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INFORMATION SHEET

DEPARTMENT MANUFACTURING / PRODUCT DESIGN / SEMESTER 4/6


MOULD / TOOL AND DIE
COURSE MECHANICS OF MATERIALS DURATION 8 hrs
COURSE CODE DMV 4343 / DMV 5343 REF. NO.
VTO’S NAME MISS AFZAN BINTI ROZALI PAGE 18
MR RIDHWAN BIN RAMELI

TOPIC
SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT

SUB TOPIC
4.1 Types of Beams and Loadings
4.2 Shear Force and Bending Moment Distribution
4.3 Relation between Distributed Load, Shear Force and Bending Moment
4.4 Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams

REF NO. :
PAGE :
18

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4.0 SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT

Introduction
In previous chapter we have discussed the behavior of slender members subjected to axial
loading and to torsional loading. Now we turn our attention to the problem of determining the
stress distribution in, and the deflection of, beam.
A beam is a structural member that is designed to support transverse loads, that is, loads
that act perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the beam. A beam resists applied loads by a
combination of internal transverse shear force and bending moment.

4.1 Types of Beams and Loadings


Beams
There are two classifications of beams:
Beams can be classified according to their cross-sectional shapes. For example, an I
beam and a T beam have cross sections geometrically formed like the letters I and T.
Beams of steel, aluminum, and wood are manufactured in standard sizes; their dimensions
and properties are listed in engineering handbooks. Tables B.2 through B.6 (App. B) present
several common cases of steel sections. These include wide-flange shapes (W beams),

web

(a) (b) (c)


FIGURE 4.1 Types of beams (a) I-shape, (b) L-shape, and (c) C-shape

I shapes (also called S beams), C shapes (also referred to as channels), and L shapes, or
angle sections. Note that the web is a thin vertical part of a beam. Thin horizontal parts of
the beam are termed flanges. Interestingly, the cross section of a beam is described as
doubly symmetric, singly symmetric, or asymmetric in accordance with whether it has two,
one, or no axis of symmetry.

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Beams can also be classified according to the way they are supported.
Lets first describe some common types of support.
Types of common support
• Roller Support—prevents displacement in the transverse (i.e., y) direction, but permits
z-rotation and displacement in the axial direction; the reaction is a force in the +y or —y
direction. The support at end A in Figure 4.2a is a roller support.
• Pin Support—prevents displacement in the axial direction and in the transverse
direction, but permits z-rotation; the reaction is a force with both axial and transverse
components. The support at end B in Figure 4.2a is a pin support.
• Cantilever Support (or Fixed End)—prevents displacement in the axial direction and in
the transverse direction, and also prevents z-rotation; the reaction consists of a force
with both axial and transverse components, plus a couple. The support at end C in
Figure 4.2c is a cantilever support.
The types of support are summarized in following Table 4.1.

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TABLE 4-1 Reactions for types of connection

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Beams are normally classified by the manner in which they are supported.
(a) Simply Supported Beam—a beam with a pin support at one end and a roller support
at the other end. The beam in Figure 4.2a is a simply supported beam. Simply supported
beams are statically determinate.
(b) Fixed end (Propped) Cantilever Beam—a beam with a cantilever support (i.e., fixed
end) at one end and a roller at the other end. The beam in Figure 4.2b is a cantilever
beam. Propped cantilever beams are statically indeterminate.
(c) Cantilever Beam—a beam with a cantilever support (i.e., fixed end) at one end and
free at the other end. The beam in Figure 4.2c is a cantilever beam. Cantilever beams
are statically determinate.
(d) Fixed, simply supported beam –The beam in Figure 4.2d.
(e) Overhanging Beam—a beam that extends beyond the support at one end (or at both
ends). The beam in Figure 4.2e would be an overhanging beam if the roller support at
end A were to be moved to the right, leaving a part of the beam to the left of the roller as
an overhang.
(f) Continuous Beam—a beam with a pin support at one end, a roller support
at the other end, and one or more intermediate roller supports. The beam in Figure
4.2f is a continuous beam. Continuous beams are statically indeterminate.

Figure 4.2: Types of beams: (a) Simply supported beam; (b) fixed-end beam; (c) cantilever
beam; (d) fixed, simply supported beam; (e) overhanging beam; and (f)
Continuous beam (two span).

