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# DMV 4343

## JAN ~ JUN `07

INFORMATION SHEET

## DEPARTMENT MANUFACTURING / PRODUCT DESIGN / SEMESTER 4/6

MOULD / TOOL AND DIE
COURSE MECHANICS OF MATERIALS DURATION 8 hrs
COURSE CODE DMV 4343 / DMV 5343 REF. NO.
VTO’S NAME MISS AFZAN BINTI ROZALI PAGE 22
MR RIDHWAN BIN RAMELI

TOPIC
BENDING STRESS

SUB TOPIC
5.1 Simple Bending Theory
5.2 Non-Symmetry Bending
5.3 Second Moment of Area
5.4 Mohr’s Circle
5.5 Parallel Axes Theorem
5.6 Stress and Deflection

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p1

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REF NO. :
PAGE :
22
5.1 Simple Bending Theory
In this chapter we continue our study of beams by determining how the stress
resultants, the bending moment M(x) and the transverse shear force V(x), are
related to the normal stress and the shear stress at section x. Loads (transverse forces or
couple) applied to a beam cause it to deflect laterally, as illustrated in
Figure 5.1.

## This lateral deflection, or bending, changes the initially straight longitudinal

axis of the beam into a curve that is called the deflection curve, shown dashed in
Figure 5.1. By relating the curvature of the deflection curve to the bending moment
M, we can determine the distribution of the normal stress σ x. You will discover that this
derivation includes all three of the fundamental types of equations: geometry of
deformation (in the strain-displacement analysis), material behavior (in the stress-
strain relations), and equilibrium (in the definition of stress resultants and in relating
stress resultants to the external loads and reactions). ,

Beam-Deformation Terminology.
To simplify this study of beams, we initially consider only straight beams that have a
longitudinal plane of symmetry (LPS), and for which the loading and support are
symmetric with respect to this plane, as illustrated in Figure 5.2.

## FIGURE 5.2 Illustration of some beam-deformation terminology

Under these conditions, this longitudinal plane of symmetry is the plane of bending.

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p2

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Pure Bending.
Let us begin our analysis of beams by examining the deformation of a uniform beam
segment subjected to pure bending, that is,
• a segment whose material properties are constant along its length, and
• for which M(x) is constant.

If equal couples MO are applied to the ends of an otherwise unloaded segment of beam, as
in Figure 5.3, the moment is constant along the segment and the segment is said to be in
pure bending.

(a) The cross (b) The undeformed beam (c) Plane section remain plane
section before
deformation
FIGURE 5.3 A uniform beam segment undergoing pure bending

We can see that changes in length (strain, Є), occurs at D*G* (compression) and A*E*
(tension). However, BF retains it original length; which is called neutral surface (NS).

Lines ABD and EFG in Figure 5.3b represent the edges of typical cross sections in the
undeformed beam; lines A*B*D* and E*F*G* in Figure 5.3c represent these same cross
sections after deformation, as seen from the front face of the beam.
From Figure 5.3c we can determine the following characteristics of a uniform beam
undergoing pure bending:
1. Since M(x) = MO = const, pure-bending deformation of a beam is uniform along the
length of the segment undergoing pure bending: so whatever happens at a typical
cross-section ABD also happens at section EFG.
2. Pure bending has front-to-back symmetry. The only way that this can be possible is
for all cross sections like ABD and EFG, to remain plane and remain
perpendicular to the deflection curve.
3. In summary, when a beam undergoes pure bending, its deflection curve forms a

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p3

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circular arc, and its cross sections remain plane and remain perpendicular to
the deflection curve. Experiments show that this is, indeed, the way that beams
deform when subjected to pure bending.

