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of Iditorial: n*g'i.Jr"i it""r*,

Annable Wendy Kwok
Development Picture
St Johnston SophieMortimer
BrendaMarshall ieniorProduction[ontrolltr:
:.layneSwanson TerenceStrongman
Graham(oleman. llarketing:
lohn Balmond
Glenday,lain Reid, lleadof [irrulation;
Richmond,Ben Way ChrisJenner

: ludith Massey,Montague Keen,
Richmond, David Guyatt,Tim Col
ounuinHighflaps%opynght @1993DigidWu
Pkture lrbnry.InsetPeterf'lenzel/Saence
andhs. Roblalbot/Iony Stone.
liketo thankall tfiostwhohelpedi
.X factor. :
Yincent ProfessorHans
Sbekfui+ Jeffrry

n 1992, Dr K. Eric Drexler cheap, natural

marched into a US Senate materials.
Committee meetins and 'With the assembler,you'cl be
re made an astonishing able to take reactive molecules, A The micromechonic componenls
announcement. According to put them in specific places,and used in nonolechnology ore smoll
Drexler, all the problems of the control chemical svnthesisto enough to be shown next fo o fly's
rvo rl d- lam ir r e.pol l rrti o n . build up complex structures,' leg. Scienlistsore olreody creoting
lif'e-threatening cliseaseand Drexler explains. obiects from individuql otoms (inser).
poverty - could soon be over.
The ker', say'sDrexler, lr,ill be
'nanonrachines' (nano comes from
"si*::s*lAt_g"n"rlllJt Humans wor.rld r-ro longer suffer
In fact, nanotechnolog,v had first from heart disease.because
the flreek for drvarf). These tiny, been proposed lt hen Drexler was assemblers could move around and
rlolecule-sizedmachines- rvhich jr-rsta bov. As lons ago as 1959, the scrape clean clogged arteries.
Dr-exlercalls assemblers- can be Nobel prize-u'inning physicist Humans r,r,ould no longer be poor,
]lrogramlnecl to produce other Richarcl Feynman stated that rvhen because assemblers could
n:uroln:rchines.Ultimatell', humans manipulation of individual atoms manufacture everything that they
rvoulclno longer have to build is possible,the scientist'rvill have could ever possibly want. And
anlthing. Assemblersrvoulcldo it figured out hor'vto synthesize assemblers could clean up the
fo r l l rer r rar r t ur nat ic a l l r.
u s i rrg absolutely anything.' environment bv absorbins

pollution and breaking it down
into its original elements: lead and
carbon. US economist David
Friedman has envisaged a world
where, 'food machines would be
provided as a free amenity' and
'raw materials, except for very
large objects like planets,will cost
a l mos tz er o. . .
In short, nano-utopia could be
just around the corner. It sounds
too good to be lrue: plenty of food
to go round, good health, a rool
over everyone'shead, and as much
leisure time as you want.
) Nonotechnologistsenvisoge o
R EO RDE RI NG M O tE C U tES future in which micro-robotsore smoll
It is not surprising that Drexler's enough to irovel rhrough the
ideas have been met with scorn by bloodstreom,os depicted in fhe 1987
some other scientists.After all, lilm lnnerspacelinsel), where they con
what he was proposing was almost corry our inlernol body repoirs.
like playing God. And yet
nanotechnology, the science that other biomolecules,' he has said.
D re x ler has helpe d l o c re a l e .i s If human cells could reproduce
based on ideas that are already well according to a genetic blueprint
g acceptedin other scientific areas, inherited from our parents, he
such as genetics. mused, why could molecules not betlveen grass and beefsteak.
It was about 8Qyears ago when be programmed to do the same? C a l l e d t h e 'M e a t M a c h i n e ',
Drexler first began to wontler
whether scientistscould
manufacture things the way that
does . ' S ome d me i n 1 9 7 6 ,
o king seriously about 'ltea in a similar way? speciallyprogrammed assemblers,
z what you ' One of Drexler's earliest ideas lhese raw materlals\vould
design protein molecules and was to cut out the 'middle man' eventuallyturn into fresh beell ,.-.4 ..:a.
Scepticsmieht stop and think
about how this sane process
happens in nature. The cow eats
grass.di gestsi t arrd ttrrrrsi t inlo
muscl ew i thorrt arrvi ntcrve r r t ion
from outside. Its own molecules,
like Drexler's assemblers,are
programmed to create a particular
product. \Ahich is more
unD el l evaD l ei

A few years after Drexler began
to develop his radical and
unsettling ideas about changing
and re-assemblingmolecules in
different forms, scientistsmoved
nanotechnology a step further.
The Scanning Tunnel
Microscope (STM), which has a tip
only one atom wide, was designed
structures, and to make atoms
behavei n certai n w ays.The next
stage was to think about what they
could do with their discoveries,
D rexl er' s pl an w asthat ti ny
assemblerswould work to control
other tiny tools, like pistons and .
cogs.W orki rrgi n partnershipwit h
hundreds, perhaps even millions,
of other assembl ers. they w o uld
build structures and products
atom by atom.


As Drexler once said, anyone who
o makesvogurt i s demonstratingt hat
self-replication rvorks. It is a short
step from the growth of penicillin
; and other moulds to the idea that
= properly charged and controlled
molecules could build a house, or
a car. A nd i nsteadof bui l di n g it
out of crude materials that are
o difficult and expensive to create,
assemblerswould work with
natural molecules.
rrl 1!S1 at IBM's ResearchLabs. It rearrange atoms in new and As genetic engineers have
r'orl,s br 'pushing things around different ways.Compare this to is perfectly
iiiie a cue hirting billiard and modern manufacturing methods, possible to grow a new living being
snooker balls,' saysRiehard which move huge groups of atoms
Palmer" a professor of physics at (in the form of sheet metal, or
thr L-nirersin'of Birmingham. nuts and bolts) around to build
D:storering that scientistscould machines, and such techniques
p'-.:l et,rms off the tip when they start to look crude and inflexible.

33 lt M IC R O .E N GIN E E R IN G
Scientistsbegan to imagine
lfs effects will how much more detailed
be felr fhroughout manufacturing could be if single
so(iety - from medicine molecules could be assembled
l o m q n u fociur:ng to quickly and easily into the right
h e ol i ng th e environmenf structures.
l' ' :-: l':.:' \:- :- cio n e e r In addition, they realized that
raw materials are also made out of
7' molecules.Just as when the atoms
in grass,air and water are
att,echti --he:,ro,".. '-' :he rearranged to create beef, so could
nrrg1rl!Lrrp-. >-ir:----tr:.:erljzei ther the carbon atoms in graphite be
carild p lacc ai',:-l: '". her er e: : her rearranged to make a diamond.
rn'anie(i ir,'" Br. norv, Drexler's ideas were
. \ ie rr re ar: lrter. I B\ l s c r ent i> : s beginning to look lessand less
lrsed an ST\I ro arrln{c .l-i 3;'-,1115 far-fetchecl.h-r theory, scientists
of renon to iorm rhe IB\I 1,-'i,'. alreadv hacl the abilitv to create
Br-rilcling on these discorelies. ditferent materialsout of ran-
other scientists realized that ir ria-s c o m p o n e moY eatoms
r-rorr'phlsicalh' possible to arorrnd to form different
of a single cell. as in in riLro
ic-:'r:iization( [\T) treatments.Food
3-neticistshar-ealso found waysto
'grori' anirnalsand vegetablesfiom
odginal molecules.
\anotechnology takes those
ideasfurtheq becauseit can be
r-rsedin so many different rvavs.
One of the most important areas
rvill be in medicine. Like the tiny
sp a c es hipir r t he 1 9 6 6m o ri e
Fantastic Volage,assemblers lr,'ill be
able to mo\re around the body and
digest or eliminate malfunctioning
cells. They will be able to iclenti!,'
problems in the bloodstream, the
lungs or the heart, and report back
to controlling computers.
Scientistsare already r'vorking on
materials called polymers, lvhich
can be etched with tiny lines by a
very small microscope. These can
then be placed around damaged
tendons inside the bodv, where
th e y help t he t end o n to g ro rr a g a i n =

along the grooves. o

Looking further into the ftiture,
scientists believe that assemblers d

cou ld re pa ir the d am age , lor t c ll

frostbite to frozen human heacls. \ ullPor t t h e n r . \ a n o r e c h n o l o q r (lr-crrrn:.RecirLrseanr countrr, coulcl
Those involved in the science of r r ' iil har e : r r i t a l l l a l i t ( ) l t l l r i n crcilt{' iin\ r2r\\'nraterial, thev
clvon ics be liere that s c ier r t is t sir r nr : Lk ing s u r - c t h : r t t ] - i e h e 'l r 1 ' a l c i n rioulcl not nced to go to \{ar to
the future will find a rva,vto brine as gooc l a c o n c l i t i o n a : p o s : i b i e , flght their neighbor-rr for its
fi-ozen heads back to life, and rvill In fhct. nanotcchnologl coulcl resoLlr'ces.'In the past,' Drexler
elen be able to gro\,v ne\{ bodies to cl-iange societv bevoncl oul rlilclcst sirvs,'only' somebod;'lvho ltas verv
rich could zrf{ord a specialll'
itili]!*!ffi i:t:::. craftcd thing. Norv anvolle carl
sl have it, because rve have the porver
to rearrange evervthins.'