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Loads
External Loads:
The loads that are applied to beams may be classified as:
(a) distributed transverse loads,
(b) concentrated transverse forces, or
(c) couples.

(a) A simply supported beam with (b) A cantilever beam with a couple at A and a
distributed load concentrated force at B

(c) A two-span continuous beam (d) A propped cantilever beam


FIGURE 4.3 Examples of several types of beams with various types of loads.
Figure 4.3a illustrated simply supported beam with distributed loading: a cantilever beam
with a concentrated force at B and a concentrated couple at A is shown in Figure 4.3b.

Consider now the simply supported beam in Figure 4.3a. The downward distributed load
gives rise to upward reactions at the supports at A and B. The roller symbol at A implies that
the reaction force can have no horizontal component. If we pass an imaginary cutting plane
at C, as indicated in Figure 4.3a, and we draw separate free-body diagrams of AC and CB
(Figure 4.4), we see that a transverse shear force VC and a bending moment MC must act on
the cross section at C to maintain the force equilibrium and moment equilibrium of these two
adjoining free bodies. Newton's Law of action and reaction determines the relationship of the
directions of VC and MC on the two free-body diagrams.
The internal stress resultants that are associated with bending of beams are shown in Figure
4.5 and are defined by the following equations:
V(x) = - ∫A τxy (x,y) dA
Stress resultants
M(x) = - ∫A yσx (x,y) dA

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FIGURE 4.4 The transverse shear force VC and bending moment MC at cross section C in
Figure 4.3a

FIGURE 4.5 Definition of stress resultants—transverse shear force V(x) and bending
moment M(x).

(a) Positive V and M on section ‘x’

(b) Positive shear (c) Positive (d) Positive V and M


moment
FIGURE 4.6 The sign convention for internal stress resultants V(x) and M(x)

The sign conventions for the internal stress resultants in beams are illustrated in Figure
4.6. The sign conventions may be stated in words as follows:
• A positive shear force, V, acts in the —y direction on a +x face.1
• A positive bending moment, M, makes the +y face of the beam concave.
Figures 4.6b and 4.6c illustrate the physical meaning of positive shear force and positive
bending moment, while Figure 4.6d summarizes the sign conventions for the internal stress

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resultants in beams. It is very important to observe these sign conventions for V and M,
because equations will be developed to relate the stress distribution in beams and the
deflection of beams to these two stress resultants.

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4.2 Shear Force and Bending Moment Distribution


To determine the stress distribution in a beam or to determine the deflected shape of a beam
under load, we need to consider equilibrium, material behavior, and geometry of
deformation. In this chapter we will concentrate on equilibrium of beams. Using the method
of sections, we will draw free-body diagrams and write equilibrium equations in order to
relate the shear-force and bending-moment stress resultants on beam cross sections to the
external loads acting on the beam. Several examples that illustrate the use of finite-length
free-body diagrams are given in this section.

EXAMPLE 4.1
Determine the support reactions for a combined
beam loaded as shown in Fig. a.

Figure a

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EXAMPLE 4.2
The cantilever beam AD is subjected to a concentrated
force of 5 kN at C and a couple of 4 kN • m at D.
Determine the shear VB and bending moment MB at a
section 2 m to the right of the support A.

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In the preceding example, the shear force and bending moment were required at a specific
cross section. Using a finite free body permits these values to be determined directly from
the corresponding equilibrium equations. The finite-free-body approach is also useful when
expressions for V(x) and M(x) are required over some portion of the beam. Example 4.2
illustrates this type of problem and also illustrates a way to handle relatively simple
distributed loads.

EXAMPLE 4.3
The simply supported beam AC is subjected to a
distributed downward loading as shown. The load varies
linearly between B and C.
(a) Determine the reactions at A and C,
(b) determine expressions for V(x) and M(x) for 0 < x ≤ 6
ft, and
(c) determine expressions for V(x) and M(x) for 6 ft ≤ x ≤
12 ft.

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In both Example 4.2 and Example 4.3 it was possible for us to solve the equations and to
determine values of (or expressions for) shear and moment, since in each case the beam is
statically determinate. The next example illustrates the type of equilibrium results that are
obtained for statically indeterminate beams.

EXAMPLE 4.4
The propped cantilever beam AC has a couple applied at its
center B. Determine expressions for the reactions (i.e., the
shear force and bending moment) at C in terms of the
applied couple M0 and the reaction at A.

