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.!l fditofial: Derign:SteveHorton,

Annable Wendy Kwok
Editor PictureResearch:
St.rohnston Mortimer, Angela Parman
Brenda Marshall leniorProdurtion
lditor:JayneSwanson TerenceStrongman
Craig Glenday, l'larketing:
John Balmond
Reid, lleadof Cucrlation:
Richmond {hris Jenner

S:iaffon Friedman,Fergus
Rob lrving, Graham Hancock,

lalet LyndonParker/lliPiaurelibnry.
to thankall thosewholnlpd ia tk

qre useda5 a balii

-:, at:;::;
., tlPsrtici

,==., ;jl:1""".c.: .,.. ".,...".,.,,..,
S h rn rr



n Dec em ber 1 9 8 4 ,.J a i n eSh a n c l let. cr-ashcciflr'ing saucel ancl alien bodies near
a Holl;wood movie proclr.rcerrrncl Rosrrell,Nerv N'Iexico,inJuly 1947.
UF O r es e a rc h e r, re c e i v e c l a n The last paee of the briefins paper was a
reun u\u al p ack aue lhr c , r r glr t lr . por t . memorandum, dated 24 September 1947,
Inside was just one roll of lrndeveloped from President Harr,v Truman to his
.15 rr.rm black and white film. There \a-as1lo Secretary of Dei'ence, .fames Forrestal. In
-.-ccompanying letter or retllrn address. it, Truman instructs Forrestal to proceed A In 198O, during his
t-)nlr- the postmark gave a clue to its ori- with 'Operation Majestic-l2', but si1'esncr reseorch for o UFO
:.n:: Albuquerque, New Mexico. hint at rvhat that might be. movie, film producer
\\hen processed, the fllm contained Jqime Shonderq mode
r:r{atives of r'vhat appeared to be an eight- S TA R TLIN G R E V E TA TION S o number of confocfs in
'.-,.rse briefing-paper, prepared on t 8 Alone, the Forrestal memo lvas meaning- rhe milirory. Could one
\, '\'elrber 1952, for President-elect Dr,vight less. But, rvhcn reacl alons rvith the 1952 of these insiders hove
,t Eisenhower. A warning on the first page briefing paper, the storv behind them leoked rhe Moiestic-12
:.,r1. 'This is a TOP SECRIT - E\ES ONLY became clear: in Jul,v 1947, a 'flying disc- popers to him?
I ,,.irr.]rent containing compartmentalized shaped aircraft' crashesnear Rosrvell,Nerv
: ,r-nr:rtion essential to the natior-lal secu- Mexi co, and' extra-terrestri al bi ol ogi cal
. . ' ,i the United States.' On page t\,vowas enti ti es' (E B E s) are recovered by the
., -.'. , ,f I2 influential US scientists, n'rilitary rni l i tarr" . W hen P resi dent Truman i s
: .. lr-i> ancl ir-rtelligence advisors. Itlvas not informed about the crash, he atrthorizes
' .:...- le se thre e that t he s ubjec t of t he Defence Secretarv Forrestal to set up a
r ,r,.r bcc:rme cle ar : t he r ec ov er y of a cornmittee to deal with the sitr.ration.
) Anolysis hos shown NTAJIC), a number of other packaqcr irir c
thot one MJ-I2 been pushecl through the rnailbore. ,rf
memo is prinfed on researchers over the past feu'r,eals. Thc hlst
onionskin poper, o \vas a postcard delivered to Bill \Ioo|c in
ltrflm. toi 6ttls8'! ttr@
8E !' trt'G
type ordered in bulk il-*l"
trtdd I985. Postrnarkecl Nerv Zealand, it sussest-
by lhe government ed he search ner,r''lvdeclassified files ar rhe
belween 1953 ond US National -\-chives. Moore and S1-ranclclir
--- .r6Arocl#tG*tl
t"brr G
197O. The document, -Ucl-.
E ads@t It
did so. ancl found a memo confirming the
tr *ra*L.
known in UFOlogy os existence of \lJ-12. rrritten bv Eisenhorter's
the Culler-Twining --6i*tp Special -\ssistrrrrt tol National Secr-rritr',
memo, wos found of lhe lspv'
i Robert Clutler'. ancl lrclclressed to Nathan
Notionol Archive, ofter Uffiffike"'"-*'* Twining, the L S -\il Frilcc Uhief of Staff.
reseorcher Bill Moore Between 1992 ancl 1!)!)ti. another UFO
reteived o postcord In 1 9 5 2 , w h e n Ei senhow er becomes researcheq Tint C.ooper-.rcceivcd a number
hinring ot where it President-elect,he is briefed on Operation of MJ-l2 documents. all r.r1rr jrich he quietly
wos hidden. Did Majestic-12.The briefing paper lists the sharecl with Friedrlan. Ser elel r' cr-e ploved
q conscientiousinsider 1Z-man committee and gives details of the hoaxes but, accorcling to (.oo1rer- and
plont ir there, hoping saLlcercrash. The final paragraph stresses Friedman, two sinule-pirte ciocuments
lo reveol rhe truth? the need to 'avoid a public panic at all appear to be senuine. The rs a br-ief
costs', confirming that the government is instmction to General Nathan T\\ ininq- ( all
covering up the truth about UFOs. The alleged MJ-12 member) concenrins his
question is, are the documents real?


In the UFO research community,
opinion is split. In the pro-
Majestic camp are researchers
such as nLrclear phvsicist
Stanton T. Friedrnan, rrho
has dedicated over ten
years to finding
truth, and his fellorv
UFOlogists Bill Moore
and Jaime Shandera.
Their strongest oppo-
nents are researchels Reor Admirol Jomes Forrestol,
Dr Vonnevor Bush,
such as Kevin Randle, Roscoe Hillenkoe*er, Chtrirmon of the first US Secrelory
Armen Victorian and first Direcfor of Joint Reseorchond of Defunce. ln 1949,
Centrol Intelligence Development Boord he hod mentol
Philip Klass, all of
breokdown ond
'1947-501, In 1960, 11945-491. Advisor
whom hal'e reason to he ocknowledged to the President. ond commitfed suicide. ,
believe the papers are there wos o UFO key ployer in olomic Reploced by @enerol

clever fakes. cover-up. bomb development. Wolter Bedell Smirh.

To add to the
mystery surrounding
M a j e s ti c -1 2 (al so
:' known as M|-12, or

{ Ar rhe time of the Roswell r,,'::i.i.

crosh, Eisenhowerwos lhe

Army Chief of stoff. Crirics soy
he would hove known obout
Dr Jerome Reor Admirol Gordon Groy
o the crosh, ond would not hove Hunsoker,
Sidney Souers, firsl Assistont Secretory
o needed fo reod o briefing renowned oircrqft Director of Centrol of fhe Army. Become
poper when elected president. designer ond Intelligence (1946). fhe Nolionol
;o Choirmon of the Appioinred firsf Security odvisor ond
This, however, wos common
Notionol Advisory Executive Secrelory Director of €lA's
proclice ot the White House. Commiitee on of Notionql Security P syc hol ogi c ol
Aeronoulics. €ouncif in 7947. Sfrotegy Boord.

ecrirjrie: dlrrins a July 1947 trip to New
\lcrlc, r. the site of the crashed saucer.
1.., .rr ull(l rlo c r r m ent is a m em o t o
P : t . .cicrit Trtrrna n, dic t at ed by US
>r-r':'Lr:'., of State Ceorge C. Marshall to
l-:- FxccLrtile Secretary, R. H. Humelsine.
r, i:r:.t rhe r-e is no dir ec t m ent ion of M J - I 2

-rr l:re me1ro, the reference at the top

r r-.rlr: \L\fIC EO 092447NU-l2'.