A CAUIIOUS .q :sjrs*""L"g_q**:I"L9g*
flbh *tedde, who $ Brit not evervthing in the salclen
*oricd ecgireering qnd is o moior o
'8.. of nano-r.rtopia is rosr'. Dt'exler's
fi$rG ir tle cryonks movemeil,,',,,,::-: critics argtre that the
Gry.€fsg s rnorre csutious yierv of. ". n a n o t e c h n o l o g i s t s c o n r e n i e n tl v
*dmology. 'The serious gloss or,er hou- asscnrblers receive
rimffit Sresfion d lhis pgtaf ,ir t h e i r i n s t l r r c r t i o n s . i r n c l h o ri th e l
for hng b*i* *ke to &*dop
are fuellccl.
m**rdog1r srd whar is *e bir of
scienlists T h e c l i f T c l c n c c b c t r 'c c r l i r co \\'
best drd far gFtling fhere,' soys
rlksrllilc. rAo lE *rorked ot ftre the literctrrii.,'but the ones who,,:.r-: i u r c l t l r e \ I e : r r \ l . i r h : r r c l r tl r a t th e
Icrcl: Fdo Alo ks€orch Center in knew whol's going on oll seem lo c o r r 'l t a ' 1 . 1 t . L l k , , f l : t t . . r n c1i s
(dfrnic" o hd+srre of, new ogree ffiot this is o developmeni -l)l i, r r'trrttrt-.r-tl tr I 91'1-111'.
gelt cti c.111\
whkh connot be svoided.' r tr '.
teg.f nesccd- Thcrc's still o T he c l Lffc l r ':tr r c c tl .tll

1i .s 1l 1l r l g1 .,:- . '. ., r .l ( - r f c l lg i l l e e r' S

{ The Mobile Robot Loborqtory ot
MIT hos produced o number of robot
insecls designed fo perform simple
tosks during lfie course of their
nonote<hnology reseorch.

prjrrar\ cell is that the cell is

alreadr alire. Can an assembler
cr(dlr d lirirtg crea tur e in a
laboratc,rr i
Eren Richard Feynman thinks
the:e ha-r been too much talk of
Lri,-,pi.l:'Ther' Isupporters of
nan',:echnologrt follow all the
app.i:ent precepts and forms of
sc:e:r:rfic investigation, but they're
II....1:.- .(-.)n
''___)eth inses
__'_^_- s ent ial. '
Cirics claim that molecular
r:.1:r-ripliiation cannot take place at
t-l' -rrt :eIItPerature, as atoms are
r',, , --;r:.i:rble. They point out that
lht :anrous 35-xenon IBM logo
:r-,i ::. r de ir r a r ac uu m u s i n g i n e rt
::, ,:::slrr supercool conditions.
L',:ics hare also argued that
:--('--.i- r r \ c or r idjust a s e a s i l y
rr'-rst chaosas build a perfect

33 1t nanotechllologr to create
terri$ring 1te1'.\\'ar .rachiues?
be as likely as a car - just by
acciclent, in the garage - being
Ns n o t e c h n o l o g y l o o ks The US has alreacll callecla hish able to wean itself from its diet of
f e o s i b l e b u t i s b o re l y level Senatemeeting to cliscussthe gasoline and transmission fluid
o u t o f t h e d re o mi n g possibilityof dissolvingenenr\ arrd go out and l i re on tree sa p in
tanks with nano-bots. the l ' i l d.'
s t o g e . . . T he re q re
Scientistshave alreadr
hur d l e s , b o f h te ch n i co l NO TU R N IN G BACK
considered the risks associatecl
o n d e c o n o mi c with nanotechnologr', and
- - :'::-:-::-
\-et rrould Einstein have progressed
l - v s cisl o n d Wr ile r
concluded that its benefits u itl-r l-ristheor-r'of r-elatir-iq.if he
n\ outweigh possible drawbacks. For' could have foleseen Hiroshima
,, example, scientistscould set a limit ancl \agasaki? As n'ith Pandora's
on the number of replications an box. the licl is already off
assemblercould perform. rrarrol echrrol ogr and al l i ts po ssible . ....,ti.,
In any case,the benefits we rvill ramifications.There is no turning .,
s e e fro m nanotechnol ouyi rr back. Our only hope is that we can
the foreseeable futr-rreare more continue to use nanotechnology
\trli ,-1.- -
likely to come from the for the greatergood of Mankind.
\\ f-.i- 11 development of tiny medical A nd for al l thosew ho fi nd t he
a r -- i rrs tru m e n l sengagedi n repai ri ng concept too incredible to accept,
cells than from self-assembling nanotechnol ogyi s taken very
spacerockets and houses. seri ousl yby mul ti nati onal
NANOWEAPONRY Drerler himself has said, 'For corporations and government
There . l r e f L l : : : r t : ' 1 , , , - r :' "' ::r i an indlrstrial replicator designed researchbodies. One report
.. :.. ^ .. ., u I . I.uel and raw
O lir. l:
:'-' ' 1 1 f i ' . . i l s . l''*-:.,
- - . : - . - :::. ' r r :- .l- - .. -r
| | rPqldtq rrt d \4 t estimates that the industrv could

tecilnolr'r!,-1.Hum.rn n:ilrtre berr : n.rter-r:rls.fol that to accidentally be rvorth f40 billion bv the 1'ear

r.hat it is. ho ri d o rre k nor . t har ' : 1' 11ir l o : r l e r r l i e r r o r t l r a t 's a b l e t o 20 10.C l el rrl \.l hel ' e i s nrrl re F- -
rr'arlike nations \\'ould not use s ur t ir . e in r r a n r r e . r r e l l . t h a t x - o u l d
":'"t:'' ..
to i t tharr sci errcefr.,i orr. il3
: ,t,t)

owsing could be the onlv regions. These are areas rvhere resultsastonishedpeople like
area of the paranormal that rvater supplies are inadequate, Dr Hansjorg Elshorst,the GTZ
is commercially important. unreliable, impure and available manager, and Professor Hans
x It has a practical use, and its only seasonalll'.The team also Berckhemer, head of the earth
..iccess rate can be measured and operates u'here surface lvater sciencesdepartment at the.fohann
. ,strc1.This is r,hy Hans-Dieter sources or shallorvwells are too \Abll-gang Goethe-Urriversity.
3tiz. :r phlsics prof'essor at the distant to be used. These were not wells that could
.r:i:' ig \l:rximilians University in have becn sunk anl.where in order
l.l .: .:r, be ca me i nv olv ed. He AMA Z ING SUCCESS to tap the vast underground
-r ' I :, r krrorr' pleciseh' horv Aicl agencies have had limited reservoirs, called aquifers. On the
. . i-i_i , , ,L rlcllo c at e r r . at er 70 success using orthodox means to contrary, these boreholes l.radto
- :. t', , ,,' ,11 'O c k - s t f e\ \ ' lldes ef t . locate ground &'ater running deep be drilled into fractured rock
belorv the surface in geologicallv formations where \\,ater rllns at a
. - :- a i, ] iLr lt c t ior t r |it l- i clifficr-rlt areas. Schroter's dowsing, considerable depth tl.rrouel'r
' :.. \ on the other hand, has been narro\r-cracks,or fissules.In such
:. - spectacrrlarlv successful. conditions, a nornral failure rate
Over- a large, clrv area of Sri shoulclbe rr.ellabove 5() per cent.
:'- I . ; r nk a. i r 'h e l e n t : r p s a n d \ - e g e t a t i o n The nronetarr sari nq:rr 'eLe
' :. . - . . r t ' l: n 't f e r r ' c l L L e s S . c h r - o t e r - 's huge. si l rceti re al tel nati ve r r - ouid
- r . , : : : ir ': . 1 c ctLj t r l r 'c 1 l - t o s u p l t h have i nrohed tcn tl ntesthe cost .
' . . . . . , . . . . T l - r c S 'r L C C ct:i:L t e \ \ . i \ purnpi ng anclpul i fvi nq \fa t er f r om
. . t . , " t r r 'ar , - t : : - . T l r c ., : .r r r r- ktl l .,t. rr. Tl rt: .tL c teS S i S
that dowsing was Wing Commander Beadon also tells
practised well before of how he was accusedof being a spy
this time. by a large oil company after he told
In the US, it is them where to drill for oil. The advice
sometimes called he gave them about where to drill was
water-witching and so accurale they refused to believehii
has frequently been know l edgew asobtai ned thro ugh
associatedwith the clowsing alone.
occult. Despite Beadon believes the ability to dowse
charges that it is within us all, but that there are those
is sophisticated who have a special talent for it. This
self-delusion or fraud, talent, he says,originates in the more
dowsing is more widely intuitive, riqht-side of the brain.
practised than many
would imagine.
psychic Uri Celler is
{ lr is in regions like reputed to have earned huge fees
the lorgely feolureless adr-isinginternational mineral
terroin of Third World companies where to drill for
counlries thot Hqns valuable resources.He dowses
Schriiter (inset) cnd his Llsinga map, concentrating on
teom look for wofea each area of the map until he feels
Normol methods of that a particular area will
detecfing low-lying prove a rich source of oil,
sources of woier hove gold or minerals.
led to o lot of expensive Geller sometimes dowses
foilures. The successrole from the air, flying over an
of Schriiter's dowsing area alrd tuning in to
discoveries hos been r-ibrationsu'hich indicate
of greot benefit to the presence of minerals in
people living in these the grour-id below.
semi:orid qreos.
not a fluke because it has been Ferr'archeologists deny that
re p e a t edby S c hr ot e r' sl e a m i n dorr'sir-rg has been used to discover
Namibia, the Sinai, Kenya, the the precise location and outline of
Yemen, Niger, the Congo and the long-buried buildings. Even water
Dominican Republic. companies in the UK quietly
Schroter's abilities pose a huge acknorr'ledgehaving used dowsers.
challenge to orthodox science. He It has even been suggestedthat :E
has been able to pinpoint with a there are vast resen'es of oil
precision measured in centimetres beneath \\'indsor Castle.
rather than metres, not just where Wing ComrnarrderClive
to drill, but to what depth. He has Beadon dou-sedusing a
also found water sources that map of the area around the
assllre a sufficient yield for local Castle, a pendulum and a
requirements. small sample of oil. He
predicted that there would
AN CI E NT A RT be between 220 and340
The phenomenon of dowsing was m i l l i o n l i tres of oi l i n a si te
first mentioned in Gerrrran near the Castle. But drilling,
textbooks on mineral development Beadon says,could damage
back in the 15th century. There is London's underground water
even evidence - from wall supplies, so we may have a long
p a i n tings .s t elaeand ma n u s c ri p ts- wait to find out if he is risht.

