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Performance

3478A

f. (Step #10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15) Check the 3000,
3KO, 30KO, 300K0Hm, 3MO, and 30MO ranges of the
3478A by applying the following resistances to the INPUT terminals: 3000 (or 1000), 3KO (or 1KO), 30KO (or
10KO), 300KO (or lOOKOhm), 3MO (lMO), and 30MO
(or lOMO) respectively. Record the reading at each range.
Ensure the readings are within the limits shown on the
Test Card and in Table 4-7.

4-48. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES

g. Remove the test leads from the 3478A. This concludes the Ohms Performance Test. If any of the test
results were outside the test limits, try recalibrating the
Ohms function of the 3478A. Calibration procedures
begin at paragraph 4-78. If recalibration does not cure
the problem, see Section VII of this manual for
troubleshooting information.

4-51. Internally, during calibration, the 3478A averages


ten readings of the signal applied to the input terminals
and uses this average to compute a calibration constant.
Once indicated by the user, this calibration constant is
stored in non-volatile memory and then used to adjust
all future measurements in that range and function.

449. General

4-50. The 3478A is electronically calibrated by storing


calibration constants in non-volatile memory. There are
no mechanical adjustments. Calibration requires access
to the 3478A front panel.

4-52. The general procedure for calibration is to first set


the offset by applying a short to the INPUT terminals
and then set the gain by applying a full scale signal to
the INPUT terminals. This procedure is repeated for each
range in each function. (Some functions and ranges only
require a \13 scale input to set the gain.)

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RESISTANCE STANDARD

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HP3478.F.4. 7

Figure 4-7. 2-Wire Ohms Test and Calibration Connections

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HP 3478A
Figure 4-8. 4-Wire Ohms Test and Calibration Connections

4-11

3478A

Performance
(e.g., I Ohm on the 30 Ohm range).

2 . A full scale or Y3 scale (gain) calibration is attempted in the DC Volts function and a negative input
signal is applied. Always calibrate the DC Volts
function with a positive polarity input signal.

LO

3468-4-6

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Figure 4-9. 4Wire Ohms Short


4-53. When calibration is enabled, the 3478A display will
first show the currently set value of the offset. This is
indicated in the display by a zero (or approximately zero)
reading followed by the letter "C". When a new calibration is requested, the "C" is replaced by "?".
4-54. When calibrating the gain (full scale), the reading
in the display can be changed to the exact input value
by using the uprange and downrange buttons. The
reading displayed will increment or decrement as long as
the button is pressed. When the exact value is reached
the new value is stored by pressing the SOL/TRIG button. Note that this is only necessary and desirable when
the exact value of the input signal is known. If the calibration Standard used has a high enough accuracy, this adjustment is not necessary.
455. Calibration Messages

4-56. The 3478A display can show a variety of messages


when calibrating. The following list contains the messages
that may be displayed and describes the meaning of each
message.
a. UNCALIBRATED - This message is typically
displayed following a self-test when the calibration RAM
checksum is incorrect. The accuracy of the 3478A is
always in doubt if this message is displayed.
b. ENABLE CAL - This message indicates that a
calibration was attempted without the front panel calibration switch set to the correct position. (The slot of the
switch must be set vertically to allow calibration.)
c. CAL ABORTED- This message is displayed when
an incorrect front panel button is pushed during the
calibration procedure. The message can also occur if an
input overload is detected or an AID error occurs.
d. VALUE ERROR - This message will be displayed
when any of the following conditions are true.
1. A zero (offset) calibration is attempted and the
3478A is reading a value greater than 1000 counts
4-12

3 . A full scale or Y3 scale (gain) calibration is attempted and the input signal is outside the calibration
range ( 70Jo ). For example, a full scale calibration
of the 3V range is attempted and the input signal
is + 3.22V.
4. An AC Volts function calibration is attempted with
an input signal other than 3Vac.
e. ACI VAL ERROR -This message is displayed when
the 3478A is unable to calculate an AC Current calibration constant. This condition can exist if the calibration
constants for the 300mA and 3A DC ranges are incorrect.
Always ensure the DC Current function is calibrated
before calibrating the AC Current function.
f. CAL FINISHED - A calibration cycle has been
successfully completed.

g. CALIBRATING- This message is displayed when


the 3478A is calculating calibration constants.
457. DC Volts Calibration

4-58. Unless otherwise stated, all calibration signals are


applied to the 3478A HI and LO INPUT terminals.

