You are on page 1of 12

FLUID MIXING

ABSTRACT
The objectives of this experiment are; to observe the various flow patterns that can be
achieved by the use of different impellers i.e. flat paddle, turbine impeller and screw propeller,
with and without the use of baffle; to show how the power consumed by a mixer varies with
speed (increasing speed), type of impeller i.e. flat paddle, turbine impeller and screw propeller,
and with the inclusion of baffles. At the beginning of the experiment, approximately 0.3m of
water is poured into the container. The impeller was then attached and small quantities of plastic
pellets were added so that the flow pattern can be easily seen. The experiment was repeated with
other impeller and inclusion of baffles. As a result, the screw propeller, turbine propeller and flat
paddle form different flow patterns. During the exclusion of baffles, the flat paddle form the
highest vortex followed with turbine propeller and screw propeller. As for inclusion of baffles, no
vortex was observed. The experiment is proceed with the second aim which is power consumed
by the impellers with and without baffles. The fluid used in the second experiment is high
viscosity light oil. As for the result, the power consumed by flat paddle gives the highest reading,
followed by screw propeller and finally turbine propeller.

INTRODUCTION
Theoretically, matter in the liquid or gas state is considered a fluid. For the purposes of
fluid mixers, a fluid is defined as a liquid or mixture of liquids, which may contain modest
amounts of solid particles or gas bubbles. The presence of solids or gas must not alter the basic
capacity of the fluid to flow and be pumped about in the mixing vessel by a mixing impeller. A
liquid must always be present, either thin with a water-like viscosity or thick with relatively high
viscosity. The thickest liquid that can be handled with a fluid mixer will typically have viscosity
of less than 500,000 centipoise.
The simplest and most common fluid mixing application is simply to add liquid A to liquid
B, where the liquids are soluble in one another and blend them to uniformity. Application
requirements can include the time available to mix the liquids and the degree of uniformity to
CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL

Page 1

for this experiment only one type of liquid is used at a single time which is water. These impellers are further classified as constant angle of attack or variable angle of attack. On the other hand. However. leaching out valuable components in the solids. flash mixing and loq level mixing applications. Fluid velocity produces movement throughout the mixing vessel. prevents solids from settling out and produces flow over heating or cooling coils when necessary. can be obtained.which they must be mixed. solids suspension and flocculation. axial flow impellers have blades which make an angle of less than 90° with the mixing shaft axis. They produce fluid velocity and fluid shear respectively. both of these effects are essential to mixing. Mixing impellers are designed to pump fluid through the impeller and produce turbulence. and light oil. a liquid with low viscosity. a liquid with higher viscosity than that of water. Typical uses are gas/liquid dispersion. Radial flow impellers have multiple flate blades mounted parallel to the axis of the mixing shaft. The blades can be attached to a disc forming a close impeller or on a simple hub making an open style impeller. Other functions of fluid mixers include dispersion of a gas into a liquid. Based on the Fluid Mixing Apparatus. depending on the objection. intermixing material in one part of the tank with another. CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 2 . This can be for the purpose of dissolving the solids. In this experiment. liquid/liquid dispersion. radial flow or axial flow. power consumption can be calculated. The typical maximum concentration of solids which can be effectively mixed with a fluid mixer is 70-75% solids by weight. The second most common mixing application is the suspension of solid particles in a liquid. As for the constant angles of attack includes pitched blade turbines and the other includes propellers and hydrofoils. the Fluid Mixing Apparatus used is a model designed for experiments involving solid-liquid mixing and also liquid-liquid mixing. Thus. Fluid shear in the form of turbulent eddies is essential to micro-mixing within the large velocity streams breaking up gas bubbles or immiscible liquids into small droplets. dispersion of insoluble liquids into one another and heat transfer applications. Mixing impellers fall into one the two categories. angular speed and etc. allowing the solids to participate in a chemical reaction with the liquid or simply to keep the solids in suspension. Typical applications include simple blending. All mixing impellers produce both fluid velocity and fluid shear but different types of impellers produce different degrees of flow and turbulence either of which may be important. certain reading such as torque.

MATERIALS I. turbine impeller and screw propeller. In this experiment.81 (Newton’s) x torque arm radius (m)) and ω = angular speed in rad/s. to observe the various flow patterns that can be achieved by the use of different impellers i. circulation of fluid and fluid shear. to show how the power consumed by a mixer varies with speed (increasing speed).e. type of impeller i. The pumping capacity of an impeller is defined as the volumetric flow rate normal to the impeller discharge area. and with the inclusion of baffles.OBJECTIVES The objectives of this experiment are. II. THEORY All impellers produce two results within the mixing chamber. The pumping capacity of an impeller is proportional to its diameter and speed. turbine impeller and screw propeller. Water Light hydraulic oil CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 3 . flat paddle. with and without the use of baffle. flat paddle. the following formula is used: P=T ω Where T= torque required to drive the impeller or (balance reading x 9.e. The power consumed by an impeller is related with Reynolds Number as shown in the formula below: Np= P 3 5 ρN D Where N is the speed in Hz and D is diameter of impeller.

