage .................................................................................. 7-2

7.2.1

Activation................................................................................................... 7-2

7.2.2

Schedule actins calculations ................................................................... 7-2

Lesson 10: Definition of Construction Stage 2 ...................................................... 8-1


8.1

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Element Activation ........................................................................................ 8-1

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Training Prestressing Basic ANALYZER Part 1: AASHTO
8.2
9

II

Calculation (Static) ........................................................................................ 8-1

Lesson 11: Definition of Construction Stage 3 ...................................................... 9-2


9.1

Element Activation ........................................................................................ 9-2

9.2

Calculation (Static) ........................................................................................ 9-2

10 Lesson 12: Definition of Final Stage (Creep) ...................................................... 10-3


10.1

Calculation (Static) ...................................................................................... 10-3

11 The Calculation .................................................................................................... 11-4


11.1

Calculation options ...................................................................................... 11-4

11.2

Special settings ............................................................................................ 11-5

12 Result presentation ............................................................................................... 12-7


12.1

Possibilities in presentation of results .......................................................... 12-7

12.2

Diagram creation via RM-Sets .................................................................... 12-8

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1-1

General
The understanding of basic definitions and concepts as given in the Getting Started example is assumed in the following example.
The principles shown in the Getting Started example for Modeler and Analyzer:
Defining the structural model
Defining a tendon geometry
Defining loads
Defining a traffic loading case
Defining a construction schedule
Running the calculation
Viewing the results
Fiber stress check
Ultimate load check
Shear capacity check

1.1 Starting the Program


The program installation must be completed before any work can be started. The installation procedure automatically creates the following icon on the desktop:

To start the program, use the desktop icon or select the icon from the Windows Start
menu at All Programs, Bentley.

1.2 Subjects Covered in this Training

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Detailed modeling in Modeler (temperature points + pier and support conditions).


Load definition for three construction stages.
Traffic loading case definition in accordance with AASHTO.
Construction schedule definition for the three construction stages.
Making the structural analysis.
Calculation result viewing.
Fiber stress check.
Ultimate load check.
Shear capacity check.

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Training Prestressing Basic ANALYZER Part 1: AASHTO

2-1

General Example Data


In this example, a three span bridge is presented with a hollow box girder. It is built
span by span in three construction stages.

Figure 2-1: 3D-view of the bridge.

The span lengths of the pre-stressed concrete girder are 40m, 60 m and 40m. The height
of the box cross-section is variable along the curved bridge axis.

2.1 Structural Model


A1

40m

A2

60m

10x4m

15x4m

A3

40m

A4

10x4m

20m

Figure 2-2: Structural model.

System axis: Horizontal plan


1.Part: Straight Line:

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2.Part: Spiral: A=100, RENDE=200m:


3.Part: Circle: R=200:

Station: 20-70 m
Station: 70-140 m

System axis: Vertical plan


1.Part: Line: dXabsolute=65m, dZabsolute= 1.083m
2.Part: Line: dXdifference=75m, dZabsolute= -0.2924m
Rounding with Insert parabola by intersection

Station: 0-65 m
Station: 65-140 m
R=2000m

Pier at A2:
Height: 20m (4 Elements each 5m).
Pier at A 3:
Height: 20m (4 Elements each 5m).
Numbering system:
Node numbers (span) : 101-111-126-136
Element numbers (span) : 101-110,111-125,126-135
Active elements:
Construction Stage 1: 101-113, 1100-1103, 1200-1204
Construction Stage 2: 114-128, 1300-1304
Construction Stage 3: 129-135, 1400-1403

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A1

A2

40m

2-3

12m

10x4m

Stage 1:

113

A1

A2

A3

40m

60m

10x4m

15x4m

12m

Stage 2:

128

A1

40m

A2

10x4m

A3

60m

40m

15x4m

A4

10x4m

Stage 3:
135

Figure 2-3: Construction stages.

Axis 1

Axis 2

Axis 4

Axis 3

1102

1402
101-110

111-125

1101

126-135
1401

Z
X

Figure 2-4: Support definition.

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2.2 Cross-Section
13,0 m
6,5 m

6,5 m
0,40m

0,40m

12,2 m

3,00 m

2,00 m

1,50m

1,50m

2,00 m

3,00 m

0,90 m
0,20 m

0,25m
Y

0,25m
Z

h_cs_tab(sg)
d_web_tab(sg)

4,0m

5,0 m

d_bot_tab(sg)

0,15 m

1,5m

1,0m

1,0m

1,5m

4,0m

Figure 2-5: Main girder cross -section.


AXIS 1
Node 101

Y
Z
Spring 1101

Node 1101
Node 0
2,40m

Spring 1102

Spring 1100
2,40m

Figure 2-6: Definition of bearings at axis 1.

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AXIS 4
Node 136

Y
Z
Node 1401

Spring 1401

Spring 1402

Spring 1400
Node 0
2,40m

2,40m

Figure 2-7: Definition of bearings at axis 4.

1.5m

5.0m
Y

Figure 2-8: Pier cross-section.

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2-6

Table 2-1: Spring constants.


Element
1100
1101
1102
1400
1401
1402

CX [kN/m]
1e8
1e8
1e8
1e8
1e8
1e8

CY [kN/m]
1e8

CZ [kN/m]
1e8
1e8

CMX [kNm]
1e8

CMY [kNm]
1e8

CMZ [kNm]
1e8

1e8

1e8
1e8

1e8

1e8

1e8

2.3 Substructure
Axis 2

111

seg1

Segment 1

Eccentric connection of the pier


with the main girder
Connection point

Connection point

seg2
Pier 1

20m

seg2
Pier 1

1204
1203
1202
1201

Start of segment 2

Figure 2-9: Substructure Axis 2 Pier 1 (Segment2).


