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Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures

Formerly Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures


Published By: Taylor & Francis
Volume Number: 16
Frequency: 8 issues per year
Print ISSN: 1537-6494
Online ISSN: 1537-6532
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2008 Impact Factor: 0.857


Ranking: 73/112 in Mechanics
122/191 in Materials Science, Multidisciplinary; 8/21 in Materials Science,
Composites; 9/28 in Materials Science, Characterization & Testing
2008 5-Year Impact Factor: 1.167
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The central aim of Mechanics of Advanced Materials and Structures is to promote


the dissemination of significant developments and publish state-of-the-art reviews and
technical discussions of previously published papers dealing with mechanics aspects
of advanced materials and structures. Refereed contributions describing analytical,
numerical and experimental methods and hybrid approaches that combine theoretical
and experimental techniques in the study of advanced materials and structures will be
published along with critical surveys of the literature and discussions of papers in the
field. Contributions will range from new theories and formulations to analyses and
novel applications. Emphasis will be placed on mechanics aspects and aspects at the
interface of materials and mechanics issues. The journal will publish manuscripts
dealing with the mechanics aspects (for example, the mechanical characterization,
mathematical modeling, novel applications, and numerical simulation) of advanced
materials and structures. Contributions may range from new methods to novel
applications of existing methods to gain understanding of the material and/or
structural behavior of new and advanced. Typical topic areas are:
 Materials: Adhesives, ceramics, metal-matrix composites, and polymer-based
composites; processing and manufacturing of composite; actuator/sensor (smart)
materials and electromagnetic materials; and damage and failure mechanisms in
material.
 Structures: Basic structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells; structures
with actuators/sensors (smart structures); active and passive control of structures;
aerospace, automotive, and underwater structures; and adhesively bonded
structures.
 Methodologies: Mathematical formulation of the kinematic, constitutive, and
structural behavior of materials and structures; experimental methods directed toward
mechanical characterization, damage evolution, and failures in materials and
structures; computational methods for the solution of micro-, meso-, macro-
mechanics mathematical models; methods dealing with the determination of local
effects; and novel computational approaches for material and structural modeling of
new and advanced materials.

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Mecanica materialelor avansate si Structuri

Fost Mecanica de materiale compozite si Structuri


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Print ISSN: 1537-6494
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Factor de impact 2008: 0.857
Ranking: 73/112, în Mecanica
122/191, în Ştiinţa Materialelor, multidisciplinare; 8 / 21 în Ştiinţa Materialelor,
compozite; 9 / 28, în Ştiinţa Materialelor, de caracterizare şi Testare
Anul 2008 5-Impact Factor: 1.167
© 2009 Thomson Reuters, 2008 Oficial Referirea Reports ®
Obiectivul central al Mecanica materialelor avansate si Structuri este de a promova
difuzarea de evoluţii semnificative şi publică state-of-the-art comentarii şi discuţii
tehnice ale documentelor publicate anterior în care se ocupă de aspectele legate de
mecanică a materialelor avansate şi structuri. Contribuţii arbitrat descrie metode
analitice, numerice şi experimentale şi abordări hibrid care combina tehnici de
teoretice si experimentale in studiul materialelor avansate şi structuri vor fi publicate,
împreună cu anchetele critică a literaturii şi discuţii de lucrări în domeniu.
Contribuţiile vor varia de la noi teorii şi formulări la analize şi aplicaţii noi. Accentul
va fi pus pe aspectele mecanica si aspecte la interfaţa de materiale şi probleme de
mecanica. Revista va publica manuscrise care se ocupă de aspectele mecanica (de
exemplu, caracterizarea mecanică, modelare matematică, aplicaţii noi, şi simulare
numerică) din materiale avansate şi structuri. Contribuţii poate varia de la noi metode
pentru a noile aplicaţii ale metodelor existente pentru a obţine înţelegerea materiale
şi / sau de comportament structural de noi şi avansate. Zonele de subiect tipice sunt:
 Materiale: Adezivi, ceramica, metal-compozite cu matrice, şi-compozite pe bază de
polimeri; prelucrarea şi fabricarea de compozite; acţionare / senzor (Smart) materiale
şi materiale electromagnetice; şi prejudiciu şi a mecanismelor de eşec în materialul.