3 m. Later. baffles were added for each impeller. (ii) Experiment 2 The tank was filled with light oil to a depth of 0. turbine impeller and screw propeller. II. The movement of the pellets were observed. IV. Three to four plastic pellets were dropped into the tank to observe the flow pattern during the mixing process. The height of the vortex was observed. III. The speed control knob was turned on in gradual increments and the reading on the speed indicator was recorded.APPARATUS I. All readings were CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 4 . The procedure was repeated using other impellers i. V.e. flat paddle. A flat paddle was then attached with base of bush level with the end of the shaft. All observations were recorded. VI. Fluid Mixing Apparatus Flat-paddle impeller Turbine impeller Screw propeller Baffles Plastic pellets EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE (i) Experiment 1 The tank was filled with water up to a depth of 0. The speed of the impeller was turned on in small increments until the plastic pellets are seen to swirl around in the water. A flat paddle was then attached with base of bush level with the end of the shaft. The procedure was repeated using other impellers i. flat paddle. turbine impeller and screw propeller.3 m.e. Then the torque arm clamp was make sure to be fixed.

5.98 129.73 27.67 51.86 50 100 200 300 400 CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 5 (rad/s) Force = Torque Radius (0.67 46. As for inclusion of baffles. All readings were recorded. (ii) Experiment 2 a) Baffles exclusion Table 1 : Table for flat paddle without baffles Torque meter reading (N.54 56. RESULTS AND CALCULATION (i) Experiment 1 The height of the vortex varies with each impeller.05m and screw propeller 0.68 2. the flow patterns formed are shown in the appendix. no vortex was observed.62 2.recorded.67 .80 3. However.63 2.06 m) 43.94 31.67 43.04m.10 Frequency reading (rev/min) Power (W) = Frequency reading (rad/s) = rev 2 π rad 1 min x x min 1 rev 60 s Torque x Freq.24 10.89 13.42 41. The experiment proceeds with inclusion of baffles.83 44.07m high followed with turbine propeller 0. The flat paddle form the highest vortex around 0.m) 2.47 20.12 87.

89 13.23 100 200 300 400 500 (rad/s) Force = Torque Radius (0.83 44. 10.33 b) Baffles inclusion Table 4 : Table for flat paddle with baffles Torque meter reading (N.63 Frequency reading (rev/min) Power (W) = Frequency reading (rad/s) = rev 2 π rad 1 min x x min 1 rev 60 s Torque x Freq.78 50 CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 6 (rad/s) Force = Torque Radius (0.44 108.17 138.98 80.91 50 100 200 300 400 (rad/s) Force = Torque Radius (0.94 31.36 25.67 43.m) 2.53 2.00 Table 3 : Table for turbine impeller without baffles Torque meter reading (N.56 2.53 2.47 20.06 m) 43.44 110.51 2.61 80.Table 2 : Table for screw propeller without baffles Torque meter reading (N.48 2.83 42.47 20.33 42.67 43.56 2.83 .17 42.49 53.17 42.06 m) 41.06 m) 41.63 2.60 Frequency reading (rev/min) Power (W) = Frequency reading (rad/s) = rev 2 π rad 1 min x x min 1 rev 60 s Torque x Freq.64 Frequency reading (rev/min) Power (W) = Frequency reading (rad/s) = rev 2 π rad 1 min x x min 1 rev 60 s Torque x Freq.15 26.56 2.42 41. 5.89 52.24 10.42 41.24 13. 5.m) 2.67 42.m) 2.94 31.97 54.

64 2.06 m) 44.89 52.72 2.16 3.33 47.40 81.58 2.33 43.13 44.67 Table 6 : Table for turbine impeller with baffles Torque meter reading (N.52 2.60 2.78 3.83 27.62 Frequency reading (rev/min) Power (W) = Frequency reading (rad/s) = rev 2 π rad 1 min x x min 1 rev 60 s Torque x Freq.96 87.89 13.89 27.94 31.00 42.m) 2.50 43.06 m) 42.21 99.38 53.33 46.00 44.33 46.85 Frequency reading (rev/min) Power (W) = Frequency reading (rad/s) = rev 2 π rad 1 min x x min 1 rev 60 s Torque x Freq.42 41.42 41.50 .94 31.2.18 100 200 300 400 500 (rad/s) Force = Torque R adius(0.33 45.47 20. 5.36 26.94 31.55 2.m) 2.85 58.39 50 100 200 300 400 CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 7 (rad/s) Force = Torque Radius (0.66 2.29 149.00 43.78 2.47 20.56 100 200 300 400 10.91 137. 10.33 52.85 56.47 20.67 59.33 Table 5 : Table for screw propeller with baffles Torque meter reading (N.06 108.42 41.35 119.24 10.66 2.