Axis 3

126

seg1

Segment 1

Eccentric connection of the pier


with the main girder

Connection point

Connection point

Seg3
Pier 2

20m

Seg3
Pier 2

1304

Start of segment 3

1303
1302
1301
0

Figure 2-10: Substructure Axis 2 Pier 2 (Segment3).

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2.4 Pre-Stressed Tendon Layout for Internal Tendons


140 m
40m
12 m

101

16 m

104

40m

60 m
12 m

111

108

18 m

18 m

12 m

114

118

12 m

123

12 m

126

16 m

129

12 m

133

135

Clearance 40cm from top

Clearance 40cm from top

Tendon 101

Tendon 103
Tendon 102

Clearance 20cm from bottom

Clearance 20cm from bottom

Clearance 20cm from bottom

Figure 2-11: Tendon arrangement

span 1:
span 2:
span 3:

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101 (16 tendons)


102 (16 tendons)
103 (16 tendons)

Ac=16cm2, duct area Ah=50cm2 (Nodes 101-115)


Ac=16cm2, duct area Ah=50cm2 (Nodes 108-129)
Ac=16cm2, duct area Ah=50cm2 (Nodes 123-136)

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3-1

Lesson 6: Analyzer
In the following chapters further inputs for the preparation of the project in the Analyzer
will be shown and explained.
Before continuing with the input it is recommended to recalculate the project the system which was exported to the Analyzer. This step is necessary because on the one hand
it will check the data and on the other hand it is necessary for geometry dependent inputs (e.g. referring to the center of gravity for the definition of the tendon geometry).
By clicking the Recalc button in the main input window (Analyzer) a new window
with recalc options opens. For now only two recalc options should be activated
Cross-section calculation and Structural check. However, it is possible to leave the
default options. In this case you would see a warning that no stage is defined this is
just information that no stage was calculated because no stage (actions) is defined.

Figure 3-1: Recalculation window

After the calculation and refreshing of the 3D View (using free hand symbols or just a
small rotation of the system) the static model in the main window is updated (eccentricities, element axis, etc). By right clicking in the viewing window, the view options (last
button in the menu) can be defined (e.g. cross-sections, element bodies, tendons, etc).
All structure data defined in Modeler and exported to the Analyzer can be seen under
Properties or Structure in the Analyzer menu tree. It is possible to modify all this data
here. However, note that after each export of the data from Modeler to the Analyzer, the

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modified structural data are overwritten. In this case all the modifications made in the
Analyzer are lost and have to be done once again if they were not saved by TCL export.
If the data/modifications were properly saved into a TCL, the TCL can be imported, and
the data will be overwritten once again. To simplify this process it is recommended that
any permanent changes to the structure are made in the Modeler.

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4-3

Lesson 6: Tendon Definitions


In the following chapter, the definition for the tendons will be done. In the Modeler
most of the structure definitions are already done. The only structure definition which is
missing is the specification of the tendon layouts and the corresponding stressing procedure.

4.1 Tendon Material Import


To define a tendon correctly a material is needed. All material used in Modeler were
also exported to the Analyzer and are saved to the project database
(Properties Material). The Tendon material has to be imported manually.
To load the material properties go to Menu File Load Default Properties or to
menu tree Configuration Load Default Properties.
A new window opens.
In this window the Materials (or Variables) are copied from the program database (left
side of the window) to the project database (right side). There are different material
groups from which a certain material can be selected and copied to the project database.
Multiple selection of material is possible by using the space button.
Select appropriate material for pre-stressing (as it is shown in the figure below).

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Figure 4-1: Load default properties importing material to the project database.

4.2 Definition of Tendon Groups


The tendon geometry will be simplified so that all the tendons positioned in the webs
will be grouped together and located in the middle of the cross-section. Due to that simplification and the three construction stages only three tendons have to be defined.
Further simplification will be done based on the fact that the tendons overlap each other
on some intervals. For this reason only one tendon geometry (master tendon) has to
be defined with the full 3D geometry over the whole length of the structure. Then the
individual tendon groups can be defined using the geometry of the master tendon.
These tendon groups are called slave tendons.
This procedure will be used mainly for preliminary designs where the tendon geometry
has to be designed. The advantage is that you can change the geometry of all tendon
groups by changing only the master tendon.

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Open the list for the definition of tendons under Structure Tendons Element Assignment.

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Select the insert after button


to open the input window for master tendon and tendon group definition.
Input the data as shown in the table below.

Structure

Definition of
Tendon Groups

Type
Tendon
geometry

Type - internal

Type - internal

Type - internal

Type - internal

Master profile

Slave profile

Slave profile

Slave profile

Orginal
Geometry

Tendons

TndNum
Element Assignment

Material

Top Table

Number
At [m2]
Ad [m2]
Beta
[Deg/m]
Friction
Description

1
101
102
103
AASHTO_LRF AASHTO_LRF AASHTO_LRF AASHTO_LRF
D:_PTtendGr2 D:_PTtendGr2 D:_PTtendGr2 D:_PTtendGr2
70
70
70
70
1
6
12
6
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0016
0.0050
0.0050
0.0050
0.0050
0.151

0.151

0.151

0.151

0.25

0.25
Prestressing
cable 101

0.25
Prestressing
cable 102

0.25
Prestressing
cable 103

Master cable

Note: More detailed information about the individual entries in the input window can be found by calling the program help (F1).

