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Bandel thermal power station project

report
2009-2010

NAME:-

DEBADITYA NATH

DEPARTMENT:-

APPLIED ELECTRONICS AND


AND INSTRUMENTATION
ENGINEERING

INSTITUTE:-

SAROJ MOHAN INDTITUTE OF


TECHNOLOGY (GUPTIPARA,HOOGLY)

ROLL NO.:REG. NO.:-

071680105016
071680105101016

Index
1

CONTENT

PAGE
NO.

INTRODUCTION

COAL HANDELING PLANT

MECANICAL SECTION

10

PROCESS CONTROL AND


INSTRUMENTATION

22

ELECTRICAL OPERATION

36

CONCLUSION

47

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

48

BANDEL

THERMAL POWER PROJECT


West Bengal state electricity board, soon after its formation embarked upon a giant project for power generation and
the Bandel Thermal Power Station at Tribeni was conceived. In 1961 the planning commission agreed to the
proposal for setting of a 300 MW power station with financial and technical assistance from U.S.A.

The construction of the project was inaugurated on April 20, 1962 by J.K. Galbraith, then US Ambassador to India
in presence of late Dr. B.C.Roy, then Chief Minister of West Bengal. The project cost of the 1st four units was 35.54
crores.
Another unit of 210 MW was planned and Central Government sanctioned it in August, 1972. The unit happens to be
first 210 MW unit under WBSEEB. The fieldwork started in 1975 and completed in 1983.
The estimated project cost of 210 MW unit was 33.74 crores. But it cost was 100 crores by the time the construction
was completed.
The dates of commissioning of different units are as follows:

Unit No.1Unit No.2Unit No.3Unit No.4Unit No.5-

04.02.1966
23.12.1965
17.09.1966
01.10.1966
18.02.1983

COAL
3

HANDLING
PLANT

COAL HANDLING PLANT


The primary requirement of any thermal plant is coal and water. The main function of coal
handling plant is to feed crust up to bunker. The daily requirement of coal for extension stage
is executed to between 2500-3000 tons depending upon the calorific value of coal at full
load. For unloading and feeding this coal to power house bunker, one duplicate chain of coal
conveyors has been arranged along the crushers, transfer point, each with a capacity of
5000 tones/hr. separated arrangement has been made for ventilation and dust collection for
improving operating conditions. Adequate inter locking and protection have arrangement for
safety men and equipment.
The system has been interlinked with the existing system to improve flexibility and keep
investment to a minimum. With the inter linking and modification provided in the system, it
is possible to se existing wagon tipplers for extension unit. Also but conveyor system for the
extension unit can be made for supplying coal to the bunkers of the extension unit of the
power system.

WAGON TIPPLER:
4

In simple power stations, the coal is unloaded manually from wagon. As the rate of unloading
by this process is very slow, it is not applicable in a big power station. The function of wagon
tippler is to unload the entire wagon mechanically in min.
The loaded wagon known as box wagon comes in two types: BOX C & BOX N; the tare weight
of the wagon is around 22 meter and the weight of coal is around 57 meter. The overall
capacity of wagon tipplers is about 100 tones. So it should be below this line.

Operation:
The loaded wagons are pushed one after another in the wagon tippler base by a diesel
locomotive. Now the desired wagon is detached and the operator operates the tippler. So
that the entire coal of the wagon is unloaded into the hopper. After unloading the wagon the
tippler returns back to its original position by limit switch action.
In B.T.P.S. two types of wagon tipplers are used:
1.ROTARY WAGON TIPPLER

2.WINCH ROPE TIPPLER.

SUPPLIER & SPECIFICATIONS:


ROTARY WAGON TIPPLER:
Her & Peterson Co. USA
2 Nos. of 100 tones capacity each time taken by per cycle is 100 sec.
WINCH ROPE TIPPLER:
M/S Tata Robin Fraser India
90 tones capacity, time taken per cycle is 100 sec.

LAY OUT OF COAL HANDLING PLANT-

PROCESS OR OPERATION OF COAL HANDLING PLANT:


When the wagon is unloaded the coal falls to grizzle net where larger piece are broken
manually so as to make them fall into the net. Now the coal falls to hopper, which is, keeps
vibrating known as vibro-feeder. The coal is now fed to the conveyer belt.
Now the separation is done between the grinded coal and lump coal in the vibroscreen. Here
grinded coal or graded coal is directly sent to bunker through the discharge belt and the now
graded coal are taken to the crusher house to crush the coal into its proper size and sent to
the bunker through same discharge belt.

TRANSFER HOUSE:
It is a cross belt system. Here the impurities are separated from coal. The coal is transferred
from one belt to another belt.

Conveyer belt:
It is made up of rubber and nylon carcass. The frictional resistance has to be maintained so
that the coal doesnt fall from belt. Therefore the belt is inclined to 20 degree known as
angle of response to make the frictional resistance neutral. The belt runs with the help of
roller mechanism. In the beginning the belt is run at no load condition because at loaded
condition the starting torque will be very high, thus the power consumption will be high and
the time span for back e.m.f. will be more. The belt is held from going backward by the help
of 2 pulleys named Head pulley & Tail pulley.

Take up:
6

This is a mechanism used on the belt to maintain the belt tension.

Stack yard:
After the coal is being crushed into proper shape, then the total amount of coal is not used
but collected or stored in a yard is known as Stack Yard, from which we can use it for further
in boiler.

Crusher house:
Here the uncrushed coal is crushed in proper sizes. It has a grinder, hopper. In B.T.P.S. 2
crushers are there, one is INDIAN and another is AMERICAN.

CRUSHER ROTOR TYPE INDUCTION MOTOR:


Type
:
Phase
:
Frequency :
Volts
:
KW
:
R.P.M
:
Induction class:
I.P
:
H.P
:
Amps
:
Space heater :
Ambient Temp :
Wt. of motor
:

A V M W 630 M
3
50 Hz
6600
300
747
B
55
400
36.5
3Nos 250W, 240V
50 degree centigrade
4700 Kg

Protection & protection measures:


For safe handling of coal handling plant a comprehensive interlock & protection scheme has
been incorporated in the coal handling system. The following interlocks & protection has
been provided in the system:
1. Protection against misalignment of conveyors by the alignment of the belts way switch.
2. Protection against belt slipping. If any belt conveyor slips it will trip through low speed
switch.
3. Emergency rope switch for tripping belt conveyor safety will run along the length of the
conveyor belt to enable operator to trip out any belt conveyor locally.
4. Sequentially tripping of the belt conveyor, if any belt conveyor or other equipments
sequence trips out, all equipment preceding it will trip out.
Conversely if equipment in a sequence is not started any equipment preceding it cant be
started. In addition to above, all drive motors are provided with protections against overload
and essential. Audiovisual communication has been provided to identify nature of trouble.

Ash handling plant (asp)Fly ash from the product of combustion of pulverized coal in the boiler is separated in two
stages.
Unit 1-4:
1st stage:
Heavier particles are separated in the mechanical dust collector.
nd
2 stage:
Finer particles are separated in the electrostatic dust collector.
Unit 5:
Mechanical dust is not used here. ESP collects fly ash.
Fly ash
: Hydroveyor system.
Bottom ash : Hydrowest system.
Now the fly ash is mixed with bottom ash in slurry with high pressure water carried through
pipes and finally deposited in two ash ponds.
Ash pond no. 1: 2850`*550`*13`
Ash pond no. 2: 2505`*629`*13.6`

MECHANICAL

OPERATION

MECHANICAL SECTION
The MECHANICAL SECTION is the main department in a power plant. The generation of steam,
expanding of steam in turbine through different stages result in generation of power through
generator coupled with turbine. This section can be divided into three parts:
1. De- mineralized plant
2. Boiler
3. Power generation
The basic layout in the power plant is the steam generated in boiler after expanding through the
different stages of the H.P turbine is reheated in the reheater and return to the I.P turbine through
interceptor and I.P control valves and then finally L.P side. It is then exhausted to condensers. The
water is then feed to the boiler through different heaters and dearator.

