INFORMATION SHEET
TOPIC
BENDING STRESS
SUB TOPIC
5.1 Simple Bending Theory
5.2 NonSymmetry Bending
5.3 Second Moment of Area
5.4 Mohr’s Circle
5.5 Parallel Axes Theorem
5.6 Stress and Deflection
REF NO. :
PAGE :
22
5.1 Simple Bending Theory
In this chapter we continue our study of beams by determining how the stress
resultants, the bending moment M(x) and the transverse shear force V(x), are
related to the normal stress and the shear stress at section x. Loads (transverse forces or
couple) applied to a beam cause it to deflect laterally, as illustrated in
Figure 5.1.
BeamDeformation Terminology.
To simplify this study of beams, we initially consider only straight beams that have a
longitudinal plane of symmetry (LPS), and for which the loading and support are
symmetric with respect to this plane, as illustrated in Figure 5.2.
Pure Bending.
Let us begin our analysis of beams by examining the deformation of a uniform beam
segment subjected to pure bending, that is,
• a segment whose material properties are constant along its length, and
• for which M(x) is constant.
If equal couples MO are applied to the ends of an otherwise unloaded segment of beam, as
in Figure 5.3, the moment is constant along the segment and the segment is said to be in
pure bending.
(a) The cross (b) The undeformed beam (c) Plane section remain plane
section before
deformation
FIGURE 5.3 A uniform beam segment undergoing pure bending
We can see that changes in length (strain, Є), occurs at D*G* (compression) and A*E*
(tension). However, BF retains it original length; which is called neutral surface (NS).
Lines ABD and EFG in Figure 5.3b represent the edges of typical cross sections in the
undeformed beam; lines A*B*D* and E*F*G* in Figure 5.3c represent these same cross
sections after deformation, as seen from the front face of the beam.
From Figure 5.3c we can determine the following characteristics of a uniform beam
undergoing pure bending:
1. Since M(x) = MO = const, purebending deformation of a beam is uniform along the
length of the segment undergoing pure bending: so whatever happens at a typical
crosssection ABD also happens at section EFG.
2. Pure bending has fronttoback symmetry. The only way that this can be possible is
for all cross sections like ABD and EFG, to remain plane and remain
perpendicular to the deflection curve.
3. In summary, when a beam undergoes pure bending, its deflection curve forms a
circular arc, and its cross sections remain plane and remain perpendicular to
the deflection curve. Experiments show that this is, indeed, the way that beams
deform when subjected to pure bending.
StrainDisplacement Analysis
Let us continue our analysis of the deformation of a uniform beam segment subjected to
pure bending, that is, a segment for which M(x) is constant.
Kinematic Assumptions of BernoulliEuler Beam Theory. The previous discussion of
pure bending can be summarized in the following four deformation assumptions of
BernoulliEuler beam theory:
1. The beam possesses a longitudinal plane of symmetry, and is loaded and supported
symmetrically with respect to this plane. This plane is called the plane of bending.
2. There is a longitudinal plane perpendicular to the plane of bending that remains free
of strain (i.e., Єx = 0) as the beam deforms. This plane is called the neutral surface
(NS). The intersection of the neutral surface with a cross section is called the neutral
axis (NA) of the cross section. The intersection of the neutral surface with the plane
of bending is called the axis of the beam: it forms the deflection curve of the
deformed beam.
3. Cross sections, which are plane and are perpendicular to the axis of the
undeformed beam, remain plane and remain perpendicular to the deflection
curve of the deformed beam.
4. Deformation in the plane of a cross section (i.e., transverse strains Єy and Єz) may
be neglected in deriving an expression for the longitudinal strain Єx.
The third of the preceding assumptions is crucial to the development of the BernoulliEuler
beam theory; it leads to a practical theory of bending of beams that is comparable to the
theories of axial deformation and torsion covered previously.
(a) The undeformed beam segment (b) The deformed beam segment
FIGURE 5.4 The geometry of deformation of a beam segment, showing the plane of
bending.