T:re most spectacularnew MJ-l2 document
',.,.i:posted in 1994 to Don Berliner-,zl lon5f-
:ime UFO investigator and science rvriter.
The anonymous roll of film contained 23
pases of a 'Majestic-l2 Gror,rp Speciirl
Operations Manual', dated April 19r 1. It
rras a detailed instruction r.nanlralelttitled:
'Extra-terrestrial Entities and Tecl-rno1ogr.
Recoveryand Disposal.'
Becausemost of the MJ-l2 clocuments
are on film, the original paper or ink can-
not be analysed.But there are many factual .: '.
details that can be checked. such as the :.ia:::

backsround of the 12 members of the
committee. the dates of r.r-reetings, the sty'e
and format of sir.nilardocnments, and the
validity of the signatures.
Clearly, MJ-l2 had arr all-star cast:as well
as Secretary of Defence Forrestal, there
were the first three Directors of Central
Intel l i gence. an A i r Force Gene r al. an
Army Ceneral, the Secretary of the Army
and five of the I.fS'smost influential scien-
lrlqthon Twining, Generol Hoyt Dr Detlev Bronk, ti sts. Thi s w as l he cream o[ rh e US's
Commonder of Air Vondenberg, biophysicisr. Heod mi l i tary. sci enti fi c and i ntel l i gence com -
filaerbl Gommond Chief of Militory of the Notionol munities. If there was ever to be a
crrWrQht Field ond, Intelligence during Acodemy of Science)
krter. Choirmon of rhe World Wor ll ond ond Choirmon of lhe
l op-secretgovernmenl group i nvesr igat ing
Joinr €hiefs of sfoff, second Director of Medicol Advisoqy .. UFOs, this would have been it.
tfre US'shighest Cenirql Intelligence Boqrd of rhe Nromic l: i:::::t:

mifitory position. 1r946-471. Energy Commiftee. SECRET H IS TOR Y :: :,";':'::4

. ..:',:'l:a,:a:
.. ,- t..ttrtlt::i::
The only MJ-12 member who seemed out
": jj-'
of place was Dr Donald Menzel, a Harvard ''
U ni versi ty asrronorrer. H e had wr it t en
three anti -L' FO books and many paper s
debunking flr'ing saucers. All but Menzel
rr' ere knou rr l o hai e hi gh-l evel secur ir y
clearances,and because he was listed :as
part of MJ-12.researchersw ere i nclined t o
thi nk the docurnentw asbogus.
Dr Donsld lt{enzel, Moior Genercl Dr lloyd Berkener,
. Fl.orvard profussor of Roberf Montogue;' Exqpgtive Secretory l n A pri l 1986. how ever. Slanlon
ostrophysks, ond head of the Speciol of the Joint E Fri edman made an i mportant di scover y.
debunker of UFOs. Weopo4s Proiect Reseorch <rnd -,i A fter getti ng w ri tten permi ssi on f r om
Held o Top Secret qt the dftomic Development
Ultro <leorqnce ond Energy Commission Boord. Member of Menzel's wife and tlvo University officials,
wos serurity odviser ot Albuquerque, C|A-funded UFO he w asal l ow edaccessto Menzel ' spaper sat
to severol presidents. New Mexico. commitlee in l95Os.
':: the Harvard University Archive. From this niently, none of thern cor-rld be asked
information, he learned that Menzel had a directly about their role. Br-rttheir comings
3O-year association with the National and goings could be tracked from manr'
sources: telephone logs, correspondence.

y digging furrher, Friedman also minutes fiom meetir-rgs,and other papers
lsLUVCl C(l that
Lrldl Menzel
lvlct lzcl had
I ld(l d 'Top
a r up Secret
JCLI c L stored in the presidential libraries and the
Ultra' clearance with the CIA; did highly Library of Congress Manuscript Division.
,... ,, classified consulting The earliest reference to Majestic is in
**4# rt"'.maltr
.^,^.1 ^. m c ,r ., m1jo1
m - i ^-
. ffi ..*- """:'o '
the memo supposedly sent by Truman to
. -ffi US corporations; had his Secretaryof Defence,James Forrestal.
c lose connecti ons The memo - which names the President's
@ffmwgBg_try'nin111'"'ner science advisor Vannevar Bush - was dated

#cryffi'%ili:.{tuii 24 September ).947. This happens to be

the only day between May and December
on which Truman met with Bush. Forrestal
also met with Bush that day, a fact only dis-
XW 5o i r ' ccrnt' ri rhar covered by Stanton Friedman after many
--+. \lerzel rticl hare months c-rfresearch.
"ffi o-- r)e riece\sr'r'hacl-
<affi#, _6
g-s€-:-,**E/Lc-- -. y,u(r,,(r ,u ,,r DEAD C E R TA IN TIE S
This date is also significant in that it
;= E rrr\ urerr P r" \e(r was the duy after Nathan Twining,
€= Commanding General of the Air Materiel
a number of trips Command (AMC), sent a secret memo to
to New Mexico the Pentagon relating to 'flying discs'.In it,
durins 7947 and Twining states that, 'The phenomenon
1948 on govern- reported is somethins real and not vision-
ment. expenses. ary or fictitious.'
Could this have In addition. a flight 1og fiornJuly 1947
been related tcr shorr's th:rt Trrining had florvn to New
the 19.17cr-ashin \Ieri co on 7.]ul r 19-17.-\ccordi n g t o t he
Nerr \Icxico clis- briefrnq paper. this rvasthe sarnedav that,
cussed i n the 'a secret operatioll $-as begun to assure
Mf-12 clocuments? reco\rery of the wreckage... for scientific
l, This mogozine The other alleged members of the study.' Could this be just coincidence?
cover from 1958 group also checked out. All had worked on .foe Nickell, a document analyst and
depicts o UFO crosh top-secret projects and were members of writer for Sheptical En quirer magazine, thinks
in Mexico. The MJ-12 various research and development boards. it is coincidence. He is positive the docu-
popers refer lo such The last-surviving member of the commit- ments are hoaxes, claimins 'it is not what is
o crosh in El Indio, tee clied just three months be{bre .faime correct that matters nearly so much as what
Mexico, in I950. Shandera receivecl the film. so" conve- is wrong, as even a novice forger can be
ln 1995, reseorchers
from the Mutuol UFO
Network decided to
invesiigote this crosh.
lf they con prove it
hoppened, it rwould
go o long wqy to
oulhenticoting the
MJ-I2 popers.
As yet, little evidence
for the crqsh hos
been found.
:. a -: :ir:.: ir ! : . E. r r bl3Ut alr r r lt t o{ tulj.ei h ilo !A!1on
::::r, a ;r!-:.:1, at lu6 U8b! ! . a?o! tb ! !!r ?.-|@!..

:. d! 3.
-.._ rj;:-3g '.
:;f - : c r l! uns or ! but c oD . E ! s t . ! eflolt tr b.lq
i.r :.. : :-.:: : r ! ilp nc lac t ! t ec t o: I ' , o u . r ! r N!r.

r:::: r 1s c olr iuo! €l ty r lo lrlr.o sbt., lullorMn,

:::!c:! 11;d11qlc..

.' :. ..:::i:i!it,*ji:ifi..t:,:l:':: *s.',:'":;::,."