Strain-Displacement Analysis
Let us continue our analysis of the deformation of a uniform beam segment subjected to
pure bending, that is, a segment for which M(x) is constant.
Kinematic Assumptions of Bernoulli-Euler Beam Theory. The previous discussion of
pure bending can be summarized in the following four deformation assumptions of
Bernoulli-Euler beam theory:
1. The beam possesses a longitudinal plane of symmetry, and is loaded and supported
symmetrically with respect to this plane. This plane is called the plane of bending.
2. There is a longitudinal plane perpendicular to the plane of bending that remains free
of strain (i.e., Єx = 0) as the beam deforms. This plane is called the neutral surface
(NS). The intersection of the neutral surface with a cross section is called the neutral
axis (NA) of the cross section. The intersection of the neutral surface with the plane
of bending is called the axis of the beam: it forms the deflection curve of the
deformed beam.
3. Cross sections, which are plane and are perpendicular to the axis of the
undeformed beam, remain plane and remain perpendicular to the deflection
curve of the deformed beam.
4. Deformation in the plane of a cross section (i.e., transverse strains Єy and Єz) may
be neglected in deriving an expression for the longitudinal strain Єx.
The third of the preceding assumptions is crucial to the development of the Bernoulli-Euler
beam theory; it leads to a practical theory of bending of beams that is comparable to the
theories of axial deformation and torsion covered previously.

## Strain-Displacement Analysis; Longitudinal Strain.

Because of Assumptions 1 and 4, the fibers in any plane parallel to the xy plane behave
identically to the corresponding fibers that lie in the xy plane (i.e., the plane of bending).
Therefore, bending deformation is independent of the coordinate z, so the drawing in
Figure 5.4 represents the deformation of any plane in the beam parallel to the xy plane.
Using Figure 5.4 and the preceding four deformation assumptions, we can develop an
expression for the extensional strain Єx, in a longitudinal fiber at coordinates (x, y, z) in the
beam.

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p4

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(a) The undeformed beam segment (b) The deformed beam segment
FIGURE 5.4 The geometry of deformation of a beam segment, showing the plane of
bending.

In Figure 5.4a, points A and P lie in the cross-sectional plane at coordinate x in the
undeformed beam: similarly, points B and Q lie in lie in the cross-sectional plane at (x + Δx)
in the undeformed beam. Line segment PQ is parallel to the x axis and lies at distance +y
above the NS (xz plane). Therefore, in the undeformed beam the infinitesimal fibers AB and
PQ are both of Iength Δx. From Assumption 3, points A* and P* lie in a plane that is
perpendicular to the neutral surface of the deformed beam, and points B* and Q* lie in a
plane that also is perpendicular to the deformed neutral surface. According to Assumption 2,
however, the length of A*B*, a fiber lying in the neutral surface, is unchanged; that is, the
length of A*B* is still Δx, as indicated in Figure 5.4b. Finally, by virtue of Assumption 4, A*P*
= AP = y, and B*Q* = BQ = y. Figure 5.4 therefore, embodies all four deformation
assumptions of Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, so we can use it in deriving an expression for
the extensional strain of a longitudinal fiber.
From the general definition of extensional strain, we can express the extensional strain in the
longitudinal fiber PQ as
(P*Q* -
lim lim Δx* - Δx
Єx ≡ Єx (x, y, z) = PQ) =
Q→P PQ Δx → 0 Δx

Considering A*B* to be the arc of a circle of radius ρ (x) ≡ ρ subtending an angle Δθ*, we get
Δ
A*B* = = ρΔθ*
x

Similarly,
P*Q* = Δx* = (ρ – y) Δθ*

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## lim (ρ – y) Δθ* - ρ Δθ* y

Єx = = -
Δx → 0 ρ Δθ* ρ

That is, the extensional strain Єx at point (x, y, z) in the beam is independent of z and is
related to the local radius of curvature, ρ(x), by the following strain-displacement equation:

y Strain
Єx = - Displacement
ρ
Equation
(x)

The reciprocal of the radius of curvature, κ ≡ 1 / ρ is called the longitudinal curvature, or just
the curvature. As noted earlier, the assumptions that lead to this strain-displacement
equation are strictly valid for the case of pure bending, that is, when V ≡ 0. However, latter
formula can also be used for analyzing the bending of beams with V ≠ 0 [i.e., V = M(x)] if the
beam is slender.

