Design Tips

© All Rights Reserved

5 views

Design Tips

© All Rights Reserved

- Space Frame
- Rcc Member Design Tips
- rr320103-structural-engineering-design-and-drawing-ii(steel)
- smith_truss_optimization.pdf
- Staad Assignment 2
- AIA SampleTest
- 3 Space Truss- Mero
- Analysis of Frames Beams Trusses
- Mec32 Workout 1
- 100712 Design Slabs Shear_ACI 318
- Frame
- Long Span Pratt
- 511_03.pdf
- Chapter 2
- 032011 March11 Houstonballet Web
- Matamoros Design of Simply supported beams 2003
- Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 488-489 (2014) Pp 381-384
- DoS Model
- reswerch.doc
- is.4247.2.1992.pdf

You are on page 1of 9

SL.NO

1.

2.

3.

4.

1.

MEMBER

PLINTH BEAM

TIE BEAM

FLOOR BEAMS

GRID BEAMS

15

18

12

20

TO

TO

TO

TO

18

20

15

30

the column face & (not the value at centre line as per

analysis)

2.

Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (Not

the value at centre line as per analysis)

3.

Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.

4. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak

axis, the moments at the end support shall be reduced

more and distributed and the span moments shall be

increased accordingly to account for the above

reduction.

5.

Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15%

of the support

moments shall be added to the span

moment without the support moments

getting reduced.

6.

The section within the span shall be designed for the

increased span

moment which will account for the

concentrated & isolated loading that

may act within

one span.

7.

Moment redistribution is not allowed if moment co-efficient

taken from code table designed for earthquake forces and

for lateral loads.

8.

At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE

SUPPORTS & the +ve moment reinforcement in

CONTINUOUS MEMBERS shall extend along the same face

of the member into the support, to a length equal to Ld/3.

(Ld-development length)

9.

Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are

doubly reinforced.

10. Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0. Try to design a

minimum width for beams so that the all beam

reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the

reason that any reinforcement outside the column will be

ineffective in resisting compression.

effective depth

whichever is less. (For static loads)

12. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so

as to avoid

compression reinforcement.

13. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in

controlling

the deflection, creep and other long term

deflections.

14. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the

Primary beam if the

beams are of the same depth.

The kinking of bars shall be shown clearly

on the

drawing.

15. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required

development

length.

16. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A (i.e. layer

nearest to

the tension face) so that max. lever arm

will be available.

17. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever

heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam. (Try to

avoid the hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth

than the main beam, as there are enough cushions

available).

18. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that

it does not

induce any TORSION on the main beam.

19. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be

given a

little more and the development length shall

be given 25% more.

20. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially

continuous or fully

continuous) can be assumed as

wl^2/10 and the same reinforcement can be

detailed

at span and support. This thumb rule should not be applied

for

simply supported beams.

SLAB

EFFECTIVE DEPTH:

Sl.No

SLAB

SPAN/EFFE.DEPTH

1. One- way simply supported slab

2. One-way continuous slabs

3. Two-way simply supported slabs

L/B=1.5

4.

L/B=1.5

30

35

38

for

35 for L/B>1.5

40

for

38 for L/B>1.5

be 10mm for

normal spacing. (It can be 8mm at very closely

spaced).

Slab thickness can be 10mm, 110mm, 120mm, 125mm, 150mm,

etc.

The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm (8)

and the

distribution bars @ 250mm (10).

If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall (without any

frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the

length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.

5. If the roof is of sheet (AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall

(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be

provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. The

bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND.

6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross

sectional area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and

other weathering agent and for the Ponding of rain water etc

since it is exposed to outside the building enclosure.

COLUMN

Section should be designed for the column moment values at the

beam face.

Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant.

Go for higher section properties when the moment is

predominant.

Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3.

Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets

maximum lever arm

for the axis about which the column moment

acts.

Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing according

to the change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a change in

reinforcement at a junction, lap shall be provided to that side of the

junction where the reinforcement is less.

Provide laps at mid height of column to minimize the damage due

to moments (Seismic forces).

Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the

weakest link due to weak and non compacted part.

FOOTING

Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one

trial pit to get the real site bearing capacity value.

Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for

finding the SBC.

footing that is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).

Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in

orthogonal

directions connecting all columns which will help

in many respects like

reducing the differential settlement of

foundations, reducing the moments on footings etc.

Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for

analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap.

The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may

only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations

or on individual foundation pads supported by short stiff piles or

by foundation walls in Basement.

Foundation pads supported on deformable soil may have

considerable rotational

flexibility, resulting in column forces in

the bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the

assumption of a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected

column HINGES at the top of lower storey columns under seismic

lateral forces. In such cases the column base should be modeled

by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-Seismic design of

Reinforced concrete and

Masonry buildings by T.Paulay &

M.J.N.Priestley.)

Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designers Handbook by

Reynold where it is

clearly mention about the column base

support.

R.C.C.WALLS

The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall

be as

follows:

Vertical reinforcement:

a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger

than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415

N/mm^2 or greater.

b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.

c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than

16mm in diameter.

Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall

neither

exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.

Horizontal reinforcement.

a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger

than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415

N/mm^2 or greater.

b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.

c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger

than 16mm in diameter.

neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.

NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be sufficient

to provide

adequate resistance to effects of shrinkage and

temperature.

2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:

456=2000, where He is the effective height of the wall and t is

the thickness of the RC wall. He for a braced wall will be:

a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by floors

where h is the height of the wall.

b) 1.0h.

MISCELLANEOUS

Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor).

1. TRUSS:

The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain

optimal value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The

same principle applies to trusses. An optimal depth/span ratio for

a planar truss is approximately 1/10. Although forces in the

CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces in the WEB are

practically UNCHANGED and increasing the depth increases the

lengths of these members. Approximately half the web members

are in COMPRESSION and increasing their lengths reduces their

efficiency due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.

VIERENDEEL GIRDER:

The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical.

The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for

a UDL

loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the

depth.

CABLE:

A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its

load is termed as Cable.

4.ARCH:

Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is

the sag

at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above the chord

joining the end points by the

same amount it was previously below it. A structure built

according to

the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as an ARCH.

The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/61/4.

The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of 1/40

-1/70.

FOLDED PLATE:

The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.

FLATE PLATE:

A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the effective

span.

TWO-WAY RIBBED SLAB:

Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/301/25 of

the lesser effective span.

FLAT PLATE RIBBED SLAB:

Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/201/17

of the lesser effective span.

DOMES:

The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome from

base

to crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8 for shallow

domes

to for deep domes.

A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near

optimal

for many applications.

Go Top

Contributed by Mr. THIRUMALAICHETTIAR RANGARAJAN - He is a

consulting

structural engineer practicing in Coimbatore

IMPORTANCE OF DETAILING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT FOR

BEAMS,COLUMNS AND

WALLS

The detailing of reinforcement is as important as the analysis and

design

of any RCC members. Specially it is true in the design of structures

against the SEISMIC forces. The most and very important aspect of

detailing is well documented in the text book on SEISMIC DESIGN

OF

REINFORCED CONCRETE AND MASONRY BUILDINGS by T.Paulay and

M.J.N.Priestley.

The text extraction is given below for the structural engineers who

need

Page: 157:

The spacing of the transverse reinforcement is as important as the

quantity to be provided. For this reason, recommended maximum

spacings of

sets of transverse ties along a member, required for four specific

purposes, are summarized here.

To provide shear resistance: Except as set out in section 3.3.2(a)

(vii):

In beams

s≤0.5d or 600mm(24)

In columns

s≤0.75h or 600mm(24)

In walls

s≤2.5bw or 450mm(18)

To stabilize compression bars in plastic Regions: As described in

section 4.5.4 for beams, but also applicable to bars with

diameters db

in columns and walls[ Section 5.4(e)]:

s≤6.0db,

or s≤d/4, s≤

150mm(6)

To provide confinement of compressed concrete in potential

plastic

regions: As described in sections 3.6.1(a),4.6.1(e)M AND 5.4.3(E).

sh≤ bc/3 , sh ≤ hc/3 ,

sh

≤6 db,

sh≤180mm(7).

At Lapped splice : As described in Section 3.6.29B),4.6.10 and

4.6.11(f)

for the end regions of columns where plastic hinges are not

expected to

occur:

s≤8.0db, s≤200mm(8).