DE-MINERALIZING PLANT:
De-mineralized water plant is the ordinary water plant with the exception of water is being
mineral free. Water used in the boiler is taken from the river Ganges. As it contain many
impurities and is muddy. De- mineralized water is needed to make the boiler more lasting.
Here the water is de-mineralized through ion exchange process.
Purpose:
The ultimate aim is of boiler water treatment can be stated as follows:
To prevent and control the formation of deposits in the boiler drum and tubes.
To prevent the corrosion of boiler and its axillaries.
To prevent foaming and carry over for producing high purity steam.
The deposition on the surface of drum and tubes may cause:
1. Overall boiler efficiency decreases.
2. Formation of high temperature causing overheating of metals and tube failure.
3. Sudden rupture of scales may admit water to highly heated metal forming hydrogen
and oxygen.
Process:
It is simple and relatively inexpensive method for getting pure water. In this process the
clean raw water at ordinary temperature is de-mineralized by passing it in succession
through the tanks of granular ion exchange. A resin or polymer, made up of huge organic
molecule of long chain of monomers (polystyrene C-C-C-C-C-C-CC-).
STEP-1:
In step-1 water is passed through resin in hydrogen form. The resins take out the cation and
give up hydrogen in exchange.
1. Reaction of cation exchange resin with bicarbonates:
Ca/Mg/Na2 + (HCO3)3 + H2/Z= Ca/Mg/Na2 + Z/2H2 CO3
2. Reaction of cation exchange resin with sulphate or chloride:
Ca/Mg/Na2 + SO4 + H2/Z= Ca/Mg/Na2 +Z/2H2SO4
The outlet water is acidic since acids are always produced where salts cation have been
replaced by hydrogen.
STEP-2:

10

Carbonic acid is unstable and very easily decomposed into CO2 and H2O. Spreading the dilute
Carbonic acid over Ceramic rings can decrease decomposition.
STEP-3:
The steps or demineralization process are accomplished by passing the effluent from the
second step through the resin in the hydrogen from to replaced anion by hydroxyl anions.
H2 SO4 /HCl + OH- /Z = SO4 /Z/Cl + H2 O
Hence the outlet water is pure.
MIXED BED UNIT:
Boiler feed make-up water of high pressure should be pure. To get that quality of water
effluent from the stated STEP-3 is passed again through another vessel containing a mixture
of cation and anion exchange resin. Normally the mixed bed acts as a polishing unit and
removes these cations and anions that have slipped through above steps.

BOILER AND POWER GENERATION:


The Bandel Thermal Power Station has 5 units. The first 4 units are of 60 MW each and the
other 210 MW.
Technical aspect:
Unit 1-4:
The Bandel Thermal Power Station, the 1st major thermal project of West Bengal State Electricity
Board includes the 1st phase of its construction 4 Westinghouse 3000 r.p.m tandem compound double
flow 5 stage bleeder type condensing turbines with one re-heat and with a maximum capability of
87500 KW at a back pressure of 2.1/21 lg absolute directly coupled to 105000 KVA 3 phase 50 cycles
13800 V hydrogen cooled Y-connected electric generation. Each turbo-generator is supplied with
steam from single Bab-cock & Wil-cox boiler capable of pick output of 650000 lbs/hour of
superheated steam at 1500 psig and 1010 F and the re-heater outlet. The thermal layout of the
power station represents true utilized arrangements 1 boiler 1 turbine 1 condenser and 1 set of feed
water heaters forming a self contained unit. Presently the output of each unit is 60 MW.
Boiler:
Each boiler consists of 5ft diameter 30 feet long steam drum connected with several bottom headers
by the generating tubes, which are arranged in such a manner as to form a rectangular enclosure
constituting the furnace. Steam is generated during circulation of water through the pipes and is
accumulated in the steam drum as saturated steam. The furnace is normally fired with pulverized
fuel of low-grade coal, with provision of firing coal. Burners are designed to carry 30 % of boiler load
by oil in any emergency. Two 700HP induced draught fans are provided for maintaining suction in the
furnace and 200 nos.300HP forced draught fans are provided for supplying secondary air to the
furnace to held proper combustion.
1. SUPPLIER
:
Babcock & Wilcox Co. U.S.A
2. TYPE
:
B & U.S.A Radiant type.
3. SPECIFICATION
:
Normal rating
: 625000lbs/hr.
Pick hour rating
: 650000lbs/hr for 2 hrs.
Steam condition at super heater outlet:
Temp.1010 F, pressure 1500 Pascal.
Steam condition at reheated outlet:
Temp.1010 F pressure 414 Pascal.
11

Schematic Diagram of Bab- cock & Wil-cox boiler

Turbine:
Each turbine consists of 2 casings of elements, a single high pressure and intermediate pressure
element and a double flow low pressure element. The two elements are enclosed in separate
cylinders, the steam flowing from the high pressure exhausts through.
1. SUPPLIER
2. TYPE

:
:

Westinghouse Electrical International Co. U.S.A


Hydrogen cooled at pressure of up to 30 psig

3. SPECIFICATION

Capacity:106000 KVA
Speed: 3000 rpm
Frequency: - 50 cycles/sec.
Voltage: 13800 V
Phase: 3
Power Factor: 0.85
Rated Current: 4393 A

12

Rotor of Westinghouse Turbine

Generators:
1. SUPPLIERS
2. TYPE
4. SPECIFICATION

:
:
:

Westinghouse Electrical International Co. U.S.A


Hydrogen cooled at pressure of up to 30 psig
Capacity:106000 KVA
Speed: 3000 rpm
Frequency: - 50 cycles/sec.
Voltage: 13800 V
Phase: 3
Power Factor: 0.85
Rated Current: 4393 A

:
:
:

Westinghouse Electrical International Co. U.S.A


Surface Type
Capacity: - 397250 lbs/hg condensation
Pressure: - 2.1/2 hg. abs

Condenser:
1. SUPPLIER
2. TYPE
3. SPECIFICATION

Boiler Feed Pump & Drives:


1. SUPPLIER

Pump- Pacific Pumps, USA


Motor- Westinghouse Electric International

2. SPECIFICATION

Capacity: Speed: -

3 No. 1650 GPM each 1000 HP


4400 rpm

Unit-5
13

The 210 MW has been designed on the concept of unit system where a single steam generator
supplies steam to a single turbine coupled to an AC generator connected to the 132 KV station bus.
The Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited turbine is tandem compound double flow 5 stage bleeder type
condensing turbine with one re-heat and with a maximum capability of 210 MW.
Steam Generator or Boiler:
1. MAKE
2. TYPE

:
:

3. DESIGN PRESSURE OF DRUM :


4. DESIGN PRESSURE OF
REHEATER
:
5. SUPERHEATER
OUTLET TEMPERATURE
6. SUPERHEATER
OUTLET PRESSURE
:
7. PREHEATER
OUTLET PRESSURE
:
8. MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS
EVAPORATION
:
9. FEED WATER INLET TEMP.
:
Milling Plant:
1. MILLS
2. TYPE
3. RATED OUTPUT
4. SIZE OF RAW COAL

:
:
:
:

Acc- Vickers-Babcock
Natural circulation, completely water cooled
Furnace of membrane type with super heaters and reheaters.
158.2 kg/cm2
31.0 kg/cm2
:

540 0 C

136 kg/cm2
26.2 kg/ cm2
700 Te/hr
247 0 C

6
Bab-cock & Wil-cox
24.115 Te/hr
20-37

Turbine:
1. SUPPLIER
2. TYPE
3. SPECIFICATION

:
:
:

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.


