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MODULE I

The Republic Act 9163: An Overview of the


National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

Part I. Looking Back: The Expanded Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) Program

The Expanded Reserve Officers’ Training Corps Program Experience

The Expanded Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) Program was mandated by the basic
constitutional provisions that the state shall promote and protect the physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual
and social well-being of its citizenry. The Head Quarters of the Armed Forces of the Philippines directive
dated June 1994 established the Expanded ROTC Program.

The implementation of the Expanded Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC) Program started
during the School Year 1996-1997. On February 9, 1996, the Commission on Higher Education (CHED)
issued CHED Memorandum Order No. 10, Series of 1996 on the “Revised Guidelines in the
Implementation of the Expanded ROTC Program. The offering of the three components of the Expanded
ROTC Program namely, Military Training Service (MTS), Law Enforcement Service (LES) and Civic
Welfare Service (CWS) was declared mandatory for all Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The
Expanded ROTC Program enables the cadets who are in the last year of the basic military training to
choose from the three components.

Article 3, Section 7 of RA 7077 stated that “the mission of the Citizen Armed Force, alternately
referred to as the Reserve Force, is to provide the base for the expansion of the Armed Forces of the
Philippines in the event of war, invasion or rebellion, to assist in relief and rescue during disasters or
calamities, to assist in socio-economic development and to assist in the operation and maintenance of
essential government or private utilities in the furtherance of overall mission.”

Likewise, the Expanded ROTC Program was established to sustain the ROTC Program as one of
the fertile sources of manpower for the AFP Reserve Force, to provide the students enrolled in the initial
baccalaureate degree programs with options other than military training to satisfy the requirement for
graduation thereof and to provide a forum for the implementation of the National Service Law.

The three components of the Expanded ROTC Program:

1. Cadets who were enrolled in Military Service (MS) underwent basic training on parade drills, military
courtesy and discipline and combat training.

2. Those who opted for Law Enforcement Service (LES) were given training on law enforcement services.

3. The Civic Welfare Service (CWS) option was consisted of activities designed to encourage the youth to
contribute in the improvement of the general welfare and the quality of life for the local community.
Emphasis here was given to health, education, safety, livelihood, and morale of the citizenry. Lectures
focused on loyalty, patriotism, nation building, civic-consciousness and other values.

Part II. A New Beginning and Beyond: The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001

The National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act of 2001, RA 9163, has been signed into law
by her Excellency, President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on January 23, 2002, in response to the public
clamor for reforms in the Reserved Officers Training Corps (ROTC) Program.
Republic of the Philippines
Congress of the Philippines
Metro Manila

Twelfth Congress

First Regular Session

Begun and held in Metro Manila, on Monday, the twenty-third day of July, two thousand one.

[REPUBLIC ACT NO. 9163]

AN ACT ESTABLISHING THE NATIONAL SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM (NSTP) FOR


TERTIARY LEVEL STUDENTS. AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE REPUBLIC ACT NO. 7077 AND
PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1706 AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled:

SECTION 1. Short Title. This Act shall be known as the “National Service Training Program (NSTP) Act
of 2001.”

SECTION 2. Declaration of Policy. It is hereby affirmed the prime duty of the government to serve and
protect its citizens. In turn, it shall be the responsibility of all citizens to defend the security of the State and
in fulfillment thereof, the government may require each citizen to render personal, military or civil service.
Recognizing the youth’s vital role in nation building, the State shall promote civic consciousness among
the youth and shall develop their physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being. It shall
inculcate in the youth patriotism, nationalism, and advance their involvement in public and civic affairs.

In pursuit of these goals, the youth, the most valuable resource of the nation, shall be motivated, trained,
organized and mobilized in military training, literacy, civic welfare and other similar endeavors in the
service of the nation.

SECTION 3. Definition of Terms. For purposes of this Act, the following are hereby defined as follows:

(a) “National Service Training Program” (NSTP)” is a program aimed at enhancing civic consciousness
and defense preparedness in the youth by developing the ethics of service and patriotism while undergoing
training in any of its three (3) program components. Its various components are specially designed to
enhance the youth’s active contribution to the general welfare.

(b) “Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC)” is a program institutionalized under Sections 38 and 39 of
Republic Act No. 7077 designed to provide military training in tertiary level students in order to motivate,
training, organize and mobilize them for national defense preparedness.

(c) “Literacy Training Service” is a program designed to train students to become teacher literacy and
numeracy skills to school children, out of school youth, and other segments of society in need of their need

(d) “Civic Welfare Training Service” refers to programs or activities contributory to the general welfare
and the betterment of life for the members of the community or the enhancement of its facilities, especially
those devoted to improving health, education, environment, entrepreneurship, safety, recreation and morals
of the citizenry.

(e) “Program Component” shall refer to the service components of the NSTP as enumerated in section 4 of
this Act.

SECTION 4. Establishment of the National Service Training Program. There is hereby established a
National Service Training Program (NSTP), which shall form part of the curricula of all baccalaureate
degree courses and of at least two (2) year technical – vocational courses and is a requisite for graduation,
consisting of the following services components:

(1) The Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), which is hereby made optional and voluntary upon the
effectivity of this Act;

(2) The Literacy Training Service; and

(3) The Civic Welfare Training Service

The ROTC under the NSTP shall instill patriotism, moral, virtues, respect for rights of civilians, and
adherence to the Constitution, among others. Citizenship training shall be given emphasis in all three (3)
program components.

The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical Education and Skills Development
Authority (TESDA), in consultation with the Department of National Defense (DND), Philippine
Association of State Universities and Colleges (PASUC), Coordinating Council of Private Educational
Associations of the Philippines (COCOPEA) and other concerned government agencies, may design and
implement such other program components as may be necessary in consonance with the provisions of this
Act.

SECTION 5. Coverage. Students, male and female, of any baccalaureate degree course or at least two (2)
– year technical – vocational courses in public and private educational institutions shall be required to
complete one (1) of the NSTP components as requisite for graduation.

SECTION 6. Duration and Equivalent Course Unit. Each of the aforementioned NSTP program
components shall be undertaken foe an academic period of two (2) semesters.

In lieu of the two (2) – semester program for any of the components of the NSTP, a one(1) –summer
program may be designed, formulated and adopted by the DND, CHED, and TESDA.

SECTION 7. NSTP Offering in Higher and Technical-Vocational Educational Institutions. All higher and
technical-vocational institutions, public and private, must offer at least one of the program components.
Provided, that State universities and colleges shall offer the ROTC component and at least one other
component as provided herein: Provided, further, that private higher and technical – vocational education
institutions may also offer the ROTC if they have at least three hundred and fifty (350) cadet students.

In offering the NSTP whether during the semestral or summer periods, clustering of affected students from
different educational institutions may be done, taking into account logistics, branch of service and
geographical considerations. Schools that do not meet the required number of students to maintain the
optional ROTC and any of the NSTP components shall allow their students to cross-enroll to other schools
irrespective of whether or not the NSTP components in said schools are being administered by the same or
another branch of service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), CHED and TESDA to which
schools are identified.

SECTION 8. Fees and Incentives. Higher and Technical-vocational institutions shall not collect any fee
for any of the NSTP components except basic tuition fees, which shall not be more than fifty percent (50%)
of what is currently charged by schools per unit.
In the case of the ROTC, the DND shall formulate and adopt a program of assistance and/or incentive to
those students who will take the said component.

The school authorities concerned, CHED and TESDA shall ensure that group insurance for health and
accident shall be provided for students enrolled in any of the NSTP components.
SECTION 9. Scholarships. There is hereby created a Special Scholarship Program for qualified students
taking the NSTP which shall be administered by the CHED and TESDA. Funds for this purpose shall be
included in the annual regular appropriations of the CHED and TESDA.

SECTION 10. Management of the NSTP Components. The school authorities shall exercise academic and
administrative supervision over the design, formulation, adoption and implementation of the different
NSTP components in their respective schools. Provided, That in case a CHED – or TESDA – accredited
non-government organization (NGO) has been contracted to formulate and administer a training module for
any of the NSTP components, such academic and administrative supervision shall be exercised jointly with
that accredited NGO. Provided, further, that such training module shall be accredited by the CHED and
TESDA.

The CHED and TESDA regional offices shall oversee and monitor the implementation of the NSTP under
their jurisdiction to determine if the trainings are being conducted in consonance with the objectives of this
Act. Periodic reports shall be submitted to the CHED, TESDA and DND in this regard.

SECTION 11. Creation of the National Service Reserve Corps. There is hereby created a National Service
Reserve Corps, to be composed of the graduates of the non-ROTC components. Members of this Corps
may be tapped by the State for literacy and civic welfare activities through the joint effort of the DND,
CHED and TESDA.

Graduates of the ROTC shall form part of the Citizens’ Armed Force, pursuant to Republic Act No. 7077.

