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The majority of Industrial drives use electric motors, since they are controllable and readily
available. In practice, most of these drives are based on an induction motor because such motors are
rugged, reliable, and relatively inexpensive.
Single phase to three phase converter have a wide range of application in rural area and also in
industries where three phase equipment or motors are to be operated from the easily available single
phase supply. These converters are excellent choice for situation where three phase power supply is not
available. The added advantage is that the three phase motors are more efficient and economical than
single-phase motors. Also the starting current in three phase motors is less severe than in single-phase
motors. This needs a strong, efficient cost effective and high quality single phase to three-phase
conversion. Advanced PWM techniques are employed to guarantee high quality output voltage and
sinusoidal input at the terminal of single-phase source. By using the interleaved boost converter in
continuous current mode with high power factor will give required dc voltage to develop output ac line to
line voltage at its rated value.

Single phase to three phase converter, Advanced PWM techniques, Interleaved boost
converter,v/f ratio control.

Three phase ac drive using single phase supply is an approach to implement high frequency
induction boosting along with the three phase PWM inverter for controlling the speed of three phase
induction motor by v/f ratio control. This scheme can be used in lathe machines, small cranes, lifts etc.,
which are frequently switched ON and OFF, so that they can be run from a single-phase supply.

1.II Year EEE, 2. II Year EEE,

Newton’s institute of engg. Newton’s institute of engg.
Power electronics is a branch of engineering, which is concerned with conversion and
control of electrical power for various applications. The converters could be classified as
Rectifier : ac to dc
Inverter : dc to ac
Chopper : dc to dc
Ac power controller : at same frequency
Cyclo - converter : direct frequency changer

Often a conversion system is a hybrid type that mixes more than one basic conversion process. To
achieve high efficiency of conversion ON / OFF switching device is used. The switching type of conversion
can introduce distortion and generates harmonics on source line and load; such problems can be
eliminated by introducing filter at the input.

In an uncontrolled converter the output is almost fixed and the line current contains harmonics. In
phase control converter, the output voltage can be varied but the line currents are rich in harmonics, and
the line fundamental current lags the voltage. The distorted line current tends to distort the line voltage and
which leads to problems in the equipment operating on the same bus.

The output of an uncontrolled converter can be controlled by controlling the duty cycle of the boost
switch connected at the output of converter. In order to control the duty cycle of output, PWM techniques
are often used to reduce the harmonics content. Since, the frequency of operation is very high the filter
used in boost converter is also reduced.
The proposed Topology employs a boost converter to boost the dc link voltage to 325 V using
interleaved boost converter. The dc link voltage is fed to three-phase PWM inverter. PWM inverter reduces
the harmonic content to larger extent. Changing the modulation index can easily vary the output voltage of
inverter IC HEF4752 V is a special purpose IC which can be used to control the speed of three phase ac
motor using v/f control.


The schematic representation of the implementation of the setup shown in figure. The schematic
diagram can be divided into two parts part 1 represents the bridge rectifier, filter and HF induction boost
converter using the principle of interleaved boost converter. Number of stages of interleaved boost
converter may be used depending on the power to be handled by the converter. In this setup only two
interleaved stages are used MOSFETs are being used as switching device. Part 2 represents three-phase
voltage source, PWM inverter with motor load. Transistors are being used as switching device along with
ant parallel diodes. This boosted dc voltage is connected to three phase induction motor through a three
phase bridge inverter with a suitable control circuit.

The single-phase ac power supply can be converted in to dc by using bridge rectifier and then
ripple less dc output can be obtained by using EMI filter.

Interleaved boost converter:

The required boost voltage is achieved using the principle of interleaved cell operating in
continuous inductor current mode. For high efficiency requirement the interleaved stages were operated in
continuous current mode. Inter- leaving, virtually eliminates discontinuity in input current under continuous
current mode operation, the inductor current tracks the sinusoidal wave continuously, so that there no
double peak current and suitable for high power applications. Interleaving can also significantly reduce the
switching losses and dramatic in overall size reduction of energy storage inductor and the differential mode
EMI filter. More number of interleaved stages had to be used for higher power requirement. In our case a
two stage interleaved boost converter is designed and assembled which will satisfy our requirement.