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4.3 Relation between Distributed Load, Shear Force and Bending Moment

In the previous section we used finite free-body diagrams to determine values of shear force
and bending moment at specific cross sections, and to determine expressions for V(x) and
M(x) over specified ranges of x. Here we use infinitesimal free-body diagrams to obtain
equations that relate the external loading to the internal shear force and bending moment.
These expressions will be especially helpful in Section 4.4, where we discuss shear and
moment diagrams. In addition to the sign conventions for shear force and bending moment,
given in Figure 4.6, we need to adopt a sign convention for external loads (Figure 4.7).
• Positive distributed loads and positive concentrated loads act in the +y direction (e.g.,
loads p(x) and P0 in Figure 4.7).
• A positive external couple acts in a right-hand-rule sense with respect to the z axis, that
is, counterclockwise as viewed in the xy plane (e.g., the external couple M0 in Figure
4.7b).

(a) Distributed load (b) Concentrated force and couple


FIGURE 4.7 The sign convention for external loads on a beam

First, let us consider a portion of the beam where there are no concentrated external loads,
and let us establish equilibrium equations for an infinitesimal free-body diagram. Take the
segment of beam from x to (x + Δx) in Figure 4.7a, as redrawn in Figure 4.8a.

(a) General FBD (b) Shear-jump FBD (c) Moment-jump FBD


FIGURE 4.8 Infinitesimal free-body diagrams

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For equilibrium of the free body in Figure 4.8a


+↑∑Fy = 0 ; V(x) + p(x)Δx + O (Δx2) – V (x + Δx) = 0

where O(…) means "of the order of," and Δp ~ Ax. Collecting terms and dividing by Δx we
get
V (x + Δx) -
V(x) = p(x) + O (Δx)
Δx

By taking the limit as Δx → 0, we get


dV p(x
= (4.2)
dx )

since the limit of the O(.) term is zero. To satisfy moment equilibrium for the free-body in
Figure 4.8a, we can take moments about point C at (x + Δx).
M(x) - M(x+Δx) + (Δx2)
+ (∑MC ) = 0 ; + O (Δp.Δx2) + V(x)Δx = 0
p(x) 2

Dividing through by Δx and taking the limit as Δx → 0, we obtain


dM
= V(x) (4.3)
dx

Wherever there is an external concentrated force, such as P0 in Figure 4.7b, or a


concentrated couple, such as M0 in Figure 4.7b, there will be a step change in shear or
moment, respectively. From the partial free-body diagram in Figure 4.8b (moments have
been omitted for clarity),
+↑∑Fy = 0 ; VA- -(VA- + ΔVA) + P0 = 0
ΔVA = P0

where VA- is the (internal) shear force just to the left of the point XA where P0 is applied. That
is, a concentrated force P0 at coordinate XA will cause a step change ΔVA in shear having the
same sign as P0.
An external couple M0 at coordinate XB causes a step change in the moment at x B. From
Figure 4.8c (shear forces have been omitted for clarity),

+ (∑M)B = 0 ; MB- -(MB- + ΔMB) - M0 = 0


or
ΔMB = - M0
Equations 4.2 and 4.3 are differential equations relating the distributed load p(x) to the shear
force V(x), and the shear force V(x) to the bending moment M(x). Let x1 ≤ x ≤ x2 be a portion
of the beam that is free of concentrated forces or couples (Figure 4.9).

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FIGURE 4.9 A free-body diagram of a finite portion of a beam


We can integrate Eq. 4.2 over this portion of the beam to get
x2 x2
dV p(x
dx = V1 – V2 = dx
∫ x1 dx ∫ x1 )
x2
p(x
V1 – V2 = dx (4.6)
∫ x1 )
Similarly, from Eq. 4.3,
x2
M1 – M2 = V(x) dx (4.7)
∫ x1

Equations 4.6 and 4.7 can be slated in words as follows:


• The change in shear from Section 1 to Section 2 is equal to the area under the load
curve from 1 to 2. (The "area" that results from negative p(x) is negative.)
• The change in moment from Section 1 to Section 2 is equal to the area under the
shear curve from 1 to 2. (The "area" that results from negative V(x) is negative.)
Equations 4.2 through 4.7 will he very useful to us in next Sections 4.4 where we draw shear
and moment diagrams. And we can employ modification of Eqs. 4.6 and 4.7 to determine
expressions for V(x) and M(x). Thus,
x