SECTION 12. Implementing Rules. The DND, CHED and TESDA shall have the joint responsibility for
the adoption of the implementing rules of this Act.

These three (3) agencies shall consult with other concerned government agencies, the PASUC and
COCOPEA, NGOs and recognized student organizations in drafting the implementing rules.
The implementing rules shall include the guidelines for the adoption of the appropriate curriculum for each
of the NSTP components as well as for the accreditation of the same.

SECTON 13. Transitory Provision. Students who have yet to complete the Basic ROTC, except those
falling under section 14 of this Act, may either continue in the program component they are currently
enrolled or shift to any of the other program components of their choice: Provided, that in case he shifts to
another-program component, the Basic ROTC courses he has completed shall be counted for the purpose of
completing the NSTP requirement: Provided, further, that once he has shifted to another program
component, he shall complete the NSTP in that component.

SECTION 14. Suspension of ROTC Requirement. The completion of ROTC training as a requisite for
graduation is hereby set aside for those students who despite completing all their academic units as of the
effectivity of this Act have not been allowed to graduate.

SECTION 15. Separability Clause. If any section or provision of this Act shall be declared
unconstitutional or invalid, the other sections or provisions not affected thereby shall remain in full force
and effect.

SECTION 16. Amendatory Clause. Section 35 of Commonwealth Act No.1, Executive Order No. 207 of
1939, sections 2 and 3 of Presidential Decree No.1706, and sections 38 and 39 of Republic Act No. 7077,
as well as all laws, decrees, orders, rules and regulations and other issuances inconsistent with the
provisions of this Act are hereby deemed amended and modified accordingly.

SECTION 17. Effectivity. This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in two (2)
newspapers of national circulation, but the implementation of this Act shall commence in the school year of
2002-2003.

The National Service Reserve Corps (NSRC)


Section 11 of RA 9163 of the National Service Training Program Act of 2001, specifically
provides for the creation of a National Service reserve Corps (NSRC), composed of graduates of the non-
ROTC components: the Civic Welfare Training Service (CWTS) and Literacy Training Service (LTS).
Members of this Corps maybe tapped by the State of literacy and civic welfare activities, through the joint
efforts of DND, CHED and TESDA.

1. Mission

To provide a trained and motivated manpower pool that can be tapped by the State for civic welfare,
literacy and other similar endeavors in the service of the nation.

2. Functions

a. To assist in the disaster preparedness, mitigation, response and rehabilitation programs;

b. To serve as an auxiliary to the Disaster Coordinating Council (DCC) response units;

c. To assist in the promotion of civic welfare activities;

d. To assist in the implementation of literacy programs;

e. To assist in socio-economic development;

f. To assist in environmental protection; and

g. To perform other similar endeavors.

3. Composition

The NSRC shall be composed of the graduates of the Civil Welfare Training Service (CWTS) and Literacy
Training Service (LTS) components of the NSTP.

4. Organization

The NSRC is organized under the umbrella of the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC). It shall
have a national, regional, provincial and city/ municipal level of organization parallel to the Disaster
Coordinating Council (DCC) structures at all levels. The DCC centers shall serve as the headquarters of the
NSRC at respective level of organization. Its National Center shall be based at the NDCC Disaster
Preparedness Center, Camp General Emilio Aguinaldo, Quezon City. A secretariat at all levels shall be
organized and composed of representatives from CHED and TESDA.

5. Inter-Agency Relationship of the NSRC Concerned Agencies

Legend:

RDCC – Regional Disaster Coordinating Council


PDCC – Provincial Disaster Coordinating Council
CDCC – City Disaster Coordinating Council
MDCC – Municipal Disaster Coordinating Council
BDCC – Barangay Disaster Coordinating Council
CHEDRO – CHED Regional Office
TESDA RO – TESDA Regional Office
TESDA PO – TESDA Provincial Office
HEI – Higher Educational Institution
NDCC (DND-OCD) CHED and TESDA

RDCC (DND-OCD RCs) CHEDROs and TESDA ROs

PDCC/MDCC HEIs and TESDA PO


CDCC/BDCC

TESDA Schools

6. Duties and Responsibilities

a. NDCC through DND:

1. Shall act as the lead agency in the administration, training, organization, development,
maintenance and utilization of the registered NSRC members;

2. Maintain an official masterlist of registered NSRC members;

3. Coordinate with concerned agencies for the efficient and proper administration, training,
organization, development, maintenance and utilization of NSRC members;

4. Conduct performance assessment of NSRC members mobilized for the purpose and furnish the
three (3) implementing agencies results thereof;

5. Formulate specific guidelines for the administration, training, organization, development,


maintenance and utilization of the NSRC members; and

6. Do related work.

b. CHED/ TESDA

1. Central Offices:

(a) Provide Secretariat services for the NSRC;

(b) Prepare consolidated national masterlist of officially registered CWTS and LTS graduates per
school year;

(c) Submit official national masterlist of registered NSRC members, with corresponding centrally-
determined serial numbers to NDCC through DND per school year;

(d) Assist in administration, training, organization, development, maintenance and utilization of


the NSRC members;

(e) Coordinate with NDCC through DND regarding NSRC concerns and activities; and

(f) Do related work.


2. Regional Offices:

(a) Prepare consolidated Regional list of CWTS and LTS graduates from HEIs and in the case of
TESDA from the Provincial Office to the schools, for submission to CHED/TESDA Central
Offices;

(b) Coordinate with RDCC (OCD RCs) on matters relative to NSRC concerns;

(c) Maintain a Directory of CWTS and LTS graduates for reference;

(d) Prepare reports as maybe required; and

(e) Do related work.

3. Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), TESDA Provincial Offices and Schools:

(a) Prepare and submit a certified masterlist with complete addresses and contact numbers, of
CWTS and LTS graduates to respective Regional Offices. In the case of TESDA, the same shall
be submitted through its Provincial Offices;

(b) Provide information on CWTS and LTS graduates as may be officially requested by authorized
concerned agencies;

(c) Coordinate with PDCC/CDCC/MDCC/BDCC, as the case may be, on matters relative to
NSRC; and

(d) Do related work.

4. NSRC Members:

(a) Report to the call of NSRC for training and respond immediately for utilization incase of
disasters/calamities and other relevant socio-economic service concerns as the needs arise, through
its Centers (RDCC/PDCC/CDCC/MDCC/BDCC) nearest the member’s residence and/or
workplace at the time of the call; and

(b) Register at the said Center and get instructions/briefing for specific duties and responsibilities.

MODULE II

The Civic Welfare Training Service Program (CWTSP) Component of NSTP:


An Option of Colegio de San Juan de Letran

A. Life of St. Dominic de Guzman: Founder of the Order of Preachers

St. Dominic de Guzman was born in Calaruega, Spain in 1170 from an illustrious family of Don Felix de
Guzman and Doña Joana de Aza. He began his studies for the priesthood at the University of Palencia.
During an outbreak of famine, he sold his precious books and gave the money he earned to the poor.
He was ordained priest in 1195 and performed his priestly duties as Canon in Osma, Soria, Spain. In 1206,
he decided to stay in Narbonne and undertook the mission of the Conversion of the Albigenses. He
founded the community of nuns at Prouille which he made as his base of operations. He established the
new community at Toulouse which is considered as the cradle of the Dominican Order.
In 1216, Pope Honorious III confirmed the Order of Preachers (O.P.) after which St. Dominic dispersed
the brethren to the Theological centers of Christendom. He died in 1221 at Bologna on the feast of St.
Sixtus. He was elevated to the altar by Pope Gregory IX in 1234.

B. Life of San Vicente Liem dela Paz: The Colegio’s Foremost Alumnus

Vicente arrived in Manila from Tongkin (Vietnam) on May 21, 1947. He was 16 years of age. He enrolled
on the same day as one of the six scholars from Vietnam under the Patronato of the King of Spain. He was
an intern student.
From the time of his arrival to the opening of school year 1747-1748, Vicente studied the intricacies of the
Spanish language. Once classes “opened”, he joined the “curso infimo” whose students were known as
“escolapios”. Vicente was so bright and diligent that in three years he learned Latin and spoke Spanish to
perfection¸ and passed with high marks all the subjects of the Latinidad and Philosophy courses.
After graduation, he continued in Letran, but this time it was to help the students with their
lessons. He was enrolled in the University of Santo Thomas for the higher Philosophy and Theology
courses. He completed these superior courses in another three years. And then left Letran for Santo
Domingo convent to enter the religious life and prepare himself for the priesthood.
Vicente was missed very much when he left Letran. He was so good and understanding to his
companions, most condescending in games, very punctual in his obligations and above all, very diligent in
his studies. He became a model to others. He tutored the slow learners and acted as an assistant to the
superior after the “decano”. This position was reserved to the brightest student but there was a ruling that
only Spaniards or Filipinos could be appointed. Vicente took this ruling in stride and in no manner
changed his humble disposition and attitudes.