4.3 Assign the Tendon Group to the Elements


Now the elements have to be assigned to the tendons. This is how the program gets information about which elements the tendon passes through.

Select the insert after

button in the lower table to open the input window

The tendon groups are listed in the upper table and the elements to be assigned to the
selected tendon are displayed in the lower table.

Input the data using the information shown in the table below.
Input the Cable Assignment

STRUCTURE
TENDON DATA

TdNum
El from
El to
El step

1
101
135
1

101
101
113
1

102
108
128
1

103
123
135
1

EL. ASSIGNMENT
Bottom table

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4-6

4.4 Definition of the Cable Geometry


Now the actual geometry of the tendon will be defined. As already mentioned above, in
this example only the geometry of the master tendon will be defined. The salve tendons
will have the same geometry as the master tendon due to the definition above (slave
tendons with a reference to the master tendon).

Activate the master tendon in the upper list to start the definitions of the tendon geometry.

Select the info

button between the upper and lower list.

The input window for the graphical tendon geometry definition will be opened. Please
note that the graphical screen will be empty if you havent recalculated the crosssections and the structure before. In this window the preview can be changed between
different views (CS view, elevation, plan, isometric and side elevation) that graphically
display the defined input.

Figure 4-2: Tendon geometry input window with graphical overview.

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Click the insert after button on the left bottom side of the screen to activate the
input field.
Define the tendon positions as it is shown in the table below.
The input for one tendon position is confirmed by clicking the APPLY button.

Input the Cable


Geometry

STRUCTURE
TENDON DATA
GEOMETRY
Bottom table

TdNum
Ref. Elem.
CS pnt
X/L
eY [m]
eZ [m]
Rel. to
Alfa1
Value
Alfa2
Value
Rel. to
Extern

101
0
0
0
Elem
Free
Free
Elem

104
SP-B
0
0.2
0
CS pnt
Value
0
Value
0
Node

1
108
0
0
0
Elem
Free
Free
Elem

111
SP-T
0
-0.4
0
CS pnt
Value
0
Value
0
Node

114
0
0
0
Elem
Free
Free
Elem

TdNum
Ref. Elem.
CS pnt
X/L
eY [m]
eZ [m]
Rel. to
Alfa1
Value
Alfa2
Value
Rel. to
Extern

118
SP-B
0.5
0.2
0
CS pnt
Value
0
Value
0
Node

123
0
0
0
Elem
Free
Free
Elem

1
126
SP-T
0
-0.4
0
CS pnt
Value
0
Value
0
Node

133
SP-B
0
0.2
0
CS pnt
Value
0
Value
0
Node

135
1
0
0
Elem
Free
Free
Elem

The tendon definition for the master tendon is now completed and will be displayed in
the main graphic screen after calling redraw (freehand symbol V) or by rotating the
system. The tendon profile is drawn in a turquoise color.
Note: More detailed information about the individual entries in the input window can be found by calling the program help (F1).
The different ways of referring are shown more detailed in the figures below.

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4-8

NODE

ey

Tendon position
ez

CG

RP
NODE
Tendon position
ey

CG
ez

RP
ez

ey

NODE

Tendon position
CG

RP

Figure 4-3: Different references for the tendon position same tendon position but different eccentricities
and different reference points.

Figure 4-4: Different references for the angle Alpha1 the same applies for Alpha2

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Note: The reference point has to be created in Modeler (or even in Analyzer) and the Reference-Set has
to be of type Geometry Point or Stress Check Point.
The reference point itself can also vary along the bridge axis. This method can be used to define
the tendon geometry sometimes it is the best approach. The tendon has to be created in the Analyzer, and for the geometry definition the only thing that has to be defined is that the tendon is relative to the reference point (with or without any eccentricity) in all elements.

By finishing the tendon geometry definition of the master tendon, the geometry of the
slave tendons is also defined the reference to the master tendon was defined and the
elements were also assigned already.
To see the all tendons in the general 3D view the project has to be calculated using the
same principle as before (recalculation of the cross-sections and structure check).

4.5 Definition of the Tendon Stressing Schedule


The tendon stressing actions are not defined in the stage directly but instead are defined
separately and are referenced later. The tendon stressing procedure is defined under
Tendon Actions.
Select Schedule Stages Tendon Actions to start the stressing definitions.
All the actions that are applied to the tendons are defined in the two tables in this window. The top table lists all the actions applied to the tendons. The bottom table displays
details of the action for one tendon that is selected in the top table.
In this window all the actions (pre-stressing, wedge slip, relaxation, etc) for certain tendon (group) are defined.
The Tendon 101 is stressed in the first construction stage and can be stressed from both
sides. Tendons 102 and 103 are stressed in the subsequent construction stages stage 2
and stage 3. Due to practical capabilities of pre-stressing, these two tendons can be
stressed only from the right side.
Note: The left and right side of the tendon is defined by the tendon orientation x coordinates. The left side is there where the tendons starts and the right side is there where
the tendon ends or in another words XL < XR.
The stressing of the tendon can be defined by a force or by a factor, where the factor
refers to the maximum allowable stress in the tendon defined in the assigned material
(PropertiesMaterial).
Each tendon will be 5% overstressed initially, and then a wedge slip of 6 mm happens.
The result is that the stresses in the tendon are under the maximum allowable
stress/force.