459. Equipment Required. The following test equipment is

required for the DC Volts Calibration procedure. The


equipment is summarized with the critical specifications
in Table 4-2.
DC Volts Standard -

Datron 4000A or 4707

460. Calibration Procedure. Turn on the 3478A and allow


a one hour warm-up period. Then, do the following:

a. Reset the 3478A by pressing the front panel blue


shift button and then the SOL/TRIG (TEST /RESET)
button.

NOTE

Following the reset/self-test, the 3478A is


placed in the DC Volts junction, Autorange
On, Internal Trigger, and 5 digit display
mode.
b. Use a small, flat blade screwdriver to set the front
panel CAL ENABLE Switch to the Cal Enable position
(the slot of the switch must be in the vertical position to
allow calibration).

Performance

3478A

c. Set the 3478A to the single trigger mode by pressing


the SOL/TRIG button. Take the 3478A out of Autorange
by pressing the downrange button (set the 3478A to the
30mV range).

required for the DC Current Calibration. The test equipment is summarized with the critical specifications in
Table 4-2.

d. Install a short across the 3478A's HI and LO


INPUT terminals.

4707

e. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL


(CAL) button.
f. Press the SOL/TRIG button once. When the display
shows CAL FINISHED, remove the short from the input.

g. Connect the DC Volts Standard output terminals


to the 3478A INPUT terminals as shown in Figure 4-2.
Set the DC Volts Standard for an output of 30mV.
h. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL
(CAL) button.
i. If the actual output value of the DC Volts Standard
is known, use the 3478A uprange or downrange buttons
to set the 3478A display to the same value. Then press
the SOL/TRIG button. If the actual output is not known
or if the Standard has a high enough accuracy, just press
the SOL/TRIG button.

j. Remove the DC Volts Standard input from the


3478A. Set the 3478A to the 300mV range by pressing
the uprange button. Install a short across the 3478A HI
and LO INPUT terminals.
k. Repeat steps e through j on the 300mV range (the
DC Volts Standard output should be set to 300mV).

WARNING

The next step uses potentially lethal voltages.


Do not touch the DC Volts Standard's output terminals or the 3478A 's input terminals.
Ensure the DC Volts Standard's output is
turned off before moving any connections.
1. Repeat steps e through j on each of the remaining
3478A ranges, increasing the value of the DC Volts Standard output accordingly. The ranges to be calibrated are:
3V, 30V and 300V.
4-61. DC Current Calibration

4-62. The DC Volts Calibration or DC Volts Performance Test should be performed before attempting the
DC Current Calibration. The 3478A should be turned on
and allowed at least a one hour warm-up .
4-63. Unless otherwise specified, all input signals are
applied to the front panel LO and A INPUT terminals.

464. Equipment Required. The following test equipment is

DC Current Standard - Datron Model 4000A or


4-65. Calibration Procedure. Do the following:

a. Reset the 3478A by pressing the blue shift button


and then the SOL/TRIG (TEST /RESET) button.
b. Set the 3478A front panel CAL ENABLE Switch
to the Calibration Enable position (the slot must be
vertical to allow calibration).
c. Set the 3478A to the Single Trigger mode, DC Current function, and the 300mA range (take the 3478A out
of the Autorange function by pressing the downrange
button).
d. Leave the 3478A INPUT terminals open. Press the
blue shift button and then the LOCAL (CAL) button.
e. Press the SOL/TRIG button once. Wait for the
display to show the message CAL FINISHED.
f. Uprange the 3478A to the 3A range. Repeat steps
d and e.