He then joined the Dominican Order and on September 9, 1754 and made his religious profession. After
four years, he was ordained to the priesthood and in 1758 left for Tongkin (Vietnam), his homeland.

When Vicente left the Philippines and returned to his native country, Christianity was being cruelly
persecuted. For fifteen years he worked among his countrymen, preaching the Gospel and bringing
comfort to the oppressed Christians.

On September 9, 1954, he received the Dominican habit at the Santo Domingo Convent. After 4 years, he
went back to Tonking, where Chistians were being cruelly persecuted. There, he spent days and nights
giving spiritual direction and administering the sacraments. Someone revealed his activities to the
authorities and he was immediately arrested together with Fr. Jacinto Castaneda, a Spanish-Dominican.
They were put into a cage like animals. The King was disposed to be lenient for he was not a foreigner but
Vicente pleaded that there should be one judgment for priests, whether foreign or native. They accused him
of treason and the King pronounced the death sentence.

Vicente was tied to the stakes and beheaded on November 7, 1773. Before he died, Vicente gave thanks to
God for the victory that had recently been granted to him.

A short time later, the news of the martyrdom of Vicente reached Letran. There was sadness and joy.
Sadness because a son had been killed; joy because he died the glorious death of a martyr of the faith.

It appears that Vicente wanted to continue making his presence felt in Letran. Immediately after his
marytrdom, the Christians kept some parts of his body for relics. One of the major relics - a humeral bone
- was sent to Letran. This relic has been the center of veneration throughout all these years, specially
during college day celebrations when the students and alumni honor him as their foremost alumnus and
heavenly patron.

When Saint Pope Pius X beatified him in 1906, the Letran community put up a marble monument in one of
the quadrangles of the college. This monument was destroyed during the war. In 1953, another statue was
put up. It stands as a beacon for students and alumni to emulate.
Would Saint Dominic and San Vicente be relevant in our day and age?

The reply is a categorical: YES!

- they would still be the friars who “spoke only to God or about God”,
- they would continue to cry out during their vigils: “Lord, what will become of sinners?”
- they would be sensitive to and filled with compassion for the afflicted, the poor and the down-
trodden”;
- they would live in accordance with the teaching of Vatican II which states that religious give
witness to their poverty by working for their living”;
- they would use modern means for communication and transportation in their preaching
ministry.
- they would preach against all forms of injustice and insist on restitution as they did to usurers
of their time.
- they would urge those “who have” to make sacrifices to help those “who have not”;
- they would respect the competence of women to work in and for the Church;
- they would show confidence in the ability of their fellow men;
- they would visit and endeavor to help those in prison;
- they would proclaim their trust in the youth of this age.

History of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

The Colegio de San Juan de Letran emerged from the fusion of two similar institutions both located in
Intramuros.

The first was founded in 1620 by Don Geronimo Guerrero, a retired Spanish Officer, who transformed his
hermitage home into an orphanage called the Colegio de Ninos Huerfanos de San Juan de Letran. Its
purpose was to educate and to mold orphans into good Christian citizens.

At about the same time, another institution by the name of Colegio de Huerfanos de San Pedro y San Pablo
was established by the Dominican brother Diego de Santa Maria at the Convent of Sto. Domingo.

The founders of these two institutions with identical origin and purpose did not only share a common
concern for the children of Intramuros but they were also linked by the strong bond of friendship. It was
not surprising therefore that their two institutions were merged into one even in their lifetime in 1630 and
became known simply as the Colegio de San Juan de Letran.

The name San Juan de Letran was inspired from the major Basilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, mother
of all Christian churches. Early in the history of the College, its chapel was granted many of the privileges
enjoyed by the major Basilica. St. John the Baptist for whom the Basilica is named, is also the patron saint
of the College.

In 1690, Letran was declared an ecclesiastical college. In 1738, six scholarships were granted by the King
of Spain for Chinese, Japanese, and Tongkinese (Vietnamese) students. Saint Vicente Liem de la Paz was
among the students who enjoyed this scholarship.

A royal decree of May 1865 pronounced Letran as a College of the first class. The school's curriculum was
reviewed and revised according to European and American patterns in 1886. Further expansion took
place in 1894 and adjustments were made with the arrival of the Americans in 1900.

In 1937, a three-storey building replaced the old structure. The growth of the College was temporarily
arrested when the building was bombed in 1941 and then turned into a garrison by the Japanese army in
1994. The College was temporarily housed in the Dominican church and convent of San Juan del Monte.
After the war in 1946, Letran returned to its home in Intramuros.
In a span of more than three centuries, Letran produced alumni who became the builders of the Filipino
nation. The names Quezon, Osmena, Mabini, Del Pilar, P. Gomez, Balagtas and Aguinaldo, and many
others are enshrined in the hearts of every Filipino.

Part I. The Foundations of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

The Filipino Dominican Philosophy of Education

Education is one of the priorities of the Dominican Province of the Philippines because it is among
the most important means of evangelization and has been, historically and by God’s providence, an integral
element of the mission of the Dominicans in the Philippines.

1. Purpose of Education

Education encompasses religious, personal, and social goals.

Education is an extension of the Church’s mission of evangelization. As such, its purpose is to bring out the
salvific dimensions of the arts, science, technology and culture. It aims at the synthesis of faith and culture,
of faith and life. It seeks to deepen faith as it develops reason leading to an appreciation and living of
Gospel values.

For the society, education nurtures culture and serve as catalyst of change and development.

For the person, education is meant to bring out his/ her total and integral development. Ultimately
education enables the person to attain the purpose for which he/ she was created, namely, union with God,
communion with others, and harmony with creation.

As a Dominican mission, education is a form of preaching ministry borne out and nourished by the pillars
of the Dominican life: study, prayer, community life, and service.

2. Nature of the learner

The learner is God’s creation, made to His image and likeness, therefore, basically good. He/ she was
entrusted the task of being a steward of creation. Although wounded by sin, he/she has been redeemed and
endowed with the grace to live a life in Christ.

The learner is a person, an individual unique in him/ herself but with an inherently social nature.

As a Filipino learner, he/she is characterized by a set of traits or asal: dangal, damdamin, pakikipagkapwa,
and distinguished by a set of values: utang na loob, palabra de honor, pakikisama, hiya, bayanihan, etc.,
challenged existentially by the widespread poverty and injustice.

The challenge for the Filipino learner is to develop kagandahang loob by becoming more and more
makadiyos, makatao, makabayan and makakalikasan. Moreover, he/ she is challenged to cope with the
demands of the times triggered by a global, highly technological, and materialistic culture.

3. Nature of Education

Education is integral, concerned with the total formation of the human person in all dimensions.
Education is self-initiated and self- motivated process. It occurs in the learner and ends in the learner. The
teacher is but a facilitator of learning.

Education is about learning to learn, to live, to love, and to leave a legacy.

The Heritage of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

Letran started from a very humble beginning as an orphanage catering to the orphans of
Intramuros. Its purpose was to educate and mold the children of Intramuros to become good Christian
citizens.
After 400 years of existence, Letran has formed pious saints and martyrs. Letran's most illustrious
alumnus is St. Vicente Liem dela Paz, O.P. Other Alumni who were martyred for their faith as they
propagated the teachings of Christ in Japan were Bld. Vicente Shiwosuka dela Cruz, O.P., Bld. Jacobo
Kyushu Tomanaga, O.P., Bld. Pedro de Sta. Maria, O.P., Bld. Tomas de San Jacinto and Bld. Francisco
Shoyemon de San Jose.
Most heroes and leaders of our country, who have guided our people in converting the country's
agony into glory, have been cradled from the bosom of the Colegio. From the ranks of heroes and patriots
came Antonio Regidor, Apolinario Mabini, Emilio Jacinto, Felipe Agoncillo, Fr. Jacinto Zamora, Fr. Jose
Burgos, Gen. Manuel Tinio, Gen. Artemio Ricarte, Gen. Gregorio del Pilar, Graciano Lopez Jaena, the
Pardo de Taveras and a host of others. From the servants of the Filipino people came Emilio Aguinaldo,
Manuel Quezon, Sergio Osmena, Sr., Jose Laurel and numerous Letranites in public service.
Deus . . . Patria . . . Letran. In propagating and living the faith, in the struggle for honor, valor and
glory of the nation, Letran losts her sons. But from the painful grief she rose victorious, radiant and
jubilant. Through the centuries, her magnificense will shine in how she molded her children. She will be
perpetuated on how her children have influenced the lives of other people. Her legacy to her children . . .
the power to uplift himself and humanity in mind, body and spirit!