,,:'";i: :ll
l," :;'-.' --'r"I!.Hli:!:ii'.i.'Iri
-.',iri:d.i$'i*'i":"""i'.+;f'l{h"-i: i:i

*#WWfiffilffi:.; Bycon- outside the government before the docu-

centrating on the format and presentation ments were received. So, if they are fakes, it
of the documents, Nickell has highlighted a is likely they were written by someone with
number of 'serious problems'. inside knowledge. If they are genuine, they
One of the most obvious problems,
\ickell claims, is the Truman signature. By
studying known-to-be-authentic Truman
documents, he has shown that the signa- .:::;
ture on the MJ-i2 memo is positioned :::::l.
rlrongly on the page. Also, the sisnature
, _:i:
appears almost identical to that on an
ar-rthenticatedTruman memo found, ironi- .
cally,by Stanton Friedman. rj
EYE FOR DE T A IT ,,::.,i2
\ickell also points to the date formats, the :i::,:.,

n'pefaces,and the style of language used in ::'ll:

the documents. Again, by studying authen- ..::

ticated papers, he has shown that certain E

details are different in the MJ-l2 papers. :

Nickell's conclusion is that 'the many :o
a n o m alous and s u s p i c i o u s e l e me n ts
cl e te c t ed in t he M J -1 2 p a p e rs c l e a rl v
dernonstratethe documents are forseries.' prove that the sovelnrneut is rlillfirlll A Horry Trumon3 .,. '.''
But Friedman disagrees.He has spent ten cor.ering llp the inrtlt about UFOs. signolure on rhe MJ-12..r:
-,ears investigating Nickell's claims, and Resear-cherson borh sides of the MJ-12 memo (top) is olmost
.:ill reckons the papers are genuine. 'I fence can produce evidence to support identicol lo one on on
l .a re r €l lo hear a c o n v i n c i n g a rg u me l tt tireir arguments. But at the end of the day, outhenticoted memo fiom
=iainst MJ-l2,' Friedman states. 'Frankly, a hard-core of facts stand irresolute at the I October 1947 (boffom).
I :,rnsider this ensemble of documents the heart of the documents - the facts as Since no two signolures
:r-,,':tirnportant classifieddocuments ever they relate to the UFO crash ore ever the some, lhis is
.r-.-.ed to the public.' in New Mexico, inJuly 1947. proof, soy critics, thot the
L'enuine or fake, the MJ-12 documents MJ-I2 popers ore foke* ,.,r
.:e certainlv the most intriguing to have But tvould on otherwise ri.:,
.u:-faced in the history of UFOlogy. In his In Lhe next issue, LIFO FIIE inuestigatesthe coreful forger moke such
- legendarl tvash nertr Roswell, I{ew Mexico. Was on obvious mistoke?
,ist.: oler 30 details not known by anyone this thestart of thegreat UI-O couerup?
WnTn Egoln BRoKEoUT oF AFRIcAAND and flown to -\n.rsterdarn. From
Amsterdam. thev u-ere flown to
thev rrele transferred to the back
SAFEHAVENSFROM DEADLYDISEASES. of a tnrck and driven to Reston.


Bv the time the monkeys arrived at
,:THE flUrnS? the quarantine unit, two of them
a one-storey building owned bv rvere dead. This was nothing
Hazleton ResearchProducts, rvhich unusual. Animals often died frorn
specalizedin importing animals for the stressof travel. Soon, horrer"er.
medical research. the survivors started to look ill. Bv
The monkeys had had a long I November, another 27 hacl blecl
journey. From their home in the to death.
to the tropical rain forests of the Reston'sdirector. Dan Dalgarcl.
Unit - Philippines, they had been crated became worried. Tire nonker s
research institute on killer viruses. The Army team. wearing special
He had to know what he was protecti vesui ts,moved i n. Their
dealing with. task was to kill, autopsy anrl.;11;:ttttl1
. Four days later, as the i nci nerateevery monkey i n
corpses continued to building. They did so
mount, Dalgard had the desoite one scare when a
whole of the first group escaped from its cage - an,'a
of monkeys put down. monkey can bite clean throu$iiiir,rilll
Then, on 25 Novembeq the toughest protective suit. They
the new shipment started found Ebola in every specimenr.'":iri:l:r.
to die. Even more With Ebolaon the loose,the,,,.illlil';iljlli
worrying, two of the A rmy team seal edevery possible
caretakers reported sick opening to the outsid. **ld, .,l.,1:1,:l:tl:::,,:::
-crxaai with flu-like symptoms. They scoured the walls, floors.and:r,tlt,:r::r
On 27 November, the
CDC had an answer for
Dalgard. It seemed
impossible, but the monkeys
were infected with Ebola. NON-FATAL STRAIN
This killer diseasehad so It was thought that Restonwas no-w
far been restricted to Africa. safe. But on l2January t990;,,;::,t,t,l11t
The Reston monkevs came more Philippine monkeys c
from the Philippines. Moreover, it dor,r.nwith the deadly diseasC1.:tl
was thought that the deadlr, time thev closed the buildingl,iil*.,..,,;.1;
let the r-irr-rs
do its lvork. All ther:
8( 1e monkevs died and the building , ,,,1
was pronounced safe again.
o ...r,,,:..1t.
Our qbility to detecf, Meanrr,hile, the caretakers mada,,,,,

contoin, ond prevenf a complete recovery. ey a miraCle..,:,,,,,,
o e mer ging infectious thei r i mmune svstemshad
diseoses is in ieopordy successfully fought the Reston,,'i:.l,..;l.llltrl,iili
.9 Dr Dovid Sotcher,
Centersfor DiseoseConhol

f f iDU n
= 'filovirus'
3 was transmitted by
blood-to-blood contact onll'. l,g1
the new batch of monkeys were
\rere dying sometimes two in a day. infected with Ebola. And so,
Could it be simian haemorrhagic apparently, were the caretakers.
feler (SHF) ? If so, he was in
trouble. Although this disease AIR BOR NE D IS A S TE R
cannot be caught by humans, SHF Suddenly, the situation verged on
car-rdecimate monkey colonies. catastrophe. This new strain of
On 2 November, another Ebola was airborne and could be
shipment of monkeys arrived from spread by a sneeze- just like flu
the Philippines. Dalgard was a n d th e common col d.
careful to house this consignment The CDC acted swiftly. They
>eleral rooms away from the formed a crack biohazard team
infected batch. with the US Army Medical
On 13 \ovember, Dalgard did Research Institute of Infectious
an autopsv on one of the casualties Diseases.The sickly caretakers
and sent a spleen sample to the were isolated in hospital and the
Centers for DiseaseControl (CDC) monkey house was sealed off amid
in -\tlar-rta- the world's leading utmost secrecy.

str ain of t he dis e a s eT. h e C D C

re aliz edt hat , as rh e v i ru s h a d
mu tate d a ncl b ecom e air bor ne. it
ha d also
rr4u 4lDU b ecome nor r - lat al t o M ar r .

A s r he Res r oni n c i c l e rrtp ro v e d .

o ur abilir y t o dea l w i rh s u c h k i l l e r
vi r us esis lr ighr en i n g l l i n a d e q u a te .
They m ut ar e s o s w i frl yrh a r rh e re i s
n o c om m on lac t o r a t w h i c h
scient is t sc an r ar g e ra d rrrg .
Al t hough we r alk h o p e frrl l va b o trr
rfeatments for the Human
ilmmuno-deficiency Vims (HIV) -
itLevel Two on the virus danger
'scale - scientistsacknowledge the
impossibility of finding a cure for
:&e Level One common cold. So
*hui *rl possibly be done ro
:,gombatLevel For.rrviruses?

that Ebola and its sisterdiseases A The Centre for Applied Microbiology
have yet to learn. The sheer speed ond Reseorchis Britoin'smost highly
the at which they kill means thar secured loborotory. The deodly viruses
outbreaks tend to burn out before fhot scientisfs investigote here ore
developing into epidemics.This is kept sofely locked owoy in steel ond
why HfV has spread to all parts of ormoured Perspex cobinets.
th e w o r l d - i r takesa l ong ri me ro
d i e fro m i r. gi vi ng rhe vi rus more millions before ir r'as clefeated by
time to move on. the developmenr of :r laccine from
Another point in our favour is cowpox. Scienti,stshope rfrev rr'ill
that scientistshave successfully eventuallv find sinrilar raccines for
o \e rc o m e one Level Four vi rus. Ebola and it: relarire.
Variola, the smallpox virus, kilied
technologl r.narbe responsiblefor
inadr,ertentlr spreadir.rgthese
diseases.The re is no certainty that
'emer-gin9 r'irusesare a tlew
phenornenon. Thev may have
existed in lemote corners of the
rvorld for niillions of years,
creepir-rgout to destroy and
eradicate before retreating to their
3 host environment.
The only'emerging' factor is
o our willingnessto distribute rhem.
o As global demand for medical
I research heats up, increasir-rg
numbers of monkeys trappecl in
-o Africa and other parts of the rlorld
o are bringing'new' diseasesor_rtof
the jungle. In seeking cures for old
Fortunately, the Reston strain of
Ebola mutated in such a way as to
be harmless to humans. But what
if Ebola Zaire, which kills nine out
of ten infected people, evolved
into an airborne strain? If this
coincided with an increase in the
gestation period - so that the
human host took longer to die and