Page:208:

The diameter of stirrup ties should not be less than 6mm(0.25)

and the

area of one leg of stirrup tie in the direction of potential buckling of

longitudinal bars should not be less than

Ate=∑ Ab fy s

_____________(Mpa)

16 fyt 100

For design purpose it is convenient to rearrange the above

equation in the

form: Ate/s = ∑ Ab fy /1600 fyt (mm^2/mm)

Where Ab is the sum of the areas of the longitudinal bars reliant

on

the tie, including the tributary area of any bars exempted from

being tied

in accordance

with the proceding section.

Ate is the area of the stirrup tie in mm^2.

fy is the yield strength of longitudinal bars.

fyt is the yield strength of tie bars

earthquakes, the placing of stirrups at an angle other than

90Ө to the

axis of such members is generally impractical.

The choice of the angle 45 Ө for the plane of the diagonal

tension failure

in the region of potential plastic is a compromise.

Please note that in IS 13920 it is not recommended to use single

bent up

bars.

Minimum shear reinforcement:

Current codes (New Zealand) require the provision of minimum

amount of

shear reinforcement in the range of 0.0015 ≤

Av/bwsC0.0020 in members

affected by earthquake forces.

ii) Spacing of stirrups: To ensure that potential diagonal tension

failure

planes are crossed by sufficient sets of stirrups, spacing limitations

such as set out below, have been widely used. The spacing s

should not

exceed:

1.

In beams:

In general :0.5d or 600mm(24)

When (vi-vc) > 0.07 fc: 0.25d or 300mm(12).

2.

In columns:

When Pu/Ag≤0.12 fc; as in beams

When Pu/Ag > 0.12 fc: 0.75 or 800mm(24).

3.

In walls,

2.5 times the wall thickness or 450mm(18).

Spacing limitations to satisfy requirements for the confinement of

potential

plastic hinge regions are likely to be more restrictive.

(a)

General considerations: There are four design requirements

that

control the amount of transverse reinforcement to be provided in

COLUMNS:

1.

Shear strength;

2.

Prevention of buckling of compression bars;

3.

Confinement of compressed concrete in potential plastic

hinge

regions or over the full length of column subjected to very large

compression stresses and;

4.

The strength of lapped bar splices.

- Space FrameUploaded byO'dio Sabjulap
- Rcc Member Design TipsUploaded byGuru Prasad
- rr320103-structural-engineering-design-and-drawing-ii(steel)Uploaded bySRINIVASA RAO GANTA
- smith_truss_optimization.pdfUploaded byLazScibd
- Staad Assignment 2Uploaded bysaisssms9116
- AIA SampleTestUploaded byDaryl Gomez Timatim
- 3 Space Truss- MeroUploaded byWahid Omar
- Analysis of Frames Beams TrussesUploaded byRameez Anwar
- Mec32 Workout 1Uploaded byArkieVince
- 100712 Design Slabs Shear_ACI 318Uploaded byJonathan Wardrop
- FrameUploaded byyzza
- Long Span PrattUploaded byshani5573
- 511_03.pdfUploaded byKiran Koraddi
- Chapter 2Uploaded byrifdysamsudin
- 032011 March11 Houstonballet WebUploaded byNaken Fitta
- Matamoros Design of Simply supported beams 2003Uploaded byWael Kassem
- Applied Mechanics and Materials Vols. 488-489 (2014) Pp 381-384Uploaded byRodrigo
- DoS ModelUploaded byKrishna Kumar
- reswerch.docUploaded byMart Biton
- is.4247.2.1992.pdfUploaded byBipul Poudel
- 0102_sydneyUploaded bybaharfka7423
- Ce6603 Dss VipUploaded byKaarthic Emay
- NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF CELLULAR STEEL BEAMS FAILURE MODES IN FIRE CONDITIONS.pdfUploaded byJaqueline Alves
- DiaphragmUploaded bySai Gnanadeep
- ENGR221 Lecture 13Uploaded bySamikshya Meher
- 12-100 Intro to CEE-Report Template With CommentsUploaded bytyrantking8
- sdUploaded byRushed Alama
- NEW NEW NEWUploaded byRAHMON RAUF OYEDOKUN
- files-4-Lectures_Microsoft_PowerPoint_-_Ch2_Trusses.ppt.pdfUploaded byshankar
- 272941676.pdfUploaded byJason Vargas