The Mission-Vision of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

The goal of education is the total integral formation of the human person that would lead him to
attain the purpose for which he was created, union with God, community with others and harmony with
creation. Letran, characterized by the formation of the youth, is guided by her Vision-Mission:

MISSION

We, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran, a Dominican institution of learning, commit ourselves to
the quality formation of integral human persons in our noble tradition of excellence and the supreme ideal
of Deus, Patria, Letran. Specifically, we endeavor to form the Letran Community to become:

- staunch defenders of the Church;


- faithful devotees of Mary;
- ardent lovers of Truth;
- dynamic builders and leaders of communities; and
- development of self-reliant communities.

VISION

By 2020, we envision a Christ-inspired, nationally-responsive and globally competitive Colegio de San


Juan de Letran at the threshold of being a University, evidenced by quality academic standard, strong
research culture and sustained community service. Specifically, we see Letran as a leading center on the:

- creative use and applicant of information and communications technology in education;


- values-oriented communication and media education;
- historical studies and research, particularly on Intramuros; and
- development of self-reliant communities.
Institutional Core Values of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

We, the Colegio de San Juan de Letran remains resolute in our institutional core values. These
provide us intense focus and distinct direction:

1. Spiritualism (Love for God)

Our strong faith in God and filial devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary give us an unbreakable bond that
unifies us. We are vigorous in adhering to truth. We recognize the principles and tenets of the Catholic
Church to be the basis of our integrity, ethics and morality.
2. Patriotism (Love for Country)

We are committed in assisting the nation by sharing our resources and capabilities. The passion to serve
the less privileged sectors of the society overflows in our spirit. Social awareness and responsibility always
exist in the mainstream of our thoughts. We understand the importance of fellowship and charity among
individuals and thereby promote cooperation and harmony toward a progressive community.

3. Letranism (Love for Alma Mater)

We cherish the many years spent in Colegio de San Juan de Letran, home for our mind and body, and
where human values were imbibed and skills honed… all to prepare us for a meaningful and noble
Christian life. In deep gratitude, we pledge our loyalty to the Colegio. We are proud of her history and
legacies. We continuously strive for excellence in our pursuit of knowledge and wisdom and commit to
spread her ideals and values. In all our endeavors, we conduct ourselves with grace and nobility. We
venture to conquer new glories for her honor and promise to always remember our dear Alma Mater,
Letran.
Part II. The Civic Welfare Training Service Program of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

The Civic Welfare Training Service Program as an Option of the Colegio de San Juan de Letran

Letran, in opting the CWTSP, will facilitate the total integral formation of the human person
through a program designed to prepare the youth, the students, for their bounden duties as citizens of the
country and children of the Holy Mother Church. Letran recognizes that its students are valuable resources
and are instruments of cultural change and progress for individuals as well as society. Letran's CWTSP
will provide the students knowledge and skills that they may contribute to nation building. It will provide
the students the experience of community (pakikipagkapwa), for this makes us Filipinos distinct from any
other race in the world. The students will become persons:

1. Who actively participate in the affairs of the Church and the State;

2. Who are respected leaders in society;

3. Who work for the betterment of the marginalized members of the community; and

4. Whose altruism is manifested in their active concern for others.

In Letrn's CWTSP, the recognition of the youth's contribution to nation building is given due
importance. Inspired by the young Letranites who fought for the liberation of our nation, Aguinlado, Fr.
Burgos, Jacinto and others, Letran, through its CWSTP, will impress in the minds of the students the value
of social responsibility. Through the CWTSP, students' awareness to local and national issues will be
increased, and deepen their commitment and involvement to social transformation.
1. Manuel Luis Quezon

Manuel Luis Quezon (1878-1944) was born on September 19, 1878 in Baler, Tayabas Province. He was
the first president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines (1935-1944). While a law student, he joined
(1899) Emilio Aguinaldo’s insurrectionary army and fought the U.S. forces until 1901. He was imprisoned
after the insurrection.

Admitted to the bar (1903), he was elected governor of Tayabas Province (1905), renamed Quezon in his
honor (1946). As a member of the first Philippine Assembly (1907-1909), he became floor leader of the
majority nationalist party.

He served as resident commissioner to the United States (1909-1916), crusading tirelessly for Philippine
independence and was instrumental in securing the passage of the Jones Act (1916), which increased self-
government in the Philippines and gave the islands a pledge for future independence.

On his return to the Philippines, he was elected to the first Philippine Senate (1916) and was unanimously
chosen president of the body - at the time the highest elective office in the land. He continued his ardent
crusade for independence, strongly opposing the high-handed administration of Governor-general
Leonard Wood (1921-1927), and after Wood’s death effecting the appointment of the more sympathetic
Henry Stimson. He helped bring about the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Bill, which established the
Commonwealth of the Philippines and promised complete independence in 1946.

Quezon was elected president of the New Commonwealth (1935). As president, he initiated administrative
reforms, undertook many defense measures and greatly expanded his power.

Re-elected in 1941, he escaped to the United States after the Japanese invasion of the Philippines in World
War II and conducted a government-in-exile there until his death on August 1, 1944.

2. Apolinario Mabini

Called the “Sublime Paralytic” and the “Brain of the Revolution,” Apolinario Mabini was born on July
23, 1864 in Barrio Talaga, Tanauan, Batangas. Even at a young age, he exhibited signs of intellectual
superiority. He finished law in spite of his poverty (1895).

Scholars also called him the “Black Chamber” of President Emilio Aguinaldo for he penned most of the
latter’s decrees and order that are now part of our country’s tradition of jurisprudence. Mabini wrote the
original statutes of the Katipunan’s Kartilya (Aguinaldo’s translation of Mabini’s work was composed for
the sake of the unlettered members of the Katipunan.

Mabini served in various capacities in the reformist organizations like La Liga Filipina and Cuerpo de
Comprimisarios. During the period of the Philippine Republic, he served as its President of the Council of
Secretaries as well as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Unwavering in his stand against colonial occupation
of the Philippines, he was captured and then exiled to the lonely outpost of Agana, Guam. Together with
Gen. Artemio Ricarte, he was among those who withstood all efforts to break their will against colonial
rule in the Philippines.

Returning to the Philippines (1902), he turned down all offers by the colonial authorities for him to
serve in their government. He returned to his humble abode in Nagtahan, Sta. Ana, Manila. The
cholera epidemic that ravaged Manila (1903) led to his death on May 13, 1903.

MODULE III

The Community We Belong: Understanding Community Needs

Part I. An Overview of the Present Condition of the Country


An Overview of the Philippine Economy

The Philippine economy has been restructured and “developed” within the context of the global
free trade agenda of the superpowers in the colonial and post-colonial periods. From the indigenous, self-
subsistent agriculture, agri-plantations were enforced by the Spanish crown to support the Galleon Trade
and supply the domestic food needs of the Spanish army and bureaucracy. This was sustained and
modernized by the American government through the entry of Agricultural-Trans National Corporations
(Agri-TNCs) and in collaboration with big native landowners. TNC exploitations of agricultural resources
expanded to the forest and mineral sectors.
In the post-colonial period, the free-trade-oriented economic restructuring continued mainly
through the installation of U.S. and free-trade-friendly Philippine governments which provide the policy
environment favorable to such agenda, e.g., Parity Rights, Bell-Trade Act, US-RP Treaty of General
Relations.
In the onset of the 20th century market crisis in the advanced economies characterized by
overproduction (goods and capital) against the backdrop of growing labor and citizen militancy in these
economies due to the deterioration of living conditions, the trans nationalization of production and
investments have become more aggressive to inferior economies like the Philippines. In collaboration with
the government and Filipino elite (big landowners and business, TNCs and superpowers have been granted
the liberty to dump surplus products (including those that are banned in their own countries); and put up
dirty and extractive industries and other labor-intensive semi-processing industries with cheap and docile
labor offered by the government as come-ons.
In the process of such historical restructuring of the Philippine economy, the agrarian problem
(inequitable distribution of lands and allocation of production resources), mass unemployment,
underdevelopment of the basic production sectors or underdevelopment in general, take roots.
As the country becomes more and more dependent on foreign investments and international
financing, it becomes more subservient to the dictates and policy instigations of the superpowers and super-
economies. The nation and its people consistently lose sovereign powers over the country, resources and
people.
We take a look on the present condition of the country:

1. Employment Problems
Full time workers (working at least 40 hours/ week) decreased from 17.0 million of April 2000 to 17.1
million of April 2001. Those working for less than 40 hours/ week increased from 9 million at last year to
11.3 this year.
All 14 regions posted a double-digit unemployment rate with Metro Manila posting the highest at 17.7%
and Cagayan Valley the lowest at 10.3%.

The Department of Labor and Employment received notices of closure and retrenchment within the first six
months from 1, 314 manufacturing companies in Manila. This is expected to cause the retrenchment
of 32, 576 workers.