g. Connect the DC Current Standard's output to the


3478A LO and A INPUT terminals as shown in Figure
4-4.
h. Set the 3478A to the 300mA range. Set the DC Current Standard for an output of + lOOmA.
i. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL
(CAL) button.

j. If the actual output value of the DC Current


Standard is known, use the 3478A uprange or downrange
buttons to set the 3478A display to the same value. Then
press the SOL/TRIG button. If the actual output is not
known or if the DC Current Standard has a high enough
accuracy, just press the SOL/TRIG button.
k. Uprange the 3478A to the 3A range. Set the DC
Current Standard for an output of + lA.

1. Repeat steps i and j.


m. Turn off the DC Current Standard's output.
Disconnect the test leads. This concludes the DC Current
calibration procedure.
4-66. AC Volts Calibration

4-67. The AC Volts function is calibrated using only one


input signal. The signal required is 3V at 1KHz. During
4-13

3478A

Performance
the calibration cycle the 3478A will automatically set the
gain at full scale on the 3V range and at 1110 scale on
the 30V range. These two gain adjustments are then
applied to all other ranges in the AC Volts function.
4-68. The DC Volts Calibration or DC Volts Performance Test should be performed before attempting the
AC Volts Calibration. The 3478A should be turned on
and allowed to warm-up for at least one hour.
4-69. Unless otherwise stated, all input signals are applied
to the 3478A HI and LO INPUT terminals.
470. Equipment Required. The following test equipment is
required for the AC Volts Calibration. The test equipment is summarized with the critical specifications in
Table 4-2.

AC Voltage Standard -

Datron 4200 or 4707

calibration constants. For this reason, no AC Current


calibration is required provided the DC Volts, DC Current, and AC Volts functions have been calibrated. The
following procedure is provided for cases where only the
AC Current function is to be calibrated or for cases where
the AC Current Performance Test (see paragraph 4-38)
has failed.

4-74. Unless otherwise stated, all signals are applied to


the 3478A front panel LO and A INPUT terminals.
4-75. The AC Current function can only be calibrated
using full scale inputs.
476. Equipment Required. The following test equipment is
required for the AC Current calibration procedure. The
test equipment is summarized with the critical specifications in Table 4-2.

AC Current Standard - Datron Model4200 or 4707


471. Calibration Procedure. Do the following:
477. Calibration Procedure. Make sure the 3478A has been

a. Reset the 3478A by pressing the blue shift button


and then the SOL/TRIG (TEST /RESET) button.

turned on and allowed to warm-up for at least one hour.


Then do the following:

b. Set the front panel CAL ENABLE switch to the


Calibration Enable position (the slot must be vertical to
allow calibration).

a. Reset the 3478A by pressing the blue shift button


and then the SOL/TRIG (TEST /RESET) button.

c. Set the 3478A to the AC Volts function and the 3V


range.
d. Set the Single Trigger mode by pressing the
SOL/TRIG button.
e. Connect the AC Volts Standard's output to the
3478A HI and LO INPUT terminals as shown in Figure
4-5.
f. Set the AC Volts Standard for an output of 3V at
1KHz.

g. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL


(CAL) button.
h. If the actual output value of the AC Volts Standard
is known, use the 3478A uprange or downrange buttons
to set the 3478A display to the same value. Then press
the SOL/TRIG button. If the actual output value is not
known or if the AC Volts Standard has a high enough
accuracy, just press the SOL/TRIG button.
i. Wait for the 3478A display to show the message
CAL FINISHED. Turn off the AC Volts Standard's output. Disconnect the test leads. This concludes the AC
Volts function calibration.
472. AC Current Calibration

4-73. The AC Current Calibration Constants are


calculated using the DC Volts, DC Current, and AC Volts
4-14

b. Set the 3478A front panel CAL ENABLE Switch


to the Calibration Enable position (the slot must be
vertical to allow calibration).
c. Set the 3478A to the Single Trigger mode, AC Current function and 300mA range (take the 3478A out of
the Autorange function by pressing the downrange
button).