We stqnd on fhe brink
o f o globql cr isis in
o i n fe c tious diseqses...
{ n o c ountr y con qny
longer offord to ignore
their threot
rc Dr HiroshiNokoiimo,DirectorGenerolof
the World HeolthOrgonizotion
€ trtfi
diseases,we may well be exposing had more time to spread the virus
o u rselv est o new on e s . - then the death rate would be of
Until the monkeys from the staggering proportions.
Philippines, which died at Reston, And what if terrorisrs were [o
rvere diagnosed with Ebola, get hold of the diseases?The AUM
rro b o dyt hought t he v i ru s w a s Shinrikl.Lrcult, which unleashed
present in South EastAsia. nerve gas on the Tokyo subway
Scientistsare still guessing how the systemin March 1995,'n'asalso
diseasegot there from Africa. der,elopingbioloeical \reapons. \Ialziria. measles, meningitis,
That same montl-r.Larrv Har-r-is. a cancer - u'hich ma-valso be causr-d',,1,,:.1
IMPE NDI NG D IS AS T ER microbiologist ar-rdrnerrber of br-rintses - are far more ii..i,:,,t:,tt:,,trt,:a:.:
The most frightening aspect of .\n'an Nations, a rvhite probable killers. :,.::,,',a1.-,:,1,;,,:;:,,;,,,1,
these killer viruses,however,is supremacistsgrollp, rvasarrested
their ability to mutate. The Reston i n th e U S for i l l egal l yprocuri ng TIME IS SHORT ' i'.,i,r:,i:i':.::lii:lii:t::i

incident demonstrated graphically freeze-dried bacteria that cause Still, there is no room for ;1-;','
to scientiststhat if a Level Four bubonic plague. complacency.In a speechin
ri ru s bec om esair bo rn e , i t i s T h e ' w hat i f' scenari osare as N ovember 1994.N obel P ri ze
almost impossibleto control. varied as they are terrifying, but we w in ner JoshuaLederberg
are still more likely to warned of the increasing threat
die from almost from microscopic predators.
anything other than a 'We 'r e n o t a l o n e a t t h e t o p o [th e
Level Four virus. food chain,'Lederberg *yt. 'W. 1'1..1.1,;;
have been neglectful of the :,.,,,
{ Filipinovets exfroct microbes, and that is a recurrent
blood from o monkey theme that is coming back to,iil1:':.,;,;,;.;;;l
= lo lesl for possible haunr us.' ...ij.i::l.l:i],]i:]i].,::]i.
o Ebolo infection. Similor Scientists are now racing agai{i$f:i::,
monkeys, used for time to find cures for these ne14r,.i':.i.'r:i.:l::r
..t :,.r:r:l
'o medicol resecrch, hove killers, just as 'old' diseases,sucn,,.,11111,.1111
I been the innocent as tuberculosis and malaria, are':lil.'':.::i:l::li:'il;i
corriers of the diseose p r o v i n g r e s i s t a n t t o a n t i b i o t i cs.
T os it spreods from The world's fate rests with
Africo to lhe West. the ' di seasecow boys' .

ndrev- Green's ghostly investigations have

taken him from council houses to castles and
have included the Ror-al A]bert Hall and the
:::=:t:*: Old Bailer'. Since he decided to specialize in
this area in 1972, he has rrriften l5 books, edited
three more and given coundess lectures and courses.
His interest in ghosts began tn 1944, when he was
just 16, with an incident that nearly cost him his life.
While exploring a reputed haunted house in Ealing,
which had been the scene of 20 suicides and one
murder, he felt an uncontrollable urge to throw
himself from the top of a 20-metre high tower. Only
the timely presence of his father averted the tragedy.
A true English eccentric, who entertains himself and
his guests with dramatic voices and gestures, the
69-year-old has a coherent, rational point of vielv on
the paranormal. In his cosy country cottage, sited
next to a church graveyard in rural Sussex, he politeh-
runs tbrough his theories on spooks and spectres. But
whatever you do, don't call him a ghostbuster.

€ ffi t can't bust shosts.I don't er-enhnnt rherll
I like to think of myself as a rational inr estigator.
a psychological consultant, an ar,rthorand adulr rlrior-
- any one of those. The Teleg'aphnerr'spapercalled
me a 'spectreinspector' - I'm quite for.rdof that.
Whot first sporked your inferesl in ghosts? sawher and can be replayed by specially sensitive
In 194-1.I r-isiteda derelict house at 16 Montpelier people, such as clairvoyants. Ghosts are t'?ically seen for
Road. Ealirrg,London. I went there with my fatheq 25 to 35 secondsbecausethis is the length of time that a
',tho had requisitioned it for storing furniture from person's mind will be in turmoil after hearing bad news.
bor.r.rbedproperties. It was built in 1833 and between
then and 1934 there had been 20 suicidesand one ls fhis hoppening every time someone dies?
murder - all from the top of the 20-metre-high tower. It usually happens when people have died suddenly
and unexpectedly. Otherwise, battle siteswould be
Whot did you experience inside the house? flooded with ghosts. They're not, because death in
-\t the top of the tower I had a strong desire - I'm war is common. I have yet to find the ghost of
reluctant to say this - to walk out of the window into somebody who's died peacefully and expectedly.
rhe garden. I had the utter conviction that I wouldn't
hr-rrtmyself. I had one leg out when I felt a firm hand Con only people become ghosts then?
on the scruff of my neck and heard my father saying, It can be a domesticated animal, too. We get ghosts of
'rrhat the hell do you think you're doing?' As we left, dogs, cats, the occasional ghost of a dead horse.
I turned and took a photograph of the empty house. People say,'what about the ghost of a car or a bus?'
Sure, as these might be associatedwith accidents.
Whor wqs on rhe phofogroph?
\\'hen I went to pick up the prints, the chemist asked But whot obout noises ond things being
'rvho's the girl at the window?' I thought this can't be, moved qround?
I knew the place was empq/. I later discovered that a Poltergeist activity caused by psychokinetic energy
girl of 12 called Anne Hinchfield had fallen from the generated by fear or stress.Very different from
tower in 1886. I thought, hello, hello, hello, have I in ghostly images which are quite harmless.
fact taken a picture of a ghost? :