Hundrcds of inr,estip4atiotrs have
been conducted into dorvsitrgover
the past 150 'r'cnrs.Until thc r-estrlts
of Betz's tesl.swcre publishcclitr W:
1995,none hacl provicleclsufficient
evidence to or,errvhelm the deeplv
e rttr enc lt eddot t lr l . o l tc i t ttti s ts .
Trvo reasons are put forrvzrrclbl'
clorvsingpractitior)elsfirr past
failed expcrinrents.One is that,
lvhile the technique of dou,sirtg
can tireoreticallvbe learned and

$ .1trcffi
We m u st occepf
d owsin g q s o fqct. lf is
useless to work
e xp e r im e n fs merely to
Prove its exisfence
- it exists
Ch o r l e s R i c h e t ,F r e nchScie n ttst


practised b1'anvone, deglecs ol'

skill virrv hueclr,, and tnauv clorvsers
will set results rto better than one
rvould expect chance to provicle.
The sccond, rrore contloversial, Tl're most puzzline and The An-rerican Societl ol
reason is that if donsing is a c . r nt lo\ c r '\ i i r l d o r t s i r r r l p r a c t i c c i r l ) o t r 's e r s g i r e t h e f e l l , r r r i t r : ;
branch of the parartorrnai, as most loczrting a hiclclen object br, e x p l a n a t i o n o f ' r n n p c l r r r 's i r tu :'\Ia p
practitioners belier,c, then it srrspenclinu ir pendulum o\rcr a clonsing is bcst yrelfirmccl not \\'ith
involves extra-sensorv laculties that m:rp. \\'hcn the clirection of the \ - r . r r L r o c l s b l r t i r 'i t h a p e r t c lr r l r r r n .
lie outsicle the undcrstanclins of pc t t t I t t lt t t t r '. r r r i t r g . r l t c l s . i t O r r e r r a r i s t o o v c r - l r L rt h e n r a p
modern science. Paranormal inclicates tl-rc spot u'hele the cibjei:t t r i t l r . Ll t i , l , l i r i , l r r r : rt ilrr,r
faculties rarclv shor'r,up u,ell in is hiclclen. Actuallv being neal the l e c t a n g l e : r t h o u g h t h i : g l i d ca u b e
laboratory tests. site in qucstion is unnecess:lr\'. m e n t a l l r p i c t r . u 'c c l .o l i m : i g i ne cl ) .

':.1 .

Out of 9OO tests of 43 dowsers.

the probobility wos one in l,O0O
ogoinst o chonce explonotion for
the discovery of the pipe. Hons
THEBETZRESULTS Schriifer's lesl score wos one in
In 1995, Professor Hons-Dieter Betz 1,70Oogoinsl chonce.
published o 73-poge onolysis of his Unlike eorlier tesfs, neither
dowsing experimenfs in lhe Journal dowser nor experimenter knew
of Scie ntific Exploralion. Success where lhe woler pipes were hidden.
roles, often fwice os greot os lhose In o second series of sirictly
expecled using orthodox melhods controlled iesls in field conditions
of woter explorotion, were recorded (right), the <umulofive results from
over severctl yeors in l2 countries. 40 dowsers rose lo o million to one
In o bock-up lest, o pipe wos ogoinsl chonce expectotion. Still
ploced on lhe ground floor of q more remorkoble is thor only l3 of
born ot rondomly defermined these dowsers oblqined significonl
positions. Dowsers on the floor resuhs, which meqns thqt ftreir
obove hqd ro locole the pipe. success role wos even higher. T
{ Hons Schriiter demonslroles to Some scientistshave suggested
Africon woler eng.ineering sludenls that successfuldowsers'
how lo combine the orfhodox hypersensitivity to minor clues, or
methods of ground wofer locofion abi l i ry to respond to some
wirh rhe more mysterious lechniques rrnkrrow nearth-energyradi at ions.
of dowsing. may tri gger mrrscul artw i tch es
w hi ch move the rods. B ut ro ds ar e
Stranger still, thoueh, the often coveredi n thi n tubesor
pendulum would react to different cotton reels, used as grips, and
emotions and attributes, with a are not touched di rectl y.A l so lhis
d i l l e re n t l errgth for l emi ni ne theory cannot account for the
(2 9 i n ) and mascul i ne(24 i n) w i del y practi sedart of map
objects,including human or dowsing by per-rdulum.
allimal remains.
Stephen Scammell,another E N E R GY R A D IA TION
Enslish dowser, has published the Most theories assume some sort
results of a lifetime's experimental of earth cnergv emissions or
work in dowsing. He saysdowsing electromagnetic field. But,
was used in World War II to detect contrary to accepted laws of
unexploded bombs. He has since physics, the force and reliability of
been employed to locate buried the rods' movements seem to be
mines. Scammell'spendulum scale u n r e l a t e d t o t h e d e p t h o f t he
differs fiom Lethbridge's, but in material detected.
neither case have the experimer-rtal Most dowsers believe the
conditions been rigorous enough phenomena lo be a kind of
to make the claims scientifically paranormal uift, depending on a
acceptable.One thing is clear from direct link between the thought
an abundance of often conflicting processes and the object being
The dorvserthen asksrvhich evidence: dor,vsingr'r,illnot rvork sousht. The fact that many
rectangleson the grid n'ill contain lurlessthe dou'serconcentr-ates his dorvsers Llse no instruments, only
the best sites for clrillins a \vater mincl on the desireclobject. their outstretchecl fingers, tends to
well. The pendulum will supplv
the answer.'

The most celebratedpractitioner
of dowsing by studying the
movements of a pendulum was
Cambridge academic Tom C.
Lethbridge, who began his studies
in the 1930s.
At first, Lethbridge was
convinced that the rods were
responding to subtle
electromagneticfields. But in a
lengthy series of trial and error
experiments, he found that the
iength of the penduh-rm
determined what substancewould
be fbuncl. He created a table of
verv precise measurements
sholving, fbr example, that a
22-inch length would reveal the
existenceof silver or lead, while
iron clemanded a 32-inch stretch,
but sulphur a mere 7 irrches.
) In the Solomon lslonds, Uri Geller's
dowsing resulted in the successful
mining of gold ond diomonds. Driving
over on oreo (inset) is often enough
for him to pinpoint o locqtion.

suggestthat the rod movements

are psychokinetic, affected by that
part of the mind which has the
powef to senseundetected
emanations of energy from the a clowsing force, based on t h a t s n b a t o r l i c p a r t i c l e s . r r h i ch h e 'c

calls 'dorr'sons . attach thetlseh'es

buried object. controlled but unsupervisedtests.
But Reclclishconcluded that it rvas to the objects. and can be detected
MIN D OVER MA T T ER no more a mind-phenomenon b r d o r r 's e ts . 'tr

More orthodox methods of than graviry or magnetism is, and Hol-ever. mrrcl.r of ihis is
detection have been employed by a was not necessarilybeyond the Lrnprovelr ancl Profes:or Recldish's
former Scottish Astronomer-Royal, bounds of physics. conclnsions ale b:rseclon a strictly
Professor Vincent Reddish of Reddish suggeststhat there is a

Edinburgh University. His results, radiation field which surrounds

published in I'he D-Forcein 1993, underground objects such as water tll .\t-
certainlv conlirm the existence of pipes and cables.He hypothesizes W e or e deoling wir h q
r eol for ce/ os r eol os
gr ovity qnd m qgne ti s m
Professorof Astronomy,
of Edinburgh

limited range of tests and
conditions. But these testscannot
account tbr the detecti on st t ccesses
of rvater explorers like Har-rs
Schroter or the distant abilities of'
map dowsers.
Perhaps Schroter's greatest clairn
to fame will prove to be his role in
forcing the sceptical scier.rtihc
establishment to devise a rvider
range of dowsing trials. Then rve
might be able to understancl rnore
about the conditions rtuder rvhich
dowsingworks, atrd detertnine
r,vhetherit is a mental or