d. Connect the AC Current Standard's output to the


3478A LO and A INPUT terminals as shown in Figure
4-6.
e. Set the AC Current Standard for an output of
300mA at 1KHz.
f. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL
(CAL) button.

g. If the actual value of the AC Current Standard is


known, use the 3478A uprange or downrange buttons to
set the 3478A display to the same value. Then press the
SOL/TRIG button. If the actual output is not known or
if the Standard accuracy is high enough, just press the
SOL/TRIG button.
h. Turn off the AC Current Standard output. Disconnect the test leads. This concludes the AC Current
Calibration Procedure.
478. Ohms Calibration

4-79. The 3478A can be calibrated in either the 4-Wire

3478A

or 2-Wire Ohms function. It cannot be calibrated in both.


The 3478A should be calibrated in the function in which
it will be used.
4-80. If the calibration is to be done in the 2-Wire Ohms
function, the Resistance Standard is connected to the HI
and LO INPUT terminals as shown in Figure 4-7. If the
calibration is to be done in the 4-Wire Ohms function,
the Resistance Standard must be connected to the HI and
LO INPUT terminals and the HI and LO SENSE
terminals as shown in Figure 4-8.
4-81. The 3478A's Ohms function can be calibrated using
either full scale or Y3 scale inputs. In the following
procedure the Y3 scale inputs are shown in parenthesis.
482. Equipment Required. The following test equipment is
required for the Ohms Calibration Procedure. The test
equipment is summarized with the critical specifications
in Table 4-2.

Performance
set the 3478A display to the same value. Then press the
SGL/TRIG button. If the actual value is not known or
if the Standard has a high enough accuracy, just press
the SGLITRIG button. Wait for the display to show the
message CAL FINISHED.
k. Remove the Resistance Standard test leads from the
3478A INPUT (and SENSE) terminals. Uprange the
3478A to the 3000 range.
I. Repeat steps d through j increasing the value of the
Resistance Standard in step h to 3000 (1000).

m. Repeat steps d through k on each of the remaining


3478A ranges, increasing the value of the Resistance Standard accordingly. The ranges to be calibrated are: 3KO,
30KO, 300KO, 3MO, and 30MO.
n. Remove the test leads. This concludes the Ohms
Calibration Procedure.

Resistance Standard - Datron Model 4200 or 4707

4-83. Calibration Procedure. Ensure the 3478A has been turned on and allowed to warm-up for at least one hour. Then
do the following:

484. REMOTE CALIBRATION

a. Reset the 3478A by pressing the blue shift button


and then the SGL/TRIG (TEST/RESET) button.

4-86. The 3478A can be remotely calibrated using the


HP-IB (Hewlett-Packard Interface Bus). This is
accomplished by using a computer to setup the 3478A
to the required range, function, and calibration mode
instead of doing it from the front panel.

b. Set the front panel CAL ENABLE Switch to the


Calibration Enable position (the slot must be vertical to
allow calibration).
c. Set the 3478A to the Single Trigger mode, 2-Wire
or 4-Wire Ohms function (see paragraphs 4-80 and 4-81),
and the 300 range (take the 3478A out of the Autorange
function by pressing the downrange button).
d. Install a short across the 3478A HI and LO INPUT
terminals. If in the 4-Wire Ohms function, also short the
SENSE terminals to the INPUT terminals (see Figure
4-9).
e. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL
(CAL) button.
f. Press the SGL/TRIG button once. Wait for the
display to show the message CAL FINISHED.

g. Remove the short and connect the Resistance Standard to the 3478A. The 2-Wire Ohms connection is shown
in Figure 4-7 and the 4-Wire Ohms connection is shown
in Figure 4-8.
h. Set the Resistance Standard for 300 (100).

i. Press the blue shift button and then the LOCAL


(CAL) button.
j. If the actual value of the Resistance Standard is
known, use the 3478A uprange or downrange buttons to

