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We may have imagined the future as a place crawling with antennas and emitters,
due to the huge growth of wireless communications and it is seems that the current means
of transferring data might already have a very serious competitor none other than the
human body. So far we have seen LAN, MAN, WAN, INTERNET & many more but here is
new concept of “REDTACTON ” which makes the human body as a communication
network by name.... HAN (Human Area Network).
RedTacton is a new Human Area networking technology that uses the surface of
the human body as a safe, high-speed network transmission path. RedTacton uses the
minute electric field generated by human body as medium for transmitting the data. The
chips, which will be embedded in various devices, contain transmitter and receiver built to
send and accept data in digital format.

Key words:
Red Tacton, Human area Network, LAN, MAN, WAN.

RedTacton is an exciting new technology for human area networking. A transceiver
electric-field sensor that uses an electro-optic crystal and laser light.

RedTacton provides an independent transmission path for each individual person (that is,
for each conductor) even in congested places, so it provides very secure, fast
communication without any interference. Almost anything that acts as a conductor—a
human or animal body, water, metal, etc.—can serve as a RedTacton transmission path.
This means that there is no need for a dedicated cable or antenna. The main objective is
to implement a RedTacton system supporting two-way intrabody communication at a rate
of 10 Mbps between any two points on the body, more researches are being conducted to
reduce the size and power consumption of the transceiver to enhance its portability.


Sree Vidyanikethan Engg College Sree Vidyanikethan Engg College

Today people can communicate anytime, anywhere, and with anyone over a cellular
phone network. Moreover, the Internet lets people download immense quantities of data from
remotely located servers to their home computers. Essentially, these two
technologies enable communications between terminals located at a distance from each other.
User-friendly ubiquitous services involve more than just networking between remotely located

Communication between electronic devices on the human body (wearable computers) and
ones embedded in our everyday environments is also critical, so this has driven extensive research
and development on human area networks.

Red Tacton is a new Human area networking technology which uses human body as a
high speed transmission path

Short-range wireless comm- unication systems such as Bluetooth and

wireless local area networks have some problems. Throughput is reduced by packet
collisions in crowded spaces such as meeting rooms and auditoriums filled with people and
communication is not secure because signals can be intercepted.

The principle drawback of infrared communications (IrDA) is the tight directionality of

beams between terminals needed for the system to be effective. The ultimate human area network
solution to all these constraints of conventional technologies is “intrabody” communication, in
the human body serves as the transmission medium.

Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is networked

.By making Human Area Networks feasible, Red Tacton will enable ubiquitous
services based on human-centered interactions and therefore more intimate and easier for people
to use.

In ubiquitous services, if we could use the human body itself as a transmission medium,
then this would be an ideal way of implementing human area networks because it would solve at a
stroke all the problems including throughput reduction, low security, and high network setup costs.


The name we chose for this technology is derived from “touch-act-on” meaning “action
triggered by touching” combined with red, which in Japanese culture is an auspicious color with
connotations of warmth and love, to convey the cordiality and warmth of interpersonal
"Red" for warmth,
"T" for touch, and
"acton" for action


The concept of intrabody communication, which uses the minute electric field propagated by
the human body to transmit information, was first proposed by IBM . The communication
mechanism has subsequently been evaluated and reported by several research groups around the
world. However, all
those reported technologies had two limitations:
The operating range through the body was limited to a few tens of centimeters and
The top communication speed was only 40kbit/s.

These limitations arise from the use of an electrical sensor for the receiver. An electrical
sensor requires two lines (a signal line and a ground line), whereas in intrabody communication
there is essentially only one signal line, i.e., the body itself, which leads to an unbalanced
transmission line, so the signal is not transmitted correctly

The system, called RedTacton, grew out of a different research project and came about
somewhat by accident. Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corp., (NTT) researchers were working
on an ultra-sensitive system for measuring voltages in chip circuits, when an engineer discovered
by chance that his body could carry a weak signal. Work began on that discovery as an additional
project, and thus RedTacton was born.

NTT has started working to perfect the networking technology RedTacton, which could
ultimately let people transfer data to each other's handhelds by means of a handshake or a slap on
the back.


The RedTacton consists of both transmitter and receiver as shown above

The transmitter consists of

 Data sense circuit which controls both transmitter circuit and electro-optic crystal.
 Transmitter circuit to transmit data in the form electric signals.

The receiver consists of

 Electro-optic crystal for detection of weak signal.

 Detector circuit to retrieve the data

Using a new super-sensitive photonic electric field sensor, RedTacton can achieve duplex
communication over the human body at a maximum speed of 10 Mbps. . A transmission path is
formed at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a RedTacton transceiver.

The RedTacton transmitter induces a weak electric field on the surface of the body. The
transmitter consists of a transmitter circuit that induces electric fields toward the body and a data
sense circuit, which distinguishes transmitting and receiving modes by detecting both transmission
and reception data and outputs control signals corresponding to the two modes to enable two-way

The RedTacton receiver senses changes in the weak electric field on the surface of the
body caused by the transmitter.

