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Location in Southeast Asia, surrounded by the South China Sea, Celebes
Sea, Philippine Sea, and the Sulu Sea.
Composed of 7,107 islands; 3 major islands: Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao
Negritos earliest known settlers. Successive foreign invasions by the
Chinese, Arabian, Indian Spanish, American, and Japanese.
Filipino culture - Filipino blend from mixture of different languages,
traditions and religions has resulted in identity crisis.
Weather tropical; hot and dry during summer months,
Wet and humid during monsoon season July to December
Population 87,857473 (2006)
Body built and structure short to medium built; small thoracic capacity,
eyes set in almond shaped eyelids, mildly flared nostrils, slightly low to flat
nose bridges.
Skin color of Malay stock (brown complexion) light to fair complexion
resulting from intermarriage with foreigners
Hair black, very curly or kinky (Negritos); straight
Enzymatic and genetic variations
o Blood type B 40%; low incidence of Rh-negative factor
o As with other Asians, Filipinos have lower tolerance for alcohol but are
more sensitive to its adverse effects.
o lactose intolerance
Nutritional variations
o Food more than nourishment for the body; it is a fundamental form of
o Rice staple food; although known to be carnivores, fish and seafood
forms bulk of Filipino diet.
o Regional cooking variations; in Manila a variety of food preparations
Pilipino, Chinese, Spanish, Japanese. fast-food catching on
o Traditional 3 meals a day with merienda
o Milk almost absent in Filipino diet
o Malnutrition especially among the poor and less educated; one of the
10 leading cause of infant mortality
Strong family attachment =nuclear +extended family
Traditionally patriarchal, but now egalitarian - tendency is for husband and
wife to share in decision making, disciplining and finances
Filipino women enjoy better status in society than their Asian counterpart,
e.g. women working outside the home, decision-making and social and
political movers, more women now occupy managerial or administrative
positions as CEOs, COOs
Values orientation is characterized by a deep sense of personal indebtedness
(utang na loob) and loyalty to kin which carries an obligation to repay or
perform service to another; hospitality, community togetherness (bayanihan).
Predominantly Christians majority of which are Catholics (83%), 9%
Protestant, 5% Muslim, and 3% Buddhist and other religions.
Novenas and prayers are often said on behalf of sick persons
Rosaries, medals, scapulars and talismans are often worn by the sick

Source of strength found in religion - intimate relationship with God, The

expression Bahala na (it is up to God) points to a higher power to take care of
the rest when almost everything fails.
Tagalog national language;
87 languages and 111 dialects
Third largest English speaking country following US and UK.
Silence may imply yes, no or dont know May also convey emotional
expressions of disgust, anger, resentment.
Eye contact eyes may convey many messages as shown by eye rolling up
and down, squinting, eyes popping to show surprise
Telecommunication literate especially in Manila. Availability of newspapers,
local and foreign publications, TV, landline and mobile phones. Philippines
has been dubbed the Texting capital of the world.
Touch Filipinos are a warm people, affection usually expressed by touching
and embracing. Rural folks are more conservative
Though known to be shy and non-aggressive, as nurses they are known to be
dedicated, patient, respectful, and attentive to the needs of their patient
Use of words to show respect like Manong, Manang, oho, opo
In poor families, space is limited and family members all live and sleep
As they are family-oriented, they do not perceive the family as invasive in
personal space parameters.
Past oriented respect for elderly wisdom, familial closeness and honoring
dead ancestors
Future oriented parents conscious of sacrificing and saving for the future
of their children
Poor observers of punctuality
Health care beliefs and practices
o Many still believe in the magico-religious (witchcraft, soul loss, soul
intrusion, evil eye) predominantly in areas far from hospitals, clinics and
professionally trained health care givers.
o Many health beliefs
o Intimate circle of family largely influence decisions about when, where,
and from whom to seek help.
o The ethical principles of beneficence and nonmaleficence take
precedence over patient autonomy. Before a decision is made to inform
the patient about his or her terminal condition, a discussion among family
members occurs, and they may request the doctor not to divulge the truth
to protect the patient.
o Major decision maker doctor more than patient or family members
Health/healing practitioners
o Use of folk practitioners like
Hilot in rural areas hilot ambiguously refers to both the midwife
(magpapaanak) and the chiropractic practitioner (manghihilot,
mangihihilot-manipulation and massage for the diagnosis and
treatment of musculoligamentous and musculoskeletal ailments
albularyo-are general practictioners, usually with a history of healer
in the family-line and their healing considered a calling, a power


bestowed by a supernatural being. Their treatment modalities:

tapal, lunas, kudlit, pang-kontra, bulon, otasyon
spiritista; faith healers
Western medicine familiar and acceptable to most Filipinos
Increase in use of integrative or alternative health practitioners noted

Health Census
a. Ten leading causes of mortality (2007)
1. Heart diseases
2. Vascular system diseases
3. Accidents
4. Pneumonia
5. Tuberculosis
6. Diabetes
7. CVA/stroke
8. Chronic lower respiratory diseases
9. Liver cirrhosis
10. Prenatal conditions
Source: -
b. Ten leading cases of morbidity (2007)
1. Malaria
2. Diarrhea
3. Pneumonia
4. Hypertension
5. Influenza
6. Sepsis
7. Bronchitis
8. Tuberculosis
9. Chickenpox