Whqr do others soy n ,**l *

Did you check this out? obout your theory? .l-"";";:;
I sent the print, the negative and the camera to Only one professor, in the ;;.}i
Kodak. I got a very nice letter back confirming it was 1960s.has taken me up on \\ ..,i i .\
completely genuine and there's no reason why it. He carried out lab +r !;! ,l."-.-'..c G*
*.j. )
I shouldn't take a photograph of something experiments u'ith no -,::+1b, ., -r.-. *,,i
,. o":,
I couldn't see- provided nvo criteria are met. response. I pointedro the ' 1' J-rr.*
lettersfrom Kodak and _-..-. ,,.,1,-
Which qre? "*o"r. _*:':;,,
llford and also to )y,- i {f i " . . Rc* c 6 . ,.
The camera should not have blooming on the lens evidence trom NASA fthe '$ q * '*.
*. , - . :J,: _ ,.
[a filter to prevent dazzle] and a special film - US space agencyJ. '.*. gr-Jl-* ;; :{* - "
*a1 .}.q
Yerichrome - has to be used. I'd fulfilled these They've taken satellite ,.3:^: * r eFi> €e,r$ r.
conditions, so the photographic emulsion could photos of aircraft. cars... n,':" ) ,-"* ) r 'i
register an image between 380 and 440 millimicrons thar weren't rhere when F:-*__-=* -r r
: _,.t'
of the infra-red portion of the light spectrum. the camera went click. I '
I thought this then is the formula for a ghost. I sent suggested he take his ,:::r:rrirtilxlty*!*llx.rxru,,,',.
the whole lot to Ilford to be checked. The same letter testequipmenttoaplacethatr-'i'rrr:rirriirrrr::r:':rrirr':r'rrrlir:rrr:rr:::i:'r:::::':
came back, except with a PS at the bottom, 'If you'd least was reputed to be haunted. A In 1956, Green
used Ilford film, it would have been a better image.' I've heard nothing since. investigoted o poltergeist
cose in Botlerseo. Shirley
How ore ghosts creqfed then? How often do you find Hitching, the | S-yeor-old
If a policeman came to the front door right now and genuine ghost cqses? girl ot the centre of the
said. 'Mr Green, terribly sorry, but we've just found Of the 10 to 12 casesI investigate cose, colled the
r our rtife murdered,' what comes into my mind? each year, about halfinvolve poltergeist Donqld.
phenomena w here there i s Al one poinl, Donold
An imoge of your wife? something to be seen. More often wrote o letter lo Green.
Eractlr I -\nd what's that made oP than not it's poltergeist activity- This enobled Green lo
lootstepsare heard. things move be listed for severol
Your imoginotion? about. I'm alwayssuspiciouswhen yeors in the Guinness
\o. lt's nade of electromagnetic energy of between 380 a pub calls up and sayswe've got a Book of Recordsas lhe
and *10 millimicrons of the infra-red portion of the ghost, because it might be for only holder of o leiter
liel.rtspectmm. This image is transferred to where I last publicity to boost takings. from o poltergeist.

Aport from fhe Albert Holl, whot ofher explain because it breaks all the rules. I come ro
fEmous ploces hove you investigoted? some sort of conclusion on whether it is a ghost. put
At the Old Bailey, all I was able to establishwas thar a report in and say,'it's up to you, what do yolr \\'aut
some members of the staff had heard inexplicable done?' Most people are happy to leave it at that.
noises and footsteps in an area near a former Roman Chosts don't do anything, as I keep underlining.
wall. Apparently, this was beside the walk that
criminals woulcl take after they'd been told they were Whqt fype of equipment do you use?
going to hang. I also investigated the Theatre Royal, The basic detecting equipment - common senseand
Drury Lane, where an actresshad seen an apparition and a senseof humour. Otherwise, I usuallr. take a
go through a dressing room. high-frequency recording unit; a digital rherrnomerer
and clock so that I can record temperature and time
How do you conduct your investigotions? together; a ruler, so that I can measure horr'distant
First I meet the rvitnesses.Assesswhat sort of people sounds are; a tape recorder and a camera - both of
they are. Find out about the incident they which sometimeswork and sornerirnesdon't. Things
experienced. I ask permission to speak to the family just pack up because of the build-np of static. So I
d o c t or , it l f eel s o fi t. F o r .# S also take a static electricity
example, there was tne lase or a & & .1 dispersal trnit.
womanin Birminsham
whosaid Sometimes,just the id,eaof a ghost
shehadbeenplagueo*fl con you prove lhot there
i.:1"" canfrigirien peopte.nit *Erl,
tiulu', ore shosts?
"'' nothing
rt;,,,t,...i";" to befnghtenedof
;:;,:iT :J,T'::*:ersonar
:"'* -n l
FF :::il:'",'i"#
accepted. Sorne people will say,'you must belier.e
A kind of non-religious exorcism? because I'r'e seen the ghost of Aunt Matilda at the
Exactly.\Arhatwasworse in this caseis that she had bottom of the garden.' \Ahy the hell should I?
gone through all the spiritual gambits. She'd had the
church and two separatespiritualistic groups - one of Whot qbout other explqnqtions, such qs thot
which said the place had been cursed by a six-foot-high ghosts ore the spirits of rhe deod?
negro, the other by a 12-year-oldmentally deficient Self deception! I've come to this conch,rsior-r
girl. They had tried their best to help, bur had ended going to mediums, attending seances,reading the
up making things worse becauseof a lack of common papers. I may be wrong. If I drop dead tomorrorr'. I
senseand knowledge of what makes people tick. may come back and haunt you, and the spiritualists
can then say,'he waswrong all along the line.' Br,rtI
But whqt if there is evidence of o ghost? believe, personally, that ghosts and apparitions are
I go where the incidents occurred. Sometimes, I forms of electromagnetic energ\. benveen 380 and
record static or a drop in temperature. At the Albert 440 millimicrons of the infra-red porrion of rhe
== =
Hall, there was a rise in temperature. which I can't light spectrum - and that is all. "= 5

+h=;' n{"e'L

- , r_t**


** **{e
"* *.. .
, . , , t i i i '. : .

. ...::.::

i i*=
" i *,:. '--
t-, ' '


l]I*4 r'-




?,-.1 z .t

... ,j






: ,t'

Certain aspectsof the shots - the high-

lightecl flags. ri.reLlinar \Iodules rvithout
craters, the canteras cross-hairdisappear-
i ng behi nd the i mage. the abnor m ally
distinct tlre tracks and footprints - are
di ffi crrl t to exp).ri rrauar compl er ely.Bur

perhaps the rrost irrtriguing question is

rvhether or not Man a<
clid land on the moon

In the next issue, INSIDE STORY inuestigate.s

i/AS might haaefaked its moon shotsand
theclaimsthat astronautsweretold,neuerkt reueal
what thq real$ saw on the moon.
,= t-.'



overed with gold and surmounted Israel around l000BC. With

with rwo golden-winged Cherubim no mention of the Ark and its
facing each other, the Ark of the w h ereabouts maci e i n the j

cffiS#4Covenant must have been an awe_ =

Sc r i ptures. i rs' l oss' i s re-
so me o bjec r r o behold . Bu t i r w a sw h a t l a y garded as one of the grearesr

i n si d e that m ade it r h e h o l i e s t- a n d mo s t mysteriesof the Bible. But not

powerful - of religious objects. to the Ethiopians. =
Th e A r k was built r o c o n l a i n th e ta b l e ts t
A Guordion of lhe
of stone on which God had inscribed the VIGILA N T GU A R D
::'ji]r:1rJ1i:|r;:',1;]!,1rll]ffi Ark Abbo Tesfo
Ten Commandments and, as such, was The Ethiopian Orthodox Church worships Miriom will prcfecr'
believed to wield supernatur*l powers. The a re l i c w hi ch they bel i eve ro be rhe rrue what he believes to
Bible describes how, blazing with fire and Ark. It rests in the Church of Saint Mary of be the holy relic
l i g h r. i r inf lic r ed c ance r-l i k eru m o u rs a n d Zion in the town of Axum. It is protected (inser) for the rest of
severeburns on the enemies of Israel, lev- b y a Guardi an - a C opti c pri esr w ho never his life. Only on his
elled mountains, stopped rivers and laid l e a v esi ts si de. and never al l ow sanyone to deofhbed will he
waste to whole cities. It was rhe biblical see it, not even the Emperors of Ethiopia. nominote his
equivalent of the atomic bomb. The country's other 20,000 churches keep successor.Coplic
But. berween 900 ancl 500gc, rhe Ark a re pl i ca of the A rk. i n a room know n a. Christion priests
va n i sh e df r om J er us al e m' sF i rs r T e m p l e - the Holy of Holies. Indeed, a church with_ hqve been guording
its purpose-built resting,,,,placesince King o u t one i s consi deredunconsecrated. the Ark in Axum for
Dar-id conquered Palestihe and created Best-sel l i ngaurhor Graham H ancock l,6OO yeors.
first heard of this lesend in 1983, while V The route of the Ark of the Covehont:
w r it ing a book a b o rrt Eth i o p i a . H e fo u n d Grohom Honcock's seqrch troced the Ark
the earliest account of the Ark coming to on its iourney - sponning 3,OOOkm ond
Ethiopia written in a Sacred book called 1,50O yeors - from Jerusolem, to
the Kpbra,\agasl.or Glory of Kings. Elephonrine (insef) ond finolly ro Erhiopio.
T he book t ells h o w th e Qu e e n o f Sh e b a
conceived King Solomon's child while on a
vi s it t oJ er us alem .On h e r re tu rn to A ru m .
'she gave birth to a son, named Menelik.
So m e 20 y ear s l a te r. M e n e l i k r i s i te d
Jerusalem and spent a year at his father's EGYPT
court. On his departuie, he stole the Ark
a n d c ar r ied it of f to A x u m. SAUDI


