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DMV 4343

JAN ~ JUN `07

INFORMATION SHEET

DEPARTMENT MANUFACTURING / PRODUCT DESIGN / SEMESTER 4


MOULD / TOOL AND DIE
COURSE MECHANICS OF MATERIALS DURATION 4 hrs
COURSE CODE DMV 4343 REF. NO.
VTO’S NAME MISS AFZAN BINTI ROZALI PAGE 7

TOPIC
SHEAR STRESS IN BEAMS

SUB TOPIC
6.1 Shear Flow
6.2 Shear Stress in Beams with Various Cross Sections

REF NO. :
PAGE :7

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6.1 Shear Flow

Occasionally in engineering practice members are "built up" from several composite parts in
order to achieve a greater resistance to loads. Some examples are shown in Figure 6.1.

FIGURE 6.1

If the loads cause the members to bend, fasteners such as nails, bolts, welding material, or
glue may be needed to keep the component parts from sliding relative to one another. In
order to design these fasteners it is necessary to know the shear force that must be resisted
by the fastener along the member's length. This loading, when measured as a force per unit
length, is referred to as the shear flow q.
The magnitude of the shear flow along any longitudinal section of a beam can be obtained
using a development similar to that for finding the shear stress in the beam.
dM
dF = ∫A y dA’
I
Since
dF
q =
dx
We get
1 dM
q = ∫A y dA’
I dx

We know that dM/dx = V


1
q = V ∫A y dA’
I

∫A y dA’ is the first moment of area Q, so finally we get shear flow q as following
Q
q = V Shear Flow
I

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Where
q = the shear flow, measured as a force per unit length along the
beam
V = the internal resultant shear force, determined from the method of
sections and the equations of equilibrium
/ = the moment of inertia of the entire cross-sectional area computed
about the neutral axis
Q = ∫A y dA’ = y'A', where A' is the cross-sectional area of the segment
that is connected to the beam at the juncture where the shear flow
is to be calculated, and y' is the distance from the neutral axis to
the centroid of A'

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EXAMPLE 6.1
Four wooden planks are joined with nails to form the T beam as shown. (Dimensions are in
millimeters.) For an allowable shear force in each nail Fn = 1.6 kN and a vertical shear force
in the beam V = 4 kN, determine
(a) the necessary spacing sl of the nails for the upper portion;
(b) the necessary spacing s2 of the nails for the lower part; and
The moment of inertia of the entire area is I = 9.1 x 106 mm4.

Solution
The horizontal shear forces transmitted by the three flanges and the web can be found from
the shear-flow formula.
(a) In this case, Ql is the first moment of area of the upper flange about the neutral axis.
Q1 = A1*y1 = 100(20)(42.9) = 85.8 X 103 mm3
The shear flow at the section along line a-a is thus
VQ
(4000N) (85.8 X 103 mm3) 37.7
q1 = 1
= =
N/mm
I 9.1 x 106 mm4

which is resisted by the section of the nails. As the load capacity of the nails per unit
length (Fns1) is equal to the shear flow q1, we write
F
(1600N)
n
42.4
s1 = = =
37.7 mm
q1
N/mm
This value—or as a practical matter, 40 mm—represents the maximum allowable
spacing of nails at the upper flange (Fig. 7.29b).

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(b) The section is now cut along line b-b and the contact surface is vertical. For the area
A2, we obtain
Q2 = A2*y2 = 20(15)(57.1) = 17.1 X 103 mm3
The shear flow at the section along line a-a is thus
VQ
(4000N) (17.1 X 103 mm3) 7.52
q2 = 2
= =
N/mm
I 9.1 x 106 mm4

which is resisted by the section of the nails. As the load capacity of the nails per unit
length (Fns1) is equal to the shear flow q1, we write
F
(1600N)
2
s2 = = = 212.8 mm
7.52
q2
N/mm
For convenience in construction, the nails would probably be spaced at 210 mm
intervals. This applies to both lower flanges.

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6.2 Shear Stress in Beams with Various Cross Sections


Development of a relationship between the shear-stress distribution, acting over the cross
section of a beam, and the resultant shear force at the section is based on a study of the
longitudinal shear stress and the results, V = dMldx. To show how this relationship is
established, we will consider the horizontal force equilibrium of a portion of the element
taken from the beam in Figure 6.2.

FIGURE 6.2 (a) (b) (c)

(d) (e)

A free-body diagram of the element that shows only the normal-stress distribution acting on
it is shown in Figure 6.2c.This distribution is caused by the bending moments M and M +
dM. We have excluded the effects of V, V + dV, and w(x) on the free-body diagram since
these loadings are vertical and will therefore not be involved in a horizontal force summation.
The element in Figure 6.2c will indeed satisfy ΣFx = 0 since the stress distribution on each
side of the element forms only a couple moment and therefore a zero force resultant.

Now consider the shaded top segment of the element that has been sectioned at y' from the
neutral axis, Figure 6.2b.This segment has a width t at the section, and the cross-sectional
sides each have an area A'. Because the resultant moments on each side of the element
differ by dM, it can be seen in Figure 6.2d that ΣFx = 0 will not be satisfied unless a
longitudinal shear stress τ acts over the bottom face of the segment. In the following
analysis, we will assume this shear stress is constant across the width t of the bottom face. It

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acts on the area t dx. Applying the equation of horizontal force equilibrium, and using the
flexure formula, we have
← ΣFx = 0; ∫A’ σ’ dA - ∫A’ σ dA - τ (t dx) =0
M + dM M
∫A’ ( ) y dA - ∫A’ ( ) y dA =0
I I
dM
( ) ∫A’ y dA = τ (t dx)
I

Solving for τ, we get

1 dM
τ= ( ) ∫A’ y dA
It dx

Previously, we know that dM/dx = V


1
τ = V ∫A y dA’
It

And we know that ∫A y dA’ is the first moment of area Q, so finally we get shear stress τ as
following
Q
τ = V Shear Stress
It

τ = The shear stress in the member at the point located a distance y’ from
the neutral axis. This stress is assumed to be constant and therefore
averaged across the width t of the member
q = the shear flow, measured as a force per unit length along the beam
V = the internal resultant shear force, determined from the method of
sections and the equations of equilibrium
/ = the moment of inertia of the entire cross-sectional area computed
about the neutral axis
Q = ∫A y dA’ = y'A', where A' is the cross-sectional area of the segment
that is connected to the beam at the juncture where the shear flow
is to be calculated, and y' is the distance from the neutral axis to
the centroid of A'

EXAMPLE 6.2
Consider again Example 6.1. With the same vertical shear force in the beam V = 4 kN,
determine

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(a) shearing stresses in joints a-a and b-b if the planks are glued together instead of
being joined by nails.
The moment of inertia of the entire area is I = 9.1 x 106 mm4.

(a) The widths of the glued joints are b1 = 0.03 m and b2 = 0.02 m at a-a and b-b,
respectively. Using shear formula, we then have
VQ
(4000N) (85.8 X 103 mm3)
(τxy)a = 1
= = 1.26 MPa
6 4
Ib1 (9.1 x 10 mm )(0.03m)
VQ
(4000N) (17.1 X 103 mm3)
(τxy)b = 2
= = 376 kPa
6 4
Ib2 (9.1 x 10 mm )(0.02m)

The required shear strength of the glue is thus 1.26 MPa.

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