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Impinging Hot Jet

Tuan Nguyen, Group 7, 4/15/2015


Team members: Henry Nguyen, Mohammad Marzouk
Heat transfer describes the exchanging of thermal energy. The energy will transfer until
the system reach equilibrium from high temperature region to low temperature one.
However, the movement of energy does not always take place at the steady state situation, so
the study of heat transfer is very important in the field of engineering. The experiment
would deal with one type of transferring energy: forced convection. Forced convection would
be examined in form of a complex problem, impinging jet. The hot jet would be impinged to
an aluminum surface, which was equipped with heat flux and temperature sensors for
precise measurement. The impinging hot jet experiment would provide an insight into
temperate and heat transfer measurement. The effects of distance from jet centerline on
temperature and heat flux contribution would be examined. Theoretically, the higher
distance from the jet centerline was, the lower rate transfer of heat occurred.

Nomenclature

T
K
q
q
V(t)
Vi

= Confidence Interval
= Standard Deviation
= Temperature, K
= Coefficient of Thermal Conductivity
= Heat Transfer Rate
= Heat Flux
= Analog Signal
= Digital Signal

I. Introduction
Thermocouples are sensors which measure temperature. The experiment used thermocouples type K, which
temperature range from -200 to -1250 oC [4]. A collection of thermocouples in series is called thermopile [2]. One
end of thermocouple attached to the upper surface (hot) and the other attached to lower surface (cold) for signal
output. When heat was applied, the temperature gradient would be established. The thermocouples junctions, which
giving a dual thermopile in each sensor would measure the magnitude of gradient and provide a calibrated potential
difference (voltage) output.
Heat transfer is the exchange of thermal energy between physical systems. Heat flow from high to low
temperature region. Three fundamental modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation.
Conduction is a heat transfer requiring mass, but not involving mass transfer [2]. The process occurs through
solid or stationary fluid by transmitting heat energy through collisions between neighboring particles. Conduction is
governed by Fouriers law:
q = -kT
(1)
where k is the coefficient of thermal conductivity and T is the gradient of temperature. The negative sign
indicated heat transfer from high to low temperature region.
Convection is heat transfer by mass motion of a moving fluid such as air or water. Convection is governed by
Newtons Law of Colling:
q = h(Ts T)
(2)
where h is the convection heat transfer coefficient, T s is surface temperature and T is freestream fluid
temperature.
There are two types of convection: natural convection and forced convection. Natural convection is a cooling
process which the buoyance of the fluid above a heated surface carries heat away [2]. Forced convection is
generated by external sources such as fan, jet, blowing, etc. This experiment was performed with forced convection
in the form of a hot jet impinging an aluminum surface.
1

Radiation does not require mass for transferring heat. Radiation mode uses electromagnetic wave emitted by an
object for exchanging heat energy. This mode is governed by Stephan-Boltzmann law:
(3)
Eb = Ts4
where Eb is emissive power of an ideal surface, is the Stephan-Boltzmann constant, = 5.67x10-8 W/(m2K).
In the experiment, the steady state would be also determined. Steady state was the dynamic equilibrium when the
system and the surrounding reach the same temperature. In nature, the equilibrium is barely occurs due to the loss of
heat to the environment. Therefore, the temperature of the system always tends to reach the equilibrium situation.

II.

Experimental Setup and Procedure

The experiment concerns a low speed hot jet impinging on an aluminum surface, which equipped with
Omega HFS-4 sensors for precise measurement of heat transfer through the material. A total of five
temperature and heat flux sensors would be used for this experiment. The sensor consisted of 40 type K
thermocouple junction wired in series, which was called thermopile. Each sensor had a dual thermopile system
formed by junctions minor attached on the bottom surface. Two Copper output leads attached to the junctions,
one to the first junction on the upper surface and one to the last junction on the lower surface, as shown in
Figure 1. Multiple junctions would enhance the sensor output because the sensor output and the sensitivity
were directly proportional.

Figure 1. Heat Flux Sensor Construction [2]


The heat flux sensors are numbered one to five from left to right. Heat was generated by a Craftsman heat gun,
which was set perpendicular above the sensor three. Five thermocouples and heat-flux were fixed in the test model
and connected to the FieldPoint hardware, which was connected to PC for data acquisition. The FieldPoint hardware
consists of thermocouple input, terminal base and Network Interface. Thermocouple input would take input from
thermocouple while terminal base take input from heat flux sensors. Those signals would be sent to Network
Interface, which would send the signal to Data Acquisition system (DAQ).

BK Precision
Power Supply

V(t)

Craftsman Heat
Gun

V(t)

Thermocouples and
Heat Flux Sensors

V(t)

FieldPoint
Hardware
V(t)

Data Files

Vi

National Instruments
LabVIEW

Figure 2. Data Flow Diagram


2

Vi

PC

The heat gun was running in 20-30 minutes at 1000ms control rate until the system reached steady state. Once
the system reached steady state, the control rate was set down to 250ms for collecting approximately 1000
measurements. The distance of each sensor from jet centerline at sensor 3 was given in Table 1. The temperature and
heat flux contribution would be acquired by five sensors. The effects of distance on heat transfer would be
determined from the collected data.
Sensor
Distance from Jet
Centerline (mm)