Txr camERA


n 13 March 1993,Stephen Woolhouse a UFO, then it wasa UFO. Such cases

saw something very strange in the sky. were considered good publicity for
It drifted silently above farmland the subject.
re behind his house in Bispham, This naive approach was courting
Lancashire. Like many before him, Stephen disaster,and that came in February
had become witness to the world's most 1962 thanks to a teenage boy from
enduring mystery. But, thankfull,v,he had one Sheffield, Eneland. AIex Birch
ad\rantageover most who see UFOs - a video reported that he and some friends had seerr
camera loaded with tape and readv to shoot. a formation of dark objects above their r, A bright light hovers
He filmed the glowing object before it u,as garden. They also succeeded in taking a obove formlond in
sl'allowed up by the darkening skies. photograph of this alien fleet - even though Loncqshire,Englond.
Is such evidence really proof of visiting it rvent urlseen bv the rest of the citv. The obiecr, recorded on
extraterrestrials? In these days of science- o comcorder by Stephen ,i11
fiction blockbusters and hi-tech wizardry, even P H OTOGR A P H IC P R OOF? Woolhouse (inset) in
the most humble camera can produce For a time, Birch and his father were treated 1993, wos 26 km from
anazing results. UFOs are also ripe for like heroes.Inr,'itedto London, they metwith the neoresl oirporl, buf
exploitation, as the furore over the Roswell officials from the British Air Ministry, who hod no floshing lights
alien ar-rtopsv fbotage shows.A picture simply filed a report. AIex then addressed an ond mode no sound.
cannot be taken at face value. It has to be expectant audience launching the British Anolysis of individuol
thoror-rghh'investigatedby skilled researchers. UFO ResearchAssociation. frqmes hos yet to provide'r
Alcl that is uhere the problems start. This was one of the most talked about o sotisfocfory explonolion.
In the earlr. davsof the UFO mystery, it r'l,as photographs in years.Unfortunately, nobod,v
often assumed that if the imaee looked like carried out any meaningful investisation into


) Tle infomous Alex Birch
ptro*qroph of 1962 wos
hooxed by poiniing block
blcbs on fo o pone of
gloss. The only ofher
elemenl of the photogroph
is s few iree bronches, so
phorogrophic onolysts hod
Sffi 1r
nothing fo help iudge fhe ! Of course if ir possible to
siie of the 'UFOs' or their = fske IUFO phologrophsl,
distonce from the comero.
The cdoge fhot the comero
'.Ihe X Factor reproduced o connot lie wqs disproved os
,hr.,own version of the
soon os it wqs invented
Birch plotogroph (inser) ro € Nick Popg,rr Secretoriot(Air Stoff)2A
show thqt once there is q o
icme of reference in lhe
shot, such os o building,

cnclysts con more eosily o
define size qnd distonce.
the smattering of dark blobs otr a grainv The Alex Birch revelation stung the UFO
picture of the sky:Like so manv others before c o m r n r r r r i q . ( i r r i d e l i r r e s\ ^ c r e s e t u p t o i r r ve sti -
it, the case entered UFO folkl<-rre as an gate photographic cases,and these have been
unsolved myster)'. constantly refined and improvcd. It soon
This one, however,wasall too solvable.Ten became obvious that m:rny photos of rvhat
yearslater, the now adult Alex Birch clecicled purported tci be UFOs r,vcre reallr' no sttclt
to confess.The photograph r,vasa trick. He thing. There wcre other hoaxes. of course.
h:,rclpainted a fen crude UFOs on to a sheet But most of the confitsion stetnmecl from
ol slass.propped this up in the sarden and what are trorr' tet'tnecl 'acciclctltlrl firkes'.
r>lrotri{r'apheclthe skr'. Tl-re restrlt vaguelv A canrera rr'olks muclr like the htttnatr eye,
:'r'.cDblcrl \l)irceshiPS
floating in rt'ricl:rir'. lecolcLing rr hr,rtii 1lreseut brtt open to clecep-
r i o n . - \ r r ' l i g h t c a r r e l l i l e a r s t r a r ) g e .e sp e ci a l l ,v
.- r 'h c : r . h i r i n , : t i r r o L L g h n r i s t - f i 1 l e c ls k i e s. If a
- , . . r . : r c . .r . r 'c 'e c 1 i 1l or o l e c l i n t o b e l i e v i n g th i s i s
e sg ., L-F(). ijrelr a canrera rr-ill fare tro belter.


Ir tact. rl camera calr at times be a liability
r.hen fhcecl l'ith puzzling objects. This is
bccause the eve records time florving
rror-mallv but the camera 'freezes' an instant
into one single shot. A common ex:rmple of
o a r r a c c i d e n t a l l a k e i s p l o d u c e d h r a b i r r l fl r 'i r r g
: thror-rgh thc scene. The shutter may be open
5 fbr.just a fraction of a seconcl zrncl,in that
moment, the bird's'nings can transfornt into
a deceptive imitation of a saucerlike craft.
Involving a photographic expert tt'ho can
r e c o g n i z e s u c h p r o b l e r u s i s n o t v a r ) a u to m a l i c
first step by,'UFOlogists. Thev can eliminate
other causes of rnisperception, notably the climbing fronr the trees and sucking a phlmc v This'UrO',.".yT on
lens flare. l'hich happcns lvhen a photograph of snorv ir-rits rvake. More rernarkzrble still rvas film ot Williometfe Poss
i. r.tkcrr.rl rriglrt a rr d t her e is ar r or dinar l. hut the fact that thrce separate imascs of the UFO in Oregon, wos simply o
br.ish r. lisht sou lce in t he pic t ur e. were on thc one print. It \vas as if the crzrft roodsisnrl"t*"a
Horr er er. afier vears of wrestling r,r,ith the had dematerialized and rematerializeci serelal from o moving vehicle.
often (li\nppointing outcome to their studies, times during the fel,vhundredths o{'a seconcl The movemenl of o
inr esti,qato|shave learned never to sa,vnever that the camera shutter \{ersopen.
lub,,Lrt a L-FO photograph. Around 5,000 Becarrse of'the impeccablc crcdentials of
ph,,togr-:rphic cases have been researched the n itness, this case r'l.astaken verv seriousl)'.
.lcrr ):> the rr'orld atrd a very small number - Photographic llrrsazine er,en conductccl an
oc-r'irapsone in a hundred - really seem tc) investigirtior'l - not in an attempt to pl'o\.e or
The m a jor it r ar c a m ix lur c clisprove that the ()llject \\.asa UFO, brrt usins fhe comero-shoke,
" . ' trr.slll,rine d.
,)i .r(ciclentai fakes, trickcr,v zrnd confusion. t1-reoptical ancl lthlsical characteristics of thc conclusive onolysis
carrera to ciedrrce the :rppr<txirnate sirape,
NEVER SAY NEVER size and speecl of' the
Ercrt rr'hen a case appears to be irrefutable, rn'stcr-ious olr-jec t.
-c-" L-FO experts would leap to its deferrce Unfortr-rnatelr'. as in
.,'rthout trepidation. This is rvell illustrated bv all carc. oI plrototllrplric
.r case in the US where the cameraman - rvho anall-sis, some assrunp-
',.,rihes to remain anonymous - \{as a tions had to be madc.
ir,, )chemist with a Ph.D and a big reputation For example, it rvas
:, , lose. certainly not a typical hoaxer. In assumed that the UFO
\, ,\cnlber 1966, the scientist was drivinp; r'vas flving, and rvas at
.1.r',,!rthe Williamette Passin Oregon hoping some distance frorn the a
::rke photographs of a snorv-decked peak. carnera. But in the UFO 5
H.. patience was relarded by the sisht of a world, nothing is neces-
i.r.ilge object zipping sk;m,ards and he sarih'u,hat it seems.
rr'-:rtcd institrctivelv to capture it on film. In 1993, r'esearcher Iru,in \{eicler
Tl:c photograph was extraordinary. It announced tire results of a startlitrg llc\r
, i.:,rr;r-ecl to sh ow a f lat - bot t om ed dis c investigationinto the Oregorr pl-rotograph.

tlStlqlld the
tu*rdc.rhe rnosf
€bFdF o beseen ar |lre
bgE, ra' rhe eddr's lsizon
ftc tmognified lmoges {f;e
obied npvirg io rhe lc*tf }
rcneen b A.p by o fiodrof ft
a+drtren dugEs &eobn i2; onci
occ#ttes ':l
quru . Seo*ds
l*r, crod*rer
pd the sornero €4
{31rd heqds
hlo spoce { }. direcrion rhe wcy these l'..we
Frrofessor cokuk*ed th€f:'if l*rey were teri :&om
€r"a xcsbe., tle shuttle, the biggesl went fiom.!!@$
;*"* rt- 2,5oo mph 14,0123kmlh] in one serd*.'

= q:.€l;-"";T;l
es q pryilmm .H " *. He admitted that he at first believed it real- Y Computer onolysis of the phorogroph

ffidF*%k-*+ ly did show a UFO. His suspicions were

aroused, however, by a trip to the area and
loken al Trindode lslond in 1958 hos
shown thot the obiect (mognified) is
the sight of something in the landscape that some fype of lorge, unknown crofi. :.;,
might have looked like a UFO under very Sceplics, however, remoin
specific conditions. Various experiments
followed, taking pictures from moving cars
,W,., g and using different shutter speeds.
ft t*l "e$.'
',' . + ,;:,....i Eventually, he established the likely truth -
- the UFO was in fact a road sign, and the
triple image was a result of the actions of
the camera and the speed of the car.
UFOlogists were stunned by this news,
but few could deny the remarkable tenacity
of Weider's investigation. He has proven
that few UFO photographs, however
strange,are immune to eventuaiexplanation.