THRI 108/44, Hydrogen cooled at 2.0 lg pressure
Capacity:247.1 MVA
Speed: 3000 rpm
Frequency: - 50 cycles/sec.
Voltage: 15750 V
Phase: 3
Power Factor: 0.85

14

Generator:
1. SUPPLIER
2. TYPE
3. SPECIFICATION

:
:
:

Induced Draft Fan:


1. MAKER
:
2. TYPE
:
3. NUMBER
:
4. RUNNER DIAMETER:
5. CAPACITY(m3/min) :
6. FAN WATER
GAUGE (mm w.g) :
7. TEMP. OF FLUE GAS :
8. SPEED (rpm)
:
9. FAN CONTROL
:

Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd.


THRI 108/44, Hydrogen cooled at 2.0 lg pressure
Capacity:247.1 MVA
Speed: 3000 rpm
Frequency: - 50 cycles/sec.
Phase: 3
Power Factor: 0.85
Stator Voltage: -15750 V
Stator Current: -5050 A
Rotor Voltage: -310 V
Rotor Current: -2600 A
Connection: YY
Davidson and co.
Backward aero foil bladed double inlet
2
2205
MCR
DESIGN
9900
11630
285.2
375.9
0
143 C
1540 C
820
940
Hydraulic coupling

Forced Draft Fan:


1.
2.
3.
4.

MAKER
:
TYPE
:
NUMBER
:
RUNNER DIAMETER:

Davidson and co.


Backward aero foil bladed double inlet
2
1994
15

Primary Air Fan:


1. MAKER
2. TYPE
3. NUMBER
4. CAPACITY(m3/hr)

:
:
:
:

5. FAN AIR
PRESSURE (mm w.g)
6. AIR TEMPERATURE :
7. SPEED ( rpm)
8. FAN CONTROL
:

Davidson and co.


Backward aero foil bladed double inlet
6
COLD AIR
DESIGN
68000
81200
:
1080
0
121 C
:
1470
Radial Vane

1080
0

271 C
1470

Maintenances of components:
Boiler: Sometimes boiler tube leakage ruptures are found to occur due to high thermal stress.
To detect the leakage water is passed through the tubes at normal pressure. After rectification,
normally hydraulic test is done with pressure at 1.5 times of working pressure.
Burner: Before putting the burner into service ensure that all the burners to be used is
perfectly cleaned. All passages particularly the small holes and the circulating distributing grooves of
sprayer head are free from grease and other foreign materials.
Condenser Pump: Each unit is provided with the 2 seven stages vertical pump with hollow
shaft of 150 HP motor. Normally one pump would be in operation and the other is kept stand-by. If no
liquid is delivered then it may be for impeller plugged up. It should be cleaned properly. Excessive
clearance of damaged impeller may cause pump to deliver capacity below its rated value. Pressure
that is built up is not enough. In this case pump should be rectified. Clogged strainer in suction line
causes the working of pump for a while and then looses suction.
Boiler Feed Pump: When the pump is in service, an hourly check will prove to be good
preventive measure. Any change in a smooth running of pump should be checked immediately and
possible serious damage to be prevented. An hourly routine check should be made for the following:
Bearing temperature
Packing
Cooling water system
Inlet and discharge pressure
Pulverizer: In a forced shut down there is possibility of fire in the pulverizer. If it is possible to
run the pulveriser empty the following procedure is to be followed:
If shut down occur while the air and fuel mixture leaving as at or over 160 F and the absence
of fire in the pulveriser then it is to be cleaned by hands.
If the shut down occur while the air and fuel mixture leaving the pulveriser was less than 150 F
then the pulveriser fuel may be partially left in the pulveriser provided operation will be
resumed after 3 hours.
If the shut down exceeds 3 hours it is advisable to clean out the pulveriser by hands as soon as
possible.

Shooting Blowers: Prior to operating the shoot blowers, one of the operators of the
boiler concerned should be sent up for the inspection of the system. He should be sent up to
inspect the complete system starting from steam supply to the individuals blower and should
16

report any leakage if found out. This should be put into immediate effect as preventive
measures.
Commissioning, Operation &Isolation of the equipments of the boiler:
For these the required steps to be followed are:
1. Chemical feeding to boiler: Prior to lighting up any boiler the chemical station should
be checked and the chemical dosages that might be necessary must be ascertained.
2. Preparation for firing oil: Extreme precaution is to be taken prior to lighting against
spilling of oil which may lead to fire.
3. Procedure for putting baley feed water-valve in service: Before putting the valve in
service a practice should be made to change the transfer level on the valve from
hand to automatic with a small pause in reset position.
4. Hydrostatic test on boiler: During hydrostatic test in any boiler please arrange to
isolate all instrument on the pressure side except of course the pressure gauges.
5. Baley 100% Feed Water valve: This valve has locking features, which locks in position
when the 60 psi pressure comes down to 28 psi, when this happens release the locks
after air supply is restored again.
6. Clearance for working inside a pulveriser: The following blocking may be done apart
from electrical blocking of the mill blocking of coal pipes: PA fans and all hot air
dampers to PA fans or mill.
7. Limitation of igniter transformer: After each cycle of 30 seconds, the igniter shall be off
for 120 seconds before a second cycle is started. This may be done for maximum of 2
hours fin every 4 hours.
8. Commissioning and isolating gauge glasses: While commissioning keep the drain open
of the steam side let the glass warm up to about 30 sec. The water side valve should
be crack opened and allowed the level to be established and both valves should be
opened.
9. Coal valve of idle machine: The burner valve shall be closed after completing all
operation taking out mill group and shall be kept closed in a stand by mill.
10.
Checking of boiler: All control engineers shall ensure that the boiler operator
check the boiler from top to bottom.

ELECTRO-STATIC PRECIPITATOR:
Under government rules and regulation for industrial pollution control, Electro-static
precipitator is must to each and every industry which deals high ash as residing. An ESP is a
chamber in which fuel gas from the furnace is forced into F.D fans. The particle of fuel gases
are ionized by electric fields produced by the electrodes placed in the chambers.
In the diagram when dust laden flue gas enter precipitator (A) a DC current from a
transformer rectifier couple arrange is supplied to electrode (C) is called collecting electrode.
As the electrode get charged a corona formation takes place which ionizes the dust laden
flue gases flow out through B to the chimney. The electrodes are cleaned from dust by
hammering which are operated by ramp motors. Thus the dusts drop below to the hopper
and are collected by pipes fitted below and are carried to the ash yards.

17

CONTROL
PANEL

RECTIFIER

STEP-UP
TRANSFORMER

CIRCUIT

INSULATOR
C

B
CLEAN GAS TO CHIMNEY

CLEAN GAS

FROM FURNANCE

HOOPER MOUTH

DUST PARTICLE

18

Steam Cycle

19

PROCESS
CONTROL
&
INTRUMENTATION

PROCESS CONTROL & INSTRUMENTATION (P.C.I)


CONTROL SYSTEM:
A control system is an arrangement of physical components connected or related in such a matter so
as to command, direct or regulate to another system
It is of two types:1. open loop
2. closed loop

FEED BACK:
20

Property of a closed loop system, which permits the output to be compared with the input to the
system so the appropriate control action may be fanned as some function of the output & input. It
minimizes the error in the system.
LINE DIAGRAM OF CONTROL SYSTEMCLOSED LOOP SYSTEM-

P.C. &I IN B.T.P.S:


For faster & accurate methods of production & control B.T.P.S. has adopted electronic equipments to
its own needs. Installations of electronic equipments are for better operation of process control
instruments, indicating & recording instruments. In B.T.P.S. instrumentation many electronic cards are
used. This electronic cards compromises of resistor, inductor, capacitor, diode, transistor, IC chips,
etc.
BURNER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM:It comprise of following equipments:1. I.D. Fans.
2. F.D. Fans.
3. P.A. Fans.
4. Seal Air Fans.
5. Mills.
6. Oil Burners.
7. Boiler Operation (Starting & Tripping).
8. Flame Scanner.
STARTING OF I.D. FANS:1. Permissive: I.D. Fans scoop is in minimum position.
21

Lubricating oil pressure of fan and motor bearing are adequate


Inlet dampers are closed
One F.D. Fan isolating damper open.
I.D. fans can hold start command if the above condition are satisfied
2. Tripping of I.D. fan are for following
Furnace pressure very high for more than 3 sec
Furnace pressure very low for more than 3 sec
Bearing lubricant oil pressure are not adequate
3. 3-fan operationsAfter establishing both I.D.S & F.D.S if one of the four fans trips, the 3 fan operation condition occurs.
Under this condition following action are intended commands are given to F.D. fans discharge
dampers to more to predetermined position. Through preferential tripping of pulverizes, removal of
pulverizes.
Annunciation at UCP
Annunciation at ECP
Signals are given to turbine load limit
Starting of F.D. fan
F.D. fan discharge and dampers closed
F.D. fan lubricating oil pressure ok
Either or both I.D. fans are running
Flame failure TripThe safe operating regime of the boiler is with 3 mills running without oil support and 2 mills running
with oil support. When 3 units operating (without oil support) and in any 1-mill group 2/4 scanners
shows NO FLAME then tripping of affected mill group and introducing oil support in remaining mills.
If more than 1-mill group 2/4 scanners show NO FLAME trip boiler when no of mills operated is
equal to less than 3 ensure oil supports.
OIL BURNERS:
The oil burners can be started from the remote control plagues or from local cubical when the
following condition is satisfied.
MFR reset.
Fuel oil pressure more than 5kg/cm^2
Atomizing stream pressure more than 5kg/cm^2
Igniter A.C supply is O.K.
Once the burner is available, start switch can be operated to obtain the following sequence: A signal is given for canceling purge complete in induction. When the P.F. impeller will receive a
signal to move to the operating position. When the P.F. impeller is proved out the operating
position the air register will be signal to move to the prefight position.
With the air register proved at the prefight position, the oil burner will be commanded to move
to the firing position. Once burner is advanced the atomizing steam value will open.
The oil burner can be either is a load carrying burner or a light up burner as required. However in a
group of four burners whether load carrying or light up burner are used. If load carrying burners are
used for a group then the corresponding P.A. fan must be in the off position.
Next the igniter sequence starts1. The carbon in the igniter move to the firing position.
2. Once the firing position of the igniter is conformed ignition starts.
Once the ignition is proved oil value opens and the following sequence occurs:-A timer allows
the ignition to ignite for 10 sec as a trial time to establish an oil flame. If oil flame is not proved O.K.
the oil gun will trip. Once the pulverize is started the respective feeder (coal feeder) is placed in
service. When the feeder starts running the following action are initiated:22

a. Oil burner flame failure trip is prohibited until the trial time for feeder flame is completed.
b. During the feeder igniter trial time, the flame failure trip is inhibited at the end of trial time s if
coal flames are established; with the 3 out of 4 P.F. scanners the pulverizer group burner is
established. The oil burner now be permitted to be removed from service provided the coal
flame an along signal is high and no of pulveriser operating equals to three in a healthy
manner.
c. If at the end of feeder igniter trial time, 2 out of 4 P.F. flame scanners sense no sense then trip
signal will be fed. Additional flame failure logic and emergency tripping will occur as directed
by the logic.
CONTROL SHUT DOWN OF PULVERISER:
The following conditions should be satisfied they are:
1. Mill group running.
2. P.F. burners running
3. All oil burners in selected mill group established. Then feeder is tripped immediately. Now mill
motor current is near to no load current, the pulveriser is tripped and the output temperature
of the pulveriser reach a particular temperature the following operations are initiated.
1. Trip P.A. fan
2. Shut down of oil burners.
EMERGENCY SHUT DOWN OF PULVERISER:
A.)
1. Associated P.A. fan trip.
2. Boiler trip.
3. Loading gas pressure low.
4. Mill lubricant oil pressure low.
5. 2 out of 4 P.F. flames showing poor flame.
B.)At the end of 10 sec the igniter trial time for oil valve, if the oil flame scanner senses flame
then burner ON signal will be generated to move the air register from prefight to oil /P.F. position, the
oil flame scanner FLAME ON lamp will also be the BMs console.
C. )At the end of successful starting of oil burner, commands are maintain to retain the status of
the following:1. Oil valve opened position.
2. Atomizing valve open position.
3. Burner inserted & signal to trip the igniter.
D.)
At the end of start lockout time if any one of the following conditions is present then
burner will trip:
1. Oil valve not proven open.
2. Burner not inserted.
3. Air register not in oil/P.F. position.
OIL BURNER TRIP:
1. Operating the burner control switch either from console plague or from local cubical.
2. Boiler trip.
3. Oil pressure low.
4. Atomizing stream pressure low.
5. Oil scanners see flame & oil valve open & the corresponding mill group P.F. igniter timer not
operating.
6. Oil scanners see flame and burner starts lock out timer expired under any of the following
conditions.
a. Air register not in selected position.
23

b. Oil burner not in inserted position.


c. Oil valve not fully opened.
Whenever an emergency shutdown sequence starts the oil valve will be given a closed command.
Whenever a control shut down is initiated a 5 min lock out timer is energized and the oil valve is
closed.
When the oil valve is proven closed a burner purge signal will open the stream purge valve. At the
end of the purge the system valve will closed, atomizing steam valve will closed the oil burner will be
commanded to retract. If the oil P.F. burner is not in service then it will also receive a retract
command for the impeller.

CONTROL SYETEM AS APPLIED TO BTPS 210 MW UNIT-5:


In general; an auto control system is a closed loop control system by which a process parameter like
pressure, temperature or level is maintained at its desired value automatically within the control
dead band. Following auto control loops are envisaged for BTPS 210 MW UNIT-5.
1. Gland seal steam pressure control.
2. Gland steam cooler no. 2 level control.
3. L.P. heater no. 2 drip level control.
4. L.P. heater no. 4 drip level control.
5. Dearator level control.
6. Dearator steam pressure control.
7. Condenser hot well level control.
8. H.P. heater no. 5 drip level control.
9. H.P. heater no. 6 drip level control.
10. H.P. heater no. 7 drip level control.
11. Furnace draft control.
12. Drum level control.
A. Single element control (by 25% or 100% capacity valve).
B. 3 element control (by 100% capacity valve).
13. Boiler feed pump scoop tube control.
14. Superheat steam temperature control.
15. Reheat steam temperature control.
16. Mill outlet temperature control, Mill-A.
17. Mill outlet temperature control, Mill-B.
18. Mill outlet temperature control, Mill-C.
19. Mill outlet temperature control, Mill-D.
20. Mill outlet temperature control, Mill-E.
21. Mill outlet temperature control, Mill-F.
22. Boiler feed pump overload protection.
23. Combustion control.
A. Master pressure control.
B. Fuel flow control.
C. Air flow control.
24. Initial steam pressure unloading gear control.
There are open loop controls for operation of ID fan inlet and outlet dampers. ESP inlet and outlet
dampers, FD fan discharge dampers, Air heater by-pass dampers, cold air dampers and PA fan
suction dampers. Local integrated closed loop pragmatic control system has been applied for control
of Boiler Auxiliary steam pressure (in two stages) and DM cooling water pressure (turbine side &
24

boiler side). All the control components are of George Kent U.K. range. The control system may be
divided in three broad stage e.g. Measurement and transmission, control function computation and
controller action, Final regulation.