V(x) = V1 + x p( ξ ) dξ (4.8)
∫ 1

and
x
M(x M V( ξ )
= + x (4.9)
) dξ
1
∫ 1
Equations 4.2 through 4.9 will he used extensively in Section 4.4 in constructing shear and
moment diagrams (Examples 4.7 through 4.9). Also, whenever shear and moment
expressions must be obtained for a beam with a distributed load other than a simple uniform
load or a triangular distributed load, it is much easier to use Eqs. 4.2 through 4.9 than to use
a finite free-body diagram, as is illustrated in Example 4.6.

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4.4 Shear Force and Bending Moment Diagrams


In this section, shear and moment diagrams will be used to graphically represent V(x) and
M(x). In Example 4.2 we obtained expressions for V(x) and M(x) for a simply supported
beam with distributed loading. However, to design a beam (i.e., to select a beam of
appropriate material and cross section) we need to ask questions like "What is the maximum
value of the shear force, and where does it occur?" and "What is the maximum value of the
bending moment, and where does it occur?" These questions are much more readily
answered if we have a plot of V(x) and a plot of M(x). These plots are called the shear
diagram and the moment diagram, respectively. As you study the example problems in this
section, observe that maximum positive and negative bending moments can occur at any of
the following sections of a beam:
(1) a cross section where the shear force is zero (Examples and 4.4 and 4.9),
(2) a cross section where a concentrated couple is applied (Examples 4.5, 4.6 and 4.8),
(3) a cross section where a concentrated load is applied and where the shear force
changes sign (Example 4.7), and
(4) a point of support where there is a reaction force and where the shear force changes
sign (Example 4.9).
In this section two methods for constructing shear and moment diagrams are described:
• Method 1—Equilibrium Method: Use finite free-body diagrams or Eqs. 4.8 and 4.9 to
obtain shear and moment functions. V(x) and .M(x): then plot these expressions.
• Method 2—Graphical Method: Make use of Eqs. 4.2 through 4.7 to sketch V(x) and
M(x) diagrams.
The following examples illustrate both procedures. Examples 4.4 through 4.6 illustrate the
first method; Examples 4.7 through 4.9 illustrate the second approach.

Shear-Force and Bending-Moment Diagrams: Equilibrium Method.


Examples 4.4 illustrates the Equilibrium Method for constructing shear and moment
diagrams.

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EXAMPLE 4.5
Figure 1 shows the simply supported
beam of Example 4.2, including the
reactions.

The expressions for V(x) and M(x)


obtained in Example 4.2 are Figure 1
V1 = (220 – 40x)lb, 0 < x ≤ 6 ft
V2 = [ - 140 + (10/3)(12 – X)2] lb, 6 ≤ x < 12 ft
M1 = (220x – 20x2) Ib • ft, 0 < x ≤ 6 ft
M2 = [140(12 - x) – (10/9)(12 –x)3] lb • ft, 6 ≤ x < 12 ft
a) Using the above expressions for V(x) and M(x), plot shear and moment diagrams for
this simply supported beam,
b) Determine the location of the section of maximum bending moment, and calculate
the value of the maximum moment.
Plan the Solution
It is straightforward to plot the shear and moment diagrams from the given expressions
(e.g., using a computer). From the shear diagram, the location of the section where V(x) =
0 can be determined. Then the appropriate moment equation can be used to determine the
value of the moment at this critical section. Since there is more load over the left half of the
beam than over the right half, the maximum moment should occur to the left of x = 6 ft.

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Review the Solution


The downward load on this simply support beam bends it downward, so it is concave upward
everywhere. This is consistent with the fact that the bending moment is positive for the entire
length of the beam. As expected, since there is more load over the left half of the beam than
over the right half, the maximum moment does occur to the left of x = 6 ft. This is an
example of a maximum moment that occurs where V = dM/dx = 0.

EXAMPLE 4.6
Determine the reactions and sketch the shear and
moment diagrams for the beam shown. (This beam is
said to have an overhang BC.) Show all significant
values (that is, maxima, minima, positions of maxima
and minima, etc.) on the diagrams.

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Common features of shear and moment diagram is summarized in Table 4.2 below.

TABLE 4.2 Shear Moment and Diagram Features

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