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∑ Fx ∫A τ 2.
V =
: dA 1

(a) The distribution of shear (b) The resultant shear force on the
force on a sectioning plane sectioning plane

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FIGURE 2.1 Shear force on a sectioning plane


V Average Shear Stress
τavg = A 2.2
s
V
P
τavg = A =
(Πd)t
s

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(a) A sheet-metal punch (b) Free-body diagram of sheet-metal slug

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(c) A pair of pliers (d) Direct shear of pin

FIGURE 2.2 Examples of direct shear


Single Shear

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(a) A lap splice (b) The free-body (c) The average-shear-


diagram stress distribution

FIGURE 2.3 An illustration of direct shear – a lap splice.

V P
τavg = =
As Lsw

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FIGURE 2.4 Direct single shear (a) and (b) Bolted lap joint, (c) and (d)
Glued lap joint

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Double Shear

FIGURE 2.4 Direct double shear (a) and (b) Bolted double lap joint, (c) and
(d) Glued double lap joint

So, the shear load, V for double shear is given by

V = F/2

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EXAMPLE 2.1
The wooden strut shown in figure below is
suspended from a 10-mm-diameter steel rod,
which is fastened to the wall. If the strut
supports a vertical load of 5 kN, compute the
average shear stress in the rod at the wall and
along the two shaded planes of the strut, one
of which is indicated as abcd.

FIGURE 2.5

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2.2 Shear Deformation

FIGURE 2.7 Three-dimensional state of stress

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FIGURE 2.8 Three-dimensional state of stress

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Force Force
Stres
x Area Stress x Area
s
∑Fx = 0: τyx (ΔxΔz) - τ`xy (ΔxΔz) = 0
τyx = τ`yx
And in a similar manner, force of equilibrium in the y-direction yield
τxy = τ`xy

Finally, by taking moment about z-axis


Moment Moment
Force x Distance Force x Distance
Stres
x Area x Arm Stress x Area x Arm
s
∑Mz = 0: τyx (ΔxΔz) (Δx) - τxy (ΔxΔy) (Δz) = 0
τyx = τxy

So, τyx = τ`yx = τxy = τ`xy = τ. Thus Figure 2.8 can be replaced by Figure 2.9.

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FIGURE 2.9 Pure shear deformation

Allowable Stress

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Recall from previous chapter,

= Ffail
F.S V
A F
=allow
τallow

So, for a body that is subjected to shear stress,

τfail
F.S =
τallow

We can design the dimension of the body to sustained the allowable shear
stress, τallow, to be within the range of the decided factor of safety which is
generally bigger than 1.
From the calculated allowable shear stress, τallow, we can determine the area
and hence the dimension as well.

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See Figure 2.10 below

FIGURE 2.10 A bolt subjected to shear stress


EXAMPLE 2.2

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The two members


are pinned
together at B as
shown. Top views
of the pin
connections at A
and B are also
given in the figure.
If the pins have an
allowable shear stress of τallow = 37 MPa and the allowable tensile stress of rod
CB is (σt)allow = 100 MPa, determine the smallest diameter of pins A and B and
the diameter of rod CB necessary to support the load.

EXAMPLE 2.3

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The suspender rod is supported at


its end by a fixed-connected circular
disk as shown. If the rod passes
through a 40-mm-diameter hole,
determine the minimum required
diameter of the rod and the
minimum thickness of the disk
needed to support the 20-kN load.
The allowable normal stress for the
rod is σallow = 60 MPa, and the allowable shear stress for the disk is τallow = 35
MPa.
Simple Shear Strain

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(a) Original (undeformed) element (b) Pure Shear Deformation


FIGURE 2.5 Illustrations for a definition of shear strain

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π θ
γ = - Shear Strain 2.4
2 *

π π δs
θ ta θ
γ = - ≈ ( - ) = L
2 * n 2 *
s

Where δs and Ls are defined in Figure 2.5 (b).

τ = Gγ Hooke’s Law for Shear 2.5

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EXAMPLE 2.4

The plate is deformed into the dashed


shape as shown. If in this deformed
shape horizontal lines on the plate
remain horizontal and do not change
their length, determine
(a) the average normal strain
along the side AB, and
(b) the average shear strain in the
plate relative to the x and y axes.

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