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BEAMS

OVERALL DEPTH OF BEAMS:


SL.NO
1.
2.
3.
4.
1.

MEMBER
PLINTH BEAM
TIE BEAM
FLOOR BEAMS
GRID BEAMS

SPAN/OVERALL DEPTH RATIO


15
18
12
20

TO
TO
TO
TO

18
20
15
30

Beam sections should be designed for: Moment values at


the column face & (not the value at centre line as per
analysis)
2.
Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (Not
the value at centre line as per analysis)
3.
Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only.
4. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak
axis, the moments at the end support shall be reduced
more and distributed and the span moments shall be
increased accordingly to account for the above
reduction.
5.
Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15%
of the support
moments shall be added to the span
moment without the support moments
getting reduced.
6.
The section within the span shall be designed for the
increased span
moment which will account for the
concentrated & isolated loading that
may act within
one span.
7.
Moment redistribution is not allowed if moment co-efficient
taken from code table designed for earthquake forces and
for lateral loads.
8.
At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE
SUPPORTS & the +ve moment reinforcement in
CONTINUOUS MEMBERS shall extend along the same face
of the member into the support, to a length equal to Ld/3.
(Ld-development length)
9.
Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are
doubly reinforced.
10. Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0. Try to design a
minimum width for beams so that the all beam
reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the
reason that any reinforcement outside the column will be
ineffective in resisting compression.

11. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8 (200mm) or of


effective depth
whichever is less. (For static loads)
12. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so
as to avoid
compression reinforcement.
13. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in
controlling
the deflection, creep and other long term
deflections.
14. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the
Primary beam if the
beams are of the same depth.
The kinking of bars shall be shown clearly
on the
drawing.
15. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required
development
length.
16. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A (i.e. layer
nearest to
the tension face) so that max. lever arm
will be available.
17. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever
heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam. (Try to
avoid the hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth
than the main beam, as there are enough cushions
available).
18. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that
it does not
induce any TORSION on the main beam.
19. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be
given a
little more and the development length shall
be given 25% more.
20. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially
continuous or fully
continuous) can be assumed as
wl^2/10 and the same reinforcement can be
detailed
at span and support. This thumb rule should not be applied
for
simply supported beams.
SLAB
EFFECTIVE DEPTH:
Sl.No
SLAB
SPAN/EFFE.DEPTH
1. One- way simply supported slab
2. One-way continuous slabs
3. Two-way simply supported slabs
L/B=1.5
4.
L/B=1.5

Two-way continuous slabs

30
35
38

for

35 for L/B>1.5
40
for
38 for L/B>1.5

Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm, the bar diameter shall


be 10mm for
normal spacing. (It can be 8mm at very closely
spaced).
Slab thickness can be 10mm, 110mm, 120mm, 125mm, 150mm,
etc.
The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm (8)
and the
distribution bars @ 250mm (10).
If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall (without any
frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the
length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.
5. If the roof is of sheet (AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall
(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be
provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. The
bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND.
6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross
sectional area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and
other weathering agent and for the Ponding of rain water etc
since it is exposed to outside the building enclosure.
COLUMN
Section should be designed for the column moment values at the
beam face.
Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant.
Go for higher section properties when the moment is
predominant.
Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3.
Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets
maximum lever arm
for the axis about which the column moment
acts.
Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing according
to the change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a change in
reinforcement at a junction, lap shall be provided to that side of the
junction where the reinforcement is less.
Provide laps at mid height of column to minimize the damage due
to moments (Seismic forces).
Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the
weakest link due to weak and non compacted part.

FOOTING
Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one
trial pit to get the real site bearing capacity value.
Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for
finding the SBC.

SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of


footing that is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I).
Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in
orthogonal
directions connecting all columns which will help
in many respects like
reducing the differential settlement of
foundations, reducing the moments on footings etc.
Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for
analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap.
The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may
only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations
or on individual foundation pads supported by short stiff piles or
by foundation walls in Basement.
Foundation pads supported on deformable soil may have
considerable rotational
flexibility, resulting in column forces in
the bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the
assumption of a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected
column HINGES at the top of lower storey columns under seismic
lateral forces. In such cases the column base should be modeled
by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-Seismic design of
Reinforced concrete and
Masonry buildings by T.Paulay &
M.J.N.Priestley.)
Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designers Handbook by
Reynold where it is
clearly mention about the column base
support.
R.C.C.WALLS
The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall
be as
follows:
Vertical reinforcement:
a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger
than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415
N/mm^2 or greater.
b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.
c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than
16mm in diameter.
Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall
neither
exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.
Horizontal reinforcement.
a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger
than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415
N/mm^2 or greater.
b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of bars.
c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger
than 16mm in diameter.

Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall


neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm.
NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be sufficient
to provide
adequate resistance to effects of shrinkage and
temperature.
2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:
456=2000, where He is the effective height of the wall and t is
the thickness of the RC wall. He for a braced wall will be:
a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by floors
where h is the height of the wall.
b) 1.0h.
MISCELLANEOUS
Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor).
1. TRUSS:
The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain
optimal value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The
same principle applies to trusses. An optimal depth/span ratio for
a planar truss is approximately 1/10. Although forces in the
CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces in the WEB are
practically UNCHANGED and increasing the depth increases the
lengths of these members. Approximately half the web members
are in COMPRESSION and increasing their lengths reduces their
efficiency due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.
VIERENDEEL GIRDER:
The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical.
The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for
a UDL
loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the
depth.
CABLE:
A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its
load is termed as Cable.
4.ARCH:
Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is
the sag
at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above the chord
joining the end points by the
same amount it was previously below it. A structure built
according to
the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as an ARCH.
The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/61/4.
The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of 1/40
-1/70.

FOLDED PLATE:
The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.
FLATE PLATE:
A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the effective
span.
TWO-WAY RIBBED SLAB:
Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/301/25 of
the lesser effective span.
FLAT PLATE RIBBED SLAB:
Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/201/17
of the lesser effective span.
DOMES:
The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome from
base
to crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8 for shallow
domes
to for deep domes.
A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near
optimal
for many applications.
Go Top
Contributed by Mr. THIRUMALAICHETTIAR RANGARAJAN - He is a
consulting
structural engineer practicing in Coimbatore
IMPORTANCE OF DETAILING OF TRANSVERSE REINFORCEMENT FOR
BEAMS,COLUMNS AND
WALLS
The detailing of reinforcement is as important as the analysis and
design
of any RCC members. Specially it is true in the design of structures
against the SEISMIC forces. The most and very important aspect of
detailing is well documented in the text book on SEISMIC DESIGN
OF
REINFORCED CONCRETE AND MASONRY BUILDINGS by T.Paulay and
M.J.N.Priestley.
The text extraction is given below for the structural engineers who
need

to know more about the importance of the above issue.


Page: 157:
The spacing of the transverse reinforcement is as important as the
quantity to be provided. For this reason, recommended maximum
spacings of
sets of transverse ties along a member, required for four specific
purposes, are summarized here.
To provide shear resistance: Except as set out in section 3.3.2(a)
(vii):
In beams
s≤0.5d or 600mm(24)
In columns
s≤0.75h or 600mm(24)
In walls
s≤2.5bw or 450mm(18)
To stabilize compression bars in plastic Regions: As described in
section 4.5.4 for beams, but also applicable to bars with
diameters db
in columns and walls[ Section 5.4(e)]:
s≤6.0db,
or s≤d/4, s≤
150mm(6)
To provide confinement of compressed concrete in potential
plastic
regions: As described in sections 3.6.1(a),4.6.1(e)M AND 5.4.3(E).
sh≤ bc/3 , sh ≤ hc/3 ,
sh
≤6 db,
sh≤180mm(7).
At Lapped splice : As described in Section 3.6.29B),4.6.10 and
4.6.11(f)
for the end regions of columns where plastic hinges are not
expected to
occur:
s≤8.0db, s≤200mm(8).
Page:208:
The diameter of stirrup ties should not be less than 6mm(0.25)
and the
area of one leg of stirrup tie in the direction of potential buckling of
longitudinal bars should not be less than
Ate=∑ Ab fy s
_____________(Mpa)
16 fyt 100
For design purpose it is convenient to rearrange the above
equation in the
form: Ate/s = ∑ Ab fy /1600 fyt (mm^2/mm)
Where Ab is the sum of the areas of the longitudinal bars reliant
on

the tie, including the tributary area of any bars exempted from
being tied
in accordance
with the proceding section.
Ate is the area of the stirrup tie in mm^2.
fy is the yield strength of longitudinal bars.
fyt is the yield strength of tie bars

Because of the reversal of shear forces in members affected by


earthquakes, the placing of stirrups at an angle other than
90Ө to the
axis of such members is generally impractical.
The choice of the angle 45 Ө for the plane of the diagonal
tension failure
in the region of potential plastic is a compromise.
Please note that in IS 13920 it is not recommended to use single
bent up
bars.
Minimum shear reinforcement:
Current codes (New Zealand) require the provision of minimum
amount of
shear reinforcement in the range of 0.0015 ≤
Av/bwsC0.0020 in members
affected by earthquake forces.
ii) Spacing of stirrups: To ensure that potential diagonal tension
failure
planes are crossed by sufficient sets of stirrups, spacing limitations
such as set out below, have been widely used. The spacing s
should not
exceed:
1.
In beams:
In general :0.5d or 600mm(24)
When (vi-vc) > 0.07 fc: 0.25d or 300mm(12).
2.
In columns:
When Pu/Ag≤0.12 fc; as in beams
When Pu/Ag > 0.12 fc: 0.75 or 800mm(24).
3.
In walls,
2.5 times the wall thickness or 450mm(18).
Spacing limitations to satisfy requirements for the confinement of

compressed concrete and the stabilizing of compression bars in


potential
plastic hinge regions are likely to be more restrictive.
(a)

Design of transverse Reinforcement:


General considerations: There are four design requirements

that
control the amount of transverse reinforcement to be provided in
COLUMNS:
1.
Shear strength;
2.
Prevention of buckling of compression bars;
3.
Confinement of compressed concrete in potential plastic
hinge
regions or over the full length of column subjected to very large
compression stresses and;
4.
The strength of lapped bar splices.