1
146.3

Table 1. Distance of Sensors from Jet Centerline


2
3
48.77
0

4
97.54

5
182.37

III. Experimental Results and Discussion


The criteria used to determine the steady state was when the temperature of each sensor did not change much in
amount of time. In the experiment, the surface at sensor three received heat from the heat gun by convection mode,
while others was heated by conduction mode. Therefore, the heat was transfer from the surface at sensor three to
others until equilibrium was reached. However, the equilibrium was barely achieved due to the loss of temperature
to environment, so the system was in dynamic equilibrium situation, which called steady state [1]. In this
experiment, the temperature at steady state was approximately 85.2oC.
Table 2. Mean and Standard Deviation of Temperature and Heat Flux Sensor
Distance from Jet
Temperature, K
Heat Flux, W/m2
Centerline, mm
Mean
Standard Deviation
Mean
Standard Deviation
0
358.241 0.011
0.177
3688.886 1.205
19.457
48.77
77.469 0.017
0.267
1162.418 1.368
22.086
97.54
67.113 0.014
0.225
763.046 1.690
27.275
146.3
57.315 0.008
0.133
110.412 1.084
17.503
182.37
54.732 0.008
0.123
90.228 1.969
31.777
Figure 3 graphed the temperature mean at each region versus its distance from jet centerline. The centerline
crossed the sensor three, so the distance from sensor three to centerline was zero. Hence, the temperature at sensor
three would be highest. The heat will transfer from the region of high temperature to low temperature, so the
temperature was expected to decrease at the further distance. The Figure 3 showed the temperature mean decreased
when the distance from centerline increased.
400
350
300
250

Temperature Mean, K 200


150
100
50
0

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Distance from Jet Centerline, mm


Figure 3. Temperature Distribution
3

Figure 4 graphed the heat flux mean at each region versus its distance from jet centerline. The plot showed the
heat flux decreased when the region was further from the centerline. The reason was when the distance was further,
the area would be greater. Hence, the heat transfer would be less because heat transfer and area were inversely
proportional. Heat flux was the heat transfer per unit area, so the increasing of the distance from the heat source
(increasing area) would lead to decrease heat flux.
4000
3500
3000
2500

Heat Flux Mean, W/m2 2000


1500
1000
500
0

20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Distance from Jet Centerline, mm


Figure 4. Heat Flux Distribution
The temperature and heat flux are plotted assuming radial symmetry [2]. This is a not a good assumption because
temperature distribution not only depends on distance from the heat source but also thermal boundary layer. In
forced convection, thermal boundary layer is a function of the linear distance from the edge of the plate. There is no
case of radial symmetry showing thermal boundary layer because the radial symmetry assumption always shows
plot of one side only.
The effect of moving the heat gun closer to the metal surface was making the magnitude of temperature and heat
flux greater. The temperature and heat flux of a surface would be greater if the surface was put closer to the heat
source. Therefore, the shape of temperature and heat flux distribution would be also shifted upward (higher) due to
the increasing of heat transfer. In contrast, the magnitude of temperature and heat flux would be decreased if moving
the heat gun far away from the metal surface. Hence, the shape of plots would be sifted downward (shorter).
Table 3. Thermal Conductivity of Some Common Materials [3]
Material
Thermal Conductivity, k (W/mK)
Aluminum
205
Copper
401
Stainless Steel
16
Teflon
0.25
The equation (1) shows the transfer of heat through a solid or stationary was directly proportional to the
coefficient of thermal conductivity (k). Therefore, the material with higher coefficient of thermal conductivity would
have greater temperature and heat flux distribution. According to Table 3, the temperature and heat flux distribution
would be almost zero if the aluminum sheet was replaced with a Teflon sheet. In addition, Copper would give higher
temperature and heat flux distribution than Aluminum while stainless steel would have less temperature and heat
flux distribution than Aluminum.

IV. Conclusions
Impinging jet provides an effective and flexible way to transfer energy or mass in industrial application. The
transfer of heat is conducted via three modes: convection, conduction and radiation. The experiment performed the
forced convection by impinging hot jet from a heat gun to a flat surface of aluminum. The experiment also tested the
effect of distance from jet centerline upon temperature and heat flux distribution. The Table 1 shows the magnitude
of temperature and heat flux would decrease if the distance from the centerline was increased. Therefore, the transfer
of heat was inversely proportional to the distance of surface from the heat source.

References
[1] "Steady State Mass Energy." Engineersedge. Engineersedge, LLC, n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2015..
[2] Impinging Hot Jet, Mechanical Methods and Measurements Laboratory Manual, Department of Mechanical
and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, 2014.
[3] "Thermal Conductivity of Some Common Materials and Gases."Engineeringtoolbox. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Apr.
2015.
[4] Introduction to LabVIEW, Mechanical Methods and Measurements Laboratory Manual, Department of
Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, 2014.

Appendix

Figure 3. VI Screen Shot

Time
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q1(W/
q2(W/
q3(W/
q4(W/
q5(W/
T1(C)
T2(C)
T3(C)
T4(C)
T5(C)
m2)
m2)
m2)
m2)
m2)
57.22 77.57 84.95 66.65 54.48 132.13 1189.1 3664.4 756.75 84.084
179
977
72
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23
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17
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179
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362
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96
2
57.22 77.54 84.95 66.65 54.51 120.12 1177.1 3664.4 744.74 84.084
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864
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369
362
02
78
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55
17
57.22 77.54 84.95 66.65 54.51 132.13 1189.1 3688.4 768.76 84.084
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57.22 77.54 84.95 66.65 54.51 132.13 1165.1 3688.4 756.75 84.084
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77.51
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84.95
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66.71
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54.54
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132.13
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120.12
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3676.4
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768.76
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96.096
2
84.084
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108.10
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