 Structuri: elementele structurale de bază, cum ar fi grinzi, plăci, şi coji; structuri cu
acţionare / senzori (structuri inteligente); de control active şi pasive de structuri;
aerospatiale, automobile, precum şi a structurilor subacvatice; şi a structurilor de
adhesively aglomerat.
 Metodologii: formularea matematică a comportamentului cinematic, constitutive, şi
structurală a materialelor şi structurilor; metodelor experimentale îndreptată spre
caracterizarea mecanice, daune evoluţie, şi eşecurile în materialelor şi structurilor;
metodelor computaţionale pentru soluţia de micro-, mezo-, mecanica macro - modele
matematice; metode de care se ocupă de determinare a efectelor locale, precum şi
noi abordări computaţionale pentru materiale şi modelarea structurii de noi materiale
şi avansate.
Traducere COSSRV

Metodelor experimentale de
STUDY OF COSSERAT ELASTIC SOLIDS AND OTHER STUDIU DE ELASTIC
SOLIDE COSSERAT ŞI ALTE
GENERALIZED ELASTIC CONTINUA Generalizate ELASTIC CONTINUA
in în
Continuum models for materials with micro-structure , Modelele Continuum pentru
materiale cu structura de micro-,
ed. ed. H. Mühlhaus, J. Wiley, NY Ch. H. Mühlhaus, J. Wiley, NY Cap. 1, p. 1, p. 1-
22, (1995). 1-22, (1995).
Roderic Lakes Lacuri Roderic
Department of Engineering Physics Departamentul de Inginerie Fizică
Engineering Mechanics Program Programul de Inginerie Mecanica
University of Wisconsin-Madison Universitatea din Wisconsin-Madison
147 Engineering Research Building 147 Inginerie de cercetare de constructii
1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706-1687 1500 Inginerie Drive, Madison,
WI 53706-1687
Abstract Abstract
The behavior of solids can be represented by a variety of continuum theories.
Comportamentul de solide pot fi reprezentate de o varietate de teorii continuu. For
example, De exemplu,
Cosserat elasticity allows the points in the continuum to rotate as well as translate,
and the Elasticitate Cosserat permite puncte în continuumul să se rotească, precum şi
traducerea, precum şi
continuum supports couple per unit area as well as force per unit area. continuum
sprijină tânăr pe unitatea de suprafaţă, precum şi forţa pe unitatea de suprafaţă.
We examine experimental methods for determining the six Cosserat elastic constants
of an Noi examina metodelor experimentale de determinare a şase constantele
Cosserat elastice a unui
isotropic elastic solid, or the six Cosserat relaxation functions of a Cosserat
viscoelastic solid. izotropa elastica solide, sau cele şase funcţii de relaxare Cosserat a
unui Cosserat solide viscoelastic. We Noi
also consider other generalized continuum theories (including micromorphic
elasticity, Cowin's , de asemenea, în considerare alte teorii generalizate continuum
(inclusiv elasticitate micromorphic, Cowin's
void theory, and nonlocal elasticity). Teoria nula, si elasticitatea nonlocal). Ways of
experimentally discriminating among various Modalitati de a experimental
discriminatorii între diferitele
generalized continuum representations are presented. reprezentari continuum
generalizată sunt prezentate. The applicability of Cosserat elasticity to Aplicabilitatea
Cosserat elasticitate la
cellular solids and fibrous composite materials is considered as is the application of
related solide celulare şi fibroase materiale compozite este considerat ca este aplicarea
legate de
generalized continuum theories. teorii continuum generalizată.
