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Module 1.

Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008


of educational theories

Overview of educational theories

Module 1. Theories and design

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Last edited on 20 June 2008

Learning objectives
At the end of this topic you will be able to:

 Explain the basic purpose of educational


theories
Objectives
 Recognise popular educational theories
 Identify the theories that support your Goals
instructional design requirements
 Locate useful and relevant sources of Aims
theories on the internet
 Recognise when theories aren’t being
applied correctly or at all

Duration: This topic should take appropriately


20 minutes to complete.

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Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 1


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Educational theory framework


Educational theories for
instructional design can
loosely be grouped into
three categories: Learning
•Behaviourism styles •ADDIE
•Constructivism •Elaboration theory
•VARK
Learning theories •Cognitivism •Flexible design
•Humanism •Bloom’s taxonomy
Learning styles •Connectivism •Gardner’s Multiple
Intelligences
Design models Learning Design
theories models
Let’s have a bit of a look at
each of these...

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continue

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Learning theories
Evolution of learning theories
Learning theories are about “why” people learn.
They have evolved over time due to some particular influences:
More research
Improved and emerging technologies.

1800 1890s 1940s 1970s 1990s


Behaviourism Constructivism Humanism Cognitivism Connectivism

Click the Next button to continue or select the theory you would like to explore

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 2


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Learning theories: Behaviourism


Probably most well known due to research conducted
by Pavlov, behaviourism is based on the concept that
the learner has no control over their learning.

The learner is passive.

More information:
 Learning and teaching:
http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/beh
aviour.htm
 Learning-Theories.com:
http://www.learning-theories.com/

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Learning theories: Constructivism


This theory considers that knowledge is constructed rather than just received.
The learner is active.
Acknowledgement is given to prior knowledge; when combined with new information, learning
occurs.
More information:
Learning-Theories.com:
http://www.learning-theories.com/

New Prior
Learning
information knowledge

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 3


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Learning theories: Humanism


The learner wants to learn to improve their
possibilities. Learning is a in a supportive Attention
environment; it’s a team effort with the
facilitator.
The learner is active and motivated.
John Keller has developed a model to use Relevance
based on four principles of: attention,
relevance, confidence and satisfaction.

More information: Confidence


Learning-Theories.com:
http://www.learning-theories.com/
Keller’s
ARCS Model website:
http://www.arcsmodel.com/ Satisfaction

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Learning theories: Cognitivism


A big step from behaviourism, cognitivism considers
that people are rational and that how their mind
works is a key to understanding how people learn.
The learner is active but needs guidance. The analogy
of the computer is often used for this theory.
Changes in behaviour indicated that learning had
occurred within the mind.
Gagne’s nine events are often associated with
cognitivism.

More information:
Learning-Theories.com:
http://www.learning-theories.com/
View by theory:
http://ide.ed.psu.edu/idde/9events.htm

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 4


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Learning theories: Connectivism


Developed by George Siemens and based loosely on the
scientific chaos theory; we are no longer able to predict
the world around us. The world is randomise and
learning occurs through connections we make with
others via networks.
We not only learn from experience but extend our
learning to the experiences of others.
The learner is very active.

More information:
Connectivism-
A learning theory for today’s learner:
http://www.connectivism.ca/
Elearnspace-
learning is everything:
http://www.elearnspace.org/Articles/connectivism.htm

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Learning styles •V = Visual


VARK •A = Aural
Flemming & •R = Read/ write
Learning styles are about “how” people learn not Bonwell •K = Kinaesthetic
“why”.
There are three leading approaches to
discovering “how people learn”. The key is to
•Affective
remember that these are useful but not Bloom’s •Cognitive
prescriptive- people are all individual. Taxonomy •Psychomotor
Have fun exploring these at:
VARK:
www.vark-learn.com/
 Bloom’s taxonomy: •Linguistic
•Logical-
www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/bloom.html mathematical
Multiple •Musical
Multiple intelligences: •Bodily-kinaesthetic
http://www.businessballs.com/howardgardnerm Intelligences •Spatial-visual
ultipleintelligences.htm •Interpersonal
•Intrapersonal
Learningstyles & preferences:
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/styles.ht
ml

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 5


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Design models
•Analysis
Overview •Design
ADDIE •Develop
In this section on design models we •Implement
are going to take a closer look at: •Evaluate

 ADDIE
 Elaboration theory Elaboration
•Conceptual elaboration
•Theoretical elaboration
Theory
 Flexible design •Simplifying conditions

The world of instructional design is


NOT limited to these, however they •Tutorials
•Simulations
are a good start to add to your Flexible •Electronic performance
instructional design studio. design support systems
•Games, tests, records
•Etc

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Last edited on 20 June 2008

Design models: ADDIE


ADDIE is a process that has been
•The discovery stage; identify the audience, client
refined by Dick & Carey. It has five Analysis requirements, constraints, timeframes, etc
stages and usually represented as a
cyclic model. There are hundreds of
variations of this model. •Compose ID Plan: align the learning objectives with

The purpose of the model is to provide


Design ideas for content and activities, consider assessment
approach, develop storyboards, design concept, etc
a framework for the development of
instructional materials.
• Production of the solution; the instructional design
Develop plan guides the creation of the learning materials

For more information:


Learning-theories.com:
•The actual delivery of the materials. Formative
http://www.learning- Implement evaluation occurs here.
theories.com/addie-model.html
Don Clark:
•Formative: occurs throughout the cycle.
http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hr
Evaluate •Summative: the materials and methods assessed for
d/sat1.html#model effectiveness.

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 6


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Design models: Elaboration theory


Topical Sequencing
Charles M. Reigeluth and his colleagues developed this learner-
Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3
centric approach. It argues that content to be learned should be
organised from simple to complex, while providing a meaningful
context in which following ideas are able to be integrated.

The aim of this theory is that designers consider two things


when preparing and presenting content:
1. The logical chronological order that the information is best
delivered, and Spiral Sequencing
2. The approach to complexity. Topic 1 Topic 2 Topic 3

The diagrams to the left have been adapted from Reigeluth


(1999) and help visualise the sequencing options.

More information:
 Learning-Theories.com:
http://www.learning-theories.com/

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Design models: Flexible design


Flexible design is about employing •Online or book
Tutorials
the best approach(es) to suit the based content

requirements of the learner,


facilitator and the subject matter. •Providing
opportunity to
The diagram to the right shows Simulations practice in a safe,
imitation of the
many of these tools that you have actual environment
available in your ID toolbox.
Often, the best solution is blended;
a combination of approaches to get EPSS
•Customised online
helps systems
the best coverage of learners. For
example:
 Distance using CD-ROM •Also know as
immersive learning
 Face to face materials Serious
games
simulations; help
make learning fun
and improve
 Online materials over the retention
internet •Adult learners often
start with the test;
The options are endless... Tests, use this to
records, etc encourage learning
as well as to
measure transfer

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 7


Module 1. Theories and design: Overview 21 June 2008
of educational theories

Congratulations- you have reached the end!


By completing overview of educational theories,
you are now able to:

 Explain the basic purpose of educational


theories
 Recognise popular educational theories
 Identify the theories that support your
instructional design requirements
 Locate useful and relevant sources of theories
on the internet
 Recognise when theories aren’t being applied
correctly or at all

Close this window to end this topic.

Last edited on 20 June 2008

Copyright (c) 2008 Kim Gillham 8