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SUPER CONDUCTIVITY ___________________________________________________________________
1 R.SRINIVAS 2 U.SRIKANTHGANESH
Superconductivity is the ability of certain materials to conduct electrical current with no resistance and extremely low losses. This ability to carry large amounts of current can be applied to electric power devices such as motors and generators, and to electricity transmission in power lines. superconductors conduct electricity without losing energy to electrical resistance. some materials become superconductors when they are cooled to very low temperatures. superconductors exhibit superconductivity at temperatures near 0 K (-273o C). High-temperature superconductors can function at temperatures as high as 140 K (-133oC).the temperature at which the resistance of material is zero is called as critical temperature. Superconductors also repel surrounding magnetic fields. This phenomenon is demonstrated when we levitate a magnet above a cooled superconductor. Superconductors help us use energy more efficiently and reduce the cost of electricity production, storage,
Superconductors, Mag-lev Devices, Power Transmission Cables.
superconductivity research is to find materials that can become superconductors at room temperature. Once this happens, the whole world of electronics, power and transportation will be revolutionized . 1.III Year EEE JBIET firstname.lastname@example.org 2.III Year EEE JBIET
Superconductivity is the ability of certain materials to conduct electrical current with no resistance and extremely low losses. This ability to carry large amounts of current can be applied to electric power devices such as motors and generators, and to electricity transmission in power lines. superconductors conduct electricity without losing energy to electrical resistance. some materials become superconductors when they are cooled to very low temperatures. superconductors exhibit superconductivity at temperatures near 0 K (-273o C). High-temperature superconductors can function at temperatures as high as 140 K (-133oC).the temperature at which the resistance of material is zero is called as critical temperature. Superconductors also repel surrounding magnetic fields. This phenomenon is demonstrated when we levitate a magnet above a cooled superconductor. Superconductors help us use energy more efficiently and reduce the cost of electricity production, storage,transmission, and use, and the costs of transportation and medical equipment.
Some applications of super conductors
Power Transmission Cables Mag-lev Devices Materials Research Telecommunications
When these materials are cooled to temperatures ranging from near absolute zero (0 K, 273oC) to liquid nitrogen temperatures ( 77 K, -196oC), they have no electrical resistance these are called as super conducting materials. The temperature at which electrical resistance is zero is called the critical temperature (Tc) and varies with the individual material. For practical purposes, critical temperatures are achieved by cooling materials with either liquid helium or liquid nitrogen
Critical temperatures of some materials
Material Zinc Type Tc(K) metal 0.88
Aluminum metal 1.19 Tin Mercury metal 3.72 metal 4.15
Because these materials have no electrical resistance, meaning electrons can travel through them freely, they can carry large amounts of electrical current for long periods of time without losing energy as heat. Superconducting loops of wire have to carry electrical currents for several years with no measurable loss. In an electrical circuit a sample in series with a current source and measure the resulting voltage across the sample. The resistance of the sample is given by ohm’slaw. If the voltage is zero, this means that the resistance is zero and that the sample is in the superconducting state. Superconductors are also able to maintain a current with no applied voltage. Experiments have demonstrated that currents in superconducting coils can persist for years without any measurable degradation. Experimental evidence points to a current lifetime of at least 100,000 years.
Once the transition from the normal state to the superconducting state occurs, external magnetic fields can't penetrate it. This effect is called the Meissner Effect.
The classic demonstration of the meissner effect. A superconductive diskon the bottom, cooled by liquid nitrogen, causes the magnet above to levitate. The floating magnet induces a current, and therefore a magnetic field, in the superconductor, and the two magnetic fields repel to levitate the magnet.
Superconducting materials are devided in to two types:
Type I Superconductors – these are totally exclude all applied magnetic fields. Eg: Al, Zn, Ga… Type II Superconductors - which totally exclude low applied magnetic fields, but only partially exclude high applied magnetic fields their diamagnetism is not perfect in the presence of high fields. Eg: Zr, Nb…. How do electrons travel through superconductors with no resistance The atomic structure of most metals is a lattice structure, much like a window screen in which the intersection of each set of perpendicular wires is an atom. Metals hold on to their electrons quite loosely, so these particles can move freely within the lattice -- this is why metals conduct heat and electricity very well. As electrons move through a typical metal in the normal state, they collide with atoms and lose energy in the form of heat. In a superconductor, the electrons travel in pairs and move quickly between the atoms with less energy loss. As a negatively charged electron moves through the space between two rows of positively charged atoms it pulls inward on the atoms. This distortion attracts a second electron to move in behind it. This second electron encounters less resistance, much like a passenger car following a truck on the freeway encounters less air resistance. The two electrons form a weak attraction, travel together in a pair and encounter less resistance overall. In a superconductor, electron pairs are constantly forming, breaking and reforming, but the overall effect is that electrons flow with little or no resistance. The low temperature makes it easier for the electrons to pair up. One final property of superconductors is that when two of them are joined by a thin, insulating layer, it is easier for the electron pairs to pass from one superconductor to another without resistance.
The existence of the Meissner-Ochsenfeld effect, the exclusion of a magnetic field from the interior of a superconductor, is direct evidence that the superconducting state is not simply one of infinite electrical conductivity. Instead, it is a true thermodynamic equilibrium state, a new phase which has lower free energy than the normal state at temperatures below the transition
temperature and which somehow requires the absence of magnetic flux.The exclusion of magnetic flux by a superconductor costs some magnetic energy. So long as this cost is less than the condensation energy gained by going from the normal to the superconducting phase, the superconductor will remain completely superconducting in an applied magnetic field. If the applied field becomes too large, the cost in magnetic energy will outweigh the gain in condensation energy, and the superconductor will become partially or totally normal. The manner in which this occurs depends on the geometry and the material of the superconductor. The geometry which produces the simplest behavior is that of a very long cylinder with field applied parallel to its axis. Two distinct types of behavior may then occur, depending on the type of superconductor—type I or type II.