There are some UFO photographs, however,
that cannot be explained. On 16 January
1958, the Brazilian naval vessel Alrnirante
Saldanha was carrying a team of
scientists to a weather station on Trindade in camera ownership. Is this because
Island - an uninhabited rock in the South and accidental fakes are now so
Atlantic - when a UFO appeared low above eliminated that only the few t.rrly ,trung.
the ocean. It flew past the ship, circled the casesget l eft behi nd?
. _
island and headed awayin full view of dozens During the 1990s,there has been a rapid
of people. One of them was the expedition increasein the number of video films showing
photographeq who took a sequenceof shots UFOs. Most are casesof mistaken identity bri6
clearlv depicting the object. to date, the film taken bv Stephen
The Brazilian captain immediatelr'order- near Blackpool in 1993has resistedall
ed that the negativesbe processed.and the to resolve ir. Attempts to find a
film u.ashanded oler to the miiitanr'. After source rvere carried out by the
Aromalies Research Organization
33 1B An airship was one possibility, ,
helicopter. Local air-traffic m
Photogrophs qre poor
indicated that neither were Dresenton
evidence becouse lhere qre
day and the'caseremains unsolved.
so mqny things \Me cqn do to
te ch n i co l l y p ro d uce imoges MOR E E V ID E N C E NEEDED:
USAF Intriguing as the evidence may be, it
NU comes down to little more than a light in
,' sky. Such an inconclusive phenomenon
some deliberation, the government released never establish final proof of alien visi
the film and stated that they were unable to there are many storieswhere witnesses
account for what was on it. Subsequent they have been taken inside a UFC
computer enhancement of the photographs ultimate photographic evidence wgli
, cg has also yielded no conclusive answers. close-up shots of a spacecraft's'i
It Despite this, scepticshave still denounced Sadly, such proof is lacking, and
the photograph as a mirage. So, as in most UFOlogists are beginning to
s other cases,the search continues for more wonder if such evidence will
= evidence. UFOlogists are pwzzled because ever be found.
.9 most of the strong photographic casescome

p from many years ago. There have been very

few in recent times, despite a huge increase


upert Sheldrake's interest in biology was

encouraged from an early age. Growing up in
a family home full of assorted plants and
animals, his initial curiosity was supported by '' When did you first become disillusioned
his father who, as a herbalist, was eager to share his with trqditionol scienfificvqlues?
fascination and knowledge of nature with his son. There was alwaysa senseof rlonder and mvsterv
From these beginnings he has subsequently gone on, about biology in our home, not the conviction tirat
in a controversial careero to challenge curent biological we've got it all wrapped up. The more I studied, the
theory. Through his work with the Association for the more I realized that biology at school and unirersity is
Scientific Study of Anomalous Phenomena, he is a dominated by the idea that all of nature is r-rothing
major advocate for research into the paranormal.
more than mechanisms. The result is that anvthing
Ten years of studying plant development at
that doesn't fit into a physicstextbook or engineering
Cambridge University, followed by four years working
processesis considered unscientific.That means that
in agricultural research in Hyderabad, India, opened
the biologist's eyes to an alternative view of nature. the so-called paranormal is outlan'ed from science.
In his 1981 book A Neut Scimceof Life, Sheldrake set However, there's a lot about livir-reorganisms that isn't
out a theory that attempts to explain many explained by physics,and this area interestsme,
paranormal phenomena. It is still seen ,rs heresy by preciselybecauseit's rejectecior ignored.
some orthodox scientists.
Criticism, however, has Where did rhe ideo for your book Seven
made Sheldrake more Experimenfs come from?
determined to prove his I wanted to investigate the kind of phenomena that

EHEE$IAKE ideas. In 1994, his book

SeuenExperiments That Could
Changethe Worldwas
can't be explained b,vrnainstream science. In
particular, I'm looking at the extraordinary powers of
animals, such as pets that develop telepathic bonds

published. It is the research
with their owners and know when they are returning
resulting from this book that
he is most keen to discuss. home, how pigeons home, how termites organize
themselves.In humans, I'm interested in the senseof

cnangq$g { Seyen Experiments

hos been creditedos on
being stared at and why people who have lost limbs
sometimes still feel they are there. These are
World fls"T""d'** , exercisein scientific
fascinating phenomena but totally outside the remit
philosophy qs well qs of mainstream science. I thought it time they were
on insight into lhe properly investigated. Western science can be very
moteriol world. conservative and insular at times - money is not made
available for certain kinds of research, while some Whqf will your reseqrch into onimqls prove?
things are just deemed irrelevaut or unimportant. For generations pet owners have been noticing
If your area of interest straysfrom 'normal' scientific unusual abilities in their animals, and they've always
pursuits, or if your research challenges the laws of been dismissed by smart-alec sceptics.There's no
the established scientific paradigm, it becomes very reason why we should believe armchair scepticsrather
difficult to gain funds and credibility. SeuenExperiments than the empirical evidence in these matters. I think
is my attempt to remedy this situation. this work will liberate a lot of pet owners from the
scepticism and even ridicule they receive when they
The book hos been billed os /DlY'science - try and explain their experiences. It will open the way
why is it importont thqt onyone should be for new work which could be an immenselv fruitful
oble lo colrY out your exPerimenfs? and exciting area of research. We could learn an
If we research the history of science, many of the auful lot about animals for a start.
i n n o v at ionswer e m a d e b y g; gi
amateurs. Charles Darwin. for Will we leqrn onyfhing qbout
ffi ffi
example, never had an academic ourselves from reseqrch inlo
post or government grant. The
Mechanists haae always
people who are most free to do feared, and still fear, that to I think we will. If we acceptthat
such research are the amateurs admit the reality of anything ani mal shave tel epathi cpow ersit
who have nothing to lose, not 'mysterious'in the realm of will make it easier to recognize that
science students who have to do life would be to abandon the human beings have these powers
projects arrryay, most of whom certaintiesof science too. We've been brought up to
probably won't go on to become believe these things don't exist and
€ @
professional researchers.If have been discouraged at every turn
€ €g
science is to be liberated from from recognizing or using them, so
its current strait-jacket, it's going to be hard for \re are probablv the least sensitivecreatures on earth.
peoplewithin that strait-jacketto do it. Traditiorral people - Australian aboriginals, Indian
villagers - u,ho har,en't had their cultures shaped by
Whor results hqve been ochieved so fqr? s'picallr'\\'estern valties are much more sensitive to
There is a sreat deal of circumstantialer-idencethat these things and take them for granted.
pets have telepathic bonds with their
owners. I'm collecting the details of such
casesand putting them on a computer
database.We now have over 1,500 cases -
about 800 from the UK, the rest from
Germany, France, Switzerland and the US.
They cover mainly dogs and cats, but some
casesinvolve parrots, snakes,guinea pigs
and horses.

How mony cqses do you need to

turn circumstontiql evidence into
the bosis for scienfific foct?
All casesare useful. If you take individual
stories then it's an anecdotal and scientists
just dismiss anecdotes. If you collect
hundreds of thousands of these stories and
you make sure they fall into a series of
categories - similar stories told by different
people from all over the world who have no
reason to make them up - then certain
patterns of behaviour begin to emerge.
This is particularly evident in the tests pet
owners have been conducting on their
animals - traits and characteristicsdevelop
that become hard, sometimes impossible
to ignore.
One of your experiments tests people lo see sexual identity in early adolescence,for example. In
if they cqn sense when they ore being other situations, like Bosnia where there is constant
stqred or. Why does this inlerest you? threat and danger, the feeling of being watched can
Many people have had this experience. It's extremely come on very strongll'. Manv people think it's saved
common, but almost completely unresearched by their lives. They suddenlr,sense danger and change
psychologistsand parapsychologists.There's a huge direction for no good reason,just as a sniper's bullet
potential for research here because it tells us ricochets off a wall or rock.
something about the nature of our minds - if we can
influence people just by looking at them, I think it Why ore your ideqs oftocked by fellow
may also tell us something about the nature of our scientists?
perception. I visited parapsychologistsin the US and Some of the rnost sensitiveareas in the sciencesare to
encouraged people to take up this research. Some do with understanding the nature of life. What I'm
did and now similar tests are being carried out at saying is that the so-called laws of nature are more
universities in Edinburgh and Hertfordshire. like habits, able to change and mutate over time.
They weren't all there engraved in the ether at the
Whqt results hqve been obtoined? Big Bang. Rather, the whole of nature has evolved and
In Se.uen
ExperimentsI suggest a simple test people can all the laws of nature have evolved too, and they're
do, working in pairs. People are stared at or ignored continuing to evolve. This undermines the
in random sequences,without their knowledge. There foundations of Western science and philosophy, the
have been over 7,700 results sent to me. If it wasjust things considered to be incontestable truths.
chance, people would be right 50 per cent of the
time. In these 7,700 tests people have, on average, Are your ideos becoming more generqlly
been right 53.7 per cent of the time, This may not qccepted?
seem much, but statisticallyit is hugely significant - it Mainstream science has, if anything, become more
means that there is only a 1 in 200 probability that the conservative over the last ten years because funding
results were due to chance fluctuations. has been cut. This has made scientistsless
..i adventurous, and there is a tremendous air of
Whqt explqins rhe obility lo sense when you discontent within the scientific world as a result. A lot
ore being stqred qt? of people are longing for a new chapter. I often
Since animals seem to be sensitive to being stared at compare the present state of science to Russia under
as well, I'm sure this sensein humans could have an fl-eonid] Brezhnev - if you wanted to get on in the
ancient biological root. It would be useful for an world you paid lip service to the prevailing orthodoxy,
animal to know when a predator was eyeing it as a but it didn't necessarilymean you believed it.
potential meal, so there would be a strong Attitudes are changing. You just need to look at the
evolutionary advantage in the development of this millions of people in Britain alone who go to
kind of sensitivity.In humans there are certain alternative practitioners. I don't know if science will
periods in development when it becomes important open up gradually over a generation or suddenly like
to know who is looking at you - the development of a the Berlin Wall coming down, but it will nannen.
S ffi
?.r,,r, k