The rate of employment generation cannot cope effectively with the growth rate of the labor force. From
January to September 2001, 52,468 workers (roughly 199 workers per day) were displaced resulting from
closures and retrenchment.

2. Productivity and Income Problems


In the agricultural sector where the majority of the economically poor depends, the
farmers (landless, small-medium owner, cultivators in the lowlands, uplands and
indigenous areas), consistently experience decline in productivity and income due to the
spiraling cost of production and technology against the backdrop of market price
manipulated by chains of traders who are also providers of rural credit. The inferiority of
the marginal farmers’ production tools and technology and their lack of access to land,
credit, irrigation and post- harvest facilities make them less competitive with the products
of corporate farms and those of the agricultural imports.
Fisherfolks also experience similar decline in productivity and income as they lost their traditional fishing
grounds to commercial fishers whose production tools, technology and capital are far superior. Over fishing
has consistently caused the decline in fish production, particularly in municipal waters. Municipal water
fish production rate posted a negative average of 2.9% annually from 1987-1994.

3. Natural Resources and Environment Problems


Environmental problems aggravate the productivity and income deficiency of the poor. The rapid depletion
of the country’s natural resources consistently constricts the marginal agricultural producers.
In 1575, total forest cover was 27.5 million hectares of about 92% of the total land area with a rate of
deforestation of 22, 917 hectares per year. In 1995, forest cover stood at 5.6 million hectares or about
18.6% of the total land area with a deforestation rate of 120, 000 hectares per year. The situation spells
calamities and disasters that impact adversely on the ecosystem, e.g., on lands and waters. In 1994, lands
classified as agricultural lands stood at 13 million hectares more than half of which were devoted to rice
and corn. As consequence of deforestation, approximately 2.9 million hectares have been eroded. The
country’s gross erosion rate stands at 2, 046 MMT/ year with grassland and agricultural lands registering
the highest rates of 76% and 23% respectively.

4. Rising Cost of Living


Against the backdrop of spiraling cost of living, the poverty situation and difficulties of the poor worsen.
The series of oil price hikes in 2000 for instance, jacked up prices of other commodities. The hikes have
caused 10% price increase for every kilowatt-hour of electricity consumption; 9% and 6% fare increases for
buses and jeepneys, respectively; 2% increase in the overall production cost of industries; .11% and 10%
increase in rice and corn household expenditures, respectively.

5. Inaccessible Basic Social Services


More and more poor families have been incapacitated to provide the socio-cultural needs of their household
members, especially the children, youth, aged and other social dependents. From school years 1991-1992
to 1999-2000, the national average elementary enrollments stood at 11.4 million. On the other hand,
average high school enrollment in the same period stood at 4.7 million. More and more children are unable
to pursue higher education.
The top notifiable diseases and causes of deaths would closely associate with poverty. From 1994-1996,
topping the list are reported cases of diarrhea, bronchitis, tuberculosis, pnuemonia, influenza and heart
disease with combined average of 630,000 cases annually. The same cases in the same period also topped
the list of death causes with a combined average of 19,342 deaths annually. Availability and accessibility
of health services has been problematic on account that the total number of hospitals in the country stood at
1,794 (1999) or roughly 1 hospital for every 36,000 people. The total number of government doctors was
2,848 (1998) or roughly 1 doctor for every 22,800 people.

Overview of the Philippine Politics

In the realm of politics that may be simplified as the social relations of peoples (e.g., governors-
governed, social leaders-constituents, dominant-subordinate groups, public-corporate-civil societies, etc.),
the problems have been identified as:

1. Graft and Corruption


Graft and corruption have become institutions in government as they have been practiced in practically all
levels of government including the country’s highest office. They have so gross to infect and contaminate
even the institutions of learning that is supposed to mold and form values of the people especially the
youths for good and responsible citizenship; or the military and police agencies that are supposed to
discipline, reform or prevent persons in engaging in criminal acts and other anti-social practices. Graft &
corruption have become too endemic that the government is losing its moral ascendancy to lead its
constituents to the extent that it tends to deceive, bribe or coerce the people to submit to its rule. As this
occur in the social relationship between the governors and the governed, social disorder becomes a natural
cause of unpeace or the deterioration of just peace. Other political issues like nepotism, dynastism, and
vote-buying and election fraud could be correlated with the problem on graft & corruption. Graft and
corruption is systematic in government. This situation is further maintained by the ineptitude of the justice
system (judicial branch) to prosecute and convict violators of the Anti-Corrupt Act and Practices Law.

The same is true with the rising organized crimes such as drug-trafficking, kidnap-for-ransom, robbery,
extortion, bribery, etc. Law enforcement has been made inutile in curbing criminality due to the alleged
deep involvement of the some law enforcers, public officials and influential and affluent members of the
society. There is even strong reason to believe that electoral campaigns of a number of government
officials are mainly supported by crime monies.

2. Political Marginalization

The political marginalization of the poor is a dominant phenomenon in the Philippine politics and
governance. The nature and composition of government is predominantly elite in practically all branches
and levels. Though there has been a continuing trend of civil society’s entry or collaboration within, it
could not yet meaningfully alter the elitist agenda of the government. Though it allows democratic space
for the people to air their grievances and social appeals through consultations and legitimate street actions,
these could not yet effectively influence decisions and social policy development.

On the side of the people (the unorganized and even portions of the organized), the level of political
maturity is low relative to critical and informed participation in political affairs. Though there are other
factors to consider relative to their political consciousness and actions, they are crucial in the political
equation as they are vulnerable to manipulate in the political of the traditional and elite politicians.

The intensification of the economic and political crisis also intensifies social conflicts based on the
competition in the allocation of wealth and power. Marginal farmers, lowland and upland including
indigenous peoples complete with agro-corporations and TNCs in the access and use of land and natural
resources. Marginal fisherfolk complete with big local and foreign fishing companies in the exploitation of
sea and marine resources. Urban poor communities battle against land developers, workers against
employers and even gangsters and crime syndicates against each other.
The social crisis even intensifies the long-running antagonistic political conflict between the government
and the armed challengers such as the MILF and the NDF.

The electoral system and the form of government have been designed to maintain elite politics. The
traditional system of election leaves very little space for the poor to either participate in the electoral
contest or meaningfully choose candidates who would prove as real champions and representatives of the
poor. At this juncture, the social action network needs to seriously evaluate whether the presidential form
of government or other forms would be more responsive and facilitate to participatory politics and
governance.

The maintenance of elite politics and all its other negative characters is ensured by the support and
sponsorship of superpowers and super-economies that have great economic and political interest in the
country or in the region. The wide unorganized portion of the population, particularly the poor and the
middle class, further ensured the maintenance of elite politics. With a low level of political consciousness
and maturity, they are less critical of graft and corruption in government or the anti-people social policy
decisions and are even easily vulnerable to manipulations of traditional politicians and other elite groups.
The social exclusion of the poor in the sharing of political power resulted in their marginalization in the
distribution and allocation of economic resources, and vice-versa.

An Overview of the Philippine Culture


In the socio-cultural scene, the social crisis affects the continuing moral decadence and value
distortions. We can see these in the following social manifestations.

At one point, these could be seen as products and effects of the social crisis. Incidence of the anti-
social activities, immorality, and criminality rise as more and more people lose their capacity to cope with
the crisis. At another point, the cultural crisis has become systematic reinforcing and intensifying the
economic and political crisis. The people, particularly the unorganized majority, tends to be more tolerant
and apathetic to the situation and indifferent to the struggle for social change.

The law of the jungle “the fittest survives” has become the dominant social rule. It tends to build
on the capacity of people to complete than to cooperate to survive.

In finding the major reasons of the above social realities, we can identify causes at the micro and
macro levels. Micro level causes would be social practices and social relations occurring within an
immediate environment that result either to positive or negative situations or effects social facilities or
difficulties to the member of society or community.

Macro level causes on the other hand would be social policies and traditions institutionalized at
the global environment by dominant social institutions that either maintain or demolish the micro level
causes of the problematic social realities.

Pertaining to poverty as indicated unemployment, productivity & income problems of the poor in
both the rural and urban sectors and insufficient basic social services delivery in their communities.

1. At the micro level:


The marginalized sectors lack the appropriate education, knowledge, skills/technology to posses a
competitive edge in the employment (salary/wages) market.

There is gross non-compliance to minimum wage law by companies and violations of worker’s right to
security of tenure (due to labor contractualization practices) and right to unionize and collectively bargain
(due to no union, no strike policies, particularly in the EPZAs).

The more enterprising poor (own account workers/informal sector – a substantial portion in what the
government considers “employed”) posses inferior capital and technology in a highly liberalized market
competition.