I Eu
Introduction Prezentare
The classical theory of elasticity is presently used in engineering analyses of
deformable Teoria clasică de elasticitate este în prezent utilizat în analizele de
inginerie a deformabil
objects at small strain. obiecte la tulpina de mici dimensiuni. However there are other
continuum theories for linear isotropic materials. Cu toate acestea, există teorii
continuum alte materiale de linie izotrop.
Some have more freedom, and some have less freedom than classical elasticity. Unii
s-au mai multă libertate, iar unele au libertatea de mai puţin de elasticitate clasice. The
various Diferite
continuum theories are all mathematically self consistent. teoriile continuum sunt
toate matematic de sine coerente. Therefore a discrimination among them is Prin
urmare, o discriminare între ele este
to be made by experiment. care urmează să fie făcute de experiment.
It is the purpose of this article to explore the physical consequences of various
continuum Acesta este scopul acestui articol pentru a explora consecinţele fizice ale
continuum-diverse
theories, and how these consequences may be used in the design of experiments to
discriminate teorii, şi modul în care aceste consecinţe pot fi folosite în proiectarea de
experimente de a discrimina
among the theories. printre teorii. The constitutive equations for several theories are
presented, and some of the Ecuaţiile constitutiv pentru teorii sunt prezentate mai
multe, iar unele dintre
salient consequences of each theory are stated and discussed. consecinţe importante
din fiecare teorie sunt indicate şi discutate. Some of the causal physical Unele dintre
fizice de cauzalitate
mechanisms associated with each theory are briefly discussed. mecanisme asociate cu
fiecare teorie sunt discutate pe scurt. Experimental methods for Metodelor
experimentale de
evaluating materials as generalized continua are presented, with emphasis on Cosserat
elasticity. materii ca evaluarea continua generalizate sunt prezentate, cu accent pe
elasticitate Cosserat.
The treatment is restricted to linearly elastic behavior; study of Cosserat plasticity and
related issues Tratamentul este limitat la un comportament liniar elastice; studiu al
Cosserat plasticitate şi chestiuni legate de
is presented elsewhere in this volume. este prezentat în altă parte în acest volum. A
discussion of experimental aspects of generalized O discuţie aspecte experimentale de
generalizat
continua is considered particularly appropriate in view of the fact that most of the
work done thus continua este considerat adecvat, mai ales având în vedere faptul că
majoritatea lucrărilor realizate astfel
far in generalized continuum mechanics has been theoretical. până în prezent în
mecanica continuumului generalizate a fost teoretice.
II II
Constitutive Equations Ecuaţiile constitutivă
Uniconstant Elasticity Elasticitatea Uniconstant
The early uniconstant elasticity theory of Navier is based upon the assumption that
forces Teorie timpurie uniconstant elasticitatea Navier se bazează pe presupunerea că
forţele de
act along the lines joining pairs of atoms and are proportional to changes in distance
between them actul de-a lungul liniilor care uneşte de perechi de atomi şi sunt
proporţionale cu schimbări în distanta dintre ele
(Timoshenko, 1983). (Timoşenko, 1983). The constitutive equation is as follows.
Ecuaţia constitutiv este după cum urmează.
Page 2 Page 2
σ is stress, ε is strain, and G is an elastic constant, the shear modulus. σ este de stres, ε
este tulpina, şi G este o constantă elastică, modulul de forfecare. This uniconstant
theory was Această teorie a fost uniconstant
used by Navier, Cauchy, Poisson, and Lamé during the early days of the theory of
elasticity. utilizate de către Navier, Cauchy, Poisson, şi Lame în primele zile ale
teoriei de elasticitate. The
theory contains less freedom than the classical theory of elasticity now in common
use. teorie a libertăţii conţine mai puţin de teoria clasică de elasticitate în prezent în uz
comun. There is Există
no length scale in uniconstant elasticity. nici o scară, în lungime de elasticitate
uniconstant.