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Define the tendon stressing actions as is shown in the tables below.

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SCHEDULE.
Input the Tendon
Schedule
STAGES
TENDON ACT:

STRESS/RELAX/WEDGE
Type
TENDON
Factor / Wedge [m]
Stress label

PREL
FACT.
101
1.05
STG1

4-10
WEDL
101
0.006
STG 1

PRER
FACT.
101
1.05
STG 1

WEDR
101
0.006
STG 1

Top table

STRESS/RELAX/WEDGE
Type
TENDON
Factor / Wedge [m]
Stress label

PRER
FACT.
102
1.05
STG2

WEDR
102
0.006
STG2

PRER
FACT.
103
1.05
STG3

WEDR
103
0.006
STG3

The stress label has to be defined so that the tendon actions can be referenced by the
construction sequence definition.
By clicking the info button the stresses (and forces) in the tendon (selected by the
action) up to the selected stressing action are graphically displayed.

Figure 4-5: Diagram of stresses and forces in the tendon after corresponding stressing action.

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5-1

Lesson 7: Load Management


Load Management (Schedule Load Definition Load Management) is used for
automatic summation of permanent loads by grouping certain load cases. For example
the self weight from each construction stage is summed up to one load case (SW-SUM
= SW-STG1 + SW-STG2 + SW-STGn).
The main capability of the load management is:

An individual loading case can be defined so that, after calculation, its results
are automatically added to 1, 2 or 3 other load cases.

An individual loading case can be defined so that, after calculation, its results
are automatically combined into 1, 2 or 3 envelopes.

Loading cases and envelopes defined in Load Management could be set up (initialized;
created) using the LcInit function. Instead of using the LcInit function an automatic
initialization of the Load Management load cases can be done by activating the check
box Init Load Manager in the Recalc pad.
Define the Load Management as it is shown in the table below.
Schedule
Input for the Load
Manager
Load Definition
Load Management
Top table

Load Manag.
Load case I
State
Load case II
State
Load case III
State
Envelope I
Comb I
Envelope II
Comb II
Envelope III
Comb III

SW
SW-SUM
Total
STG-SUM
Total
-

SDL
SDL-SUM
Total
STG--SUM
Total
-

PT
PT-SUM
Total
STG-SUM
Total
-

CS
CS-SUM
Total
STG-SUM
Total
-

The load management can be also created by loading the appropriate load manager template from Menu (Extras Loading and Stages Load Management Definitions
(English). The Load Manager for traveler load (TR), wet concrete load (WC) incremental launching method (ILM) and for cable loads (CABLE) can be deleted or ignored.
The final creep loading case is CS-INF and should not be added to the general loading
case as it is necessary to have the final creep and shrinkage effects separate. This way

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the structure can be checked after construction (before final creep and shrinkage) with
live loading and other loading combinations and also at the time infinity with live loading and other combination.

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6-3

Lesson 8: Load Definitions


Loads are defined by Load Cases or by Load Sets ( Schedule Load Definition
Load Case Definition or Load Set Definition). Several loads can be combined into
one Load Case or also in one Load Set.
Load Sets cannot be calculated directly in the construction stage actions which is why
they have to be assigned to a Load Case. One Load Set can be assigned to different
Load Cases. It is also possible to define a different multiplication factor for the loads
defined in the Load Set.
By creating a load case the defined load is not yet calculated. The load is calculated
with the calc action in the schedule actions.
In this example the loads will be defined only in the load cases.

6.1 Definition of Load Cases for Self Weight


The bridge is built in three construction stages so three separate self weight load cases
have to be created. Each of them has to be calculated in a separate stage.

Change into Schedule Load Definition Load Case Definition Top Table

The window is split into two lists. In the top list the load cases are listed, and in the bottom list the defined loads for the selected load case are listed.

Define the self weight load cases as is shown in the table below.
Schedule

Definition of Load
Cases

Load
CaseDefinition

Name
Type

SW-STG1
Permanent

SW-STG2
Permanent

SW-STG3
Permanent

Load Manag.

SW

SW

SW

Description

Self weight 1st


construction
stage

Self weight 2nd


construction
stage

Self weight 3rd


construction
stage

Top table

The type of the load case (Duration type: Permanent or Non-Permanent) defines if the
load is permanent or not i.e. will it be considered in the calculation of creep and
shrinkage effects or not.
The input Load Manag. establishes the connection to the Load Manager. By choosing SW here, all the results due to the self weight loads (SW-STG1, SW-STG2 and SW-

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STG3) will be saved/copied (superposed) to two load cases defined in the load manager
SW-SUM and STG-SUM.
The load cases were created and now actual loads have to be defined.

Change into Schedule Load Definition Load Case Definition Bottom


Table

The load type to be used in this example is Self weight just as load or Self
weight load and mass
Schedule.