Transverse Strains.
Recall from the Hooke’s Law for Possion’s ratio:

Ey
=
σx = EЄx ρ
-
(x)

σx = -Eyk

F = ∫A σ dA = 0 M = Mz = - ∫A yσ dA
-Ey - Ey
= ∫A dA = 0 = -∫A y dA
ρ
-E ρ
= ∫A y dA = 0 E
ρ = ∫A y2 dA
ρ

Figure 5.5
If we let ∫A y2 dA = I ; where I is the area moment of inertia, then we get
-E E
F = I = 0 M = Mz = I
ρy ρ

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p6

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I = ∫A y2 dA :
Iz = ∫A y2 dA From Figure 5.6;
dA = bdy
So,
h/2
=
y2 bdy
∫ -h/2

y3 h/2
= b
3 -h/2
bh3
Iz =
12
Figure 5.6
Area moment of inertia

Recall
y and
M = - ∫A dA σ = - Ey / ρ
σ
σ
M = - ∫A y
(- Ey / ρ) dA
I
= E / ρ - ∫A y2 dA
EI
M = = EIk Where EI = flexural rigidity
ρ

To get rid of radius of curvature which requires longer calculation to find, we have to
combine these two equations:
EI
M =
ρ
So,

E =
I

-Ey
σx =
ρ
= - Mρ y
I ρ

-My
σx = Flexural Formula
I
S is elastic section modulus where S = I / c,
c=h/2
then

S= bh2 / 6

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## Then σmax at ymax = c

-M -M
σmax = c = Flexural Formula
I S

Where
The maximum normal stress in the member, which occurs at a point
σmax =
on the cross-sectional area farthest away from the neutral axis
The resultant internal moment, determined from the method of
M = sections and the equations of equilibrium, and computed about the
neutral axis of the cross section
The moment of inertia of the cross sectional area computed about
I =
the neutral axis
The perpendicular distance from the neutral axis to a point farthest
c =
away from the neutral axis, where σmax acts

EXAMPLE 5.1

## A simple cast iron (E = 175 GPa) beam of rectangular

cross section carries a load of 5 kN/m. Determine:
(a) The maximum tensile and compressive stresses
at the midspan,
(b) The normal stress and strain at a point A, and
(c) The radius of curvature of the beam at B.

Solution
The neutral axis z passes through the centroid C and
bh3 (0.08m)(0.12m)3
I = = = 11.52 x 10-6 m4
12 12
The section modulus of the cross sectional area
bh2 (0.08m)(0.12m)2
S = = = 192 x 10-6 m3
6 6

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## a) At the midspan, the bending moment is M = 5 (4) 2 / 8 = 10 kN.m. Because M is

positive, the maximum tensile and compressive stresses occur at the bottom and top
of fibers, respectively:
(10 kN.m)
My
σmax = = (0.06m) = ± 52.1 MPa
I 11.52 x 10-6 m4
Or
M (10 kN.m)
σmax = = = ± 52.1 MPa
S 192 x 10-6 m4

## These stresses act on infinitesimal elements at D and E

b) At a section through point A, the bending moment in M = 10(1) – 5(1) 2 / 2 = 7.5 kN.m,
and we have
- (7.5 kN.m) (-
- MyA
σA = = 0.02m) = 13 MPa
I 11.52 x 10-6 m4
The normal strain at point A is thus
σA (13 x 106 N/m2)
ЄA = = = 74.3 μ
E 175 x 109 N/m2
c) The radius of curvature, ρ
-(-0.02
- yA
ρ = = m) = 269 m
ЄA 74.3 μ

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## 5.2 Non-Symmetry Bending

In previous section, we have been considering flexural stress and strain in beams whose
cross-sectional shape and whose loading and support conditions produce bending that is
confined to a longitudinal plane of symmetry (LPS) of the beam. Where we assume:
a) the deflection of [be beam can be characterized by a deflection curve in the LPS
b) there is no tendency of the beam to twist
However, we also need to be able to analyze the behavior of beams that are not loaded and
supported in this simple manner.