In Figure 5.4a, points A and P lie in the crosssectional plane at coordinate x in the
undeformed beam: similarly, points B and Q lie in lie in the crosssectional plane at (x + Δx)
in the undeformed beam. Line segment PQ is parallel to the x axis and lies at distance +y
above the NS (xz plane). Therefore, in the undeformed beam the infinitesimal fibers AB and
PQ are both of Iength Δx. From Assumption 3, points A* and P* lie in a plane that is
perpendicular to the neutral surface of the deformed beam, and points B* and Q* lie in a
plane that also is perpendicular to the deformed neutral surface. According to Assumption 2,
however, the length of A*B*, a fiber lying in the neutral surface, is unchanged; that is, the
length of A*B* is still Δx, as indicated in Figure 5.4b. Finally, by virtue of Assumption 4, A*P*
= AP = y, and B*Q* = BQ = y. Figure 5.4 therefore, embodies all four deformation
assumptions of BernoulliEuler beam theory, so we can use it in deriving an expression for
the extensional strain of a longitudinal fiber.
From the general definition of extensional strain, we can express the extensional strain in the
longitudinal fiber PQ as
(P*Q* 
lim lim Δx*  Δx
Єx ≡ Єx (x, y, z) = PQ) =
Q→P PQ Δx → 0 Δx
Considering A*B* to be the arc of a circle of radius ρ (x) ≡ ρ subtending an angle Δθ*, we get
Δ
A*B* = = ρΔθ*
x
Similarly,
P*Q* = Δx* = (ρ – y) Δθ*
That is, the extensional strain Єx at point (x, y, z) in the beam is independent of z and is
related to the local radius of curvature, ρ(x), by the following straindisplacement equation:
y Strain
Єx =  Displacement
ρ
Equation
(x)
The reciprocal of the radius of curvature, κ ≡ 1 / ρ is called the longitudinal curvature, or just
the curvature. As noted earlier, the assumptions that lead to this straindisplacement
equation are strictly valid for the case of pure bending, that is, when V ≡ 0. However, latter
formula can also be used for analyzing the bending of beams with V ≠ 0 [i.e., V = M(x)] if the
beam is slender.
Transverse Strains.
Recall from the Hooke’s Law for Possion’s ratio:
Ey
=
σx = EЄx ρ

(x)
σx = Eyk
F = ∫A σ dA = 0 M = Mz =  ∫A yσ dA
Ey  Ey
= ∫A dA = 0 = ∫A y dA
ρ
E ρ
= ∫A y dA = 0 E
ρ = ∫A y2 dA
ρ
Figure 5.5
If we let ∫A y2 dA = I ; where I is the area moment of inertia, then we get
E E
F = I = 0 M = Mz = I
ρy ρ
I = ∫A y2 dA :
Iz = ∫A y2 dA From Figure 5.6;
dA = bdy
So,
h/2
=
y2 bdy
∫ h/2
y3 h/2
= b
3 h/2
bh3
Iz =
12
Figure 5.6
Area moment of inertia
Recall
y and
M =  ∫A dA σ =  Ey / ρ
σ
σ
M =  ∫A y
( Ey / ρ) dA
I
= E / ρ  ∫A y2 dA
EI
M = = EIk Where EI = flexural rigidity
ρ
To get rid of radius of curvature which requires longer calculation to find, we have to
combine these two equations:
EI
M =
ρ
So,
Mρ
E =
I
Ey
σx =
ρ
=  Mρ y
I ρ
My
σx = Flexural Formula
I
S is elastic section modulus where S = I / c,
c=h/2
then
S= bh2 / 6
M M
σmax = c = Flexural Formula
I S
Where
The maximum normal stress in the member, which occurs at a point
σmax =
on the crosssectional area farthest away from the neutral axis
The resultant internal moment, determined from the method of
M = sections and the equations of equilibrium, and computed about the
neutral axis of the cross section
The moment of inertia of the cross sectional area computed about
I =
the neutral axis