Classical Elasticity Classical Elasticitatea
The constitutive equation for classical isotropic elasticity (Sokolnikoff, 1983; Fung,
Ecuaţia constitutiv pentru elasticitatea clasice izotrop (Sokolnikoff, 1983; Fung,
1968), is as follows, in which there are the two independent elastic constants  and G,
the Lamé 1968), este după cum urmează, în care există două constante independente
elastica  şi G, Lame
constants. constante.
σσ
kl KL
= ∑ = ⊄∑
rr rr
δδ
kl KL
+ 2G ∑ + 2G ∑
kl KL
(2) (2)
The Poisson's ratio  =  /2(  + G) is restricted by energy considerations to have
values in the ⊆ The Poisson's ratio =  / 2 ( + G) este limitată de considerente de
energie pentru a avea valori în
range from -1 to 1/2. intervalul -1 - 1 / 2. There is no length scale in classical
elasticity. Nu există nici o scară, în lungime de elasticitate clasice.
Cosserat (micropolar) Elasticity Cosserat (micropolar) Elasticitatea
The Cosserat theory of elasticity (Cosserat, 1909) incorporates a local rotation of
points as Teoria Cosserat de elasticitate (Cosserat, 1909) include o rotaţie locale de
puncte de ca
well as the translation assumed in classical elasticity; and a couple stress (a torque per
unit area) as precum şi traducerea asumate în elasticitatea clasice, precum şi un cuplu
de stres (un cuplu pe unitate de suprafaţă), astfel cum
well as the force stress (force per unit area). precum şi forţa de stres (forţa pe unitatea
de suprafaţă). The force stress is referred to simply as 'stress' in Stres vigoare este
menţionată la stres, pur şi simplu ca "" în
classical elasticity in which there is no other kind of stress. elasticitate clasice, în care
nu există nici un alt tip de stres. The idea of a couple stress can be Ideea unui stres
cuplu poate fi
traced to Voigt (1887,1894) during the formative period of the theory of elasticity.
urmărite până la Voigt (1887,1894) în timpul perioadei de formare a teoriei de
elasticitate. In more recent În mai recente
years, theories incorporating couple stresses were developed using the full capabilities
of modern de ani, care încorporează teorii subliniază tânăr s-au dezvoltat utilizând
capacităţile completă a moderne
continuum mechanics (Ericksen and Truesdell, 1958; Grioli, 1960; Aero and
Kuvshinskii, 1960; Mecanica continuum (Ericksen şi Truesdell, 1958; Grioli, 1960;
Aero şi Kuvshinskii, 1960;
Toupin, 1962; Mindlin and Tiersten, 1962; Mindlin, 1965; Eringen, 1868; Nowacki,
1970). Toupin, 1962; Mindlin şi Tiersten, 1962; Mindlin, 1965; Eringen, 1868;
Nowacki, 1970). A Un
survey of the interrelation between generalized continuum analysis and material
defects, trecere în revistă a relaţiei dintre analiza continuum generalizate şi defecte de
materiale,
dislocations and other inhomogeneities was presented by Kunin (1982, 1983).
dislocări şi a altor inhomogeneities a fost prezentat de către Kunin (1982, 1983).
Eringen (1968) Eringen (1968)
incorporated micro-inertia and renamed Cosserat elasticity micropolar elasticity.