(a) Components of load in two planes (b) Bending moments due to an inclined load
of symmetry (positive My and positive Mz shown)

If a beam is subjected to a non symmetry loadings such as in Figure 5.7, then the stress at
the defined center C should be contributed by the total of stress in the other two axes on the
plane which the load acting. Where, stress at x, σx
Myz Mzy Flexural Formula
σx = Iy -
Iz (non-symmetry bending)
This is illustrated in Figure 5.8 below.

FIGURE 5.8 Flexural stress due to inclined loading of a doubly symmetric beam.

It is noted that in Figure 5.8c that the stress at center C is zero. So;
σx = Myz* - Mzy* = 0

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Iy Iz
Myz* Mzy*
=
Iy Iz
y* My Iz
=
z* Mz Iy

## From Figure 5.8d, we can calculate angle θ as following;

My
tan θ =
Mz
And angle β as;
y*
tan β =
z*
Combining these equations, we get
Iz
tan β = ( ) tan θ Orientation of neutral axis (NA)
Iy

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p11

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EXAMPLE 5.2
A 1600 lb.in couple is applied to a wooden beam, of
rectangular cross section 1.5 x 3.5 in., in a plane forming
an angle of 30˚ with the vertical. Determine:
(a) The maximum stress in the beam
(b) The angle that the neutral surface forms with the
horizontal plane

Solution
a) The maximum stress in the beam, σmax
σmax = σ1 + σ2
Mzy Myz
= +
Iz Iy

## We need to find My and Mz

Mz = M cos θ = 1.6 kNm (cos 30˚)
= 1.386 kNm
My = M sin θ = 1.6 kNm (sin 30˚)
= 0.8 kNm

bh3 (0.15m)(0.35m)3
Iz = = = 535.9 x 10-6 m4
12 12
bh3 (0.35m)(0.15m)3
Iy = = = 98.44 x 10-6 m4
12 12

Maximum stress
(1.386 kNm)
Mz y
σ1 = = (0.175m) = 452.6 kPa
Iz 535.9 x 10-6 m4
My z (0.8 kNm)(0.075m)
σ2 = = = 609.5 kPa
Iy 98.44 x 10-6 m4

σmax = σ1 + σ2
= 452.6 kPa + 609.5 kPa
= 1.062 Mpa
The distribution of the stresses
across the section.

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## c) Angle of Neutral Surface with the horizontal plane.

tan Iz
= ( ) tan θ
β Iy
535.9 x 10-6 m4 tan
=
98.44 x 10-6 m4 30˚
= 3.143

β = tan -1 3.143
= 72.4˚

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## 5.3 Second Moment of Area

The moment-area method provides a semigraphical technique for finding the slope and
displacement at specific points on the elastic curve of a beam or shaft.
We have to assume:
1) The beam is initially straight,
2) It is elastically deformed by the loads,
3) Slope and deflection of the elastic curve is very small,
4) Deformation are caused by bending.

## Moment area method is based on 2 theorems

- Theorem 1 : First Moment – Area
- Theorem 2 : Second moment of Area

‘The vertical deviation of the tangent at a point (A) on the elastic curve with respect to the
tangent extended from another point (B) equals the moment of area under the M/EI diagram
between these two points (A and B). This moment is computed about point (A) where the
vertical deviation (tA/B) is to be determined.’