i* -


eneath the pavenient lar a nrassi|e lieclh conceirlecl in 11nriis\ grave

c a ch e of hu m an le nr ains . The r-enr:rilrirrgrher-e lrrrtil rl-reir clis-
c o nstruction c r ew r r olk ing at c o\ e r v in I ! ) S 9 . F o r - 1 {) r e a r s .
X Shinjuku - Tokyo's bustiins ancl .
L- r r i i 7 . 1 1 t l r , , r L l i . l , r r , t i r i i i r .
prestigious redevelopment site - staggerecl rentaineci .Japan s ntost closeir
back, speechless. Nervsof the appallirredis- gnalclecl secret,
coverv in 1989 swept across Tokyo like a
tidal rvave.Unable to conceal the truth any TWISTED GENIUS
longer, the.|apanese government rvasfinal- Tl-re u'ork of' thc unir could
ly forced to acknowledse the most terrible har,e rernainecl untold h:rd it not been fbr
secret of' \4iorld \4lar II. Just metres ar,vay the discovervin a seconcl-hand bookshop of a A Unir 73I porhologisr
from the construction site la,vthe wartime n o te s made br rr nri l i rrrr offi cer from U ni t outopsies o humon
laboratory of Lieutenant General Shir6 731. The documents meticlllouslvdetailed. guineo pig ofter o germ
Ishii, father ofJapan's top-secrerbiological the biological experiments, and providecl worfore field fesr. For 4O
rvarf'are(BW) programme - Unit 731. undeniable proof that humans rvere the test yeors, fhe bustling streefs
The human guinea pigs r.rsedin Unit subjectsused by Shir6 Ishii and his team. of Shinluku (inset) hid the
731's experiments were taken from the base The young Ishii u'as a brilliant and bodies of hundreds of
in llanchuria to Tokvo for further stud1,. grandiose Army microbiologist. A flamboy- such humqn ond onimol
.\t the close of the lr'ar,the bodies were hur- ant personality, he soon attracted the fesl subiects.
attention of senior officers, and was
assuredrapid promotion. Alisning himself
with ultra-nationalists in the.|apanese \tlar
l Ministry. Ishii pushed hard for the devel-
o p m ent of biolog i c a lw e a p o rrs .
W hen J apan i n v a d e d M a n c h u ri a i n
ig3r, trhiiii saw his opportunity. It was at
Be ilnhe. 70 k m o u ts i d e H a rb i n . th a t h e
began his vile experiments on human sub-
jects. Given a large annual budget ancl 300
men, his first command was assignedthe
co v er nam e ' T ogo U n i t' .

Known locally as the 'Zhong Ma Prison
Camp', the Unit 731 facility was built by
C h i nes e[ or c ed lab o u r.A t th e c e n tre o f th e The experiments conducted ahnost de$
co m pound. a la rg c b u i l d i n g k n o w n a s belief. \Arhen Ishii wanted a human brain
'Zhong M a Cas t le 'h o rrs e dp ri s o n e rsa rrd a to experiment upon, guarclsrvere assigned
h u m an ex per im e rrll a h o ra to rv .T h o s e c h o -
se n f or hum an le s ti rrgrv e rel e fe l rc d to a s
'ma r ut as ' - logs . N rrmb e ri n g u p w a rd s o f
to acqr-rirethe orsan. Grabbing a prisoner,
the guards lvor-rld hold him dorvn, ivhile
another cleaved open his skr,rllrvith an axe.
$ n

5 0 0 . t he pr is one l s ra n g e d fro rn ' b a n d i ts ' The organ was clumsily removed and A Bound hond ond
a n d ' c r im inals ' t h ro u g h to ' s u s p i c i o u sp e r- rushe d to Ishii's laboratory, and the foot, o Chinese lobourer
so n s ' .T o t heir s ur p ri s e .th e y w e re rv e l l fe d remains of the sacrificed prisoner were dis- is dissected without
and exercised regularly, but even this small poseclo[' i n the camp crematori um. onoeslhetic. 'He knew it
humanity was inhumane. Healthy speci- Ishii's first BW experiments focused on wos over for him so he
mens were vital for good scientific results. contagious diseases such as anthrax and didn'r srruggle,' recolls
plague. In one test,Chineseguerrillaswere rhe Unir 731 porhologist
injected with plaeue bacteria. Twelve days obove, who wishes lo
later, the infectecl prisoners r,verewrithins remoin ononymous.
rvith temperatures of 40'C. One inf'ectecl 'But when I picked up
victim miraculouslv survived fcrr 19 clavs the scolpel, thot's when
'tr before he rvasciissecteclalive. he begon screoming.'
This wos iust one fype
! GR U E S OME E X P E R IME N TS of experimenl corried
In later tests,prisoners were poisoned with out ol lhe biologicol
phosgene gas, others injected with potass- worfore boses (inset).
ium cyanide. Some subjects bucked under
20,000 volts of electriciw. Those who sur,-
vived were later disposed of by
lethal injections or autopsied
while alive. Every death was
closely observed and meticulously
recorded by unit members.
The quality of Ishii's work - and
the force of his personality -
ensured a grow i ng empi re. B y
1939, he was able to relocate to
a massive, dedicated facility.
Rivalling in size Nazi Germany's
notorious Auschwitz-Birkenau
death camp, Unit 731'snew head-
quarters was located at Pinsfan, Manchuria.
The Pingfan compound was 6 km sq,
and housed the administrative br-rildinss,
by the notorious Nazi, Dr Josef Mengele,
naked prisoners were placed in sub-freez-
ing temperatures. They would then have
their limbs beaten nith sticks until they
rcsorrnded rvi th a hard. hol l ow ring -
signifying the freezins process was
complete . Later, the bodies were 'defrost-
ed' br a rangc of expel i mental techniques.
In lris book, I'-a,cLorie.s of Death, Sheldon
Harris, a California State University history
prof'essor,clctails manv other experiments,
inclucling suspending sr.rbjects upside down -t
to determine hon' long it took for them to
choke to death. Ah.r'rostir-rdescribablewas
the practi seol i nj ct ti rru ai r i rrto prisor r er s
to test for the onset of embolisms - and an

* ' i. r r 's
excruciating death rvasassured.Others had
horse urine injected into their kidneys.

Lacking anv gr.rilt, Ishii regularly produced
scientilic papers giving the results of these
laboratories, barracks, a plison fol hunan hidcous experimenls. Circulated through-
test subjects, ancl an 2rLrtolls\'-clissecting out the Japanese medical and scientific
br-rilding. Three giant fumaccs hanclled the c o r r r m u n i t r . t h e p a p e r s c l a i m e d t h e te sts

(a 1B dispos:ilof caLcasses.
A canrp nt \Iukder-r
were carried out on monkeys. Despite this
ploy, it was an open secret that humans

I c u f h i m o p e n fro m th e h o usecl -\meri can, \^crc thr rcal subiects.

Bri tish. -\ustralian
c h e s f t o t h e sfo mq ch q n d By the close of \trorld \{ar II, Ishii - by
ancl \crr' Zcaland then ranked a l,ieutenant G.eneral - bound
he screomed terribly. This
p risonel s of w ar. his suborclinates to ar) orlh o f se cr e cy.
wos oll in o doy's work H ere. too, experi Pingfan ancl the other sites rvere destroyed,
f o r t h e su rg e o n s rre nts \\' ere per- and Ishii and his men returned home in
UnitZ3 I for-nrecl in secret. obscuritv. The chilling u.*., ini,
Enrps Fr-ostbite cxperi-
lltel tt2ttl ol l w as a
731 remained hiclden from public scrutiny.
But in the militarv and intelligence com-

l):rrticularly impor- muniq, nothing is eter forgotten. Despite

tant project. Frostbitc cleg-r-ircled Isl ri i ' s precaul i ons.N l i ed i rrrel l i gencehad
efficiencv during thc bitter- \'Ianchurian large dossiers on the leading Japanese
winters. Echoing sirnilal rr'ork conducted microbiologists. The US believed they were
{ The rools used by
'' I'r'" '1 .
Unit 731's doclors l r't t- ,€fr..,r, ..
!n one document, , -r.
included sows for ,
o diogrom (right) l.l
,,1 ,t
proctising ompulofions
showed 2l test
ond hooks for storing F &
: A r;&
orgons removed during PROg* t \'{r
dissections.No 'log' 1r
On the {f
escoped deoth - those ad wirh **' tr
lucky enough to 1984, o Ki,
survive BW lests rwere o boi::i $
either dissecfed or shot.
The deoth toll from Unir
terrible I
731's work remoins o
plipgrs reveoled (.,
incolculoble, olrhough
reports on folol
eslimoles ore in the
lhe reports , ar,:
tens of thousonds.