The perpendicular distance from the neutral axis to a point farthest
c =
away from the neutral axis, where σmax acts
EXAMPLE 5.1
Solution
The neutral axis z passes through the centroid C and
bh3 (0.08m)(0.12m)3
I = = = 11.52 x 106 m4
12 12
The section modulus of the cross sectional area
bh2 (0.08m)(0.12m)2
S = = = 192 x 106 m3
6 6
b) At a section through point A, the bending moment in M = 10(1) – 5(1) 2 / 2 = 7.5 kN.m,
and we have
 (7.5 kN.m) (
 MyA
σA = = 0.02m) = 13 MPa
I 11.52 x 106 m4
The normal strain at point A is thus
σA (13 x 106 N/m2)
ЄA = = = 74.3 μ
E 175 x 109 N/m2
c) The radius of curvature, ρ
(0.02
 yA
ρ = = m) = 269 m
ЄA 74.3 μ
(a) Components of load in two planes (b) Bending moments due to an inclined load
of symmetry (positive My and positive Mz shown)
FIGURE 5.7 A doubly symmetric beam with inclined loading
If a beam is subjected to a non symmetry loadings such as in Figure 5.7, then the stress at
the defined center C should be contributed by the total of stress in the other two axes on the
plane which the load acting. Where, stress at x, σx
Myz Mzy Flexural Formula
σx = Iy 
Iz (nonsymmetry bending)
This is illustrated in Figure 5.8 below.
FIGURE 5.8 Flexural stress due to inclined loading of a doubly symmetric beam.
It is noted that in Figure 5.8c that the stress at center C is zero. So;
σx = Myz*  Mzy* = 0
Iy Iz
Myz* Mzy*
=
Iy Iz
y* My Iz
=
z* Mz Iy
EXAMPLE 5.2
A 1600 lb.in couple is applied to a wooden beam, of
rectangular cross section 1.5 x 3.5 in., in a plane forming
an angle of 30˚ with the vertical. Determine:
(a) The maximum stress in the beam
(b) The angle that the neutral surface forms with the
horizontal plane
Solution
a) The maximum stress in the beam, σmax
σmax = σ1 + σ2
Mzy Myz
= +
Iz Iy
bh3 (0.15m)(0.35m)3
Iz = = = 535.9 x 106 m4
12 12
bh3 (0.35m)(0.15m)3
Iy = = = 98.44 x 106 m4
12 12
Maximum stress
(1.386 kNm)
Mz y
σ1 = = (0.175m) = 452.6 kPa
Iz 535.9 x 106 m4
My z (0.8 kNm)(0.075m)
σ2 = = = 609.5 kPa
Iy 98.44 x 106 m4
σmax = σ1 + σ2
= 452.6 kPa + 609.5 kPa
= 1.062 Mpa
The distribution of the stresses
across the section.
β = tan 1 3.143
= 72.4˚
‘The vertical deviation of the tangent at a point (A) on the elastic curve with respect to the
tangent extended from another point (B) equals the moment of area under the M/EI diagram
between these two points (A and B). This moment is computed about point (A) where the
vertical deviation (tA/B) is to be determined.’
(a)
From Figure 5.9, we are ought to find tA/B as shown in (c). Mathematically we know that, s
= rθ;
So, ds’ = x dθ = dt
From the 3rd assumption, we assume the slope and deflection of the elastic curve is very
small, which mean ds’ = dt = x dθ
Hence
M
dt = dθ = dx
EI
M
t = ∫x dx
EI
So,
B
M
tA/B = ∫ x dx
A EI
Since the centroid of an area is found from x ∫ dA = ∫ x dA, and ∫ M/EI dx represent the area
under the M/EI diagram, (Figure 5.9 b), we can also write:
B
M
tA/B = x ∫ dx
A EI
Where:
X is the distance from A to the centroid of the area under the M/EI diagram between A
and B.
Note that:
tA/B = tB/A
EXAMPLE 5.3
Determine the displacement of points B and C of
the beam shown. EI is constant.
Solution:
Construct the M/EI diagram
ΔB = tB/A
ΔC = tC/A
Both tB/A and tC/A is negative, showing that point B and C is below tangent at A.