Definition of Load
Cases

Number
Loading

Load Case Definition


Bottom table

Type
From
To
Step
Rx
Ry
Rz
Gam
[kN/m3]

SW-STG1
Uni Uniform load form load
Self
Self
weight
weight
101
1201
113
1204
1
1
0
0
-1
-1
0
0
0

SW-STG2
Uni Uniform load form load
Self
Self
weight
weight
114
1301
128
1304
1
1
0
0
-1
-1
0
0
0

SW-STG3
Uniform load
Self
weight
129
135
1
0
-1
0
0

If gamma is set to 0 then the specific weight used in the calculation of the self weight is
taken from the one assigned to the element via the assigned material (see Structure
Elements Material or Properties Material data). If the value is defined (and is
not zero) then this values is taken as specific weight and used in the calculations.
In the load cases SW-STG1 and SW-STG2 the self weight of the piers also has to be
defined.
Note: For faster and easier definition of the load cases it would be possible to define first one load case
and the load for it. Afterwards, the subsequent load cases could be created by copying, renaming
and renumbering of the first load case.
Another approach would be: First create one load case (top table) and activate the option Load
only elements, activated in current stage and then in the definition of the load (bottom table) define/load all elements (stepwise: 101-135, 1201-1204 and 1301-1304; or at once: 101-1304) with
the same load type. Afterwards that load case has to be copied twice (the total number of the load
cases has to be the same as the number of the construction stages in our case this means three).
For detailed load description use program help (F1) or the Appendix where all load types are
explained.

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6.2 Definition of Load Cases for the Additional Loads


In this example three different superimposed dead loads (left concrete barrier, right concrete barrier and road weigh) will be created and calculated. All of them will be defined
in one load case.
These loads also have to be taken into account for the creep and shrinkage calculation
so they are set to permanent.
Schedule
Insert Load Set

Load Case Definition

Name
Type

SDL
Permanent

Load Manag.

SDL

Top table

Schedule
Define Load Sets for
the Additional Loads

Load Case Definition


Bottom table

Number
Loading

From
To
Step
Qx [kN/m]
Qy [kN/m]
Qz [kN/m]
Direction

SDL
Uniform load
Uniform concentric element
load
101
135
1
0
-35
0
Global

Eccentricity

Ey [m]
Ez [m]
Load application

Type

Definition

SDL
Uniform load

SDL
Uniform load

Uniform eccen- Uniform eccentric element load tric element load

101
135
1
0
-6.1
0
Global
Local+Z
Elem-Ecc
0
+6.3

101
135
1
0
-6.1
0
Global
Local+Z
Elem-Ecc
0
-6.3

Real length

Real length

Real length

Load/Unit
length

Load/Unit
length

Load/Unit
length

During creation of the load cases the link to the load management was defined in the
same way it was for the self weight load cases (except that SDL was chosen).
The Z-Element eccentricity defines the eccentricity length (in the Z-direction - transversal) between the element/cross-section gravity center and the node. This makes it possible to define the eccentricity relative to the node (same applies for the definition of the
horizontal load). In our case there will be no difference due to the cross-sections symmetry.

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Ez
CG

Figure 6-1: Local Y-Element eccentricity.

6.3 Definition of Load Cases for the Tendons


For now only the tendon geometry and tendon stressing procedure was defined. To apply the load on the structure load cases have to be defined. Define the load cases as it is
shown in the table below.
Schedule
Insert Load Set
Load Case Definition

Name
Type

PT-STG1
Permanent

PT-STG2
Permanent

PT-SRG3
Permanent

Load Manager.

PT

PT

PT

Number
Loading

PT-STG1
Stressing
Tendon stressing
101
101
1
Increment
Force

PT-STG2
Stressing
Tendon stressing
102
102
1
Increment
Force

PT-STG3
Stressing
Tendon stressing
103
103
1
Increment
Force

Top table

Schedule
Define Load Sets for
the Tendons

Load Case Definition

Type

Bottom table

From
To
Step
Type

The selection of the type of stressing (Incremental-Force or Total-Force) has effect only
if multi-stage stressing procedure is defined. It must be defined whether the total stressing force of a stress level has to be applied or only the differential force when compared
to a previously applied stress group (for more information see the RM Analysis user
guide chapter 11.5.3).

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6.4 Definition of Load Cases for the Creep and Shrinkage Effects
Schedule
Insert Load Case
Load Case Definition

Number
Type

CS-STG1
Permanent

CS-STG2
Permanent

CS-STG3
Permanent

CS-INF
Permanent

Load Info

CS

CS

CS

Top table

Load cases for calculation of creep and shrinkage effects have to be created, but no load
definition (in the bottom table) has to be defined.
The definition of the load cases is done only for the load management and postprocessing the results of the calculation of the time effects (done by the creep action)
are saved to these load cases and accordingly to the load cases defined in load management.
The creep and shrinkage load cases are linked to the load management by the same
principle as other load cases definition of the load management label/input (CS). In
this way the creep and shrinkage results are saved/copied to the CS-SUM load case and
added to the STG-SUM load case.
The final creep and shrinkage effect (at time infinite CS-INF) are saved only to that
load case because there is no load management label defined for this load case. This has
to be done due to the combinations where different factors are used for time effects at
time 0 and time infinite.

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Lesson 9: Definition of Construction Stage 1


The required definitions (structure including tendons, load cases and tendon stressing
procedure) for the construction sequence calculation is finished and the definitions for
the construction sequence calculation can now start.
This definition is done under Schedule Stages Activation or Schedule Actions.
In the top table a construction stage is created (and listed) and some basic definitions are
defined. The bottom table changes between the Activations and Schedule Actions.
In the Activation table it is defined which elements are activated in the corresponding
(construction) stage the active elements becomes a part of active structural system and
can be loaded and included in the calculation.
In the Schedule Actions table it is defined which actions (static calculations, dynamic
calculations, plot actions, design actions, list actions, etc.) should be performed in the
corresponding (construction) stage.
Construction stages have a start time and duration.

7.1 Creation of construction stages

Change to Schedule Stages Activation Top table

Select the append button


to open the input window for the construction stage
definition. Insert the construction stage named STG1 and the description First
construction stage here.