(a)

## (c) dt is the vertical deviation of the tangent

(b)
on each side of the differential element dx.
FIGURE 5.9 A beam experiencing distributed load

From Figure 5.9, we are ought to find tA/B as shown in (c). Mathematically we know that, s
= rθ;
So, ds’ = x dθ = dt
From the 3rd assumption, we assume the slope and deflection of the elastic curve is very
small, which mean ds’ = dt = x dθ

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## From Theorem 1, which is not covered in this lecture:

M
dθ = dx
EI

Hence
M
dt = dθ = dx
EI
M
t = ∫x dx
EI

So,
B
M
tA/B = ∫ x dx
A EI

Since the centroid of an area is found from x ∫ dA = ∫ x dA, and ∫ M/EI dx represent the area
under the M/EI diagram, (Figure 5.9 b), we can also write:
B
M
tA/B = x ∫ dx
A EI

Where:
X is the distance from A to the centroid of the area under the M/EI diagram between A
and B.

Note that:
tA/B = tB/A

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p15

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EXAMPLE 5.3
Determine the displacement of points B and C of
the beam shown. EI is constant.

Solution:
Construct the M/EI diagram

ΔB = tB/A
ΔC = tC/A

## Moment Area Theorem

Consider area from A to B:
L MO L MOL2
ΔB = tB/A = ( ) [( - )( )] = -
4 EI 2 8EI
Consider area from A to C:
L MO MOL2
ΔC = tC/A = ( ) [( - )( L )] = -
2 EI 2EI

Both tB/A and tC/A is negative, showing that point B and C is below tangent at A.

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## 5.4 Mohr’s Circle

It is proven that:

Ix - Iy
R = √ ( )2 + Ixy2
2

## Procedure to construct Mohr’s Circle

1) Compute Ix, Iy and Ixy
2) Construct the circle,
- abscissa – represents the moment of inertia I
- ordinate - represents the product of inertia Ixy

(Ix + Iy)
C =
2

## 4) Plot reference point A having coordinate A (Ix, Ixy)

- Ix is always positive
- Ixy will be either positive or negative

## 5) Connect reference point A to the center C, where AC = radius of circle, R

6) Determine AC by trigonometry
7) Determine Imin and Imax : points that intersect abscissa (product of inertia Ixy = 0)
8) Determine 2θp1

EXAMPLE 5.4

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## Use Mohr’s circle to determine the principal moments

of inertia for the beam’s cross-sectional area shown
below, with respect to axes passing through the
centroid.

Solution (a)
Compute Ix, Iy and Ixy
Using parallel axes theorem (Section 5.5), we get
Ix = 2.90 x 109 mm4
Iy = 5.60 x 109 mm4
Ixy= -3.00 x 109 mm4
(Ix + Iy) (2.90 + 5.60)
C = = = 4.25
2 2

## A (Ix, Ixy) ; A (2.90, -3.00)

(b)
Ix - Iy
R = CA = √ ( )2 + Ixy2
2
= √ (1.35)2 + (-3.00)2
= 3.29

## Imax = C + R = 4.25 + 3.29 = 7.54 x 109 mm4

Imin = C - R = 4.25 - 3.29 = 0.960 x 109 mm4
From figure (b):
2θp1 = 180˚ - tan-1 (|BA|/|BC|)
= 180˚ - tan-1 (|3.00|/|1.35|)
= 114.2˚
θp1 = 57.1˚
The major principal axis (for Imax = 7.54 x 109 mm4) is
therefore oriented at an angle θp1 = 57.1˚, measured (c)

## counterclockwise, from the positive x axis. The minor

axis is perpendicular to this axis. The results are shown
in Figure (a).

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## 5.5 Parallel Axes Theorem

From Figure 5.10 below, it is known that the moment of inertia is
Ix = ∫A y2 dA
Iy = ∫A x2 dA

FIGURE 5.10

However, if the moment of inertia for an area is known about a centroidal axis we can
determine the moment of inertia of the area about a corresponding parallel axis using the
parallel – axis theorem. Consider the following Figure 5.11.

