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# 3/4/2015

BASIC CONCEPTS
FORCES AND VECTORS
• Force is any action which alters, or tends to alter
• Newton II law of motion :
F=Ma
• Unit force : kgm/s2 = newton (N) or dyne = gram cm/s2; N = 105 dynes
(a). Force: vector quantity with magnitude and direction
(b). Resolving by the parallelogram of forces

Two Types of Force
• Body Forces (i.e. gravitational force)

Modified Price and Cosgrove (1990)

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1992) (Davis and Reynolds. 1996) STRESS Stress defined as force per unit area: s = F/A A = area.3/4/2015 Force Equilibrium (A) Balance (B) Torque (C) Static Equilibrium (D) Dynamic Equilibrium (Davis and Reynolds. Pascal (Pa) or bar (105 Pa) (Twiss and Moores. 1996) 2 . Newton (N). Stress units = Psi.

3/4/2015 STRESS Stress (s) • Stress at a point in 2D • Types of stress Normal stress (sN) (+) Compressive (-) Tensile Shear stress (sS) (+) (-) STRESS on PLANE • Coordinate System 3 .

1992) 4 .3/4/2015 Stress Ellipsoid a) Triaxial stress b) Principal planes of the ellipsoid (Modified from Means. Stress elipse s s3 X3 X1 Principal Stress: s1 > s3 B. 1976) z The State of Two-Dimensional Stress at Point s s3 x A. General stress components (Twiss and Moores.  z = Surface Stress Z dz dx  (lft) x Principal coordinate axes and planes (top) z s(top) zz s (bot) zz s(rt) xx X Arbitrary coordinate axes and planes C. Principal stress components (rt) x s(top) zx s(lft) xx s(lft) xz s(rt) xz s(bot) zx (bot) z  x.

3/4/2015 The State of 3-Dimensional Stress at Point A. General stress components (Twiss and Moores. Stress elipsoid x1 Principal Stress: s1 > s > s3 x3 z s3 s Principal coordinate planes z Stress Tensor Notation s11 s12 s13 s s y x2 y x B. Principal stress components Arbitrary coordinate planes szz sxy sxz s12 = s21. s23 = s32 z szx syx syz syy s21 s22 s23 s31 s32 s33 x z szy = y sxx y x x C. 1992) 5 . s13 = s31. 1992) Geologic Sign Convention of Stress Tensor (Twiss and Moores.

Mohr Diagram x n ss  s sn(p)  s3 ss  (p) ss(p)  s s3 sin  2 x3 (p) s(p) n .3/4/2015 Mohr Diagram 2-D A. Physical Diagram ss x1 n   n' B. ss  r s3  s(p) s n  sn sn Plane P s s3  2 s s3  2 s s3   cos  (Twiss and Moores. 1992) 2 Mohr Diagram 2-D A. Physical Diagram A. ss  p' (p) s(p) n . ss    p x3 s3  sn s sn (Twiss and Moores. 1992) 6 . Mohr Diagram  (p') s(p') n .

1992) Mohr Diagram 2-D Planes of maximum shear stress A. Physical Diagram ss x  = +45º n + s ss Counterclockwise shear stress x Planes of maximum shear stress s3 x3 ss max ' = +45º n s ss s3 B. Physical Diagram B. Mohr Diagram Counter clockwise - x3 Clockwise shear stress s3 º s sn 'º ss max Clockwise (Twiss and Moores.3/4/2015 Mohr Diagram 2-D A. 1992) 7 . Mohr Diagram x1 x ss  º) sxx sxz  z sxx' sxz s zz s sz x s3 s3 x3  º)  szz' szx sxz s sn s xx s zz  sxxszz 2 (Twiss and Moores.

1992) Mohr Diagram 3-D Maximum Shear Stress (Twiss and Moores. 1992) 8 .3/4/2015 Mohr Diagram 3-D Geometry of a three-dimensional Stress on a Mohr diagram (Twiss and Moores.

1996) • Mohr diagram is a graphical representative of state of stress • Mean stress is hydrostatic component which tends to produce dilation • Deviatoric stress is non hydrostatic which tends to produce distortion • Differential stress.3/4/2015 FUNDAMENTAL STRESS EQUATIONS Principal Stress: s1 > s > s3 • All stress axes are mutually perpendicular • Shear stress are zero in the direction of principal stress sN = s1 + s3 2 ss = + s1 – s3 2 s1 – s3 2 cos 2 Sin 2 Stress Ellipsoid (Davis and Reynolds. if greater is potential for distortion 9 .

Diagram Mohr adalah grafik yang menerangkan Stress pada suatu batuan STRESS vs. Asumsi Struktur Geologi pada suatu titik bersifat isotropic dan homogen. STRAIN 10 . Stress adalah Sataun gaya persatuan luas 3. Stress pada suatu titik dapat terbagi dua yaitu : • Stress Normal • Stress Geser 4. Vektor Stress pada 3D merupakan stres ellipsoid yang memiliki tiga arah orthogonal stres dan tiga bidang utama. Prinsip stress s1>s2>s3 7.3/4/2015 STRESS 1. 5. 6. Gaya yang bekerja tergantung besarnya material yang terkena gaya tersebut (grafitasi) 2.

B.3/4/2015 Relationship Between Stress and Strain • Evaluate Using Experiment of Rock Deformation • Rheology of The Rocks • Using Triaxial Deformation Apparatus • Measuring Shortening • Measuring Strain Rate • Strength and Ductility Stress – Strain Diagram Yield Strength After Strain Hardening 400 C DifferentialStress (in MPa) 300 Yield Strength Ultimate Strength D B E A Repture Strength 200 100 1 A. D. E. C. 2 3 4 Strain (in%) 5 6 Onset plastic deformation Removal axial load Permanently strained Plastic deformation Rupture 11 .

1989) 12 . C. E. Hooke’s Law: e = s/E. D. hviscosity. B. MPa 30 0 80 70 60 20 0 40 20 10 0 1500 300ºC 1000 500ºC 500 Crown Point Limestone 700ºC 0 2 4 6 8 Strain. E = Modulus Young or elasticity Newtonian : s = he. e = strain-rate Elastic strain Viscous strain Viscoelastic strain Elastoviscous Plastic strain (Modified from Park. percent 10 12 14 16 800ºC 0 5 10 15 Strain (in %) Deformation and Material A.3/4/2015 Effects of Temperature and Differential Stress 2000 140 130 25ºC Differential Stress (in MPa) Differential Stress.

3/4/2015 Effect increasing stress to strain-rate (Modified from Park. 1989) Stress Strain 13 .

3/4/2015 Limitation of The Concept of Stress in Structural Geology • No quantitative relationship between stress and permanent strain • Paleostress determination contain errors • No implication equation relating stress to strain rate that causes the deformation 14 .