The receiver consists of an electro-optic sensor and a detector circuit that detects
changes in the optical properties of an electro-optic crystal using a laser and converts the result to
an electrical signal in a optical receiver circuit.
A series of trials have been conducted in which data was sent through human bodies using
RedTacton transceivers. RedTacton relies upon the principle that the optical properties of an
electro-optic crystal can vary according to the changes of a weak electric field.

The operating principle of RedTacton is illustrated in the above figure. The electric field
induced toward the body by the transmitter’s signal electrode is represented by Ea . The system
requires a ground close to the transmitter signal electrode, so electric
field Eb induced from the body can follow a return path to the transmitter ground.

Moreover, since people are usually standing on a floor or the ground, electric field Ec escapes
from the body to ground, mainly from the feet. The electric field Es that reaches the receiver is Es.

Es = Ea – (Eb + Ec ).

It couples to the electro-optic crystal and changes the crystal’s optical proper- ties. This
change is detected by laser light and transformed into digital data by a detector circuit.
Human area network

In addition to the WANs (Internet) and LANs, there are applications best served by
Human Area Networks (HANs) that connect the last meter.

Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is

networked. By making Human Area Networks feasible, RedTacton will enable ubiquitous services
based on human-centered interactions and therefore more intimate and easier for people to use.

Feature of RedTacton
RedTacton has three main functional features.

Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the
triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data. using
RedTacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are
linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the human's natural


Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps. Because the

transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in
congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time .Taking advantage of
this speed, device drivers can be downloaded instantly and execute programs can be sent.


In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as
transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination .

A communication environment can be created easily and at low-cost by using items close
at hand, such as desks, walls, and metal objects.

But there is one limitation on the length of the conductor to be propagated, on

installation locations, and on the thickness of the dielectric to be passed through.


The effects of RedTacton technology on human health, which is obviously an important

issue. First, the transmitting and receiving electrodes of the RedTacton transceiver are completely
covered with insulating film, so the body of the person acting as the transmission medium is
completely insulated. This makes it impossible for current to flow into a person’s body from the
transceiver. When communication occurs ,displacement current is generated by the electrons in
the body because the body is subjected to minute electrical fields. However, we are all subjected to
such displacement
currents everyday.

It is a wireless communication

Two-way communication is supported between any two points on the body at a throughput of
up to 10 Mbps
RedTacton can utilize a wide range of materials as a transmission medium, as long as the
material is conductive and dielectric, which includes water and other liquids, various metals,
certain plastics, glass, etc. Using ordinary structures such as tables and walls that are familiar
and readily available, one could easily construct a seamless communication environment at
very low cost using RedTacton .


RedTacton has high transfer speed than wireless and infrared network technologies.

Simultaneous use by many people in small space is efficient performed by RedTacton

compared to LAN and close-range wireless

Using RedTacton the specification of user positioning is excellent than infrared ,close-range
wireless, LAN etc

Now comparing with other human area networking, duplex communication i.e., communication
between mobile terminals and between mobile terminals & external equipment is possible
through RedTacton.

Communication is possible anywhere on the body where as in amperage electric and voltage
electric technologies it is possible through elbow to fingertip and wrist to fingertip respectively

Speed of communication is up to 10Mbps in RedTacton where as it is only 3kbps and 1kbps

respectively for the above mentioned technologies.

Many application using Red Tacton are introduced. Some are:

RedTacton devices embedded medicine bottles transmit information on the

medicines' attributes. If the user touches the wrong medicine, an alarm will trigger on the terminal
he is carrying. The alarm sounds only if the user actually touches the medicine bottle, reducing
false alarms common with passive wireless ID tags, which can trigger simply by proximity.
When a consumer stands in front of an
advertising panel, advertising and information matching his or her attributes is automatically
displayed. By touching or standing in front of items they are interested in, consumers can get more
in-depth information.

Print out where you want just by touching the desired printer with one hand
and a PC or digital camera with the other hand to make the link Complicated configurations are
reduced by downloading device drivers "at first touch".

By shaking hands, personal profile data can be exchanged between mobile terminals
on the users. (Electronic exchange of business cards) Communication can be kept private using
authentication and encryption technologies

Your own phone number is allocated and billing commences . Automatic importing of
personal address book and call history.

The seat position and steering wheel height adjust to match the driver just by sitting in the
car. The driver's home is set as the destination in the car navigation system .The stereo plays the
driver's favorite song…

An electrically conductive sheet is embedded in the table. A network connection is

initiated simply by placing a lap-top on the table. Using different sheet patterns enables
segmentation of the table into subnets.

RedTacton can carry music or video between headsets, mobile devices, mobile phones,
etc. Users can listen to music from a RedTacton player simply by putting on a headset or holding a

Carrying a mobile RedTacton-capable device in one's pocket, ID is verified and the door
unlocked when the user holds the doorknob normally. Secure lock administration is possible by
combining personal verification tools such as fingerprint ID or other biometric in the mobile


3. T. Nagatsuma and M. Shinagawa,