MEASUREMENT AND TRANSMISSION:


For measurement of pressure and differential pressure, Deltapi E transmitters have been used.
Transmitters used for measurement of temperature are type 4 C-AE and have two versions, one has
input from RTD for low temperature and the other has input from CHROMEL ALUMEL thermocouple.
All the electronic transmitters work on two wire system from +24 d.c. supply and have output 4 to 20
mA d.c. proportional to the input throughout the full range.

CONTROL FUNCTION COMPUTATION AND CONTROLLER ACTION:

All

computations and controller action are achieved electronically by rack-mounted plug in type
mnincards. The racks are assembled in different cubicles which taken together is called UNIRACK. The
uni-rack has ten cubicles. Cubical no. 6 & 7 contain power and supply power at +20 V D.C., -20 V
D.C., +24 V D.C. and 24 V a.c. Other cubicles accommodate mnincards for computation of different
functions like, additions/subtractions/average, square root, multiplication, division, function
generation, voltage to current conversion, scaling and biasing, analog-integration, differentiation etc.
Minicard type 74 R is the boundless controller having input range +4 V d.c. and output + 20 V d.c.
pulses on raise line or lower line depending upon the polarity of input. Proportional band setting
range = 5 to 360 %, I.A.T. setting = 5 sec. to 10 min. and D.A.T. (derivative action time) setting = 0 to
5 min.
Auto-manual logic cards (T-AM) are mounted on the upper part of the unirack. These cards work in
conjunction with auto-manual come setting station mounted on control room desk. This trans data - 2
types T-CB desk presentation unit has AUTO, MANUAL, RAISE and LOWER push buttons with
integrated lamps. If auto button is pressed and no auto failure condition exist, the auto lamp will glow
and the controller output will pass through the T- AM to the actuator. I f manual button is pressed,
auto lamp will be off and manual raise, lower lamp will glow, thereby cutting off controller output at
the T- AM and the status quo will be maintained. If now raised button is pressed, 24 V A.C. will pass
through T- AM on raise line and similarly for lower button for lower pulse. If auto failure / manual
failure condition occurs, auto / manual lamp will flicker and auto / both auto and manual operation
will be inhibited. The mnincards work on + 20V and - 20V D.C. Voltage and 24 a.c. for, T- AM logic
cards for operation of logistic relays for contact development.

FINAL REGULATOR:
All the end regulators or drives operate on pneumatic system. These are control valves or power
cylinders. Control valves are used in feed water cycle, steam line e.g. for drum level control,
condenser hot well level control, dearator level and pressure control. L.P. and H.P. heater level control
etc. Power cylinders are used where comparatively larger stroke with larger force is required to drive
the regulator e.g. F.D. and P.A. fan vane control, I.D. fan inlet and outlet damper control, I.D. fan and
BFP hydraulic coupling scoop tube control etc. To operate the regulators, air signal is required for
which a pulse to pneumatic converter type series 300 T- TP is used near the actuator. These T- TP
converters are used 24 V reversible synchronous a.c. motor with linear control system. The 20 V D.C.
pulses of 74 R are converted to equivalent time duration 24 V R.M.S. by means of minicard 21 a.c.
switch. This a.c. voltage, either raise or lower, operates the T- TP to produce 0.2 to 1.0 kg/cm^2 air,
which control signal in turn operate the actuator. The pneumatic drives have been provided with air
25

lock relays to maintain the regulators in stay-put condition if supply air pressure falls to 3.5 kg/cm^2.
Now coming to the control loop function proper, a typical control loop, say furnace pressure control is
discussed in some details.

FURNACE PRESSURE CONTROL:


Furnace chamber pressure is maintained at 3 mm well by controlling but the speed of either 1 or 2
I.D. fans, with extract flue gas from the furnace.
The furnace pressure is sensed at two points of the furnace chamber L.H.S. and R.H.S. by means of
two low head pressure control transmitters (range- 100 to + 60 mm well type Deltapi E-AG. The 4-20
MA outputs, proportional to the applied head after passing through the low current detector minicards
type 71 E (to indicate transmitter failure or open circuit) are converted to 1- 5 V d.c. by conditioning
minicard type 19 E. High and low level internal set alarm cards AEJ -90 to provide alarm contacts at +
15 and - 25 mm. well respectively. Before entering the error generator card the signal is passed
through a low pass filter formed by using a subtracted card 0.6 R and an analog integrator card 58 R
connected. The output of 58 R card is used for error generation. Any resultant error produces raise /
lower pulses from the furnace pressure controller (called master I.D. controller) type 74 R minicard,
which operates in (P+1) mode. The pulses after passing through T- AM, T- CB combination are routed
to the I.D. fan hydraulic coupling scoop tube actuators.
There will be change in loop response between operation with either 1 or 2 fans. To account for that a
sealing and biasing card type 20 R and a transfer switch minicard type 23 E are connected before the
controller. Provision is there for maintaining a minimum scoop position of each I.D. fan by a routing
the lower pulses through a low alarm card. AEJ-90 actuated by position signal of the concerned scoop.
If the scoop position is 30%; further lowering signal is cut off. There are two more transmitters type
Deltapi A- AG for indicating the L.H.S. and R.H.S. furnace pressure. Similarly R.H.S. indicating and
control transmitters are interchangeable in the sense that if one transmitter fails or maloperates, the
other healthy transmitter may be used for both indication and control with the help of three position
switch type T / DA non-control panel. If outputs of the two transmitters differ by more than a present
margin (set by 12 R card), the AUTO operation fails. In other conditions of AUTO operation failure is
Bin supply failure and any transmitter failure. MANUAL operation fails when supply to T- AM is failed.

OTHER CONTROL LOOPS:


The control falling under serial nos 1 to 11 are performed through comparatively easy and straight
forward loops i.e. value is compared with set value (corresponding voltage applied from sector T- CB
on control desk) and the error signal controlling the control valves by (P+1) controller. The dearator
level is controlled by two control valves viz. dump control valve and make up control valve.

DRUM LEVEL CONTROL:


Controlling the speed of the feed water pumps to maintain the pressure loss across the feed water
valve constant controls by regulating the feed water control valves and water level in boiler drum.
There are two feed water control valves, one, the 0 to 25% MCR valve (BFD-7) is used at low loads
and other 20 to 110% MCR valves (BFD-6) is used at high loads. BFD-7 is regulated by single element
controller e.g. measured value and set value of drum level (50 mm above the water 0 line of drum),
where as BFD-6 is controlled normally by 3- element controller, i.e. in addition to the single element
control, the control is corrected by error based upon the difference between water flow into the boiler
and steam flow (i.e. steam) leaving the boiler. A transfer switch is provided for single to 3-element
control and vice-versa.
26

SUPERHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL:


Super-heater temperature is controlled by injunction of spray water in a two stage super-heater. First
stage attemperator is between primary outlet and platen inlet and second stage is between platen
outlet and final super-heater inlet. The control loop is one of conventional cascade type, in which first
stage controller derives its set point from average platen outlet temperature monitoring controller &
the platen outlet temperature. Controller in turn derives its set point from the average of the position
signals of the L.H.S. and R.H.S. second stage spray control valves.
.

REHEAT STEAM TEMPERATURE CONTROL:


The reheat temperature control is performed by two separate control loops. Under normal conditions
the control is achieved by varying the flue gas flow through the superheater and reheater dampers (2
nos each) in such a way that either one of the R.H. and S.H. dampers are fully opened at any time
and other one is modulated to maintain reheat temperature, the other loop operates the reheat
emergency spray valves if even after operation of R.H. and S.H. gas dampers, the reheat temperature
exceeds a present value. This loop has not yet been required to operate.

