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Paper by E. M. LUI

(3rd Quarter, 1989)

For the engineer who has never been totally comfortable acting concentrated forces at the column tops and bottoms.

with the destabilizing effects of compressive forces on an These balancing forces should provide moment and force

elastic frame, this paper is just the ticket. Starting with the equilibrium with the Pδ forces on each column.

well-known differential equation of a beam-column, Lui I look forward to applying Lui's method to frames.

deftly moves away from the calculus by a subtle algebraic

redefinition of terms that reduces the problem to a traditional Addendum/Closure by Eric M. Lui

first-order structural analysis problem. Requiring at most a The author is grateful to Carskaddan for his interest in the

few iterations, it basically makes the computation of paper and for his valuable comments. One major objective of

secondary moments a bookkeeping exercise. It is good potent the paper is to provide engineers and designers with a

stuff. practical engineering approach to account for second-order

Lui's method involves the application of pseudo forces effects in structural design. By expressing the Pδ and P∆

that, along with the real forces, create the final moments, effects in terms of quantities well-known to structural

which include the secondary moments. There are two types of engineers, viz. moments and shears, the author believes that

pseudo forces—member (Pδ) and frame (P∆ ). Lui shows that engineers can gain better insight into these destabilizing

his method gives exact Pδ and P∆ results for single member forces on members and frames. The work was prompted by

cases. the adoption and publication of the AISC-LRFD specification

When adding pseudo forces to real forces, an analyst in which second-order elastic analysis is recommended for

must keep clear the distinction between the two. For the P∆ frame design. With the proposed method, an analyst can

pseudo forces, Lui's Fig. 5 demonstrates that they are obtain secondary moments by a first-order analysis

essentially balanced by the inclination of the column loads technique. This is a technique which all structural engineers

Pcosθ . Actually, these P∆ forces do increase the base shear are familiar with and apply on a routine basis.

above the real value, but they are needed to generate the P∆ Carskaddan is correct in stating that the application of

moments. Statically it would be better to add pseudo the pseudo Pδ forces should not upset the equilibrium state of

moments that would not artificially increase the base shear the member. In fact, member equilibrium is implicitly

above the real value. enforced if one applies both pseudo Pδ and pseudo P∆ forces

The Pδ forces also artificially modify the base shear from to the member. The pseudo Pδ force is obtained by scaling

the real value. The imbalance of the Pδ forces has no effect the moment diagram down by the factor P/EI and the pseudo

on a single member, and probably has little effect on the P∆ force (pseudo shear) is obtained by multiplying P by the

lowrise frames that Lui presents. For a high-rise frame, end slope of the member. Suppose member AB is subjected to

however, these Pδ forces could accumulate. For example, it a pseudo Pδ force of PM/EI where M is the distribution of

does not seem reasonable that the Pδ force of a member on bending moment along the member, the cumulative effect of

story 40 should exert a moment on story 1 of the frame. this force is

As a correction to the imbalance of the Pδ forces, it is

B

suggested that additional pseudo forces be added to balance PM

the Pδ forces applied along a member length. These ∫ EI

dx (a)

A

additional pseudo forces would act at the member ends in an

opposite direction to the Pδ forces and would statically For small displacements, the substitution

balance them. They would be algebraically added to the P∆

pseudo forces. For example, consider Lui's Figure 10: The Pδ

M dy 2

distributed triangular loads on the columns should be =− 2 (b)

balanced by opposite EI dx

Phillip S. Carskaddan is Computer Consultant, AISC Marketing,

Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

made and so we can write

B B

Although member equilibrium is always satisfied, joint

PM dy 2

∫A EI ∫A dx 2 dx

dx = − P (c) equilibrium may be violated if pseudo shears from adjacent

members meeting at the joint do not balance. To ensure that

joint equilibrium is satisfied, a pseudo joint load calculated

From calculus, according to Eq. 10 must be applied at the joint. For the

frame examples shown in the paper, only the pseudo joint

loads are shown, pseudo shears which act at the ends of the

dy dy

B

dy 2

− ∫ P 2 dx = − P = P (d) members are deliberately omitted to avoid obscuring the

A

dx dx B dx A figures. Although these pseudo shears were not shown, they

were being considered in the calculations. A computer

By comparing Equations (c) and (d), we obtain program incorporating the pseudo load method for second-

order elastic frame analysis is available. Interested parties

can obtain a listing of the program free of charge by writing

dy dy

B

PM

∫ A

EI

dx = − P + P

dx B dx A

(e) to the author at the Department of Civil and Enviornmental

Engineering, 220 Hinds Hall, Syracuse University, Syracuse,

NY 13244-1190.

Equation (e) implies that the cumulative effect of the pseudo

Pδ force is statically equivalent to the pseudo P∆ forces.

Therefore, by applying a pair of pseudo P∆ forces at the ends

of the member in conjunction with the pseudo Pδ forces

which act along the length of the member, one automatically

enforces member equilibrium. Figures 5(b) and 5(c) thus

represent a set of forces in equilibrium.

The fact that the pseudo Pδ force is balanced by the

pseudo P∆ force is apparent for the cantilever beam-column

shown in Fig. 9 of the paper. Note that no additional base

shear is induced at the support. As for the beam-column

shown in Fig. 7 of the paper, it seems at first glance that

additional support reactions will be induced due to the

application of the pseudo Pδ force. However, if one also

applies pseudo shears at the member ends, these `pseudo'

reactions will be canceled. This is shown in Fig. A for the

second cycle of analysis. Note that no additional reactions

are induced at the supports since the `pseudo' reactions are

Fig. A. Member equilibrium at 2nd cycle of beam column

balanced by the pseudo shears. shown in Figure 7.

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