It is proven that:
Ix  Iy
R = √ ( )2 + Ixy2
2
Solution (a)
Compute Ix, Iy and Ixy
Using parallel axes theorem (Section 5.5), we get
Ix = 2.90 x 109 mm4
Iy = 5.60 x 109 mm4
Ixy= 3.00 x 109 mm4
(Ix + Iy) (2.90 + 5.60)
C = = = 4.25
2 2
(b)
Ix  Iy
R = CA = √ ( )2 + Ixy2
2
= √ (1.35)2 + (3.00)2
= 3.29
FIGURE 5.10
However, if the moment of inertia for an area is known about a centroidal axis we can
determine the moment of inertia of the area about a corresponding parallel axis using the
parallel – axis theorem. Consider the following Figure 5.11.
FIGURE 5.11
In this case, a differential element dA is located at an arbitrary distance y’ from the centroidal
x’ axis, whereas the fixed distance between the parallel x and x’ axes is defined as d y. Since
the moment of inertia of dA about the x axis is dIx = (y’ + dy)2 dA, then for the entire area,
Ix = ∫A (y’ + dy)2 dA = ∫A y2 dA + 2dy ∫A y’ dA + dy2 ∫A dA
= Ix’ =0
Finally we get
Ix = Ix’ + A dy2
Iy = Iy’ + A dx2
FIGURE 5.12
The product of inertia
Ixy = ∫A xy dA
FIGURE 5.13
Consider the shaded area shown in Figure 5.13, where x’ and y’ represents a set of
centroidal axes, and x and y represent a corresponding set of parallel axes. Since the
product of inertia of dA with respect to the x and y axes is dI xy = (x’ + dx)(y’ + dy) dA, then for
the entire area,
Ixy = ∫A (x’ + dx)(y’ + dy) dA = ∫A x’y’ dA + dx ∫A y’ dA + dxdy ∫A dA
The first term on the right represents the product of inertia of the area with respect to the
centroidal axis, Ix’y’. The second and third terms are zero since the moments of area are
taken about the centroidal axis. Realizing that the fourth integral represent the total area A,
we therefore have the final result
Ixy = Ix’y’ + A dxdy
EXAMPLE 5.5
A T beam with dimension shown is given moment at the cross section, M = 4 kMn.
Determine
a) The location of the neutral axis of the cross section
b) The moment of inertia with respect to the neutral axis, and
c) The maximum tensile stress and the maximum compressive stress on the
cross section
Solution
a) Locate the neutral axis
bh3
Ix’ =
12
And, from parallel axes theorem, the moment of inertia about an axis through C’
parallel to the axis through the centroid C is
I = Ix1’ + A dy12 + Ix2’ + A dy22
(0.1m)(0.5m)3 (0.5m)(0.1m)3
= + (0.5m)(0.1m)(0.15m)2 + + (0.1m)(0.5m)(0.15m)2
12 12
= 3.33 x 103 m4
c) The maximum tensile stress and the maximum compressive stress on the cross
section
 My
σx =
I
My (4kNm)(0.2m)
(σmax)C = = = 240 kPa
I 3.33 x 103 m4
My (4kNm)(0.4m)
(σmax)T = = = 480 ksi
I 3.33 x 103 m4
1. The deflection of the beam axis is small compared with the span of the beam. The
slope of the deflection curve is therefore very small and the square of the slope is
negligible in comparison with unity. If the beam is slightly curved initially, the
curvature is in the plane of the bending, and the radius of curvature is large in
relation to its depth (p > 10/z).
2. Plane sections initially normal to the beam axis remain plane and normal to that
axis after bending (for example, aa). This means that the shearing strains y is
negligible. The deflection of the beam is thus associated principally with the axial or
bending strains ex. The transverse normal strains ey and the remaining strains
(εz, γxz,γyz) may also be ignored.
3. The effect of the shearing stresses τxy on the distribution of the axial or bending
stress σx is neglected. The stresses normal to the neutral surface, σy, are small
compared with σx and may also be omitted. This supposition becomes unreliable in
the vicinity of highly concentrated transverse loads.
Much more than documents.
Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.
Cancel anytime.