Use the same principle to add other stages (as is shown in the table below)

Input Active Elements


to Stage 1

Schedule

Name

STG1

STG2

STG3

STG-FIN

Description

First construction
stage

Second
construction
stage

Third
construction
stage

Final construction
stage

Stages
Activation
Bottom table

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7.2 First construction stage


7.2.1 Activation

Change to Schedule Stages Activation Bottom table

Select the append button

Activate the elements as is shown in the table below.

to open the input window for element activation

Schedule

101
113
1
14
0

Activate
Deactivate
From
To
Step
Age
ts

Input Active Elements


for Stage 1
Stages
Activation
Bottom table

1201
1204
1
42
0

1100
1102
1
0
0

1200
1200
1
0
0

Age defines the age of concrete when it is activated for the first time (becomes a part
of the structural system) and will be considered by the calculation of creep and shrinkage effects. The input ts defines the time (after pouring the concrete) when shrinkage
starts.
The spring elements also have to be activated they represent the support conditions.
7.2.2 Schedule actions calculations

Input the Calculation (Static)


for Stage 1

Calculation
(Static)
Stress

Calculation
(Static)
Calc

Calculation
(Static)
GROUT

Calculation
(Static)
Creep

PT-STG1

Inp2
Inp3

Calculation
(Static)
Calc
SWSTG1
-

STG1

STG1
-

Schedule Actions

Out1

CS-STG1

Bottom table

Out2
Delta-T

*
0

*
0

*
0

*
28

Schedule

Action
Type

Stages

Inp1

Load
case
action
LcInit
STGSUM
STG1SUM
-

Calc is the actions which calculates a normal load case


Stress converts the tendon forces, defined through the definition of the tendon stressing
actions, into loads whereby the corresponding elements are loaded. However, these
loads are not calculated yet they are just converted.
The forces (pre-stressing effects) are calculated (applied on the structure) by the Calc
action which is the subsequent action, whereby a reference to the corresponding pre-

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stressing load case has to be defined Stress Label STG1 and the Load Case PT-STG1
reference the same tendon.
The Grout action simulates grouting of tendon ducts, and with this action the composite
behavior between the concrete elements (cross-section) and tendon is established (strain
in the tendon is equal to the strain of the corresponding elements).
Grouting also changes the cross section properties, which must be taken into account in
the calculation. This is done by the definition of the recalculation options defined in the
recalc pad (- duct areas, + tendon areas, - grouted areas). The new cross-sections values
are used in the global calculation and are also saved to the corresponding list file
(cross.lst).
With the Creep action the time effects are calculated creep and shrinkage of concrete
and relaxation of tendons. The corresponding functions for the calculation are predefined (and can be modified) under Properties Variables and are assigned to the materials under Properties Material Data. The time effects can also be graphically displayed under Results Plot Creep/Shrinkage Curves.
Delta-T defines how long a certain system is exposed to the time effects time to the
next structural change or when an additional permanent load is added. The Number of
time steps (Input-1) defines in how many calculation intervals the whole time interval
(Delta-T) is subdivided, and it is possible that the subdivision step is linear or logarithmic (Recalculation pad C+S). For smaller time intervals it is recommended to use
1 time step, and for longer time intervals (for time infinite final creep) 3 to 5
(logarithmic) time steps. Each time step is saved to a separate load case and the total
effect is saved to the predefined dummy load case (Output-4).
For the calculation of relaxation (Include Steel relaxation in the recalculation options)
the summation load case has to be defined in the recalculation window (pad). This has
to be done to define which (permanent) loads have to be considered in the calculation.
With the Action LcInit (Load case Initialization) a certain load case can be copied or an
empty load case is created if there is no load case defined in the Input-1 an empty load
case is created (initialized).
In this example the summation load case (STG-SUM) is copied to a new one (STG1SUM) at the end of the construction stage. At that time in the summation load case all
(calculated) loads from the first construction stage are summarized (SW-STG1+PTSTG1+CS-STG1) due to the definitions in load management. To see the results of the
loads in the first construction stage only, this has to be done because subsequent stages
will add more loads to the STG-SUM load case.
The results of each calculation action can also be saved to a list file defined in each action separately (definition of the Output-2).

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Lesson 10: Definition of Construction Stage 2


The second and third stage activations and stage actions are defined similar to the first.
Due to the similarity of the schedule actions the whole construction stage could be copied and the definition accordingly modified. The activations are not copied and have to
be defined according to the active system in the second construction stage.
Another way to define subsequent construction stages is to define (copy and modify)
them via TCL (here the data is exported, copied, modified and afterwards imported).

8.1 Element Activation


Input Active Elements
to Stage 2

Schedule
Stages
Activation
Bottom table

Activate
Deactivate
From
To
Step
Age
ts

114
128
1
14
0

1300
1300
1
0
0

1301
1304
1
42
0

8.2 Calculation (Static)


Input the Calculation
(Static) for
Stage 2

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculation Calculation
(Static)
(Static)
Calc
Stress
SW-STG2
STG2
*
*
0
0

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Bentley Systems

Calculation
(Static)
Calc
PT-STG2
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
GROUT
STG2
0

Calculation
(Static)
Creep
1

Load case
action
LcInit
STG-SUM
STG2-SUM
-

CS-STG2
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Lesson 11: Definition of Construction Stage 3