* g%:
\-esr wi



During his initial r.isit to Ethiopia in 0 lqke TqnE
1 9 83.Hanc oc k m a d e a p o i n t o f v i s i ri rrgth q
chapel in Axum; and asking the Guardian
about the legend of the Ark. E TH IOP IA
' lt was br oug h r ro Eth i o p i a . ro th i s
sa c r ed c it y . . . here i r h a s re m a i n c d e v e r the Ark by going to the primary source of
since,' the Guardian told Hancock. Could data - rhe B i bl e.
it possibly be:,true? S crol l i rrg rl rl orrgh a hi -tech computer-
i zed rel si orr of rhe Ol d Testamenr, he
SIF T I NG FACT FROM F IC T IO N fourrd more l han 200 rel erencesro the A rk
Aft er leav ing A x u m. H a n c o c k d e c i d e d ro up l o the rei gn oF S ol omon (970-93IB C ).
find out if the story had any substance.His It rvas not mentioned again until around
investigation, at first, did not'prove promis- 620sc. rrhen tw o passages seem ro conve) ) The Church of
ing. Professor Richard Pankhurst, a lead- that i t rvasno l onger i n rhe Fi rstTempl e. l n J
Soint Mory of Zion
i n g his t or ian on th e a re a . to l d H a n c o c k other tvords, there is' a period of slightly in Axum is reputed
th at while t he le g e rrd o l S o l o mo n a n d more than 300 years during which the relic fo house fhe originol
Sheba had an ancierlt pedigree in could have been spirited away. Ark of the €ovenoni,
Ethiopia, Sheba hadtalmost certainly come U si ng a pow erfrrl ' search-and-fi nd'tool Guording the relic it-.
from Arabia, not Ethiopia. . on the computer, Hancock lookecl for o responsibility not
More damning,was that Axum did not words, or sequences of words, that had roken lightly. ln the
exist when Menelik was alive. In fact, it was orrl y ever been merrti orredw i th rhe .\l ' k l98Os, o priest
not founded until at least the 3rd century earl i er i n the rext. H i s reasoni ng\^as thul refused the 'honour'
BC- about 700 y e a rsa fte r h i s d e a rh . any occurrencesof these phrasescl rrri rrg ond wos choined
Hancock put his quest on hold, but he the three centuries that the relic rvas not inside the church
re m ained inr r igu e d b y ' rh e l a c r rh a t rh e re menl i onecl w oul d consti tute porrerftrl . for mony monlhs
co uld be a gr ain o f tru rh i n th e l e g e n d . i ndi rect evi dencel or i ts w hereaborLr.s. before finolly
Sevenyears lateq he re3umed his seirch for By using this technique, Hancock rvas occepting his tosk.
i ri::-.",


A The Dome of the a b l e to e s ta b l i s hth a t th e Ark had pr.rbabl r \\here thi s other pl acc m ight
srrl ekeepi rrg.
Rock, in Jerusolem, remained in the First Temple until at least be, Dr H3ran refused to speculate. Br.rt a
stonds on the site 7 0 l BC . Ih i s me a n t th a t i t coul d onl l have fel' n-eeks after illterviehrins Haran,
where Solomon built g o n e mi s s i n gi n th e re l a li vel ybri ef 80-year Hancock for-urd a possible ansrver from
the First Jewish period between 701 qld 620Bc. German archeol ogi stserr ai a{i rrga sile on
Temple fo house fhe Elephantine, an island irr the Nile. They
Ark. The mosque is o AR K T AK ES F T IGH T tol d H ancock l hat rct ord. had been [ our r d
socred site of lslom, rrA4 rys h o rrl d i t h a v e g o ne mi ssi ng therr? during the excavatior-rindicirtins that a
so orcheologistsihove Further research suggested that the Ark
been unoble to study cor-ildhave been taken during the reign of
the ruins of the King Manasseh (687-6428C). He was a
Jewish Temple. notorious sinner who had turned his back
on Judaisfn.
In 1990, Dr Menahem
H a ra n , of Jerusal em' s
H e b re w U ni versi ty. tol d
H a rrc o ck l hal pri ests
loyal to the Judaic faith
could have taken the Ark
Jerusalem around
650BC. This was when
Manasseh installed a
pagan idol in the
Tempfe. Horrified at the
prospect of the Ark
being polluted by the
presenceof this idol, the
p ri e s tsmay have taken i t
i to s o me other pl ace,
t away from the idol, for
German archeologists.They said that after
standi ng for approxi matel y200 year s.r he
Temple had been destroyed in the 5th
century BC, as a result of a conflict with the
local Egrpriancornmuniry.At the sametime,
the Jews living on Elephantifrdj..-had
disappearecl. There \ras no evidence thii
they had been mas.acrecl They . seem ed
si mpl y to hare pi cked rrp rhei r belongings
and left. The archeologistshad no idea as
to where they might hale gone. bnt Hancock
had his own theories

In November 1989, Hancock had carried
out a.thorough reconnarssat.rce of Lake
Tana in Ethiopia, the source of the Blue
Nile. This"gigantic stretch of r.ater. 1.830
metres above sea-level,is dotted .,iith hun-
A Priests on the Jewish temple had been built around dreds of hard-to-reach islar-rcls- the ideal
islond of Tono 6508C by priests fleeing from Manasseh. hiding places,perhaps,for the fleein,qJerrs
Kirkos soy their At th a t ti me , th i s w as l he onl y Jew i sh of Elephantine? :'
church is builr on rhe Temple in the world outsideJerusalem.The On the i sl ands, H ancock er plor ed
spof where the Ark Bible statesthat the Temple inJerusalem was monasteriesthat have tieen there since the
wos once kepf. built to serveexclusivelyas 'an houseof rest
They believe their
for the Ark of the Covenant'. Was it not
possible that the temple oir Elephantine had
rs ;:.,----

socrificed onimols in
After he tokes ip his post,
also been designed for that same purpose?
front of $e Ark. The next clue was also provided by rhe
theqchosen monk hos no life
outside fhe Ark. He exists to
serve if... fo be.before it
Fri estot C hurch of S oi nt Mory 6f 113 ' !.y .-r.