Anglo-American an American of English birth or ancestry.
America - nation of immigrants.
o 1820-1920 people from Germany, Italy, United Kingdom, Ireland,
Austria-Hungary, Canada and Russia.
o Now considered a melting pot of different cultures
Body built and structure usually tall, medium to heavy built; structure
reflective of European descent
Skin color - white
Enzymatic and genetic variations
o Drug variation: Due to liver differences, caffeine is metabolized
and excreted faster by people of other cultural groups.
Genetic Diseases:
o Favism (Hemolytic anemia caused by deficiency of the X-linked
enzyme G6PD triggered by eating fava beans(broad beans).
o Thalassemia syndrome
o Increased susceptibility to: Cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer
(the most common form of cancer in women), diabetes,

Leading causes of death:

1. Heart Disease
2. Cancer
3. Stroke
4. Chronic lower respiratory diseases
5. Accidents (unintentional injuries)
6. Diabetes
7. Influenza, Pneumonia
8. Alzheimers Disease
9. Nephritis, nephritic syndrome, and nephrosis
10. Septicemia
Nutritional variations
o Traditional American cuisine steak and potatoes, hamburger,
vegetables, salad, rich deserts
o 20th century consumption of packaged foods breads and cookies,
preserved fruits, pickles soups, frozen vegetables, reserved meats,
instant puddings and gelatins, fruit juices
o 21st century Fully prepared meals outside the home reflected
changing economic status (wife working outside home). Emphasis
on convenience and rapid consumption gave birth to fast foods
chain like Burger King, McDonalds, Pizza Hut, etc. French fries,
hamburgers pizza, etc.
Nuclear family structure: small family size - parents and children only
Decision-making process: made by individual or self, or by either parent
or their child
Independence: children encouraged to be independent; allows children
to disagree with parents which may be considered disrespectful in other
Few social services to support family: children encouraged to live
outside the home at age 18
o No guarantee that children will support their elderly parents; hence,
many elderly live in nursing homes
Gender roles: males and females expect to be treated with equal
respect, rights and role opportunities at home and in the work place
Dominant cultural values:
o Individualism and self-reliance
o Independence and freedom
o Competition, assertiveness and achievement oriented
o Highly materialistic and too technologically oriented
o Equal gender roles and rights
o Instant time and action (doing)
o Youth and beauty
o Reliance on scientific facts and numbers
o Generosity and helpfulness in crises
Language predominantly English (about 97%)
o Other languages speak German, French, Polish, Spanish. Italian,
o English spoken with accent in different parts of the US
Manner of communication
o Direct, informal, use of persons name often
o Will ask a lot of explanations and facts, services available, health
instructions regarding health care.
o Small talk on sports, weather, jobs, or past experiences. Most people
dont talk about religion, politics or personal feelings with strangers.

Few ritualistic exchanges in English like How are you, Hows it

going are greetings, not questions about your life. See you later, or
See you soon are ways of saying good-bye, not appointments.
o Conversations are moderate in volume with few gestures.
Eye contact
o Direct an important component of direct and honest communication
o Direct eye contact specially between sexes may be interpreted as
sexually suggestive
o Avoidance of eye contact suggest withholding information,
sometimes a psychiatric symptom to evidence of dissembling direct
eye contact
Touch Aggressive, self-seeking, independent, individualistic,
competitive, and not touch oriented.
o Handshaking acceptable at initial meeting. Touching for casual
acquaintances is considered a bit too intimate.
o Kissing or hugging as a form of greeting even in public places is
common between the sexes.
o Holding hands or touching another of the same sex may indicate

o Value space and territory, especially with middle-class and upper class
Americans. They often seek to increase their space at home and at
o Require more personal space than in other cultures. Space is an
expression of money and materiality (storing material goods and
o Often described as territorial animals. Because they like to protect
and control their space.
o Casual conversation maintain a distance of 36-48 inches, otherwise
he/she will feel that you are in their face and will try to back away.
Time is gold. Time is equated with money,
Time a dominant value in American culture. Observe punctuality in keeping
and maintaining appointments and schedules.
Time closely related to action, doing, efficiency and productivity.
Generally goal and future oriented especially when it comes to monetary
security. Thus they value personal goals over group goals.
Outlook on time may vary with their socio-economic class:
Poor present oriented
Middle and upper class future oriented
Predominantly Christian Catholicism, Protestantism
Minority Judaism, Islam, Buddhism
Believe that Man, and not Fate, can and should be the one who controls the
environment. Thus, they are good at planning and executing short-term
o Generally prefer an aggressive approach to treating illness
o Believe that germs and microorganisms cause disease, treatment
aimed at destroying them. Management of microbes is more
important than bolstering resistance to them. Antibiotics often
o Expect to leave doctors office with a prescription.
o Have a high expectation that their disease/s will be cured or at least
well managed, through technology and powerful drugs.

o Drug culture - a mixture of legal, illegal and prescription drugs.

o Strong preference for biomedicine.
o Trend towards complementary and alternative medicine
o M.D. trained at different levels of specialization
o Trend towards alternative medicine and therapies.
o Certified Nurse Specialist specialization in different areas of
health care