Control unit:

The switch described here is a MOSFET (IRF450) along with its gate drive circuit. The output
voltage can be varied by varying the duty cycle and keeping frequency constant or keeping duty cycle
constant and varying the frequency. IC SG 3524 is used to generate two, out phase square wave signals
and the frequency of which can be vary between 20khz to 100khz. This IC generates dead time between
the two signals depending on the value of CT. These two signals are applied to the driver circuit. The driver
circuit drives the power MOSFET accordingly to the input signal fed to it. A
Driver circuit has been developed using fast switching transistor BUX48 and transistor 2N2222 as
Darlington pair.
The over current protection requirement of the circuit has been incorporated by using same IC
SG 3524 current limit feature. A small resistance of 0.1ohm is connected in series with load circuit. When
the current exceeds 2A the duty cycle will be reduced to zero and the gate signal will be stopped. The
maximum output voltage desired is 325V dc.


For stabilization of this 325V output voltage, a potential divider has been used at the output
voltage terminal. A fractional voltage is fed to INV of SG 3524. By using a preset in potential divider circuit
the reference voltage can be varied such that output will be stabilized to desired level. Any increase in input
ac voltage, and hence the increase in output dc voltage will be sensed by potential divider and pulse width
of the control signal varies so as to maintain output dc voltage constant.


Gate drive signals for MOSFETS of Interleaved boost converter


(PART -2)

The block diagram of part- 2 represents the voltage source, PWM inverter with control circuit.

PWM in three-phase voltage source inverter:

PWM is a technique of reducing output harmonics from the inverter output .To generate PWM
signal, a special purpose IC HEF4752V manufactured by Phillips is used. The IC HEF4752V has 12
outputs, out of which 6 outputs have been used. The basic function of PWM IC is to provide three
complementary pair of output drive wave forms which, when applied to the 6 element inverter, open and
close the switching element in the appropriate sequence to produce a symmetrical three phase output. The
drive waveforms are applied to upper three transistors of the inverter with isolation. In our case BUX508A
power transistor is chosen as switching element of the inverter. This IC is completely digital, so that the
repetition frequency of PWM signal is always an exact multiple of the inverter output frequency. This result
in excellent phase and voltage balance and consequent low motor losses.
In applications such as uninterruptible ac power supplies and ac motor drives, three phase
inverters are commonly used to supply three phases. It is possible to supply a three phase
inverters, where each inverter produces a output displaced by 120degees with respective each
other .The most frequently used three phase inverter circuit consists of three legs, one for each

Control unit:

The control circuit, which produces switching, pulses to the power transistors used in the three
phase inverter circuit, i.e., shown in schematic diagram. This circuit plays very important role in the
inversion process. The circuit basically consists of IC HEF4752V, NE566 VCO, IC 74C14,MCT2E&
base drive.

The output frequency and voltage of inverter can be controlled by Varying the frequency of
FCT and voltage of VCT can control the output frequency and voltage of the inverter. These are
supplied from NE 566VCO, which provides simultaneous square wave and triangular wave outputs
as a function of input voltage and IC 74C14,which are capable of transforming slowly changing
input signal in to sharply defined, jitter –free output signals.

In this system the power transistor BU508A switches operation is controlled by PWM
techniques. The use of PWM in the control system has reduced the complexity and increased reliability
significantly. The minimum base current required to drive the power transistor in to saturation is
16Amps. A current of this can’t be supplied by PWM directly. The PWM signal has 5Volts and output
current is very low. So the current gain of PWM signals are amplified with the help of a Darlington pair
connected through an Opto-coupler (MCT2E), which isolates the control circuit from the main circuit.

Since there are 6 power transistor switches and each has to be operated separately to avoid the
short circulating of the source due to simultaneously switching ON and OFF the switches of a limb, 6
separate base drive circuits (PWM signal generator, electrical isolation, Darlington pair circuit) are

Speed control of induction motor:

The speed of an ac machine is related to the total supply frequency, which has to be altered. High
power transistors have simplified the problem to some extent. For continuously variable speed control, the
output frequency of inverter must be varied. The applied voltage to the motor must also be varied in linear
proportion to the supply frequency to maintain constant motor flux. Thus control of both voltage and
frequency is necessary for proper variable speed
Output Voltage waveforms (line to line) of Three-phase Inverter.





With increase in demand for more power and better power quality from a standard 230 V ac line,
power factor correction becomes an integral


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‘Journal of the Institution of Engineers (India), Vol-76, pt E1. February 1996, P233.

2. P.C. Sen. ‘Power Electronics’. ‘Tata MC Graw – Hill publishing company Ltd., New Delhi, P831.

3. R.Gaikwad – ‘ Op-Amp and Linear Integrated circuits’. ‘Prentice Hall,P395’.

4. P.M.Patil, D.N.Kyatanavar, R.G.Zope, D.V.Jadhav. ‘Three AC Drive using single phase supply’.
‘Journal of the institution of Engineers (India),Vol.82,Pt EL, June 2001,P43’.