The marginalized farmers, fisherfolk and IPS do not have full or meaningful access to and control of land,
capital, production and post-production technology and ultimately trade and pricing. In many cases, their
productivity and income are adversely affected by aggressive development projects, e.g. urbanization, land
use conversion (circumventing the CARP), industrial or infrastructure projects) that either dislocate them or
further deny them of the resource base. Moreover, the THC-instigated crop conversion (through agro-
plantations or contract-growing and lately the introduction of bio-technology) further erodes the marginal
producers’ competitive edge in the economic cycle.

The productivity and income problems of the poor are aggravated more strategically (long-term sense) by
convention or chemical-based farming, destructive and abusive fishing practices, dirty and extractive
industries that destroy and deplete natural and production resources.
The rising cost of living (increasing prices of basic commodities including social services) is caused by
price deregulation that allows price manipulation and budgetary cuts in the budget for social services.

2. At the macro level:


The intensifying economic crisis that impoverish the Filipino majority can be attributed to the
underdevelopment of the country’s economic sectors particularly agriculture and industry. Agricultural
development is hindered by agrarian problem where the direct producers do not have meaningful access to
and control of lands, credit, technology and markets. This, against the backdrop of a rapidly growing rural
population, incapacitates the agricultural/rural economy to absorb or provide jobs resulting in excessive
labor surplus.

The industrial sector, being underdeveloped, cannot provide jobs to the labor surplus. Those who migrated
to urban areas to look for jobs end up in slum areas doing menial livelihood activities. The growth of the
urban poor population has been rapid that comprise the bulk of the informal sector. Most being unskilled
labor, they do not have the competitive edge in the employment market. Some are lucky enough to be
absorbed in construction industries that provide them in seasonal employment. Even those with academic
qualification hardly find jobs and end up in the export labor market. Those who cannot find overseas
employment are forced to take jobs for which they are overqualified.

Industries, unlike agriculture can provide jobs 24 hours a day continuously in any seasons. It is therefore a
crucial agenda in pursuing a strategic solution to the unemployment problem.

Pursued based on agrarian development, national industrialization can increase domestic productivity as
well as strengthen the economy’s absorptive capacity to tap the growing labor force.

As the economy is not able to produce machines that produce machines, the industrial sector cannot engage
in value-added production of raw material agricultural outputs. Moreover, it cannot support the
modernization needs of agriculture. Thus, agricultural products (crops, minerals, timber, sea and marine
products) are exported to feed the raw materials needs of overseas industries. On the other hand, the
country imports for agricultural production, technology and capital goods (machines) and even raw
materials to run the country’s semi-processing industries. With the country’s entry into the WTO-GATT
regime, even agricultural and consumer products have been imported with the effect of further
marginalizing our local producers.

On one hand, the socio-political crises resulted to a cultural crisis characterized by the distortion and
erosion of positive social and moral values that used to bind Philippine society. On the other hand, values
created from such distortion and erosion tends to reinforce rather than become a counter-force to the social
crisis.

The mainstream media and information technology (IT) which are owned by corporate proponents of
market-oriented globalization have been effective channels in promoting values, lifestyles and consumption
patterns favorable to the market. Movies in particular, promote an escapist culture or hero-worship that
defies the positive value of unity and collective action of peoples to solve social problems.

The educational system, which is dominantly run by private investors or financed by loans, has become
commercialized. Such would be evidenced by the continuing tuition increases every school year. Another
would be the choice of enrollment that heavily weighs in favor of courses that are more technical and
closely associate with the needs of business corporations. In school year 1997-1998 for instance,
population for Business Administration, Mathematics and Computer Science, Engineering, Medical and
allied courses were 620,681, 166,329, 299,226 and 164,784 respectively. On the other hand, population of
courses which are crucially important to social and human development like Humanities, Social and
Behavioral Science, Natural Science and Agriculture, and related courses were 9,394, 34,735, 21,914, and
64,760 respectively.
Gross graft and corruption in government; the creation and implementation of social policies that make
more difficult the life of the poor; the practices of corporations that destroy the environment, dislocate or
disintegrate poor communities; or deny the basic rights of workers; the involvement of law enforcers in
organized crimes would be clear evidences of the worst value distortions happening in the country’s
cultural and moral landscape.

Influenced by distorted values against the backdrop of massive poverty, the poor also develop the tendency
to engage and indulge in anti-social activities, e.g., drug abuse and trafficking, prostitution rings, gambling
syndicates and other organized crimes led by socially powerful and influential personalities. Some others
engage in petty crimes and are usually the ones being caught and convicted swiftly. Drug trafficking, in
particular, would no longer be considered for microanalysis as it had grown into a global trade.

There is close correlation between increasing crime incidence and the worsening poverty situation. Crime
increases when employment opportunities become unavailable. In the U.S. for instance, crime and random
acts of violence is pervasive, but no amount of additional prisons, no amount of executions of murderers
and no amount of extra police equipment has stopped crime unless the basic economic structure that breeds
poverty is positively changed. It is the same cause for Rwandan commercial sex workers to say “it is better
to die of AIDS in ten years than from hunger tomorrow”

Extreme poverty beyond rationalization tends to reactivate prejudices and biases that have been kept in
people’s sub-consciousness during favorable times. This can be a factor in the increasing incidence of
ethnic and religious conflicts (as in Mindanao), resurgence of racism in OCW or immigrant-receiving
countries or domestic violence against children and women.

Part II. Community Mapping

Definition of Community

There are a number of ways to think about what a community is. The first, most obvious way is to
think about it as a geographic area, a place with defined physical boundaries. The most fundamental
characteristic of these geographic communities is that they are places of residence. People are familiar with
them because they live there.

Some communities are defined by individuals' shared interests, activities, affection, or common
identity. These characteristics differentiate them from others.
People are usually members of a geographic as well as interest communities. The notion of
geographic and interest or identificational can be seen in the definitions of the word community:

• Community - a group of individuals or families that share certain values, service,


institutions, interests, or geographic proximity (Barker).

• Community - or a "sense of community" exists when two or more people work together
toward the accomplishment of mutually desirable goals (Lofguist).

• Community - is a territorially bounded social system or set of interlocking or integrated


functional subsystems (economic, political, religious, ethical, educational, legal, socializing,
reproductive, etc.) serving a resident population plans the material culture or physical plant
through which subsystems operate (Bernard).

• Community – is an identifiable human grouping that is predominantly informal in


organization and interaction, heterogeneous in composition, enduring, and sharing some
characteristics or attributes in common (M. Fernando).
For our purpose we define a community as: a number of people who share a distinct location,
belief, interest, activity, or other characteristics that clearly identifies their commodity and differentiates
them from those not sharing it. This common distinction is sufficiently evident that members of the
community are able to recognize it, even though they may not currently have this recognition. Effectively
acting on their recognition may lead members to more complete personal and mutual development

Community Needs

The needs of a community are those things a community requires to meet its goals and to sustain
itself. These are routine, ongoing challenges the community must address:

1. Physical Needs - The most basic needs. This set of needs includes those that help care of our bodies as
well as those that deal with the things we make or build.

2. Social and Emotional Needs - Forming and maintaining relationships is an integral function of the
community. A feeling of well-being and confidence in the future are necessary if a community is to
achieve its potential.

3. Political Needs - Community life requires a continuous series of decisions on matters that affect its
members. This process involves forming policies that manage resources and relationships. Each
community faces a set of political needs, and it will develop a governance or decision, making
structure if it intends to respond to those needs. Governance structures usually have clearly spelled out
procedures for gathering information, making decisions, developing rules or laws, describing those
rules or laws, and enforcing them. These procedures describe who is allowed to participate in the
process and how (Fellin).

4. Economic Needs - The community's economic system provides a way for its members to develop the
means to acquire things that are important to them. Usually, this means money.

5. Educational and Communication Needs - A community needs to know more about itself and the world
in which it operates. The community has to have information and methods for developing,
transmitting, and receiving that information.

When these needs are not adequately met and discomfort to the members results, community
problems exist. As such they are needs that have not been properly addressed. If things stay the same, the
problems and discomforts will persist. The only way to get rid of the problems or reduce them is for people
to do things differently.

Some of the Interests in Community

There could be various reasons for the interest in community and yet, not all of them are helpful
for the community. Some interests shown by various agents of community interventions are:

1. To create a support base and win votes for politicians and parties.

2. To mobilize people for some political end.

3. To improve the problem-solving capabilities and to develop the human resources towards better
conditions of living.

4. To preserve the indigenous cultural life.

5. To provide pastoral care (caring for the needs of the faith community).

6. To remedy social problems (deviance, crime).


7. To promote the national interests (population control).

8. To develop infrastructure for multinational corporations’ interests or colonial power interests


(introduction of the agricultural technological products of the Multinational Corporation, demolitions,
relocations, and construction of physical structures on the community territory).