încorporată de micro-inerţia şi redenumite Cosserat elasticitate elasticitate
micropolar. Here we use the Aici vom folosi
terms Cosserat and micropolar interchangeably. Termeni Cosserat şi micropolar
alternativ. In the isotropic Cosserat solid there are six elastic În izotropă Cosserat
solide există şase elastic
constants, in contrast to the classical elastic solid in which there are two, and the
uniconstant constante, în contrast cu clasice elastice solidă, în care există două, şi
uniconstant
material in which there is one. material în care există unul. The constitutive equations
for a linear isotropic Cosserat elastic solid Ecuaţiile constitutiv pentru o Cosserat
liniar elastice izotrope solidă
are, in the symbols of Eringen, (1968): sunt, în simbolurile de Eringen, (1968):
The usual summation convention for repeated indices is used throughout, as is the
comma Convenţia de obicei de sumare pentru indicii repetate este utilizat tot, aşa cum
este virgula
convention representing differentiation with respect to the coordinates. ⌠ Convenţia
de la reprezentând o diferenţiere în ceea ce priveşte coordonatele. ⌠
kl KL
is the force stress, este stresul vigoare,
which is a symmetric tensor in equations 1 and 2 but it is asymmetric in Eq. care este
un tensor simetric în ecuaţii 1 şi 2, dar este asimetrică în ecuaţia. 3. 3. m Sunt
kl KL
is the couple Este tânăr
stress, ∑ stres, ∑
kl KL
= (u = (U
k,l K, L
+u+U
l,k l, k
)/2 is the small strain, u ) / 2 este tulpina mic, u
kK
is the displacement, and e este de deplasare, şi e
klm klm
is the permutation este permutarea
symbol. simbol. The microrotation  √ microrotation
kK
in Cosserat elasticity is kinematically distinct from the macrorotation în elasticitatea
Cosserat este kinematically distinct de macrorotation
rr
kK
= (e = (E
klm klm
uu
m,l M, L
)/2 obtained from the displacement gradient. ) / 2 obţinute de la gradientul de
deplasare. Components of stress and couple stress Componente de stres şi de cuplu de
stres
on a differential element of a Cosserat solid, and the corresponding increments of
force and pe un element diferenţial al unui Cosserat solide, precum şi creşterile
corespunzătoare de forţă şi
moment on the structural elements of a real material are shown in Fig. moment cu
privire la elementele structurale ale unui material real, sunt prezentate în Fig. 1. 1.
Page 3 Page 3
In three dimensions, the isotropic Cosserat elastic solid requires six elastic constants
, ∝, 〈, , , În trei dimensiuni, a izotropă Cosserat elastica solide necesită şase
constante elastice , , 〈, , ,
and  for its description. şi  pentru descrierea acestuia. A comparison of symbols
used by various authors was presented by O comparaţie a simbolurilor folosite de
către autori a fost prezentat de către diverse
Cowin (1970a). Cowin (1970a). The following technical constants derived from the
tensorial constants are more Următoarele constante tehnice derivate din constantele
tensorial sunt mai
beneficial in terms of physical insight. benefice în termeni de cunoaştere fizice. These
are (Eringen, 1968; Gauthier and Jahsman, 1975): Acestea sunt (Eringen, 1968;
Gauthier şi Jahsman, 1975):
Young's modulus E = (2∝+)(3+2∝+)/(2+2∝+) , E modulul lui Young =
(2 + ) (3 2  + ) / (2 2  + ),
shear modulus G = (2∝+) /2, modul de forfecare G = (2 + ) / 2,
Poisson's ratio  = /(2+2∝+) , ⊆ Poisson's ratio =  / (2 2  + ),
characteristic length for torsion l Lungimea caracteristic pentru L torsiune
tT
= [ (+)/(2∝+) ] = [(ℜ + ) / (2 + )]
1/2 1 / 2
,,
characteristic length for bending l Lungimea caracteristic pentru îndoire L
bb
= [ /2(2∝+) ] = [℘ / 2 (2 + )]
1/2 1 / 2
,,
coupling number N = [ /2(∝+) ] de cuplare numărul N = [ / 2 ( + )]
1/2 1 / 2
, and , Şi de
polar ratio ¬ = (+)/(〈++) . ¬ Polar raportul = ( + ) / (〈 +  + ).