47 20.94 31.89 Speed (rad/s) Figure 2 : Graph of power against speed for screw propeller CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 8 .42 41.24 10.Figure 1 : Graph of power against speed for flat paddle 160 140 120 100 Power (Watt) 80 exclude baffles include baffles 60 40 20 0 5.

89 52.94 Speed (rad/s) CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 9 31.94 31.42 41.160 140 120 100 Power (Watt) 80 exclude baffles include baffles 60 40 20 0 10.47 20.47 20.36 Speed (rad/s) Figure 3 : Graph of power against speed for turbine impeller 140 120 100 80 Power (Watt) exclude baffles include baffles 60 40 20 0 5.89 .24 10.42 41.

the flat paddle form the highest vortex approximately 0.18W for inclusion of baffles and exclusion of baffles respectively and finally turbine propeller with 108. type of impeller i. three graphs were plotted and it can be concluded that the power consumption is lesser when baffles were excluded and vice versa when baffles were included.13W for inclusion of baffles and exclusion of baffles respectively. to show how the power consumed by a mixer varies with speed (increasing speed). approximately 0.e.05m and screw propeller 0. the power consumed by flat paddle gives the highest reading which is 129. As for inclusion of baffles.86W and 149.e. turbine propeller and flat paddle form different flow patterns. The patterns for each impeller were shown in appendix section. flat paddle. This proves that the baffles main function is to control the fluid movement in the tank. turbine impeller and screw propeller. CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 10 . The objectives were successfully achieved while conducting the experiment. and with the inclusion of baffles. controlling its pattern thus preventing the formation of vortex.DISCUSSIONS In this experiment. the objectives of this experiment are. flat paddle. The experiment was repeated with other impeller and inclusion of baffles.04m. followed by screw propeller which is 138.07m high followed with turbine propeller with 0. As for the result.3m of water is poured into the container. During the exclusion of baffles. the screw propeller. The experiment is proceed with the second aim which is power consumed by the impellers with and without baffles.91W and 119. with and without the use of baffle. As a result. The fluid used in the second experiment is high viscosity light oil.23W and 137. to observe the various flow patterns that can be achieved by the use of different impellers i. no vortex was observed. In the beginning of the experiment.39W for inclusion of baffles and exclusion of baffles respectively. The impeller was then attached and small quantities of plastic pellets were added so that the flow pattern can be easily seen. Please refer to the appendix. As a comparison. turbine impeller and screw propeller.

There are some recommendations to avoid imprecise and inaccurate results obtained. Hence. controlling its pattern thus preventing the formation of vortex. due to the impeller not being properly attached on the shaft. Large errors in observations and calculations can occur if the impeller falls off during mixing. Nonetheless it is more suitable for turbulent mixing. no vortex was seen when baffles were included proven the function of the baffles itself which is to control the fluid movement in the tank. Conversely. Moreover. These are to avoids any unwanted accidents inside the pilot plant. As for industrial. most industries want to reduce the power consumed for a green healthy life. When the baffles are included. For example. Based on the power consumption calculated. lab coat with long sleeve as well as the safety cap should be worn before entering the pilot plant and conduct the experiment. Thus. screw propeller gives axial flow whereas flat-paddle and turbine gives radial flow. when transferring the solutions. CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 11 . make sure the solutions was transferred approximately 0. shows that flat paddle and turbine impeller are fit for laminar fluid mixing. before running the experiment. This is to avoid the impeller from falling off from the shaft during mixing. screw propeller does not show clear flow patterns.3m and the depth should have been the same for all experiment to avoid inaccuracy of the torque reading. increasing the demand of turbine impeller in industries. there might be slight inaccuracy in the power consumption calculated.CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS The flow patterns for each impeller are different as well as the height of the vortex when baffles was excluded. turbine shows the lowest value of power consumption. safety precaution should be taken seriously before entering the pilot plant. However. Other than that. Therefore. unless operated at high speeds shows that it is not suitable for laminar mixing. make sure that the impeller is attached tightly onto the shaft. For instance. especially when the experiment is conducted at high speeds.

iii) Liquid Mixing Equipment. ChE Division of ASEE.pdf. West.uflib. http://utcan. Tanguy. Vial1.pdf. Thakur.pdf. A Fluid Mixing Laboratory for ChE Undergraduate.my/pdf/FM103(A4).solution.ut.REFERENCES i) Skoog. Labbafi. 2003.ir/member/journal/labbafi/Mixing%20of%20complex%20fluids%20. 2004. accessed on 24th March 2014. Mixing of Complex Fluids with Flat-bladed Impellers: Effect of Impeller Geometry and Highly Shear-Thinning Behaviour. CHE 485-DR ABDUL HADI ZAINAL Page 12 . Thomson Brooks/Cole.com. 8th Ed. Ch. G. Robert Legros & Philippe A. http://ufdcimages. Djelveh & M. Holler & Crouch. accessed on 20th March 2014. accessed on 20th March 2014. iv) Gabriel Ascanio. Canada.ufl. Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry.ac.edu/AA/00/00/03/83/00157/AA00000383_00157_00296. http://www. ii) Rajeev K.