time ctf Ethiopia's conr ersi,-rn to

Christianity in engOO. On c,ne of the
reniotest of these islands. Tana Kirkos. he
was told an unusual varianr of rire familiar
legend of how the Ark carre ro Elhiopia.
The monks at Tana Kirkos r:'isisredthat
when the sacred relic hacl arrived in
Ethiopia, it had not been taken srraight to
E Axum, as most of the Ethiopian ciergl,said,
but had been bror-rghtfirst to their islbnd.
C oul d i t be possi bl ei h.rr. to)l o r t ing t he

desl ructi on oI rhe renrpl eorr E l ephanr inb,

; the Jewish migrants fled south. carrying
the precious relic rlith tlremj If they fol-
lowed the Nile river svsrem through the
deserts.of the Sr-rdar-r ancl then into the
highlands of Ethiopia. thev rvould have
ended up ar Lake Tana.
' The H oh .V k srared here o n Tana
Kirkos for 800 r'ears,' one monk told
Hancock. Later, King Ezana, who helped

convert Ethiopia to Christianity in the 4th The Cr,rardian'slast

cehtur\, AD, took the Ark to Axum an{ n-ords to him rvere: o
placed it in the church in that city. 'It perfonns miracles
The f inal piec e of th e j i g s a w p u z z l es l o t- a n cl i t i s i n i tsel f... a
te d i n t o plac e. I l' K in g E z a n a h a d b ro u g h t miracle. It is a mira-
the Ark from Tana Kirkos to Axum in cle macle real. .\rd
around AD 300, and.if the Ark had rested at thar is a1lI u'ill sar'.'
Ta n a K ir k os f or 80 0 y e a rs p ri o th a t *1i!. The rrert everri rrg.
date, then it must have arrived. on the Hancock u,itnesied
l Lak e T ar r ac l rrri n gth e 5 th c e n tu ry
i sl a n c in the Timkat ceremonv. The priests carried a A The Ti{nkot
BC .This was t he s an l e ti m e th e T e mp l e o n bulky rectangular chest, draped in thick ceremony in Aium is
El e p hant inehad be e rrd e s tro y e d . blue cloth, ernbroidered r'r,'iththe emblem s/mbolic of the Ark's
of a dove. Bur the chest \\,asnot covBred in originol procession
RETURN TO AXUM ,gold and there were no cherubim on top. into Erhiopio, os

InJanuary 1991,armed rvith his new-found l t di d not l ook l i ke the .\ k as descri bedi n depicred in mony
fa cts .Hanc oc k r et u rn e d to .\x rrm. A t th i s theBible. pcintings (inset).
ti me of y ear . t he Ark i s s rrp p o s e d l y Throughout the procession, Hancock Locols ore fiercely
removed from the Holy of Holies, to be looked out for Gebra Mikail, the Guardian proud of their Ark
carried in a religious procesS-ionduring of the Ark. Not for a single moment during trodition. In 1988, the
the annual ceremony of Timkat. the rw o-davceremon\ di d rhe Guardi an Ethiopian government
'Ihe G uar dr an Ha n c o c k h a d m e t o n h i s leave the chapel.\4-hatrventon outside was oftempted lo remove
first visit had long since clied. The current of no interest to him. He remained by the the Ark from Axuni,
incumbent was called Gebrafuikail - a tall. Holy of Holies inside the chapel, fulfilling but the lown rose up
grey-haired.heavily-builtman, perhaps 60 the sacredtrust bes(ow edon hi m. ogoinsr the ormy ond'\'',.:
years old. with deep-sel eyes clouded by siopped them.
cararacts. Hancock told Cebra'Mikail that TH E GTU E S T E N D S
he had come a long way in the hope of see- Hancock' squest had taken ei ght yearsand
i n e the A r k f or him s e l f. had come full circle, starting and finishing
'Then I regret that you have wasted y,our in the ancient city of Axum. Was this tlie
j o u rney . ' t he G ua rd i a n to l d H a n c o c k . real Ark of the Covenant under the watch-
'b e caus ey ou will no I s e ei t.' ful gaze of the Guardian in the Holy of
Despite Hancock's fr-mtherpersistence, Holies? Or, does it still lie hidden,
he was unable to get m6re informafion. waiting to be discovered elsewhere?

! 't^r
'..-'1 -:
1" o

.i ., i


CaruA BoDYB U R S T n n a fieezing day,earlv in feet clotl'red in socks. At the other

I I Januarv 1980,John H erl rer. end lal a blackened skull. Such
INTO FI.AMESA N D V o scenes-of-crime officer' \rere the remains of 73-year-old
r fiom the Crin.rinal H e n r l 'T h o m a s .
B URN TO A S H lnvestisation Department (CID) .
was called to investigatea 'death FIERY ENIGMA
lrrlTHlNrwruurrs? by burnine' at Ebbw Vale in Apart from two-thirds of the
Gwent, Wales. On entering the wooden-framed armchair in l.hich
A N EX. POT I C E M A N Iounge of the house, he u'as Thomas had been sitting, norhing
amazed to find that the room was else in the room had burned. The
radiating considerable heat and orange glow was a result of light
TRA I NI NG P R O V I D E S the atmosphere was very humid. from the naked electric bulb ar-rd
tl. There was a strange unearthly the daylight, both being filtered
PROOFTHAT IT CAN quality to the light, which was through a sticky deposit of
reddish-orange in colour. condensed,vaporized flesh rvhich
On the carpet was a mass of clung to everything in the room.
brilliant white ashes,at one end Despite being saturated l'ith
of which lay a pair of human male melted fat, the mat and underlying
room was quickly exhausted in the fireplace , why dicl he then sit :
initial {lare-up. Also, the door to dor,r,nin his armchair instead:o.f '
the room was sealecl by a draueht tryi ng to douse the fl amesi n t he
exch.rder, ancl there \{as not nearbr ki tchen?Il he di d not f all
enotrgh ox\'{rerr to support furthe r i rrto thc fi re, w here di d the fir e
crornbustion. So u'hv clid the bodv srarri A nd w hl w as nothi ng else in
c.rnti[ue bLrrning to zrrr-hite lhe room burned when Henry
porrclerr' :rsl-r?
The forensic scientist thcorized
that Thornas, a non-smoker', hacl
33 'LG
fallen head {irst into the open coal The totol number of
f ir e. s et t ir r g h i s h c a d a l i s h t . H c cosesof SHCin rhe UK
then supposedly lifted himself might be in the region of
from the fire without disturbing
2OOpeople per yeor
the burning coals, the Iire irons or
John H eymer, former C ID offi c er
the pilc of chopped sticks in the
hearth. He sat back in the
( This scches-of-crime armchair, strctched out his less in
by CID officer John Heymer, front of the television set and then Thomas was reduced to ashes?
=a shows lhe extent of Henry burned to cleath. S H C can provi de answ ersto a ll
\; " 'e* r " - '* '!

Thomos' burning. Evidenib',*"''' these qr.restions, but is there uoy,,,'

of s pon l o n e o u s h u m o n
o THE OFFICIAT VERDICT hard evidence for this flaming ,rr:,
combustion (SH€) rwos rrirhheld _.q
o The coroner, Cokrncl Iicnneth phenomenon? "..:.:a..,:,:a
ot the inquest, snd it look six Treasure,accepteclthis tl-reorvand One of the strongest argumeRts '
yeors for the story to moke gave the causeof cleathirsbrrrning. for the existence of SHC is the fact
the locol newspdpet the s Heymer was shockcclat the vcrdict. l hal nol even cremal ori a can
South Wales Argus (inset). E With his backgrounclin folensics. reduce corpses completely to
he coulcl see no basisfor truth ilr ashes.The burncd bones res ulr ing
the pathologist'srepolt. ,\{tcr. fi'om cremation must be ground
rveighing r.rpthe evidencc. Hernrcr' up in a machine known as a
was convinced he lvasvierling the cremulator. This produc"r ,h.
.. ,.,,:_,,.,.
aftermath of SpontaneotrsHrrnuur ' rrshes'rvhi
. chare grey i n col our ,
Combustion (SHC). \{'hen he nr)t \vhi l e.The ashesof H enr y
informed his superiors,thel Thomas were pule white.
dismissedhis suggestion,claimine irrdit atirg a heat far hotter than
the death was straightforwar-d. rl re 900' C of a crematori um.
But if Thomas fell into the The remains of Thomas are

carpet beneath the body n''ere .' :lirrrl'.:,.r:r

ch a rr ed onlr t o a f ervc e rrl i m e l l e s
i,I i
beyond the ashes.How could t- ;l
a body, which contains around
45 litres of wateq be reduced t<-r 3
asheswhen highly flammable
material such as the carpet and
couch were relatively untouched?
A forensic scientistat the scene
confirmed that the armchair had
burned only while in contact with
the body. \{rhen the chair collapsecl
- depositing the flaming bocly on
the floor - it stopped burninp;. The
surroundins furnishings failed to
burn because the oxy5;enin the
{ Published for ihe first
fime in 1995, in Lorry
Arnofd's book Abloze,
=o rhis photogroph shows
;i 1
o fhe remoins of Helen
s Conwoy, o 5l-yeor-old