.*i,,i,l*'"' ::i*I'!li.j,:],.;,
way behind the Japanese in biological rvar-
fa re. US m ilit ar y s tra re g i s lasp p re c i a re drh e
tacticalbenefits- biologicalagenlscould be
i n tr oduc ed int o a w a r z o n e c o v e rtl y In
. F a c t.
Ish ii had done t h i s o n a n u m b e r o f o c c a -
si onsin China and e l s e w h e re .
The A llies wer e d e s p e l a teto a c q u i re th e
e xp er t is eand k no w -h o wo f ts h i i ' sre s e a rc h .
Detailed records of the human experimen-
tation were especially sought. Hindered at
home by social repulsion to such activities,
human experimentation data was viewed
as the jewel in the crown. At the encl of
th e war , s c ient i s ts fro m F o rr D e tri c k ,
Maryland - the US's top secret BW facility
- ra c ed t o int er v i e w J a p a n e s ete c h n i c i a n s .
Ba rely one of t he m s to p p e d to c o n s i d e r
th e et hic al im plic a ti o n s . G;
H a v ing as s es s edt h e fa c rs .a n i n re l l i g e n c e A In on otlempt to
ca b lec oldly inlor m e d rh e Wa r D e p a rrm e n l remove oll froce of
i n W as hingt on D C th a r th e ' fo re g o i rrg U ni r 73I, S hi r6 l shi i
i n fo r m at ion warra n ts c o n c l u s i o n th a t ordered the
[rh e] J apanes eB W g ro u p h e a d e d b y Is h i i deslruclion of every x
did violate rules of land warfare'. The mes- reseorch focility or
sage added coldly, 'This expression of the end of the wor.
opinion is not a recommendation that The fomilies of those deeply. Allied PO\\'s \\'ere s\\'orlt to secrecy
[the] group be charged and tried as such.' who died of the honds and cynically forgotten. Bv 1948, immunity
Anxious to block the Soviets acquiring of Unir 731 ore only from prosecution was offered to all mem-
Ishii's expertise and records, the US dis- now being told obout bers of Ishii's unit in exchange for data
cusseda secret deal. Bur a major obstacle lhe otrocities. After and co-operation. The biggest cover-up of
had to be otercome. [l was the darkest heoring occounts of the war had commenced, and was to Iast
'secret of secrets'.Returning AIlied POWs Chinese lobourers four decades. With the discovery of the
re c ount ed har r ow i n g ra l e s o f b i o l o g i c a l being forlured on bodies hidden beneath Tokyo in 1989, the
e xp er im ent at ion ru th l e s s l y c o rrd u c re d speciolly builr beds true story began to leak out. Eventually,
upon them. If thesesloriesrverereporred by (inset), mony fomilies former Allied servicemen started telling of
the press, the public would bray for blood. ore now seeking their ordeals.
There was only one option: cover-up. retribution. 'Damn right I remember,'JosephGozzo
Prosecutors at the Tokyo War Crimes tri- snapsangri l y. A former avi ati on e ngineer
a l s wer e war ned n o r to i n v e s ti g a te to o living in San.|ose, California, Gozzo had
glassrods inserted in his rectum during his
internment. Gozzo is understanclably
resentful. 'I can't believe our government
Iet them get awaywith it,' he say's.

Ex-POW Frank James, sharecl his memo-
ries with a US Hor-rse of Representatives
sub-committee in 1986. '\Ve were just
pawns,' he reflected. '\{e alwaysknew there
was a cover-up.' Another prisoner, Max
McClain, remembers lining up for injec-
tions with his br-rnk-mate,George Hayes.
Two days lateq Hayes complained, 'Mac, I
don't know what those sons of bitches gave
secrecy is essential in order to protect the
i nterestsof the U ni red S tatesand to guar d
me, but I feel like crap.' That evening against embarrassment.' The official secre-
Hayes was dissected by the 'boys at the cy R nal l yw i l ted i n I993 w hen U S Def ense
V Mony Unif 731 rest morgue', McClain remembers bitterly. S ecretaryW i l l i am P erry.under i ntensepub.
subiects were infecled The House of Representativeshearing lic pressure.promised ro declassifi,records
wifh onthrox, o highly lastedjust half a day. Only one of 200 US of World War II biological experiments.
infectious diseose survivors was permitted to testif. Incredibly,
which produces pcinful the chief archivist for the US Army restified, TH E TE GA C Y C ON TIN U E S
block skin ulcers, blood sa)4ngthat files and documents provided by Many of those i nvol vedi n theJapan eseBW
poisoning ond o fever Ishii were returned to Japan in the 19b0s. experiments became successful after the
rhor kills nine out of They had not bothered to make copies. lvar.A number held senior universitypostsin
ten suff,erers. Anthrox In an attempt to cover their embarrass- the fi el d of medi ci ne,arrd one heade dup a
experimenls involved ment, the US and Japar-resegovernmeltts l eadi rrgJaparresepharmaceuri calcompany.
fying subiecrs io stokes d e n i e d th a t a tro c i ti e s had occurred. Others gai ned posi ti ons rangi ng f r om
ond exploding Despite this, a body of official informarion Presidentof rheJapan Medical Association,
porceloin onlhrsx became public. A file from General through to Vice Presidentof the renowned
bombs neorby to see Douglas MacArthur's headquarters states Green Cross Corporation. Ironically, one
how effecfively ihe that the investigation of Unit 731 was member from the frostbite team even became
diseose spreod by o 'under direct.foint Chiefs of Staff order'. a major player in the frozen food industry.
controlled explosion. The document continues, 'The utmost Unrepentant, Shird lshii died in 1959.
Before he was through. lshii was ro have
an even more profound effect o n lhe
A l l i es. The accepranceof hi s w ork meant
that the taboo <in tMman experimenration
- agreed duri ng the 1925 Geneva
C onventi on - evaporal ed.U S ancl Br it ish
citizens once more became guinea
pigs, this time at the cynical
hands of their own govern-
'o ments, and on home soil.
In the next issue,INSIDE STORY examineswhat
: the US and British gouernmentslearned,from
E Lfnit 731, and inuestigatesthesecretexperiments
lui;i * being carried out on membersof thepubkc.
r' ,,


Rrsrnc ovERTHEGizA

uilt out of six and a. half million

tonnes of rock and shaped ,to fise
146.5 metres into the skv. the Great
Pyramid contains more masonry
th a n all t he c ath e d ra l s . c h u rc h e s a n d
chapels in England combined. For more
than 4,50Oyearsit has remained one of the
largest buildings ever to be constructed on
the face of the earth. a
Egyptologists say that the Great Pyramid
w a s br r ilt by t he A n c i e n t Eg y p ri a n s i n
2 .5008C.r or r ghly a r th e s a me l i me a s th e
Sphinx and the other two p1'ramids
at the Giza comptex. \Arhat is norv
under dispute is why the Great rr{)\11)L!} -i-
S..t.t chamber
Pyram idwasbr r ilt . I
_ "* r r tl i

)"iif::l'::"jli i:irilil;' "

In March 1993, Rudolf Gantenbrink, a
Cerman engineer, set out to find the
. is t he in v e n to r o f U p u a u t 2
a n s\ v erHe
- a US$250.000 remote-controlled
robot mounted with a video camera. He
sent his robot up 'a ventilation shaft
e xte r r ding s out h fro m th e Q u e e n ' s
Chamber, a room deep inside the Great
Pyramid. Upuaut 2 (which means 'The

A number of visitors hove reporled
1r stronge goings-on inside the Greot
Pyromid. The first reports cqme from
Nopoleon who hod o disfurbing
experience there in ihe | 8fh century.
ln 19O3, occultist Aleister €rowley
speni o night of his honeymoon inside
lhe King's Chomber. Af*er reoding o
mystic inconlotion, Crowley reporled
being bofhed in lilac light. No noturol
light con penetrqte fhe chomber.
New Age reseorchers speculofe thot
the light wos cqused by rhe pyromid
shope somehow octing like on omplifier
of 'cosmic energy', rqther like rhe life
force described in Chinese ocupuncture.
These slories hqve creoted o thriving
blqck morket, where tourisis bribe fhe
ormed guords into leffing fhem spend
rhe night inside the pyromid.

Opener of tl're \\ar' in ancient Eg,vptian)

tralellecl tiO metles along the cramped
e0cn-i r 2rjcm ,iirafr befbre its path was
blockeclbr a lirnestone'cloor-'.Gantenbrink
rr'asamazeclto see on his TY n-ronitor that
the door' had nvo copper handles and
there rvasa gap betweetr the door and the
floor. Gantenbrink had fbund an undiscor
ered chamber inside the Grear Pyramid.