When 〈, , ,  vanish, the solid becomes classically elastic. Când  〈, , ,
dispărea, solide devine clasic elastica. The case N = 1 (its upper bound) is Caz, n = 1
(ITS limita de sus) este de
known as 'couple stress theory' (Mindlin and Tiersten, 1962; Cowin, 1970b).
cunoscută sub numele de "teoria cuplu de stres" (Mindlin şi Tiersten, 1962; Cowin,
1970 b). This corresponds to Acest lucru corespunde cu
κ → ∞ , a situation which is permitted by energetic considerations, as is
incompressibility in κ → ∞, o situaţie care este permisă de considerente energetice,
aşa cum este în incompressibility
classical elasticity. elasticitate clasice. The case  = 0 corresponds to a decoupling of
the rotational and translational Cazul  = 0 corespunde la o decuplare a de rotaţie şi a
translaţională
degrees of freedom. grade de libertate. Although some theoretical writers choose to
solve problems for this case since Deşi unii scriitori teoretice alege pentru a rezolva
problemele de acest caz, deoarece
the analysis is simpler, the limit  → 0 presents physical difficulties (Lakes, 1985a).
analiza este mai simplă, limita de  → 0 prezintă dificultăţi fizice (Lacuri, 1985a).
Void Elasticity Void Elasticitate
The theory of elastic materials with voids (Cowin, 1983) incorporates a change of
volume Teoria de materiale elastice cu goluri (Cowin, 1983) include o schimbare de
volum
fraction, rather than rotation, as an additional kinematical variable. fracţiune, mai
degrabă decât de rotaţie, ca o variabilă suplimentară cinematic. The constitutive
equations for Ecuatiile constitutiv pentru
the elastic case (no rate dependence) are as follows. în cazul elastica (nu rata de
dependenţă) sunt după cum urmează.
with ⌠ as the stress, h as the equilibrated stress vector,  and µ as the classical Lamé
elastic cu ⌠ ca stresul, H ca vector de stres echilibrat,  şi μ ca elastica clasice Lame
constants, g as the intrinsic equilibrated body force,  as the change of volume
fraction, and  constante, g ca forţă intrinsecă organism echilibrat,  ca schimbarea
fracţie de volum, şi 
,k , k
as la fel de
the gradient of the change of volume fraction. gradientul de schimbare a fracţie de
volum. The change of volume fraction can be interpreted as Schimbare de fracţie de
volum poate fi interpretată ca
a dilatation of points in the continuum. o dilatare de puncte în continuu.
Nonlocal Elasticity Nonlocal Elasticitate
In an isotropic nonlocal solid , the points can only undergo translational motion as in
the Într-un izotrop nonlocal solide, punctele poate să facă obiectul numai mişcarea de
translaţie la fel ca în
classical case, but the stress at a point depends on the strain in a region near that point
(Kröner, caz clasic, dar stresul într-un punct depinde de tulpina într-o regiune aproape
că punctul (coroane,
1967, Eringen, 1972). 1967, Eringen, 1972). The constitutive equation for stress ⌠
Ecuaţia constitutiv de ⌠ stres
ij ij
is, in terms of the position vector x este, în termeni de vectorul de poziţie x
of points in the solid, de puncte in solide,
〈 (| x |) subject to cu 〈 kernel-ului nonlocal (| x |), sub rezerva
Page 4 Page 4
∫∫
VV
α (| x |)dV = 1 α (| x |) dv = 1
(10) (10)
requiring the kernel to be a member of a Dirac delta sequence. care necesită kernel-ul
să fie un membru dintr-o secvenţă delta Dirac. So, in the limit of the nonlocal Deci, în
limita a nonlocal
distance of influence or characteristic length 'a' becoming vanishingly small, Hooke's
law (Eq. 2 la distanţă de influenţă sau de lungime caracteristică "a" a deveni
vanishingly mici, legea lui Hooke (Eq. 2
for classical elasticity) is recovered. pentru elasticitatea clasică) este recuperat.
An example of a finite range kernel is 〈 (|x|) = Un exemplu de un nucleu gamă finit
este 〈 (| x |) =
Characteristic lengths can be defined in nonlocal elasticity, in terms of the effective
range Lungimi de caracteristica poate fi definită în elasticitatea nonlocal, în ceea ce
priveşte gama eficiente
associated with a kernel. asociat cu un nucleu.