9.1 Element Activation


Schedule
Input Active Elements
to Stage 3
Stages
Activation
Bottom table

Activate
Deactivate
From
To
Step
Age
ts

129
135
1
14
0

1400
1402
1
0
0

9.2 Calculation (Static)


Input the Calculation
(Static) for
Stage 2

Schedule
Stages

Schedule Actions
Bottom table

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Calculation
(Static)
Calc
SW-STG3
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
Stress
STG3
*
0

Action
Type
Inp1
Inp2
Inp3
Out1
Out2
Delta-T

Bentley Systems

Calculation
(Static)
Calc
PT- STG3
*
0

Calculation
(Static)
GROUT
STG3
0

Calculation
(Static)
Creep
1

Load case
action
LcInit
STG-SUM
STG3-SUM
-

CS- STG3
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10 Lesson 12: Definition of Final Stage (Creep)


With the last construction stage the final state of the bridge will be simulated.
For this the super imposed dead loads will be applied on the structure and final time
effects will be calculated t= (Delta-T=10000 days).
No additional element activation is necessary because the entire system is already activated.

10.1 Calculation (Static)


Input the Calculation (Static) for
the Final Stage

Type
Inp1

Calculation
(Static)
Calc
SDL

Load case
action
Creep
-

Load case
action
LcInit
STG-SUM

Inp2

Inp3

Schedule Actions

Out1

CS-INF

Bottom table

Out2
Delta-T

*
-

*
10000

STG-INFSUM
-

Schedule

Action

Stages

Load case
action
LcAddLc
CS-INF
STG-INFSUM
-

In this stage the superimposed dead loads are applied first on the structure, and then the
final time effects are calculated.
In the end two final load cases are needed including all construction effects (loads)
with and without final time effects. Two additional actions have to be defined for this.
After the calculation of the SDL loads the summation load case is updated (the SDL
results are added to the STG-SUM load case) due to the definition of the load management. After the Creep action the summation load case (STG-SUM) is not updated with
the definition of the CS-INF load case the load case was not linked to load management. To create a summation load case including the long term creep and shrinkage
effects, the summation load case is copied (LcInit actions) and the final time effects
(CS-INF) are manually added (LcAddLc) to the copied load case (STG-INF-SUM).

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11 The Calculation
The construction stage definition is finished now and the first calculation can be done.

Click on the Recalc button

Figure 11-1: Recalc pad.

11.1 Calculation options


Cross-section calculation
Cross-sections have to be calculated at least once. Hereby the file cross.lst is automatically created. If the cross-section doesnt change (and was already calculated once) this
step can be skipped.
Structure check
This calculation options checks the structure, deactivates all elements, initializes the
result database and creates a number of list files (material.lst, stress.lst, struct.lst and
tendon.lst)

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If the system doesnt change this option can also be, in certain circumstances, skipped
in additional calculations (the calculation of the construction stages was done and all
stages are skipped; in this case also the option Init Load Manger has to be turned off).
Note that the envelope files (*.sup) are saved to the main directory (and not the
sub-directory DefaultSchedule) and are not automatically initialized (only by the
SupInit action in the schedule actions). The same follows for the list (*.lst), plot (*.pl
and *.pla) and influence (*infl) files which are created/overwritten by the calculation.
With the action GoDel (Group System commands) it is possible to delete the corresponding files in the main working directory as same as in the sub directory. This is
recommended to do to ensure that no files from previous calculations remain.
Stage Calculation
Activation and calculation of the schedule actions in the constructions stages is done.
Influence-lines calculation
Influence lines have to be calculated at least once to make a live load calculation. If the
influence lines data exists (*.infl) and the structure or lane definition was not changed,
this options can be skipped for additional calculations.
Note: For now this option is not needed but can be activated.

Time Effects (C+S+Rel.)


To calculate the time effects this option has to be activated, even if creep actions in the
schedule actions are defined. This allows making fast calculations, without including
time effects, very easily.
Include Steel Relaxation
The relaxation of pre-stressing steel is also calculated with the calculation of creep and
shrinkage if this option is activated and the summation load case is defined.
Init Load Manager
Before starting with the calculation of the stages all load cases and envelopes defined in
load management are initialized (created).

11.2 Special settings


Cross-section correction
This option activates the calculation of the new cross-section values due to the tendons
in it as it explained in 7.2.2.
SumLC (summation load case)
This defines the summation load case of permanent loads which is used for several calculations (Steel relaxation, camber calculation, etc).

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It is also used as an Initial Strain load case if the input of certain standard dependent
design checks (see Pre-Stressing Training Example Analyzer Part II) references it.
Calculation
By clicking the Recalc button (in the recalc pad) the recalculation of the active schedule
starts. By clicking on the Recalc all button, all schedule variants will be successively
calculated depending on the defined sequence.
Note: Schedule variants can be defined under Schedule Schedule Variants. Here it is possible to
define different construction variants (construction schedules) on the same system and in the same
project (folder) where each variant is saved to its own subfolder.