MILL OUTLET TEMPERATURE CONTROL:


There are separate similar loops for 6 mills to maintain the mill exit temperature at a fixed value by
sequentially regulating the cold air and hot air dampers. If after full regulation of the dampers the
lowest mill temperature is still below the set points, a common control loop operates the four no
economizer by per dampers to maintain a minimum set temperature.

COMBUSTION CONTROL:
A signal is generated to achieve the condition that turbine inlet stem pressure is maintained at a set
value (125 kg/cm^2 in this plant). This signal is trimmed by temperature corrected total steam flow
signal to account for transient load changes. The resulting signal is called Master Demand signal
which after a lead-lag interlock forms the demand for both fuel & air control system.
The fuel flow control is achieved separately for 6 mills by controlling simultaneously. P.A. fan vane
and coal feeder speed and coal level. Total air flow is controlled by operating F.D. fan inlet vanes on
the basis of demand signal and actual air flow signal trimmed by oxygen level in flue gas.
STARTING TRIPPING OF A BOILER:
Starting of a boiler1. At least one set of I.D. /F.D. fan is on.
2. Boiler trip condition exists.
Boiler will be provided a purge interlock as detailed below:
1. Either or both I.D. fan running.
2. Either or both F.D. fan running.
3. At least one air register from each pair of air registers (mill group) open to purge position.
4. Air flow is between 25% - 35%.
5. All scanners show no flame.
6. All oil valves closed (burner).
Once the purge required lamp glows and one presses the purge start push button the following
sequences proceeds:5 minutes purge required lamp glows. At the end of 5 minutes purge complete
indication lamp comes. Provided all the boiler trip interlocks at reset. Getting purge completion MFR
is reset.
27

BOILER TRIPPING:
The MFR that is boiler trip due to any of the following:a. Drum level extreme low and wipe out switch not operated.
b. Drum level extreme high and wipe out switch not operated.
c. Furnace pressure very high for more than 3 sec.
d. Furnace pressure very low for more than 3 sec.
e. Both I.D.s trip.
f. Both F.D.s trip.
g. Emergency trip P.B. pressed.
h. 6.6 KV switchgear trip.
i. Total furnace flame poor more than 3 sec.
j. H.P. bypass station closed and one or both ESV and IV closed with any mill group burners or
load carrying oil burners in service.
TRIPPING OF MFR RELAYS:
a. Emergency shutdown sequence of oil burners.
b. Emergency shutdown sequence of mill.
c. Emergency shutdown of P.A. fan and seal air fans.
d. Closing of main fuel oil shut off valve.
e. Signal to register control system to maintain the status.
Tripping of MFR also gives some signal:
a. Close hp/lp bypass system.
b. Close SH, atemperation water supply.
c. Close RH, atemperation water supply.
d. Trip HV Supply to ESP.
FLAME SCANNERFlame scanners are used to supervise both oil and PF flame in boiler. The entire boiler flame is
scanned by 48 nos. of unit flame scanners. Out of which 24 nos. for oil flame and 24 for PF flame.
Flame scanner is based on infrared scanning. Scanner head sensors are mounted on furnace walls.
Heads/Sensors detect the flame condition and the voltage signal proportional to flame (brightness
and flickering) send to process module through cables.
The process module primarily amplifies the signal and separates the flickering portion i.e. AC analog
is then introduced in a logic circuit. Less than 4% flame is said to be poor flame otherwise good
flame.
Oil burner will trip if it receives less than 4% flame and a mill group without oil support will trip under
poor flame condition of two PF flame scanners. The boiler/MFR is likely to trip under no flame
condition through 3 sec. time delay.

FUNCTION OF HP & LP BYPASS SYSTEM:


The HP & LP bypass system in very much in larger steam generating units. At BANDEL THERMAL
POWER SATATION this HP & LP bypass system is available in 210 MW units.
1. HP & LP bypass system is necessity:At lower output of the stream generator, superheated and reheated temperature
decreases rapidly. For this reason, matching of stream temperature and turbine metal
temperature becomes extremely difficult and starting of the unit is delayed especially in
case of HOT START-UP. The HP-LP bypass system has been incorporated in the system to
remove this difficulty and to ensure higher steam loading of boiler during starting of the
unit or during low load operation of the turbine.

28

In this scheme, on the HP side, a portion of the main steam is bypass to the REHEATER,
(without passing through the HP turbine) and on the LP side a portion of the HOT
REHEATER steam is bypass to the condenser.
In each case pressure reducing and De super heating of the HP side is provided to
control the steam pressure and temperature entering reheater and condenser
respectively. A special steam throw off device has been incorporated in the condenser to
condense the LP bypass steam.
Dense Reheating water of HP bypass station is taken from the boiler feed system. For
LP bypass station Dense-Reheating is done by condenser.
1.
a.
b.
c.

The bypass system will perform the following function:Control of MS and reheated steam pressure.
Bypass the steam to condenser in case of turbine trip out.
Facilitate boiler start up and condense DM water. During HOT START-UP, HP/LP bypass
system will increase boiler loading by dumping steam generated in condenser and
permit rising steam temperature to match with HP/LP turbine metal temperature.
d. Offer re-heated protection by establishing steam flow through it.
2. The HP bypass system consists of:a. Two nos. of pressure reducing and De-superheating(PRDS)
Control valve (BP1 & BP2) each to pass 100 T/hr at 140 atms. And 540 degree centigrade
b. One no. spray water pressure valve (BD) to maintain constant pressure before desuperheating/at temperature water control valves (BPE)
c. Two no. spray water valve (BPE1 & BPE2) for control of steam temperature at the outlet
of HP bypass valve.
d. Hydraulic oil system for operation of HP/LP control valve system.
e. Pressure and temperature controller.
3. The LP bypass system consists of:a. Two pressure control valve (LBP1 & LBP2) complete with electro hydraulic actuators each
to 112 T/hr steam at 6 atms and 540 degree centigrade.
b. Two LP De-super heaters.
c. Two nos. spray water valve (LBPE1 & LBPE2) for control of steam temperature at the
outlet of LP bypass valve
d. Pressure and temperature controllers.
4. Interlock & safety:HP/LP bypass system will receive a closing signal (priority signal) over-riding normal
control of impulse under any of the following condition:a. Temperature of stem discharged by HP bypass valve is high
b. Condenser vacuum is low
c. Steam discharge temp. of any branch of LP bypass is too high
d. MFR trips
e. Water supply to steam through off device is shunt.
5. A priority signal as described above the HP bypass V/V will close if: opening of valve is
less than 2% & the valve is in annual mode of operation or the set is on normal load.
6. The system will become operative against under auto mode for any of the following
condition:
a. Generator lock out relay has tripped or
b. One or both ESV & one or both IVR closed
29

DESCRIPTION OF HP-LP BYPASS CONTROL SYSTEM:


The final control element used for HP-LP bypass control system is on electro-hydraulic actuator, which
is used to translate the output signal of the automatic controller into a position of the CONTROL
VALVE (i.e. PRDS V/Vs etc.).
OIL SUPPLY UNITS FOR THE HYDRAULIC SYSTEM:
The oil supply units for the HP/LP bypass are connected in parallel. MONOSTATS control the oil
pressure in the accumulators and signal alarm pressure too high or pressure too low, if the
pressure is not in order. If the pressure of oil falls below the minimum in both accumulators,
positioning actuators will be blocked.
SERVO VALVE:
The two stage servo valve is actuated by the torque motor which is control from an analogue
positioning amplifier or from a manual desk control. The torque motor moves the control fork (of the
servo valve) and operated the pilot stage (1 st stage) which controls the position of the control piston.
BLOCKING UNIT:
The electro-hydraulically pilot operated blocking unit is mounted between the servo valves and the
actuator. If closed off both parts to the actuator is electrically de-energized or with insufficient oil
pressure hold the piston of the actuator in its last position.
ELEMENTS OF HP BYPASS CONTROL SYSTEM:
a. Pressure master controller with PI characteristics.
b. Positioning loops for bypass valves.
c. PI controllers and positioning loops for spray water valves.
d. PI controllers and positioning loops for spray water pressure.
ELEMENTS OF LP BYPASS CONTROL SYSTEM:
The LP bypass control system can be divided concerning function into 2 parts:
a. The pressure control:The system enables for pressure control, generally to select manually two operational model: The pressure with a sliding load dependent set value formation- PI function.
Valve position control with a master signal formed as an average HP relief valve position- P
function.
b. The temperature control:The system for temperature control receives the actual steam temperature signal from
transmitter, comparers it with the set point and controls the position of the spray water valves
in accordance with the control deviations and the PI function.
A feed forward signal (actual relief valve position) is introduced to the 2 nd P-action channel of the
controllable to improve the control results.

