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pipe flow lab report

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losses in turbulent pipe flow due to frictional

forces present at the boundaries of the pipes

flow area

Introduction

In this experiment you will investigate the

frictional forces inherent in laminar and

turbulent pipe flow. By measuring the pressure

drop and flow rate through a pipe, an estimate

of the coefficient of friction (friction factor) will

be obtained. Two different flow situations will be

studied, laminar flow and turbulent flow. The

experimentally obtained values of the

coefficient of friction will then be compared with

established results by plotting them on the

Moody chart provided.

describe the frictional losses experienced by a

pipe flow, the Bernoulli energy equation is used

generate an expression that describes the

pressure losses due to friction

P1/ +V12 /2 +gz1-Ws +q =P2/ + V22/2 + gz2+gh2

(eq.1)

pressure of the fluid upstream, V1 is the

upstream velocity of the flow, z1 is the upstream

height, W s is shaft work done by the flow, q is

heat addition to the flow, P2 is the downstream

pressure, V2 is the downstream velocity, z2 is

2

the head loss.

Assume the pipe flow is fully developed,

therefore the velocity at states one and two are

equal and can be neglected. It will also be

assumed that the heights of state one and two

are equal and negligible, that there is no shaft

work being done by the flow and that there is no

heat addition to the flow. Therefore, Equation 1

can be simplified to produce the following

equation.

P2-P1/ =ghL

(eq. 2)

can also be represented as a pressure drop h,

multiplying both sides of the equation by the

fluids density, , yields the hydrostatic

equation.

P = gh (eq.3)

Another equation used to represent pressure

losses in pipe flow is the Darcy-Weisbach

equation. The equation is written as follows

3

Where P is the pressure difference over a

segment of conduit, f is the friction factor of the

flow, L is the length over which the pressure

drop is measured, D is the diameter of the

conduit, is the fluids density and V is the

average velocity of the flow. Setting the

hydrostatic equation equal to the DarcyWeisbach equation yields the following

expression.

gh =f(L/D)( V2/2)

(eq.5)

dimensionless friction factor of the flow yields

the following equation.

f = (2gh)/ (V2 (L/D)) (eq.6)

friction factor plotted against the Reynolds

number for a series of volume flow rates. This

diagram is known as the Moody diagram (Figure

2) and is useful to determine the characteristics

of pipe flow. To calculate the Reynolds number,

employ the following equation.

4

Re = (VD)/ (eq.7)

Where V is the average velocity of the pipe flow,

D is the diameter of the conduit and is the

kinematic viscosity of the fluid.

1-Ensure that the sump tank is full and engage

the pump(s) specific to the pipe(s) that will be

used for the experiment.

apparatus (left and right side of Figure 3) to

obtain the desired flow path.

3-Use the valve closest to the pump(s) on the

downstream side of the apparatus to obtain a

desired flow rate.

4- With the pump still running, record the

pressure drop that occurs from the manometer

board and record the indicated flow rate from

the flow meter.

5- Using the valve closest to the pump(s),

increase the flow rate and again record the

pressure drops from the manometer board and

the indicated flow rate from the flow meter.

6- Repeat Step 5 until separate pressure drops

and flow rates have been recorded.

Conclusions

Results

from the experimental data (Figure 4) to the

diagram shown in (Figure 2) indicates that the

data gathered in this experiment is flawed. The

curve in (Figure 4) shows a momentary increase

in the frictional factor as the Reynolds number

increases. The curve should be a decreasing

7

diagram of (Figure 2)

A possible cause of the discrepancy between

the generated Moody diagram and Figure 4

would be a sudden expansion of the fluid in the

testing apparatus. It was noted during the

experiment that the line that returns fluid back

to the sump tank was exhibiting vibration. This

vibration was likely due to an interference with

the flow, there by interrupting the fully

developed flow.

The assumptions used to derive the

dimensionless friction factor of Equation 6 rely

on the flow being fully developed, turbulent and

steady .A sudden expansion in the line would

cause the flow to be unsteady and would skew

the data.

Other sources of error were present in this

experiment. One source of error was due to the

measurement of the head loss, h, from the

manometer board. Due to unsteady flow in the

testing apparatus, the air over water

manometer did not give a steady reading.

In order to compensate for this discrepancy, the

lowest value the fluctuating fluid took was the

8

to the flow meter of the testing apparatus. The

indicated flow rates would fluctuate over a

range of five to ten GPM, preventing an

accurate reading of the flow rate and therefore

further skewing the data

References

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics, 3 rd Edition William

S. Janna (1993)

A Manual for the Mechanics of Fluid Laboratory

William S. Janna (2008)

White, F. M. 2003, Fluid Mechanics, 5th Edition,

McGraw-Hill, Chapter 6;

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