The calculation status can be seen in the lower windows when the calculation is running. The status shows which stage, which action and which calculation steps are currently being calculated. If plot actions are also defined in the schedule, then the generated plots are displayed in the main window (4 at once).
A calculation protocol is created (recalc.log) and saved to the DefaultSchedule (if more
schedules are calculated the protocol is saved to the corresponding folder) as text file. Ii
is possible to open in from there or by clicking the corresponding button in the program
itself.
During the calculation warnings and errors can occur. The warnings are displayed at the
end of the calculation (e.g.: WARNING: System important files(s) cross.lst cannot be
deleted!) and should be interpreted as hints which should be checked. On the other hand
the calculation is aborted automatically if the definition is incorrect (the calculation
cant proceed) ERROR (e.g.: in the schedule actions a load case wants to be calculated but wasnt created; or the name of the created and calculated load case isnt the
same; in this case the calculation is aborted and an error is displayed; ERROR: Load
case name of the LC does not exist.). The place that the calculation stopped can also
be also seen in the schedule actions list those stages (top list) and actions (bottom list)
which were calculated have an OK in the status column.
A running calculation can be aborted by hitting the ESC button.
The calculation starts (depending on the calculation options) with the calculation of the
cross-section values and structure control. Then the initialization of the load manger
(load cases) is done. Finally the construction sequence calculation starts, and the stages
are calculated in the order of their input. At the beginning of each stage the elements
are activated first, and then each stage action is calculated.

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12 Result presentation
In RM Bridge it is possible to represent the results in many different ways. Some of
them are explained in detail below.

12.1 Possibilities in presentation of results


One of the possibilities to see the results is via Results Load Cases / Envelopes
(Influence lines, etc). Here certain result presentation options have to be defined:
Load case / Envelope; Element Group (if created); Result component (Displacements,
Forces, Stresses); etc. Once this is defined it is possible to export the results to a list
file (Print) or to make a diagram (Diagram). By clicking on the Diagram button a new
window opens where additional definitions have to done. Once this is finished the diagram is created by clicking the OK button.
Another possibility (with the same approach as above) to create a diagram is by the definition of so called RM-Sets. This approach will be explained in more detail in next
chapter.
The post processing can also be done with Plot Containers which are created under
Results Plot Conatiners and have to be plotted by the DoPlot action in schedule
actions. Here not only results can be displayed but also the structure itself. This approach allows completely free design of the graphical output, but predefined Macros
facilitate rapid generation (for more information see the RM Analysis User Guide chapter 8.4.2).
Many predefined plots (e.g.: tendon scheme, tendon geometry, cross-sections, material
diagrams, creep and shrinkage diagrams, load sets, etc) can be referenced directly in
schedule actions (List/Plot Actions) and plotted by recalculation of the project or only
by this actions (click Run action on the left side between the top and bottom list).
A comprehensive presentation (output) of structural data via cad files (DGN or DWG)
is possible within Draw Manager (Extras RM Draw Manager).
Reports can be created within TDF-Reports (File Reports (TDF) Create/Edit
Structure).
An overview of schedule actions defined in each stage can be done by the HTML Stage
Viewer (Extras HTML Stage Viewer).

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12.2 Diagram creation via RM-Sets

Go to Properties RM-Sets Top table(list)

Click on the insert after button and define the name of an RM-Set. It is possible
to define the description also which will be seen in the created diagram. The
type of RM-Set is Result representation (RESULT).

Figure 12-1: New RM-Set.

After confirming the input by clicking on the OK button the window for the definition of the diagram is opened by clicking on the i button.

Here you will see several tabs for the definition of the diagram. There are two tabs for
the general definitions (scale, paper size, paper orientation, etc) and three others for different result presentations:

Load Case results

Envelope results

Reinforcement

Normally the correct definition of a diagram (RM-Sets) has to include the definition of
the elements for which the results should be represented and what results should be represented. This includes:

definition of the load case / envelope / reinforcement

definition of the result component (bending moment, normal force, shear


force, etc.) / leading superposition value (MinMz, MaxMz, MinQy,
MaxQ, MinNx, MaxNx, etc) and a result component / attribute set

If different result components are defined in one RM-Set the program will automatically
create more diagrams. The same follows also for the different types of reinforcement
(Attribute Sets)

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Change to the tab Elements.

Define the elements for which the results should be displayed as is shown in the
pictures below.

1. Type of referencing to elements


2. Definition of elements
3. Confirming the input

Figure 12-2: Definition of elements for which the diagram should be shown.

The approach shown above uses the predefined element groups which were created already in modeler (they could be also created/modified in Analyzer). The same could be
achieved in a different way as is shown in the picture below here the elements are
selected by the definition of an element series.

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Figure 12-3: Definition of elements for which the diagram should be shown.

Change to the tab Load Cases.

Define the Load case for which the results should be displayed as is shown in
the picture below. This is similar to the way elements were chosen.

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1. Choosing of an Load Case


2. Definition of a result component
3. Confirming the input

It would be possible to add (Insert after) for the same result component different load
cases or for the same load case different result components. Of course, a mixture of both
is also possible. In this case more diagrams would be created.
If the stresses should be displayed, it has to be defined where in the cross-section the
stresses should be represented/calculated. This is done by the definition of additional
results parameters (dashed square) for stresses the stress point has to be chosen additionally.
The diagram can be displayed by clicking on the Plot to file button. The same data
can be exported also to list file (Report file) or to MS Excel (Write to XLS).
The definition of the RM-Set is confirmed by clicking on Save.
The created RM-Set/Diagram can also be seen under Results Plot RM-Sets.

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The diagram can be plotted in the schedule actions. This is done via the DgmSet action.
Using this action it is possible to plot many diagrams with one RM-Set. As it was already explained, the summation load case is updated after each calculation. Referring to
it within an RM-Set and plotting the RM-Set using the DgmSet action at different times
will produce different diagrams. But the name of the output file (plot file), defined in
the DgmSet action, has to be different (if not the diagrams are overwritten).
The plot files created using DgmSet are saved to the (DefaultSchedule). A fast access to
this directory is also possible under Results Plot Directory (DefaultSchedule).

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