You are on page 1of 18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

What is Piping
An attempt to ex plain process piping engineering basics in detail to help all the process piping engineering professionals around
the world.

HOME

ABOUT US

CONTACT US

PIPING STRESS

PIPING SUPPORTS

PIPING DESIGN

FORUM

PRIVACY POLICY

MISC.

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A


Brief Presentation
1 7 th Nov em ber 2 01 4

21

want2 learn

Detail Design

1 Com m ent

12

A steam trap is an automatic v alv e that allows condensate, air and other non-condensable gases (CO2) to be discharged from the
steam sy stem while holding or trapping the steam in the sy stem.

Condensate: Forms when steam releases its heat energy for any reason.
Air: ex ists in all steam pipes prior to sy stem start-up when the
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

1/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

sy stem is cold. Air can enter the sy stem through ex . boiler water
make-up sy stems and v acuum breakers.
Non-Condensable gases: Gases other than air such as carbon
diox ide ex ist inside steam sy stems.

DRIP LEG:
Purpose:

Drip Legs are used for remov ing entrained moisture from steam
transmission and distribution lines to ensure high quality steam for
use in v arious plant applications, while also prev enting damaging and
dangerous water hammer.
As steam trav els at high v elocity through piping, moisture forms as the result of piping heat losses and/or improper boiler
control resulting in condensate carry ov er.
Drip legs are therefore located at points where condensate may accumulate to allow for drainage by grav ity down to a steam
trap for proper discharge from the sy stem. Since condensate drains by grav ity , drip legs must be located on the bottom of
piping and designed with diameters large enough to promote collection.

Installation guidelines:

Drip legs should be located at V ertical Lifts or Drops, end of line.


In straight run of piping ev ery 30 to 50 meters.
Installed directly ahead of the regulating or control v alv e, Manual V alv es Closed for a Long Time.
Prov ide proper supports (no sagging)
Prov ide slope towards Drip legs.

Categories:
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

2/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

DRIP Applications: drip traps


PROCESS Applications: process traps
TRACING Applications: tracer traps. Steam tracing refers to using steam to indirectly elev ate the temperature of a product
using jacketed pipes or tubing filled with steam

Drip Leg Configuration (Fig. 1):


Because condensate drainage from steam sy stems is dependent upon grav ity , drip leg diameter is critical for optimum remov al
larger is better.

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

3/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Fig. 1: Figure of a properly configured drip leg.

T rap T y pes (Fig. 2):

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

4/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Fig. 2: Different t y pes of st eam t raps

T herm ody nam ic DISC T RAPS (Fig. 3):

THERMODY NAMIC traps sense the v elocity difference of entering fluids.


When condensate enters the trap body , it mov es slowly relativ e to steam and is freely discharged. When flash or liv e steam
mov es across the underside of the disc, its v elocity is much higher than water, and the high speed creates a pressure drop
which closes the v alv e head. The v alv e stay s shut until the control chamber steam pressure abov e the v alv e head drops,
thereby allowing the v alv e to open.
Ty pes: Thermody namic Disc and Thermody namic Piston.
Since air mov es much faster than condensate; thermody namic disc traps tend to close in the presence of air and are generally
not suited for v enting large amounts of air.
Thermody namic Disc & Thermostatic. To handle air combination of thermody namic disc traps and thermostatic air v ent can
be used.
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

5/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

DISC TRAPS: Disc traps operate as a function of v elocity . Under normal operating conditions, condensate and air enter the
trap and pass through an inlet orifice, a control chamber , an insulating chamber (to isolate the trap against the effects of
env ironment).
Rated to operate 1 0 to 600 psig,
Small and light weight therefore easy to install,
Frequently inspection required, not energy efficient because of short serv ice life,
Not suitable when back pressure high.

Fig. 3: Thermody namic DISC TRAPS

T HERMOST AT IC traps:

THERMOSTATIC traps sense the temperature difference of entering fluids.