Microstructure (micromorphic) Elasticity Microstructura (micromorphic)
Elasticitatea
In microstructure (Mindlin, 1965) or micromorphic (Eringen, 1968) elasticity the
points in În microstructura (Mindlin, 1965) sau micromorphic (Eringen, 1968)
elasticitatea puncte în
the continuum representation of the solid can deform microscopically as well as
translate and reprezentarea continuum de solide pot deforma la microscop, precum şi
de a traduce
rotate. roti. There are 18 elastic constants in the isotropic case. Sunt 18 constante
elastice, în cazul izotropă. The constitutive equations for isotropic Ecuaţiile
constitutiv pentru izotrop
microstructure elasticity are: elasticitate microstructură sunt:
δδ
pq pq
is the symmetric Cauchy stress, ⌠ este de stres simetric Cauchy, ⌠
pq pq
is the asymmetric relative stress, and µ este de stres asimetrice relativă, şi μ
pqr pqr
is the se
double stress. stres dublu. The g's, b's, and a's as well as  and ∝ are elastic constants.
G's, b's, precum şi o, precum şi  şi  constantelor sunt elastic. The antisymmetric The
antisymmetric
part (with respect to the last two indices) of the double stress represents the couple
stress of parte (în ceea ce priveşte ultimele două indici) din stres dublu reprezintă
stresul pereche de
Cosserat elasticity. ∑ is strain,  is the macro-deformation minus the micro-
deformation, and  is Elasticitate Cosserat. ⊕ este tulpina,  este macro-deformare
minus de micro-deformare, şi  este
the micro-gradient of micro-deformation, the antisymmetric part of which
corresponds to the de micro-gradientul de micro-deformare, o parte din antisymmetric
care corespunde cu
rotation gradient in Cosserat elasticity. gradientul de rotaţie în elasticitate Cosserat.
Microstructure elasticity includes Cosserat elasticity and the theory of voids as special
Elasticitate Microstructura include Cosserat elasticitate şi teoria golurilor ca speciale
cases. de cazuri. Classical elasticity is a special case of Cosserat elasticity and of void
theory. Elasticitatea clasică este un caz special de Cosserat elasticitate şi a teoriei
neavenit. Uniconstant Uniconstant
elasticity is a special case of classical elasticity. elasticitatea este un caz special de
elasticitate clasice.
Viscoelastic materials Materiale de viscoelastic
Time dependence or frequency dependence can be incorporated in any of the above
Ora dependenţă sau dependenţa de frecvenţă pot fi încorporate în oricare din cele de
mai sus
constitutive equations by use of the correspondence principle of linear viscoelasticity.
ecuaţii constitutiv prin folosirea principiului corespondenţei de viscoelasticity liniare.
For Pentru
classically viscoelastic materials, the transition is well known. clasic materiale
vascoelastice, tranziţia este bine cunoscut. Each elastic constant becomes a Fiecare
constanta elastica devine o
complex number in the viscoelastic case in the frequency domain. număr complex, în
cazul viscoelastic în domeniul de frecvenţă. In the time domain, the În domeniul timp,
constitutive equations assume a convolution form. ecuatii constitutiv şi asume o formă
circumvoluţie. Eringen (1967) has developed a viscoelastic Eringen (1967) a
dezvoltat o viscoelastic
version of the micropolar theory. versiune a teoriei micropolar. The theory of voids as
originally presented has a simple time Teoria golurilor ca iniţial a prezentat are un
timp de simplu
dependence built in. dependenţa de construit in
III III
Consequences of constitutive equations Consecinţe de ecuatii constitutiv
The uniconstant theory predicts a Poisson's ratio of 1/4 for all materials. Teoria
uniconstant prezice un raport de 1 Poisson / 4 pentru toate materialele. Since most
Deoarece cele mai multe
common isotropic materials exhibit a Poisson's ratio close to 1/3, the uniconstant
theory was comună materiale izotrope manifesta un Poisson aproape la valoarea de 1 /
3, teoria uniconstant a fost
rejected based on experimental measurements of Poisson's ratio. a respins bazate pe
măsurători experimentale ale raportului lui Poisson. Decisive experiments were
Experimentele au fost decisive
Page 5 Page 5
difficult to perform in the late 1800's, so the issue was not decided until well after the
introduction dificil de efectuat la sfarsitul anilor 1800, astfel încât problema nu a fost
decis până la mult timp după introducerea
of the theories. de teorii.