30

ELECTRICAL
OPERATION
31

ELECTRICAL OPERATION
The main m/c and equation required for generation and transmission of electricity can be divided in
to sections.

Generation
Transmission

For generation of electricity the following m/c is required:

Generator
Exciter
Enclosed bus duct
Generator transformer
Auxiliary transformer
circuit breaker
High voltage switchyard installation for transmission of power.

For protection and control of the generator transformers, equipments required.

Current transformer.
Potential transformer.
Grounding transformer.
Lightening arrester.
Automatic voltage regulator.
Protection device and control equipments.
Measuring recording instruments.

Purpose of using different equipments, m/c and installation:


a) Generator:
A generator or alternator is m/c which is used to produce A.C. Power when driven
by the turbine shaft.
b) Exciter:
An exciter is an m/c which is used to supply necessary excitation to the alternator
or the generator. This is done by giving D.C. supply to the rotor winding of generator.
32

c) Enclosed bus duct:


The generator line is brought out and connected to the generator transformer and
auxiliary transformer by the buses.
d) Generator transformer:
It is used to transform the power from the low voltage (13.8kv) to high voltage
(132kv).
e) Circuit breaker:
These are used to make or break the circuit or equipments when required.
f) High voltage switchyard:
It is an installation where generated power is transmitted to the system through
the transmission lines from generators after being stepped up through generator
transformers.
g) Current &potential transformer:
This is used as metering and protection equipment.
h) Lightning arrestor:
The lightning arresters are usually connected between phase and ground of a
power plant to protect the equipment from sudden over voltages or surges produced
by high lightning or some other reasons.
Excitation of generator rotor:
For unit 1-4 the excitation system comprises of permanent magnet generator whose Ac
output after electrified to DC is fed in the field circuit of a compound generator, which is
connected to the turbo generator set through brushes.
For unit 5 the excitation system is known as shunt excitation system. In this system step
down transformer (15.75 kV /575kv) is connected to the output of the generator and the
output of the transformer is fed to a set of thyristor bridges and the bridge output is fed to the
generator field to produce approximately 4KV output.
Synchronization of alternator:
According to the type of prime mover the preparations of the running up of an alternator
and turbine raising oil pressure in the bearing to replace the film sequence out, when m/c is
standstill etc. the amount of energy stored, isolating masses of large unit may be very great so
that the attainment of the running speed may take some time.
A m/c is requested to be synchronized if it required running in parallel with others before
it is connected electrically to energize bus, the following conditions may be satisfied.
Equality of frequency
Equality of voltage.
Equality of phase.
Synchronism of phase sequence.
With this requirements fulfilled there will be no phase difference between the terminals of the
m/c and bus bars so that such parts can be connected to system without any disturbance.
Steps of operation to be followed for synchronization:
Field rheostat should be in minimum position.
The generator breaker should be kept in off condition and both bus side insulator in on
condition.
The field breaker should be kept closed.
Voltage should be gradually increased up to 13.8 KV.
The circuit breaker should be closed with auto-manual selector in balanced position.
Gradually null point of end detector should be adjusted by adjusting the auto rheostat.
Auto-manual switch should be changed over to auto when the pointer is at N.
33

The frequency should be checked in the frequency meter and adjusted by the governor
switch.
The generator breaker should be switched on at 5min to 12 oclock when pointer moving
in clock wise direction immediately after closing the breaker the governor switch must
be operated and load drawn at 5 MW. Inform MCR accordingly.

D.C. POWER SUPPLY


Introduction:
Power to control circuits, relays, and instruments should be having interrupted in nature. D.C.
power is selected for its stability and reliability in power stations and substations. In power stations,
in the event of A.C. power failure, to maintain uninterrupted sealing of generator set and required
lubrication of the bearings and exciter bearings, D.C. driven standby lubrication oil pumps start
automatically and the said equipments are stopped only after restoration of A.C. power and achieving
normal system required.
D.C. system and its constituents:
A D.C. system comprises of flat charger, boost charger, a D.C. bus and a battery set
constituting of cells suitable nos. and ampere-hour capacity control power to different equipments
are fed from the D.C bus via subsequent sub-distribution boards or fuse boards.

THE UNIT SYSTEM PROTECTION:


The unit protection scheme has been developed for isolating the unit in case of emergency
condition in the turbine, generator and boiler, which need immediate isolation of the unit from the
system. The protection is achieved through the following.
Unit lock out relay-

U.L.R.

Turbine lock out relay-

T.L.R.

Generator lock out relay- G.L.R.

Master fuel relay-

M.F.R

SOME IMPORTANT DATA


Set point of 5th generator 235Mva transformer:

High oil temperature alarm at 75 C


High winding temperature alarm at 85 C
High oil temperature trip 80 C
High winding temperature trip 90 C
Cooling fans start at 60c
Cooling pump star at 70 C

34

Cooling system of 235Mva transformer:


Total no. of pumps- 4
Total no of fans- 12
Set point of 16Mva Auxiliary Transformer:

Fan starts at 60 C
Oil temperature high alarm 75 C
Winding temperature high alarm 85 C
Total no. of fans 12

Set point of 25Mva station Auxiliary transformer:

High oil temperature alarm at 75 C


High winding temperature alarm at 82 C
High oil temperature trip 805C
High winding temperature trip 92 C
Cooling fans start at 62.5 C
Cooling pump star at 60 C

Some important

data for 132 KV ABCBs of 5th unit SW/yard:


Normal operating pressure: 17 Kg/sq cm
Breaker trouble alarm appears at E.C.R. at around 14.5Kg/sq cm
Breaker opens due to low air pressure at around 14.25 Kg/sq cm
Breaker closes due to low air pressure at around 8Kg/sq cm
H. P. receiving pressure 28.5Kg/sq cm
Line pressure 19.5Kg/sq cm
Compressor starts at 26.5/29 Kg/sq cm
Compressor stops at 28Kg/sq cm

Some important

data for 6.6 KV Switch Gears:


Closing blocking pressure: 11 Kg/sq cm
Tripping blocking pressure: 10 Kg/sq cm
Normal operating pressure: 16 Kg/sq cm

CIRCUIT BREAKER
The circuits breakers are automatic switches that can make or break circuit under normal and
faulty conditions. During the abnormal or faulty conditions the relays sense the faults and close the
trip circuit of the circuit breaker hence the circuit breaker opens to disconnect the faulty part from the
healthy part of the system.
Types of Circuit Breakers:
Circuit breaker can be classified on the basis of arc quenching medium.

Minimum Oil Circuit Breaker (MOCB):


In minimum oil circuit breaker the current interruption takes place inside the interrupter.
The enclose of the interrupter is made of insulating material link porcelain. Hence the
clearance between the live parts and the enclosure can be reduced and lesser quantity
of oil requires for internal operation.
35

Specifications of MOCB used in B.T.P.S.