The closure occurs when the fluid, ty pically hot condensate, has a temperature greater than or equal to a certain threshold
v alue. The hot temperature causes a thermostatic element to mov e in such a manner that closes a v alv e. This temperature
threshold v alue is below that of saturated steam.
Since air has a temperature significantly lower than steam, thermostatic traps are generally v ery good at v enting large
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

6/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

amounts of air
Thermostatic traps rated to operate 0 to 300 psig.
Fabricated with SS, CS and cast iron housings.
Not effectiv e when dirt and scale are present
Basic ty pes: Ex pansion, Balanced Pressure, and Bi-Metal.
Ex pansion ty pe: Ex pansion trap elements hav e an internal filling that ex pands and contracts with temperature change to
actuate the v alv e, but the filling does not v aporize.
Wax elements are in a congealed state when cool, and ex pand when heated
Petroleum-based elements are in a contracted liquid state when cool, and ex pand when heated
Balanced Pressure ty pe: Balanced Pressure trap elements hav e filling which is a mix ture of water and mineral spirits that
generally v aporizes or condenses at near-to-steam temperature to actuate the v alv e.
Bi-Metal: Bi-Metal trap elements are composed of two dissimilar metal strips bonded together so that temperature change
causes deflection in one direction or its opposite to actuate the v alv e
Bellows balanced pressure (Fig. 4)-High capacity
Wafer/Diaphragm balanced pressure-Low capacity
Bi-metallic-High and low capacity

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

7/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Fig. 4: Bellows Balanced pressure t y pe st eam t rap

MECHANICAL T Y PE:

Mechanical traps are designed to open for more-dense fluids and close for less-dense fluids.
There are two basic categories of mechanical traps that operate on the density principle: Float, and Bucket.
Within these categories, there are two ty pes each of density traps: Lev er Float, Free Float, Inv erted Bucket, and Open Bucket.
Air is less dense than water. Hence, density traps tend to close in the presence of air and are generally not suited for v enting
large amounts of air. For this reason, density traps may contain a separate thermostatic air v ent mechanism to handle
significant amounts of air.

T y pes:
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

8/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Float & Thermostatic,


Bucket & Thermostatic.

FLOAT AND T HERMOST AT IC T RAPS:

Float & Thermostatic steam traps combine the action of two principles: thermostatic and density . Each trap has its own
discharge orifice. A v alv e with a ball float actuator drains condensate when the liquid reaches a predetermined lev el in the
trap. When the flow of condensate diminishes the float drops, partially closing the v alv e to accommodate the flow rate.
At the top of the trap is a thermostatic element that opens to discharge all air and non-condensable gases as soon as they
cause a small temp drop within trap.
Operate in between 0 to 250 psig pressure,
The condensate v alv e is located at the bottom and subject to plugging when dirt and scale are present.
If the dirt particles prev ent the v alv e from closing, steam energy will be wasted until the condition is detected and corrected.

INVERT ED BUCKET T RAPS:


Inv erted bucket traps (Fig. 5) use an inv erted bucket that is normally submerged and floats only when steam is present. The
bucket sinks when the v olume of condensate ex ceeds a predetermined liquid lev el. When the bucket sinks, the v alv e at the top
opens.

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

9/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Fig. 5: Invert ed Bucket t y pe St eam Trap

SELECT ION GUIDELINES:


Selection of steam traps shall be in accordance with the following:

Steam traps in low pressure steam drip serv ice shall be inv erted bucket sty le, mechanical traps or bimetallic thermostatic
sty le traps.
Steam traps in medium pressure steam drip serv ice shall preferably be inv erted bucket sty le mechanical traps; alternativ ely
disc ty pe thermody namic traps may be used.
Steam traps in high pressure steam drip serv ice shall preferably be inv erted bucket sty le mechanical traps.
Steam traps prov ided for steam turbine inlet drip serv ice shall be a thermody namic piston ty pe trap.