485. General

4-87. Remote calibration uses the same test equipment,


including connections to the 3478A, as is used in local
calibration. In addition, both remote and local calibration procedures are basically the same in that zero scale
and full or 1/3 scale calibration signals are used. It is
therefore necessary to know how to calibrate the 3478A
locally. Read the calibration procedures in paragraphs
4-48 to 4-83 before attempting to calibrate remotely.
4-88. The following paragraph has an example on how
to remotely calibrate the 3478A. In the example, the
3478A is calibrated on the 3V Range by remotely sending
the appropriate program codes. Then the value of the
calibration signal is remotely sent to the 3478A's display.
Once this is done, the program code to calibrate the
instrument is sent. The example shows how to send the
program codes using a Model HP-85B Computer. For
information on programming the 3478A, refer to the
3478A Operator's Manual or Section III of this manual.
489. Remote Calibration Example
4-90. Connect the 3478A to the HP-IB and make sure
the instrument's HP-IB address is set to "23" (see Section
II of this manual to set the address). Using a small flat
blade screwdriver, set the front panel CAL ENABLE
switch to the calibration enable position (the slot of the
switch is in the vertical position). A "C" should now
appear on the right end of the numbers in the 3478A's
4-15

3478A

Performance
display indicating that calibration is now enabled.
Calibrate the 3478A on the 3V Range and DC Volts Function by doing the following steps.
a. The 3478A is first set to Remote and Listen by the
computer. Then program codes "F1RON5Z1 T1" are sent
to the 3478A to set the instrument to the DC Volts Function (F1), 3V Range (RO), 5 1/2 Digits Displayed (N5),
Autozero On (Zl), and Internal Trigger (Tl). This is
shown as follows:
OUTPUT 723 ;"FlRON5Z1Tl"
The "OUTPUT 723" statement sets the 3478A to Remote
and Listen, and "F1RON5Z1T1" are the program codes
sent to the instrument to setup the instrument.
b. After the 3478A is setup to the desired function and
range, apply the zero volts calibration signal to the
instrument. This is done by shorting the HI and LO
INPUT Terminals. Once this is performed, the value in
the 3478A's display has to be set to the value of the
calibration signal (i.e., OV). This is done by sending program codes "D2 + 000000". Code "D2" enables the
display to receive "()()()()()()". Since the 3478A is calibrated
in the 5 1/2 Digit Mode, make sure that six zeroes (i.e.,
"000000") are sent instead of five or less zeros. Also,
the " +" between D2 and 000000 needs to be there for
the display to accept the numbers correctly. The program
codes are sent as follows:
OUTPUT 723 ;"D2+000000"

4-16

c. The 3478A is now calibrated by sending program


code "C" to the instrument. The 3478A will then display
"CALIBRATING", while it is calculating the zero offset calibration constant. When finished, "CAL
FINISHED" will be displayed for about two seconds.
Zero calibration is then completed. Program code "C"
is sent as follows:

OUTPUT 723 ;"C"


d. After zero calibration is completed, apply either a
full scale (3V) or 1/3 scale (1V) calibration signal to the
3478A's INPUT Terminals. Then set the display to the
applied value. Since in this example the applied value is
+ 2.99998V, send program codes "D2 + 2.99998" to the
3478A as follows:
OUTPUT 723 ;"D2+2.99998"
e. Calibrate the 3478A by sending program code "C"
(see step c). After the calibration constants are calculated,
"CAL FINISHED" will be displayed by the 3478A.
f. The 3V Range in the DC Volts Function is now
calibrated. Calibration of the rest of the ranges and functions is similar. Remember, the same rules that apply for
local calibration (e.g., AC Volts is calibrated on only one
range, etc.) also apply for remote calibration. Also, when
calibrating at full or 1/3 scale, make sure the 3478A
receives the correct information. For example, to calibrate
the gain by applying 1V, send program codes
''D2 + 1.00000'' to the 3478A. The decimal point included
in the number is not necessary; it is only there to show
the value of the calibration source.