FIGURE 5.11
In this case, a differential element dA is located at an arbitrary distance y’ from the centroidal
x’ axis, whereas the fixed distance between the parallel x and x’ axes is defined as d y. Since
the moment of inertia of dA about the x axis is dIx = (y’ + dy)2 dA, then for the entire area,
Ix = ∫A (y’ + dy)2 dA = ∫A y2 dA + 2dy ∫A y’ dA + dy2 ∫A dA
= Ix’ =0
Finally we get
Ix = Ix’ + A dy2
Iy = Iy’ + A dx2

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p19

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FIGURE 5.12
The product of inertia
Ixy = ∫A xy dA

FIGURE 5.13

Consider the shaded area shown in Figure 5.13, where x’ and y’ represents a set of
centroidal axes, and x and y represent a corresponding set of parallel axes. Since the
product of inertia of dA with respect to the x and y axes is dI xy = (x’ + dx)(y’ + dy) dA, then for
the entire area,
Ixy = ∫A (x’ + dx)(y’ + dy) dA = ∫A x’y’ dA + dx ∫A y’ dA + dxdy ∫A dA

The first term on the right represents the product of inertia of the area with respect to the
centroidal axis, Ix’y’. The second and third terms are zero since the moments of area are
taken about the centroidal axis. Realizing that the fourth integral represent the total area A,
we therefore have the final result
Ixy = Ix’y’ + A dxdy

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p20

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EXAMPLE 5.5
A T beam with dimension shown is given moment at the cross section, M = 4 kMn.

Determine
a) The location of the neutral axis of the cross section
b) The moment of inertia with respect to the neutral axis, and
c) The maximum tensile stress and the maximum compressive stress on the
cross section

Solution
a) Locate the neutral axis

## We can use first moment of area method where

y A = y1 A1 + y2 A2 = (0.55m)(0.5m)(0.1m) + (0.25m)(0.1m)(0.5m)
= 0.04m3
Where
A = A1 + A2 = (0.5m)(0.1m) + (0.1m)(0.5m) = 0.1m2
Then
yA 0.04m3
y = = = 0.4m
A 0.1m2
b) The moment of inertia with respect to the neutral axis
The moment of inertia of a rectangle about an axis through its own centroid is

## Chapter 5 BENDING STRESS p21

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bh3
Ix’ =
12

And, from parallel axes theorem, the moment of inertia about an axis through C’
parallel to the axis through the centroid C is
I = Ix1’ + A dy12 + Ix2’ + A dy22
(0.1m)(0.5m)3 (0.5m)(0.1m)3
= + (0.5m)(0.1m)(0.15m)2 + + (0.1m)(0.5m)(0.15m)2
12 12
= 3.33 x 10-3 m4

c) The maximum tensile stress and the maximum compressive stress on the cross
section
- My
σx =
I
My -(4kNm)(0.2m)
(σmax)C = = = -240 kPa
I 3.33 x 10-3 m4
My -(4kNm)(-0.4m)
(σmax)T = = = 480 ksi
I 3.33 x 10-3 m4

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## 5.6 Stress and Deflection

The fundamental assumptions of the technical theory for slender beams are based
upon the geometry of deformation. We can state them as follows:

1. The deflection of the beam axis is small compared with the span of the beam. The
slope of the deflection curve is therefore very small and the square of the slope is
negligible in comparison with unity. If the beam is slightly curved initially, the
curvature is in the plane of the bending, and the radius of curvature is large in
relation to its depth (p > 10/z).

2. Plane sections initially normal to the beam axis remain plane and normal to that
axis after bending (for example, a-a). This means that the shearing strains y is
negligible. The deflection of the beam is thus associated principally with the axial or
bending strains ex. The transverse normal strains ey and the remaining strains
(εz, γxz,γyz) may also be ignored.

3. The effect of the shearing stresses τxy on the distribution of the axial or bending
stress σx is neglected. The stresses normal to the neutral surface, σy, are small
compared with σx and may also be omitted. This supposition becomes unreliable in
the vicinity of highly concentrated transverse loads.