132 KV DEION GRID OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER:

Type 34541000
Volume of oil tank3978
Make Westinghouse Electric Corp. Ltd. USA
Serial No. 4371/1962
Rated voltage 138000v
Cycles -- 50
Rated continuous ampere 1600
Impulse withstand kV --650
Max. Design kV 145
Total weights with oil 2140kg
Rated interrupting MVA at rated voltage 10000
Date of manufacture --1962
33 KV DEION GRID OIL CIRCUIT BREAKER:

Type 34500
Weight of tank with oil-403.7kg
Rated continuous ampere 1200
Max. Design kV 38
Rated interrupting MVA at rated voltage 1000

Volume of oil tank--276.30litres


Cycles -- 50
Impulse withstand kV --200
Total weight of oil 2971kg
Date of manufacture 1962

Air Blast Circuit Breaker(ABCB):


In air blast C.B. high pressure air is forced on the arc through a nozzle at the
instant of contact separation. The ionized medium between the contacts is blow away
by the blast of air so that the medium regains its dielectric strength and arc is
extinguished. After the arc extinction chamber is filled with high pressure air, which
prevents restrike.

SF6 Gas Circuit Breaker:


The SF6 gas circuit breaker makes use of sulpher hexafluoride gas, which has excellent
arc quenching capability and exceptionally high electrical insulating characteristics. In this
breaker the gas flow puffed by a puffer cylinder extinguish the arc.
The pneumatic operating mechanism which is operated by air pressure for opening and
spring for closing is very simple and reliable.
Some useful properties of SF6 gas are:
i.
Pure SF6 gas is colorless, odorless and nontoxic.
ii.
Non inflammable.
iii.
Heavy density 5 times that of air 20 degree centigrade and atmospheric pressure.
iv.
Good heat transferability.
v.
Low arc time constant.
vi.
Chemically stable up to 500 degree centigrade.
vii.
Good dielectric strength.

Specifications
Types of Circuit Breaker

SF6

MOCB

ABCB

Voltage level

138 KV

145 KV

145 KV

Current level

1600 Amps

1600 Amps

1600 Amps

Fault level

10000 MVA

7000 MVA

7000 MVA

Medium of arc

SF6

Oil

Air

36

RELAYS
Introduction:
The protective relay is a protective device that detects the faults and initiates the operation of
the circuit breaker to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system.
The relay detects the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuit b y constants measuring the
electrical quantities which are different under normal and abnormal conditions. The relay provides a
very good indication of the type of fault which has occurred and also indicates the isolation of fault.
In order the protective relay system may perform its function satisfactorily. It should have the
following quantities:
Selectivity:
It is the ability of the protective system to select correctly that part of the system
in trouble and disconnect the faulty part without disturbing the rest of the system.
Speed:
It is the ability of the power system to operate as fast as possible.
Sensitivity:
It is the ability of the relay system to operate with low value of actuating quantity.
Reliability:
It is the ability of the relay system to operate under the pre-determined
conditions.
Simplicity:
The relaying system should be simple so that it can be easily maintained.
Reliability is closely related to simplicity.
Economy :
The most important factor in the choice of a particular protection scheme is the
economic aspect.
The relays classified according to their operating characteristics are:
Solenoid type relay
Attracted armature type relay
Electro-dynamic type relay
Moving coil type relay
37

Induction type relay

The relays that are being used in the power system are as follows:

Non- directional over current relays:


The relay is actuated when current goes above normal ratings irrespective
direction of current flow
Directional over current relays:
The relay is actuated only when the direction of the current is reversed or
the phase angle of the current takes up a phase displacement more than the
desired value.
Reverse power relay:
The relay is actuated only when the applied voltage and current attains a
certain specified phase displacement
Under voltage, current or power relay:
These relays are actuated when the input signal falls below specified value.
Thermal relay:
The heat produced by the current is applied on a bi-metallic strip which
actuates the trip circuit.
Differential relay:
The operation of this relay is dependent on the difference of the current in
magnitude and phase.
Distance relay:
The principal of operation of this relay is dependent only voltage to current
ratio of the measured circuit.
Instantaneous relay:
In this type of relay no time is lost between the operation of the relay and
tripping contacts
Definite time lag relay:
A definite time is required for operation of the tripping contacts after relay

38

Inverse time lag relay:


Here the relay operation time is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the fault current or any
other quantity causing relay operation.
Inverse definite minimum time lag relay:
In case of operation f relay is inversely proportional to value of quantity causing relay operation, but
operation type of the relay tends to a definite minimum type

COUPLING CAPACITORs
It is nothing but series of capacitor actually in a transmission line, power frequency as well as
radio frequency flows. It is called power line carrier communication system (P.L.C.C.). Coupling
capacitor enters the high frequency for communication purpose.

WAVE TRAP
As the equipments needs 50 Hz frequency therefore we have to block the higher frequencies
which is also coming into the line that is those of telecom, radio, etc. from entering into the
equipments supply. This purpose is served by Wave Trap. It hangs from the line bus. It is a LC circuit
when the frequency is greater than 50 Hz, the impedance Z is high and thus it does not response at
this moment, hence it blocks higher frequencies.

INSULATOR
For high KV power transmission purpose proper insulation is very necessary. Insulators are various
types. For the situation or location of the system is classified as:
Pin Type Insulator:
Used in above 66Kv line due to its large size, cost and weight. They are used for
transmission and distribution of electric power at voltage up to 33kV. Beyond operating voltage
of 33 kV, the pin type insulators become too bulky and hence uneconomical.
Suspension Type Insulator:
Design of operating voltages of about 11 KV. It is free to swing in any direction, therefore
providing greater flexibility. For instance, if the working voltage is 66KV, then six disc in series
will be provided on the string.
Strain Or Tension Type Insulator:
Design for handling mechanical stresses at different angle position where there is a
change in the direction of the line or at termination of the line. For low voltage lines (<11 kV),
shackle insulators are used as strain insulator and for high voltage lines, strain insulator
consists of an assembly of suspension type insulators.

39

CONCLUSION
B.T.P.S has been a satisfactory performance during the last 30 years. In the year 1986, 1989, 1991, B.T.P.S has got
meritorious productivity award of C.E.A of about Rs. 5.9 lacs, Rs. 6 lacs and Rs. 7.9 lacs respectively. B.H.E.L has
also given Rs. 4 lacs award for better performance of 5th in the year 1988-89.
Certain achievements of the plants are: Record generation -510 MW on 18th April 1987.
Record generation in 24 hours 10395 MWH on 19th July, 1985.
Record generation in a month 255122 MWH in July, 1985.
Maximum generation of 5th unit - 225 MW on 3rd August, 1985.
Maximum generation of 5th unit in 24 hours 5011 MWH on 25th July 1985.
Maximum generation of 5th unit in a month 135974 MWH in March, 1994
Total running hours of units till 1995-96 are:
Unit Running hours
1
185667
2
208074
3
198348
4
196101
5
79739
8. Total generation of units till 1995-96 are:
Unit
Generation in MWH
1
9063830
2
9942790
3
9719080
4
9492790
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

40

During our vocation training, we are extremely helped by the following


employees of BTPS:-

Mechanical: MR. Alok Maiti


Process control: MR. Robin Chatterjee
Coal handling plant: MR. Bikash Ranjan Dutta
We are also helped by MR. Goutam Banerjee (P.A. to G.M.), and finally by
the G.M. himself MR. Debobarta Dey.

We are also extremely thankful to many other staffs whose names are not
mentioned here. We apologize personally for this. We are sorry for any kind
of unknowingly done odds during our vocational training. At last we thank
the entire management and also all the employees of Bandel thermal power
station.

41