9. To preserve the ecological and genetic or biological heritage and indigenous technology and
knowledge.

10. To implement the programs of UN and various civil groups from outside.

11. To test or develop theories on community as well as to provide information on consumer behavior in
the community or to determine the feasibility of economic enterprises (academic).

Our interest in community is to intervene in community toward its sustainable development and it
means:

1. To help the community identify its actual needs distinct from the felt needs.

2. To improve its capabilities to solve its problems.

3. To improve the human resources and potentials as well as natural resources toward the improvement of
conditions and quality of life in the community. This involves the localization of the benefits of
science and technology and affecting social integration, social organization, cultural production,
political participation of the people and the people’s control over economic processes.

MODULE IV

Community-building: A Community Development Challenge

Introduction

An honest reflection on the many local and national issues that exist today can be intimidating,
even discouraging. The present Filipino community is beset with problems such as low level of living, low
level of productivity, poor marketing system, oppressive and teneurial arrangements and practices,
unemployment and underemployment, limited genuine support facilities for socio-economic development,
poor health condition, low level of education, cultures of silence and poverty, personalized policies and
community disorganization. These factors exist, and they play a part in shaping our society. But just as
these limitations are facts of life, so too is our genuine concern to those in need.
The ultimate goal of development is "to improve the quality of life." To achieve this goal of
development, this requires an integrative process of mobilization and the raising of the consciousness of the
people and the building of community organizations. The development process to be truly responsive,
effective, equitable and sustainable, must be people-empowered, people-centered and towards community
empowerment. Such empowerment implies that the decision-making must be given to the people involved,
thereby incorporating into the development process their own needs and values (Dr. Vivian Gonzales, VIP-
CWS, Laguna: Sikap Strive Foundation, 1997).
Through community development, the students together with the people in the community
develop a common feeling of solidarity and become aware that they can achieve positive changes not only
for themselves but also for their community.

Part I. Working Together through Community Development

A Brief History of Community Development


Community development as a new discipline, grew out of an older concept – community
organization. In the 1950’s a number of social scientists and educators formed the American Council on the
Community, a relatively short-lived organization whose purpose was the institutionalization of scattered
efforts throughout the United States to improve American community life. This effort was built on the
experience acquired during World War II when millions of Americans participated in volunteer efforts and
organized to deal with local problems. This was the time when United Unions agencies and the technical
assistance programs of the West sought to help the developing countries (Third World countries) move
along the road to economic progress (modernization). Community development became one of the models
(strategies) employed toward the transformation. The term received so much attention and recognition not
only in the developing world but also in the US that it came to replace “community organization” even in
the US. Programs to help the impoverished areas of Appalachia or large metropolitan centers were
legislated into existence and were labeled either as Community Development or Rural Development in the
statutes. The essential feature was resource mobilization (people as well as material resources) at the
community level so as to introduce a better quality of life. It included, among others, a new kind of stock
taking by local residents, the use of outside consultants in interpreting the facts collected and in planning
programs to meet the needs that were identified.

In the 1960’s over sixty countries either had well-formulated national community development
programs or were in the process of bringing them into existence. Leaders of nations in Africa, Central, and
South America, and Asia/Pacific after World War II faced tremendous tasks of nation building. This was
due to the long periods of colonization under European nations faced with large-scale problems and
relatively inadequate resource-utilization (low technical-know-how) national leaders embraced the idea of
mobilizing local people carry out community projects. The Community Development program of India, for
example, was set up to aid the inhabitants of 558,000 villages attain a higher social and material level of
well – being. Multi-purpose village level workers, especially trained for this new challenge, met with the
village people, helped them to recognize and identify their needs and potentials and offered technical and
moral assistance to meet their needs. The technical assistance was given by specialists in agriculture,
animal husbandry, road building, irrigation, education, health and sanitation, rural cooperatives, etc. The
basic unit was the block which comprised 100 villages.

Other countries, of course, worked out the kind of community development programs best fitted to
their situation. The key common element to all countries was the thrust toward self-help and communal
labor to undertake projects they considered important. Any compensation of labor was often channeled
through the local community authorities by the external funding agencies so that other projects could be
further financed (e.g. the “food-for-work” programs).

These community development program were often fitted into national five-year to ten year plans
to ensure the allocation of sufficient resources to these efforts at the “grass-roots” level. To many national
leaders such programs seemed a way toward democratization and decentralization of the political process;
they gave local people a feeling of being involved in nation-building and showed that the central
government was actually beginning to show an interest in their welfare. In recent years, however, the
central government is found wanting in this direction because the interest in this approach begins to wane
due to greater focus being placed on urban development at the expense of rural development.
Definition of the Concept

There are many definitions of community development. The definitions vary according to type of
agency, the setting, the method of operation and the purpose of the agency. Despite their differences, they
share certain commonalities in their definitions.

Thus, in defining the concept community development, these elements are evident:

• a group of people;

• residing in a community;
• reaching a decision;

• to initiate a social action process (planned intervention);

• in order to have a desirable change in their social, economic, political, cultural, or


environmental situation.
Community Development is a planned, organize and evolutionary process whereby a group of
people with common aims, needs and aspirations come together to initiate social action in order to improve
their social, economic, political, cultural, and environmental conditions.

The term “community development” came into international usage to connote the processes by
which the efforts of people themselves are united with those of governmental authorities to improve the
economic, social and cultural conditions of communities, to integrate these communities into the life of the
nation, and to enable them to contribute fully to national progress.

This complex of processes is made up of two essential elements: the participation of the people
themselves in efforts to improve their level of living with as much reliance as possible on their own
initiatives and the provision of technical and other services in ways which encourage initiative, self-help,
and mutual help and make them more effective in programs designed to achieve a wide variety of specific
improvements such as health, environmental conservation etc. This definition was coined by the United
Nations.

The Aims and Objectives of Community Development

Aim, is a term that is simply defined as a “clearly directed purpose”. It is sometimes used
interchangeably to mean objective or goal.

In the context of Community Development, the words “aim” and “objectives” are not easy to
defined. However the aim of community development is refer to a community action. This does not help
much to understand without referring to the reality of community development practice.

In reality the primary objective of community development is to promote, sustain, support and
maintain community action.

Apparently, community development is related to community action, just as education, is related


to learning. Hence, in promoting community development these must be some kind of community action to
initiate or to guide the promoter to carry out either social or economic activities to improve their welfare or
to solve their real problems.
In order to arrive at a simpler understanding of the aims and objectives of community
development, it may be worthwhile looking into the different types of community development and their
respective objectives. Looking at each of them will underline both their differences and similarities. From
this standpoint, it may be possible to infer a general aim of community development through the synthesis
of their common element.
1. Community Work Type

This can be regarded as a professional approach to community development which has developed within
the field of social work. It came into being in response to increasing demand for social services for the age,
the sick, the unemployed etc.

The objective of this type of community development work ahs been given as the, “giving of aid and
support to people who need more control over their lives.”
Examples:
a. When members of a community offer voluntary services to a victim of say, typhoon, who lost
his/her house. Oftentimes, other people in the community may offer temporary shelter, food,
clothing etc. to the victims. This is typical norm of the Asian people, specially in rural areas.
b. Community voluntary work in the community such as clearing, or weeding the local market or
repairing the streets.
2. Colonial Social Development Type
This type came into existence when many colonized nations in the Third World attained self – rule
(independence).
The objective of colonial social development type was to integrate economic and social programs into
education for self – management programs and for the development of the political structure in the newly
independent nations.
Examples:
a. Rural Rice Milling Cooperatives.

b. Rural Thrift and Savings Societies.

c. Educational and Health programs.

3. Urban Renewal Types


The purpose of urban renewal type is to break down social isolation and give more meaning to personal
existence by encouraging the formation of social groups of different kinds which will organize own affairs.
Example:
When urban squatters are re-settled, new residential associations are formed to undertake the provision
of water, light, and sanitary facilities for their benefit. They are encouraged to undertake self-help
projects to realize their own social activity goals.
4. Adult Education Types

The aim of adult education type is to help in the identification and development of local leaders; to foster
the concern life and enable communities to deal with existing problems.
Example:

The institution of skill training and livelihood development programs in order to produce people who
will be more enterprising and entrepreneuring.

5. Institutional Type

The objective is to encourage those who have been provided formal service, to take action on their own
behalf and in addition, to accept responsibilities to render service to others.
Example:
Youth organizations provide social, recreational and cultural services for the community.
6. The Idealist / Political Activist Types
It aims at giving practical expression to social justice through militant action in order to see beneficial
change for the participants within the shortest possible time.
7. The Community Development Type
This is known the “kampong-based” type. The aim is towards the development of the potential of
individual members of the target group. It stresses on self-reliance and participation to bring about
desirable socioeconomic transformations. It also stresses on cultural exchange between Kampong in other
countries to stimulate globalization.

