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# SAGAR INSTITUTE OF

RESEARCH
&TECHNOLOGY,BHOPAL

Synopsis
on
common base transistor
characteristics

Submitted by: -

Manish kumar
INDEX
1. OBJECTIVE
2. INTRODUCTION
3. THEORY
4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
5. COMPONENT USED
6. COMPONENT SPECIFICATION
& DATA SHEET
1.OBJECTIVE:- To design the
electronic circuit in common base
configuration & study its characteristics

2.INTRODUCTION:-
• Bipolar transistors are so named
because the controlled current
must go through two types of
semiconductor material: P and N.
The current consists of both
electron and hole flow, in different
parts of the transistor.
• Bipolar transistors consist of either
a P-N-P or an N-P-N semiconductor
“sandwich” structure.
• The three leads of a bipolar
transistor are called the Emitter,
Base, and Collector.
• Transistors function as current
regulators by allowing a small current
to control a larger current. The
amount of current allowed b/w
collector and emitter is primarily
determined by the amount of current
moving between base and emitter.
• In order for a transistor to properly
function as a current regulator, the
controlling (base) current and the
controlled(collector)currents must be
going in the proper directions:meshing
additively at the emitter and going
against the emitter arrow symbol.

## .The transistors can be connected in

the following three different
configurations.
1. Common base
configuration
2. Common collector
configuration
3. Common emitter
configuration
3.THEORY:-
Transistor operation
• The emitter-base junction is forward
biased
• The base-collector junction is reverse
biased
Currents in a transistor
• Emitter current is sum of the
collector and base currents:
IE =IC+IB
• The collector current is comprised
of two currents
IC = IC + I CO
majority minority
Common-Base Configuration

## • The base is common to both

input (emitter–base) and
output (collector–base) of the
transistor.
Common-Base Amplifier
• Input Characteristics
• This curve shows the
relationship between of input
current (IE) to input voltage
(VBE) for three output voltage
(VCB) levels.
Output Characteristics
• This graph demonstrates
the output current (IC) to an
output voltage (VCB) for
various levels of input
current (IE).
Operating Regions
• Active – Operating range
of the amplifier.
• Cutoff – The amplifier is
basically off. There is
voltage, but little current.
• Saturation – The amplifier
is full on. There is current,
but little voltage.
Approximations
• Emitter and collector
currents:-
I ≅I
C E

• Base-emitter voltage:-

## • Current amplification factor:-

Alpha (α):- ratio of IC to IE
IC
αdc =
IE

## • Ideally:- α = 1In reality: a is

between 0.9 and 0.998
• Alpha (α ) in the AC mode:-
ΔI C
αac =
ΔI E
4.CIRCUIT DIAGRAM :-

5.COMPONENT USED :-
1. Resistor
2. Capacitor
3. Transistor
7. COMPONENT SPECIFICATION &
DATA SHEET :-