-o grondmother from
Pennsytvonio. Uke mosf

ofher coses of SHC,fhe

fire wos confined fo her

o body ond did not offect

the extremities - in this
-. 9
cose, the legs. When o
; body burns in normql
.u circumstonces(inset),
o lhe extremities ore
usuolly lhe first fo burn
to dork osh.

is a good source of oxr-gen.

then the victim does not elen
5&year-oldhealthy man - who. have to be obese. burning process requires 24 to 48
ironically,was a rerired fireman - hours to effect results similar to
d, to death in his New York UP IN SMOKE the Henry Thomas case.'
all,that remained of him A u'ell-documented caseof the Heymer is one of the world's
bones and 2 kg ofash. wick effect was investigated by leading SHC researchers.Another
:itany of these cases, ProfessorGee in 1965, at Leeds important figure is Larrv Arnold,
g else in the house had been University Hospital. It concerned head of ParaScienceInteruational.
affected- even a box of matches an 85-year-oldwoman who
close to the body had nor ignited. sustained a stroke or heart attack
To reduce a body to ash so and fell into a roaring coal fire.
l,,completely,a fire would need a She was not discovered for some
;,-fe:l4pecture of around 2,500'C. hours. But, while she had burned
q:ilveragehouse fire, which can according to the wick effect, her
ol a whole building, reaches charred remains showed different
y about 200"C. signs to those of alleged SHC.
'Sceptics make the mistake of
HE WICK EFFECT insisting all instances of SHC are
e s c ient if icc o mmu n i rl th i n k s i r casesof the wick effect,' states
p-lain SHC with the 'wick John Heymer. 'I have found that
,theory. This statesthat if a there are major differences. In
dy is suitablyobese and clorhed most wick-effect cases,the victims
ient layers of flammable are dead before coming into
ing. t hen t h e b u rn i n g c l o rh e s contact with an obvious source of
iact as an external wick and the ignition. Clothes are flammable in
will b.,r., like a candle. lt the their own right and burn to ash
i!.in continuing contact with even on portions of the body that
i!!ent$ hot flame, and rhere have not burned. Also. the
a paranormal research group in
the US. Both men have
independently amassedan
invaluable body of evidence that
points firmly away from the rvick
effect as an explanation for SHC.
This evidence proves that, in
ce rl ain c as est,he f ir e o ri g i n a te s
inside the body, and the
temperaturesare high enough to
reduce bone to ashes- fivo factors
not explainecl by the wick effect.

Har,ing searched for a caltse ihrti
fits rvith all the knoiln eridence.
Hevmer is nor'v convinced tl-rat
SHC results from the lelciir-,n of
hydrosen and orr-gen i'irl'rin the
bodv at a ce llr.rlarler c 1. Tr c por r ' er
-^ the
"" r":"
islrt 11
" 16 re
: ,t l- , , \ \ < ( t l
- 11
mixture can be :ce r-:r1-.tlc Space
Shuttle rockets. rih:.:r '-rrc lhe trlo even 'phosphinic farts' caused by house but, as Staceylooked inside;
elements :rs a tle l i.,r ' l: i: r c hing. ignited gut methane. An argument he came acrossthe burning body,
S o, the re is tto ci,,itir : : l: . . . : ihe by the cynics, however, is that no of a tramp, known locally as Bailey,'
hydrogen-oslgen l-era--i,il ciilr matter what the cause, no-one has
produce heat strfficlcri t, ' r-echlce witnessed SHC from start to finish TH E FIR E W ITH IN
human bo ne s to \'lr: ' c . , . : ' . - a n d s p e al i ns to vi cti msi s ' There w asa sl i t about four i n ches
A cc ord ing to -\,t. \ . ' , ; difficult for obvious reasons. long in the abdomen,' Stacey '."'
magazine of 4 \Iav l!r!,,1. Helrlrer There are, howeveq many remembers.' The fl ame w as
'builds the best possiblc ce.e tirr people who have witnessed fires coming through there at force;..:.:,,;:1:
the phenomenon . \'er :he rc .rr-e that defy explanation. One such like a blow lamp.' To douse th,
many other theor-ies f c,r-SHC - witness is firemanJack Stacey,who fierce flame, Stacey
most of which Hevner his i(r.rncl was called to a fire in a derelict feeding the firehose into the:;r,;r
no evidence for - incltrcilnl ball house in London. There was no tramp's body, extinguishin$ t
lightning, magnetic force.. ancl evidence of fire damase to the fi re. he cl ai i ts source.


'Ther e is no dou b t w h a ts o e v e th r at
the f ir e began in s i d e th a t b o d y ,'

tial cause of the fire was

ry..unu"There wasno gasor
eiiq in the building, and no
were found. Even if thc
ad dropped a lit cigarette
im s elf ,exp e ri m e n tsh a v e
t his woul d b e i n s u ffi c i e n tto
such a destructive flanre.
I n 1982,in E d mo n to n . L o n d o n . wooden chair in the kitchen of her A The tromp, Boiley, hod sunk his
Jeannie Saffin. a 62-year-old home. Her father, who was seated teeth inlo the mohogony stoircose,
rent allydis able dw o ma n . b u rs r at a nearby table, became aware of suggesting he wos olive ot the
flames while sitting on a a fl a s h of l i ght. On turni ng ro stqrl of SHC. Firemen needed o
,::: Jeannie, he saw that she was crowbqr to prise oport his iows.
enveloped in flames, mairrly
around her face and hands. misadventure or open lerdict.'
Jeannie did not cry out or move. \Arhen he was later a-skedabout this,
Her father pulled her over to the Burton said that'misadrentur-e \\'as
sink and called to his son-in-law, the same as'accidental ciearl'r'and
who ran into the kitchen to see that he had no intentiorr ,rf
discussing it further. But hor' can a

33 death bejudged
the cause is not krroir n?
accidental rihen

The flomes- were coming Did the authorities suspecr the

from her moufh like o cause of death to be SHC.- Thir

drogon ond rhey were could explain why r-ro exhatrstir.e

moking q rooring noise enquiries were made. \\hen

commenting on the lack oi forensic
D o n o l d C o r r o l l ,S H C w i t n e s s
enquiries, Jeannie's sister. F athleer-r
u\ Carroll, said, 'For all ther klorr. rve
,, could have done her in oursehes.'
Jeannie standing with flames
roaring from her face and THE SHC COVER-UP
abdomen. They dowsed the flames, It is strange that the auth, rrities
butJeannie died later in hospital. should accept the storie: of nr'o
The inquest intoJeannie's death men who say that a ment:rllr'
was adjourned so that the police disabled woman burst into flames
could ascertain how she caught and died from her btrnrs.
fire. The constable detailed to 'If SHC does not c-rccur.and no
make the enquiries found no cause source of ignitior.r can be found,'
and reported to that effect. He told Heymer explainr. 'then I, as an
Jeannie's relatives that he believed ex-police officer. find it very odd
her to be a victim of SHC. Jeannie's that the lrlen \\ere1r t questioned at
brother-in-law, Donald Carroll, gave great lencth to ensllre that they
evidence at the inquest, stating that h a d r r 't . c t I r e r a l i g h t . I t s e e m s to
she had died as a result of SHC. be a le rr eas\'\rav in which to
commit murcler - burn a person to
D E N Y IN G TH E FA C TS death then srlear they combusted
The verdict ofJeannie's inquest spontaneollslr, and the authorities
was misadventure. To the family, rrill insist, n-ithout any evidence,
the coroneq DrJ. Burton, said, that the burning was accidental.'
= 'I sympathize with you but I cannot Despite this, the case ofJeannie
put down SHC because there is no Saffin, tike all others of
: such thing. I will have to put down

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