The Major Purposes of Community Development


The overall purpose of community development is to help people employ the rights methods to
organize self-help initiatives and to develop techniques relevant to their own situation for socio-economic
and cultural progress.

Specifically, community development:

1. Is designed to meet the learning needs of significant groups in the community e.g. community leaders or
civic or special interest organizations.

2. Enhance the ability of groups of individuals so that they can work collectively to attain community
social and economic goals.

3. Teaches about matters relating to community or region, generally associated with social structures and
public as well as private and voluntary enterprises.

4. Emphasis on shaping infrastructure and social organizational support through involvement in the
legislative, including formal financial and business enterprises.

Basic Stages in the Community Development Process

A process is something which has a beginning and an end, and it happens over time. In the
community development process, certain distinct stages are essential for its promotion. There are various
listings of stages or steps in literature on community development. But I shall somehow oversimplify it
here.
1. The Problem Situation
A situation may exist in a community which represents a need, a problem, an opportunity, or a challenge to
a community group, or to the entire community. Usually it would be tackled as a community project.

1. The Will To Do

Through discussion, diffusion of ideas and with information input, the group involved may reach a point
where it is beginning to form a will to do something about it.

2. Organizing

Some form of organization is established with a certain amount of commitment from individuals to some
in-depth and specific thinking about the project.

3. Getting to the People

At this stage, the process moves to the general membership of the community. Information is diffused and
educational work is undertaken community-wide. The potential exists for conflict. Considerable discussion,
and expression of viewpoints. General goals may become clear and some commitments may be made.

4. The Planning Process


If the project is blessed by legitimizers, the planning process will begin. The definition of objectives,
availability of options or alternatives, and availability of resources may be assessed. The end result may be
a plan to approach the project with specific information.

5. Execution Phase

Initiation of the projects is often an occasion to build community spirit and identity and to cement
commitment depending on the project, it is often an important occasion in the community.

6. Evaluation

Evaluation is an on – going process (monitoring) but the final assessment is undertaken upon completion of
the project. Community members try to review their experience for strength and weaknesses. The
experience gained may be used in future community development projects.

The Role of the Citizen and Change Agent in the Community Development Process

1. The Role of the Citizen

The participation by the people of the community in the process is of fundamental importance. The need
for understanding the root causes of our country's underdevelopment. Especially in the rural areas and
committing ourselves to its solution is imperative. Our concern for a rural community development affirms
our belief in the need for change.

However, some basic questions have to be raised:

a. What kind of participation?

b. Who are the participants?

c. How do they participate?

We all believe that people are the end and the means to development, whether at the grassroots level or
national level. At the community or grassroots level, participation is of prime importance. What is meant by
participation? To put it simply, participation means taking part. In the context of community development,
the term means a willingness to take part, physically, mentally, psychologically, and spiritually in activities
aimed at improving the social, economic, political, environmental and cultural life of the community in
which one resides. It also involves taking part in the discussions or showing concerns about anything which
affects the well-being of the community in which one lives, Participation ultimately involves getting
concerned about the problems of one's environment (community) and taking the initiative to have them
solved.

In the community, grassroots participation involves a collective expression of human dignity, exercising of
human rights, where the people through a democratic process, determine the kind of, the direction, and the
means to a better life. This could be spelled out in terms of participatory approach to community
development.

Participation must not only be democratic but popular. Popular participation connotes an enlightened,
responsible, active, and sustained involvement of the community in the community development process
from decision-making, problem identification, planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation.

In the context of Philippine researches, popular participation is defined as:

• Mass sharing of the benefit of development


• Mass contribution to development; and

• Mass involvement in the planning, decision-making, implementation, monitoring and


evaluation processes for development.

In the community development process, emphasis is placed on the common or shared interests and
concerns which turn up to become public issues, with origin as individual interests and concerns.
Participates originates from a widely shared discontent with existing conditions and this is channeled into
organization, planning and the directions of change. The consensus must be strong enough to initiate a
program of action that meets with approval of a majority of those combined in the action.

The initial reason for a people coming together is the belief that through organizations, action can be taken
by or on behalf of groups. Organization therefore is the vehicle through which desired change can be
accomplished. Also, when the community development process is effectively employed, the relationships
between local units or subgroups in the community and individual problems, certain value assumptions
come into focus:

• The people of the community should actively participate in community change;


• Participation should be as inclusive as possible; and

• Participation should be through democratic organization

Three necessary conditions for participation must be present if these value assumptions are to be realized:

1. freedom to participate-autonomy;

2. ability to participate; and

3. willingness to participate.

In the initial stages of a community program or project, normally fewer participants are involved. These
participants discuss ideas and issues and make tentative plans for community organization or group. The
community leaders or those most concerned about the particular matter under consideration are apt to
participate at this point. The need here is for people who " know the community " well enough to identify
others who ought to be involved. Persons with ideas and with the ability to implement ideas contribute
heavily during this initial stage.

The task accomplishment stage usually calls for an expansion in participation. Community participation is
at its highest during this period. More people are needed in the program of action than in either the initial
stage or in the stage of continuity or discontinuity. Frequently, additional participants, in such roles as
interviewer, solicitor or manual, worker, are necessary to implement the program of action. In other
instances, additional participation may be sought to help support the outer comes of the action. In too much
many cases increased participation is considered a goal in itself. A broad base of participation is thought of
a desirable, without considering why additional participants are being sought or how they will be involved,
once they are brought into the organization.

If the community project reaches its completion stage, participation usually will taper off as the
organization closes down and transfer any continuing aspect of the project to some ongoing group. In most
instances, however, after the organization has achieved its objective it does not dissolve but continues with
new and different dimensions. People may lose interest and drop out. Leaders also may reign. New people
become involved without knowledge of the history of the organization and its earlier efforts. The nature
and extent of individual participation changes over time and the membership changes over time as well.

2. The Role of the Change Agent


Along with the citizen, the community change event is the major participants in the process. The
community change agent is known by several names. He or she sometimes called:

• Community development worker;


• The social animator
• The animator rural
• The consultant
• The community facilitator; etc.

Among the names and others, the frequently used name is change agent. The several names frequently used
are meant to underlie the philosophical thrust of the community worker's role.

Looking at the purposes and objectives of community development activities and of the processes utilized,
reveal the complex and difficult applies in defining the term community development worker or agent and
his/her roles (task). It stands to reason that, it does not mean every person involved in the process, for this
would include the object of change--the resident of the area to be developed regardless of the nature of his
activity. On the other hand, to restrict the term to the temporary resident who enters the life of the
community as an agent of change would exclude those development workers who are recruited from among
the permanent Residents of the area.

It may be best to define a community development worker (agent) as a person occupationally engaged in
the activities associated with the discipline. As a further qualification, this occupational engagement
constitutes his major function over a specified period of time. This definition excludes volunteers and the
ordinary citizens.

Is he specialist or generalist?

The most troublesome aspect of the subject is whether the community development worker has some
identifiable set of tasks or skills that distinguish him and separate him from others specialists such
physicians, agronomist, public health workers, the social welfare workers or teachers-- who all happen to
be working in a development field. In addition, how are his skills differentiated from those of the resident
population? The answers can be questioned because community development is relatively new and
represents an emerging occupation. At the earlier times, the community development worker was really a
specialists possessing certain specific scientific skills, such as an agronomists, or physician, or he might
have been a more general publicists, organizer, or lobbyist who happened to be working on behalf of the
development area. His role at that time was that of a giver to a receiver. When the idea of developing a
community, district, region or a nation became premised on social, economic, political, cultural, and
psychological fronts, his situation become elaborated.

At first, the agent has only his special knowledge and sympathy for resources. Since transformation of an
area involves many aspects of society, he may be a builder, economists, agronomists, physicians, social
worker, nurse, teacher or other specialists. When the agent's confidence as an expert is tempered by an
effective respect for the perceptions, wants, and desires of persons in the developing area, then he has
begun the transformation from being an expert5 into development agent. To the expert's previously
acquired technology or skill has been added new insight, new knowledge, and new skill for the effective
engagement between himself and his beneficiary. If the task and role of the community development agent
are viewed in this light, the addition of new insights to his underlying skill or technique becomes his central
concern. The natural character of human association and of the social organization involves change,
whether slow or rapid, whether backward or forward- moving into often uncertain and unpredictable forms.
Social change also brings into its wake, profound psychological and cultural changes. The community
development worker or agent is therefore, concerned with inducing change in society but at the same time
tempering that change by the aspirations, wishes, and the pacing of the society and individuals involved.

Most community development workers secure their employment from higher level organizations. The agent
takes the values, visions and approaches from the sponsoring organization. These may range from the
predominantly self-help stimulating approaches of certain church/religious organizations to the vast social
and economic development efforts conducted through national organizations to the vast social and
economic development efforts conducted through national or international programs.