- Addressing punching shear failureUploaded byshak543
- Foundation Design Using Common SenseUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Proton Therapy VaultUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- QAof Structural Engineering Design Part-1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- D QualityAssurCorner Schwinger Nov09Uploaded byJason Vargas
- Validating the Rsults of Str'l Engg SoftwareUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Viscous Dampers Come of AgeUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- C Structural Forum Powell Dec08Uploaded byManuel
- Tips for Designing Constructible Concrete Structures_part1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Performance Based Design With Application to Seismic HazardUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- calculation of portal frame deflectionUploaded byKonstantinos Kalemis
- C CI Comp Action Grouting by GeraciUploaded byusfmangu
- Current Trends in Economical Reinforced Concrete Construction Part-1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- C CS BuildingPeriods Jacobs June08Uploaded byMario Asneindra
- Building Facade Inspection_part1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- 8 Spruce Street_Beekman TowerUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Becoming a Resullts-Oriented Structural Engineer_Part2Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Becoming a Resullts-Oriented Structural Engineer_Part1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Avoiding Str'l Failures During Constn Part-2Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Avoiding Str'l Failures During Constn Part-1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- C EngNB Antiquated Str Sys Ser STuart Sept 07Uploaded byJoseph Johnston
- Across-Wind Response of High-Rise BuildingsUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Accommodation to Reinforced Concrete High-Rise Building Deformations & MovementsUploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Brief Guide to Seismic Design ForcesUploaded bykarl_micallef
- Antiquted Str'l Systems Series Part-3Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed
- Antiquted Str'l Systems Series Part-1Uploaded byZaheer Ahmed

- CorrosionUploaded bytaba
- Blind Contour Line Drawing Lesson PlanUploaded byFatimah Munirah
- Wetzel, Wagner, Lee - 2003 - Novel Flexible Body Armor Utilizing Shear Thickening Fluid ( STF ) Composites.pdfUploaded byThiago Santos
- He LibroUploaded byAbraham Imam Muttaqin
- Paper Control 1Uploaded byPaolo Sebastián Bernal Gómez
- IntroductionUploaded byPrem Sagar
- DataMiningOverview Galambos 2015-06-04Uploaded byoriontherecluse
- Rehab Spine 5Uploaded byRanjith Sudhakaran
- Hegarty 1978Uploaded byEugenio Rangel León
- Time Cost Trade OffUploaded byVijay Jain
- Second-hand Translation for Tsar Aleksej Mixajlovič - A Glimpse Into the Newspaper Workshop at Posol'Skij Prikaz 1648 2001Uploaded byubismail
- Yitro_RemantUploaded by1Peter321
- geocaching merit badge pamphlet 35836.pdfUploaded byJorge L. Ruiz
- Duct System 1Uploaded byLidijaSpaseska
- CV Europass 20170424 Eliashvili en.docUploaded byDimitri Kenchoshvili
- sanitary_pumps.pdfUploaded byAnto AG
- Analysis of Different Recommendations From International Guidelines for the Management of Acute Pharyngitis in Adults and ChildrenUploaded byveronicadubay
- Mechanical VibrationsUploaded byhusnain_inayat8610
- Inspection and Test Plan for Pressure VesselUploaded byalokbdas
- Continuous Cheque PrintingUploaded bysaipuppala
- MoneyGrades3-5Uploaded byVinod Zingade
- geometry map project rubricUploaded byapi-93111231
- Langerhan's Cell HistiocytosisUploaded byEmily Eresuma
- Soccerball TopologyUploaded byipujulà
- 149459056-Mass-Effect-d20.pdfUploaded byKiaraXD
- Topic 6- Active ConstituentUploaded bytlapara
- 2001-1Uploaded byKhoa Nguyen Dang
- DAFTAR PUSTAKAUploaded byAKaNisSa
- The Kiss of the Real and Lacans Ego DeathUploaded byIvana Čalija
- What is Sei Cmm Iso Ieee AnsiUploaded byvickram_chandu9526