The appearance of the superconducting state is accompanied by rather drastic changes in both the thermodynamic equilibrium and thermal transport properties of a superconductor. The heat capacity of a superconducting material is quite different in the normal and superconducting states. In the normal state (produced at temperatures below the transition temperature by applying a magnetic field greater than the critical field), the heat capacity is determined primarily by the normal electrons and is nearly proportional to the temperature. In zero applied magnetic fields, there appears a discontinuity in the heat capacity at the transition temperature. At temperatures just below the transition temperature, the heat capacity is larger than in the normal state. It decreases more rapidly with decreasing temperature, however, and at temperatures well below the transition temperature varies exponentially as e −Δ/kT, where Δ is a constant and k is Boltzmann's constant. Such an exponential temperature dependence is a hallmark of a system with a gap Δ in the spectrum of allowed energy states. Heat capacity measurements provided the first indications of such a gap in superconductors, and one of the key features of the macroscopic BCS theory is its prediction of just such a gap. Ordinarily a large electrical conductivity is accompanied by a large thermal conductivity, as in the case of copper, used in electrical wiring and cooking pans. However, the thermal conductivity of a pure superconductor is less in the superconducting state than in the normal state, and at very low temperatures approaches zero. Crudely speaking, the explanation for the association of infinite electrical conductivity with vanishing thermal conductivity is that the transport of heat requires the transport of disorder. The superconducting state is one of perfect order, and so there is no disorder to transport and therefore no thermal conductivity. Silicon becomes a superconductor by substituting 9% of the silicon atoms with boron atoms, physicists in France have found that the resistance of the material drops sharply when cooled below 0.35 K Boron is widely added to silicon to make it a useful semiconductor, but rarely does it account for more than 0.002% of the total number of atoms. Because it has one fewer electron than silicon available for bonding with neighbouring atoms, boron incorporated into silicon leaves a positively-charged "hole" at each site where boron's "missing" electron would be paired with one of silicon's. At room temperature these holes can move around, making boron-doped silicon a "p-type" semiconductor, but at low temperatures, the holes remain bound in orbitals to the boron nuclei. It has long been known that at boron concentrations of around 0.01% these lowtemperature orbitals overlap, making metal-like conductivity possible. However, until now all attempts to make silicon superconducting have failed. Plutonium is also a superconductor Superconductivity has been observed in a plutonium-based material for the first time. discovered that an alloy of plutonium, cobalt and gallium exhibits superconductivity at temperatures below 18.5 K. This is an unusually high transition temperature and may mean that plutonium-based
compounds are a new class of superconductor, in addition to the so-called heavy-fermion systems, high-temperature copper oxides and traditional superconducting materials. Bottom of Form Applications Power transmission cables that carry current without energy losses will increase the capacity of the transmission system, saving money, space, and energy.
Due to the high cost and impracticality of cooling miles of superconducting wire to happened with short "test runs". residents of Copenhagen, Denmark, began receiving their electricity through HTS (high-temperature superconducting) material. That cable was only 30 meters long, but proved adequate for testing purposes. In the 2001 Pirelli completed installation of three 400-foot HTS cables for Detroit Edison at the Frisbie Substation capable of delivering 100 million watts of power. This marked the first time commercial power has been delivered to customers of a US power utility through superconducting wire. Installed an underground, HTS power cable in Albany, New York, in Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's power grid. Electric generators made with superconducting wire are far more efficient than conventional generators wound with copper wire. In fact, their efficiency is above 99% and their size about half that of conventional generators. They may get more power from less fuel. Electric motors made with superconducting wire will be smaller and more efficient.
The Yamanashi MLX01 MagLev train. Transport vehicles such as trains can be made to "float" on strong superconducting magnets, virtually eliminating friction between the train and its tracks. Not only would conventional electromagnets waste much of the electrical energy as heat, they would have to be physically much larger than superconducting magnets. A landmark for the commercial use of MAGLEV technology occurred in 1990 when it gained the status of a nationally-funded project in Japan. The Minister of Transport authorized construction of the Yamanashi Maglev Test Line which opened on April 3, 1997. In December 2003, the MLX01 test vehicle attained an incredible speed of 361 mph (581 kph).
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines enhance medical diagnostics by imaging internal organs—often eliminating the need for invasive surgeries.
MRI of a human skull. By impinging a strong superconductor-derived magnetic field into the body, hydrogen atoms that exist in the body's water and fat molecules are forced to accept energy from the magnetic field. They then release this energy at a frequency that can be detected and displayed graphically by a computer. MRIs, which currently are made with low-temperature superconductors, will be smaller and less expensive when made with HTS. In the electronics industry, ultra-high-performance filters are now being built. Since superconducting wire has near zero resistance, even at high frequencies, many more filter stages can be employed to achive a desired frequency response. This translates into an ability to pass desired frequencies and block undesirable frequencies in high-congestion radio frequency applications such as cellular telephone systems. Military use of superconductors come with the deployment of "E-bombs". These are devices that make use of strong, superconductor-derived magnetic fields to create a fast, high-intensity electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) to disable an enemy's electronic equipment. Such a device saw its first use in wartime in March 2003 when US Forces attacked an Iraqi broadcast facility.
the worldwide market for superconductor products is projected to grow to near US $5 billion by the year 2010 and to US $38 billion by 2020. Low-temperature superconductors are expected to continue to play a dominant role in well-established fields such as MRI and scientific research, with high-temperature superconductors enabling the newer industries.. The future of superconductivity research is to find materials that can become superconductors at room temperature. Once this happens, the whole world of electronics, power and transportation will be revolutionized.
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