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

10/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

A commonly accepted practice is to use float & thermostatic (F&T) steam traps for low pressure steam sy stems up to 30 PSIG,
and thermody namic steam traps for steam pressures ov er 30 PSIG.
International and European Standards:

ISO 6552: 1 980/ (BS 6023: 1 981 ): Glossary of technical terms for automatic steam traps.
ISO 6553: 1 980/CEN 26553: 1 991 (Replaces BS 6024: 1 981 ) Marking of automatic steam traps.
ISO 6554 1 980/CEN 26554: 1 991 (Replaces BS 6026: 1 981 ) Face-to-face dimensions for flanged automatic steam trap.
ISO 67 04: 1 982/CEN 267 04: 1 991 (Replaces BS 6022 : 1 983) Classification of automatic steam traps
ISO 6948:1 981 / CEN 26948: 1 991 (Replaces BS 6025: 1 982) Production and performance characteristic tests for automatic
steam traps.
ISO 7 841 : 1 988/CEN 27 841 : 1 991 (Replaces BS 6027 : 1 990) Methods for determination of steam loss of automatic steam
traps.
ISO 7 842: 1 988/CEN 27 842: 1 991 (Replaces BS 6028: 1 990) Methods for determination of discharge capacity of automatic
steam traps.

Causes of failure:

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

11/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Quantify your Steam Loss


permaweld.com

Specialised Steam Trap Audit Accurate Unbiased Steam Trap Audit

Automatic Drain valve


Automacit Control Valve
gas boiler on sale
Buy 3BHK Homes in Pune
Get Voucher worth Rs.1000
Sperre Compressor Parts
Heat exchanger
DHFL Home Loan
Buy Littmann Stethoscope
Common Causes of failure of steam traps are:

Corrosion, due to the condition of the condensate. This can be countered by using particular materials of construction, a good
feed-water conditioning.
Water hammer, often due to a lift after the steam trap, traps.
Dirt, accumulating from a sy stem where water treatment compound is carried ov er from the boiler, or where pipe debris is
allowed to interfere with trap operation.

More In Detail Design


http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

12/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

HAZOP (Hazard and Operability) Study: A brief introduction


Full form of HAZOP is Hazard and Operability Study . This is a comprehensiv e multi-disciplinary
team ex ercise to critically rev iew (Study ) the piping design (Lay out/
Routing/Placementread more

A short Presentation on Basics of Pressure Vessels


A pressure v essel (Fig. 1 ) is a closed container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure
substantially different from the ambient pressure. Basicread more

Considerations for development of Plant Layout: A brief presentation


This article prov ides the basic considerations for the dev elopment of plant lay out in a
presentation form. For more details in any of the listed pointsread more

This article has 1 comment

Yeshwant Adap
Wednesday 19 November 2014, 5:04 pm
Dear Sir/Madam,
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

13/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

I am a Piping Designer,
its very nice topic to know all about sta drip leg etc.
Thanks for good info
Regards
Reply

Leave a Reply
Name*
Email*
Website

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

14/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Submit Comment

Prev ious

Nex t

Search this Website

Search

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

15/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Popular posts

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

16/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Step by Step Methods for WRC 1 07 and WRC 297 Checking in Caesar II
1 1 most important questions & answers from ASME B 31 .3 which a Piping stress engineer must know
Stress Analy sis of PSV connected Piping sy stems using Caesar II
Stress Analy sis of Pump Piping (Centrifugal) Sy stem using Caesar II
Top 1 2 must hav e Piping books for a begineer into Piping industry
Must hav e Load cases for stress analy sis of a ty pical piping sy stem using Caesar II
Spring hanger selection and design guidelines for a Piping engineer using Caesar II
Methods for flange leakage checking by Pressure Equiv alent Method using Caesar II
Flange Leakage checking in Caesar II using ASME Section V III method
Trunnion Checking or Dummy Checking during stress analy sis of a piping sy stem
Nozzle Loading of V arious Equipments and means for reducing them
Pressure Tests of Piping sy stems-Hy drotest V s Pneumatic Test
Stress Analy sis of Column piping sy stem using Caesar II
Piping Stress Job Interv iew questions for y ou: Part 1
Flange Leakage Ev aluation based on NC 3658.3 Method method using Caesar II

Subscribe by Email to get updates


Enter y our email address:

Subscribe
Deliv ered by FeedBurner

Archives
Select Month
http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

17/18

2/3/2015

INTRODUCTION TO STEAM TRAPS AND DRIP LEG: A Brief Presentation | What is Piping

Categories
Select Category

Sitemap
SiteMap

Lee Spring-Top leader


Offers over 21000 kinds of springs Custom spring to your need.

WordPress Them e Them e by WPExplorer

http://www.whatispiping.com/steam-traps

18/18