The Great Pyramicl is a fanrastic piece of
engineering, notjust becauseof its bulk, bllt
becauseof the exactnessin hor,vit was built.
The faces of the pvramid point to trr-re
north, south, east and nest r.vithincredible
accuracy- there is onll' a 0.015 per cent
rnargin of error. Toda.V,gettins this kincl of
accuracyrvould require a laser theodolite, a
map accufal e to w i thi n ten mcl fe\. engin-
eers, astronomers and master stonemasons.
The baseforms almost a perfect sqlrare-
F each side is over 230 metres in length, and
F the difference befiveen the longest and
u shorl estsi desi s onl l 25 cm. The col ' ner .ar
s e
€ less than a degree off from beine perfect
p right-angles of 90'. These enuineering
masterpieceswere achievedwithout pulleys,
o wheels or the sophisticated cutting tools
that toda,v'sengineers take fbr granted.
The mony shcfts, chombers qnd
possoges inside rhe Greor Pyromid
mcrke it unique omongsl oll Egyption
Pyromids. The King's Chomber (l )
ond the Glueen'sChcmber (2) hove
yielded no riches. Whot lies
behind the door of the secret =
chomber (3) could prcvide
fhe onswerg to oll of the i

pyromid's mysferies. .9

found in the
€homber, is the
evidence found thot
indicotes rhe pyrcmid
wos o tomb. The Glueen"
Chomber wos never lhe
= losl resting ploce of the
Phqrooh's wife. lt got its
4 nqme becouse of the
o Arob cuslom of burying
o women in tombs wirh
A The door, found by
Upuouf 2 (inset), is
close lo the south foce So, rvhy did the builders insist on such R ,,ere bui l t duri rrg the foul th dyr r ast y
of rhe pyromid. precision? \Ahat did they have in mind that (2631-21948C). The Great Pvramid was
Egypfologisrs believe requir.ed a pregision that the human eye built by the Pharaoh Khufu, the second
lhot there moy be o c a n n o l e v e n d e re c l ? largest by his brother Khafre, and the third
slotue of Khufu behind Egyptologists believe that . the Great by Menkaure, son of Khufr.r. This attribu-
the door, signifying rhe P y ra n ri d a n d i ts c o m pani ons w ere con- ti on ori gi rrated from tl re (,r' eek lr ist or ian
Phorqoh's ofterlife stiucted for one single purpose: as burial Herodotus, rvho had been told this some
iourney lo the heovens tombs for the Pharaohs. 2,000 vearsafter ther rverebuilt.
ond immortolity. The three pyramids on the Ciza plateau In 820. the Caliph AI Mamoun was
l epor tccl l r rl re fi rsr ro penetrarethe G r eat
Pu'amid. Inside. he found ver,vlittle - no treaslrre,no tools and no hiero-
gh pl ri c i rrscri pti onson any part of t he
prr-ar.r-rid.All he discovered,was an emptyj
sal cophagrrs i n the K i rrg' sC hamb er . !


Though many tried to find evidence inside
the pyrami d, i t w as not unri l 1837. When
British explorer Colonel Howard VySe
searched the interior of the Great Pyramid,
that anything of significance was found. He
blasted his way through the rock above the
King's chamber with eunpowder and, in
doing so, discovered four sealed chambers.
On the walls of the highest of these car-ities,
he discovered red painted hierogll,phic
graffiti which included the name of Khufu.
This gave the Egyptologists the r,itai clue
they needed, To them, the hieroglyph
showed that the pyramid had been built by
th e P har aohl( huF u.So th e e mp ty s a rc o p h -
agus provedphar the Pyramid was Khu[u's
tomb. They say that the pyramid was prob-
ably ransacked shortly after it was built
which is why the pyramid was empty.
Doubts have been cast, however,on the
a u th ent ic it yof t hes eh i e ro g l y p h i c sA
. u th o r
Graha+n Hancock claims: 'A[ the end of a
costly and generally fruitless digging sea-
so n , V y s e. . .s t um ble d u p o n th e fi rs t i n c o n -
trovertible proof that Khufu was the
builder of the Great Pyramid, guarantding
that his efforts would be well rewarded.'
Acc or ding t o Han c o c k th e h i e ro g l y p h i c s
ra i sea num ber of inc o n s i s te n c i e s : pointed directly to the star
r The hieroglyphic graffiti was the only Sirius (associated with the
si g n of K huf u' s na m e to b e fo u n d a n y - L,gyptiangoddesslsis). The
where in the Pyramid other southern shaft
o They were located in an obscure and hid- pointed to the lowest of the
den part of the building three stars located in the
belt of Orion, a constella-
ffi# 1rr tion belieled to be the
home of ' the god Osiris,
This engineer hos got the
wl{o brought civilization to
ideo thot lhere is something
the Nile Valley in a remote
b e h i n d f h e d o or. B u t i t i s o l l era called Zep Tepi, u'hich
imo g i n o t i o n . N o ch q mb e r means First Time.
hos been discovered Bauval ar-rd Hancock
Dr GunterDyer,Egypiologist b el i eve these al i gnmel tts
\rere no accident.The pr-ra-
mid builders, tl-rer. fee1,
. The,v nere foru-rd in a chamber rvhere ir-itentionallr' rnade the
o rrlvV v s ehad ac c e s s C r eat P ;' rami d so thar i rs
. Severai of the hieroglyphs were painted internal passageways
alignedwith the stars. V Gontenbrink hos
upside-down,some were unrecognizable : donoted on updoted
and others were misspelt or written in T+IE ORION CONNECTION
.*tu]::t!r@s'ry|ir1l.rj].i1l5!,.lll:ll..'.j1M]:#";sM::ss@ model of Upuout to the
bad grammar. The link between the Giza Pyramids ancl Egyplion oufhorities
This may point to the possibility that Vyse Orion was further cemented when Bauval ond offered to troin
forged the hieroglyphics to jt*ti$ the costs n oti cecl thar the thi rd and smal l esrpyra- use it. The
o f h i s ex pedit ion, th o u g h Eg y p to l o g i s ts mid was out of line with the other two. new robol con view
hotly dispute this. L o oki ng at the bel t of Ori on. he sarvrhat i rs inside the chomber with
Graham Hancock and fellow author three starsw ere al so off-set i rr exactl y the o speciolly-fined fibre
Ro b er t B auv al belie v e th * l th e l ru e ' p u r- same way. He realized that the three Giza opfic comero.
pose of the Great Pyr4imid can be found by pyramids could be a symbolic representa-
first looking at the stars. tion of these stars.

Because of a phenomenon called pre- The angle of Orion's belt, how-

cession, caused by the wobble of the earth ever, did not exactly match the lay-
o n i ts ax is . t he c ons te l l a ti o n sc h a n g e th e i r out at Giza. Coing back to their
positions in a cycle which takes 25,980 computer, Bauval ancl Hancock s
years to complete. Using computer recon- ''found 'that the only E'

structions of the positions of the stars in time the stars on the

t" '
th e sk ies abov e t he p l ra m i d s i n 2 .5 0 0 e c . belt of Orion perfectly :
Bauval and Har-rcock sarv that one bf the matchecl the position
so u th er n s haf t s oI th e Gre a t P y ra mi d of the pyramids was ...9

.9) l.


in 10,500ec. Bauval and Hancock believe

th a t th i s s u g g e s tsth a t al rJroughthe rhree
pyramids were completed around 2,500sc,
th e p l a n n i n g o f th e e nri re Gi za compl ex
V Egyprologists soy took place 8,000 years earlier, perhaps in
thot ony treosure fhe the form of lorv platforms. The plans rvere
Greot Pyromid moy handed down from gdneration to genera-
hove. siored wqs sfolen tion until the era came when the builders Bauval arld Har-rcock believe that
soon cfter it wos built could align the internal shafts ro their UaRina is on the threshold of fully
becouse the pyromid i m p o rta n I s ta rs . understanding the first three conclusions
wcs so obviously o and is ready to see .what the ancient
speciol lomb. The loter THE V ER G F OT D IS C OV E R Y Egyptians left for future generarions to dis-
Phoroohs leorned to In their book KeeperoJ Genesis,Bauval and cover. Where are these hidden store
hide their tombs, such H a n c o c k c o n c l u d e d t h at: rooms? Rudolf Gantenbrink may have got
os Tulonkhomen o T h e p l a n n e rs o [ G i z a bui h the pyrami ds tantalizingly close when he took his robot
(below) wlqose .-' a n d th e Sp h i n x b e causerhey w anted a
a. J+e#
mummy ond lreosure ;K tr
longJasting marker that would inspire i e':=j tfr@
remoined uhdiscovered many future generations to investigate
unril 1922. lts purpose. 'i
A door is uselesswithout
r The positioning of the som ething behind if. A door
monuments use the 'com-
'. musl hove q purpose
mon language' of the stars. RobertBouvol,Author
---: )
So any culture can deduce
thefunction of the pyramids _trs,
at Giza so long as they to the 'door' in the southerlt shaft of the
u n d e rs to od the movements Queen's Chamber. Dr Zasvi Hawass,
o f th e s t ars. Director of the Giza plateau,'"*.ltras
I The pyramids have 'pi...r- announced that, with the help of thie.
sional co-ordinates' (such as Amtex Corporation of Canada, a new
shafts in the Great $ramid) robot w i l l be senr up rhe sha f t in an
which allow researchersto attempt to opel t rhe secretchamber .
pin down specificdates. Alternatively, the investigation of the
r The Giza complex has con- man-madechamber befw een rhe Sphinx's
=-9 c e a l e d store rooms w hi ch
pawscould reveal the answer.
d c o n ta i n the ul ti mate mes- \Arhateverthe case.perhapsfinally. some
E sage the pyramid builders of the mysteri es surroundi ng t he *. - *
w a n te d to passon. Great Pyramid will be resolved] Hd