In several segments below we refer to size effects. În mai multe segmente de mai jos
ne vom referi la efectele dimensiune. These size effects, and all other Aceste efecte
dimensiuni, precum şi toate celelalte
phenomena presented in this article, are within the framework of linear (but possibly
nonclassical) fenomene prezentate în acest articol, sunt în cadrul liniare (dar posibil
nonclassical)
elastic or viscoelastic behavior. comportament elastic sau viscoelastic. Size effects in
the current context refer to a non-classical Dimensiune efecte, în contextul actual se
referă la un non-clasic
dependence of the rigidity of an object upon one or more of its dimensions.
dependenţă de rigiditate a unui obiect, la unul sau mai multe dintre dimensiunile sale.
This type of size Acest tip de mărime
effects are to be distinguished from size effects in the fracture behavior; fracture is a
nonlinear Efectele sunt să se facă distincţie între dimensiunea efecte în
comportamentul rupere; fractură este o neliniare
process not considered here. proces nu luate în considerare aici.
Classical elasticity is, according to its name, the currently accepted theory of
elasticity. Elasticitatea clasică este, în funcţie de numele acestuia, în prezent, teoria
acceptată de elasticitate.
Several salient predictions are as follows. Mai multe predicţii importante sunt după
cum urmează.
(i) (i)
The rigidity of circular cylindrical bars of diameter d in tension goes as d Rigiditatea
circulară bare cilindrice cu diametrul d tensiune în merge ca d
22
; in bending and ; În îndoire şi
torsion, the rigidity goes as d torsiune, rigiditatea merge ca d
44
..
(ii) (ii)
Plane waves in an unbounded medium propagate without dispersion (the wave speed
is Valurile de avion într-un mediu fără limite, fără a se propaga dispersie (valul de
viteză este
independent of frequency) for shear waves and dilatational waves. independente de
frecvenţă) pentru undele de forfecare şi de valuri dilatational.
(iii) (iii)
There is no length scale in classical elasticity, hence stress concentration factors for
holes or Nu există nici o scară, în lungime de elasticitate clasice, prin urmare, factorii
de stres de găuri sau de concentrare pentru
inclusions in an infinite domain under a uniform stress field depend only on the shape
of the incluziuni într-un domeniu infinit în cadrul unui câmp uniform de stres depinde
numai de forma de
inhomogeneity, not on its size. inhomogeneity, nu pe dimensiunea acesteia.
(iv) (iv)
Poisson's ratio  can have values in the range -1 ≤  ≤ 1/2. ⊆ Poisson raportul poate
avea valori în intervalul -1 ≤  ≤ 1 / 2.
Ordinary materials have a positive Poisson's ratio, so that the range from zero to 1/2
was Materiale de ordinar au un raport Poisson pozitiv, astfel ca intervalul de la zero la
1 / 2 a fost
considered for many years to be the physically acceptable range (Fung, 1968).
considerată de mulţi ani să fie în intervalul punct de vedere fizic acceptabil (Fung,
1968). Recently, a new Recent, un nou
class of cellular solids with a negative Poisson's ratio has been developed (Lakes,
1987), clasă de solide celulare, cu un raport de Poisson negativ a fost dezvoltat
(Lacuri, 1987),
extending the range for  to -0.7 and below. extinderea gamei de  la -0.7 şi de mai
jos. Further developments in negative Poisson's ratio Evoluţia viitoare a raportului
Poisson negativ's
materials are reviewed by Lakes (1993a). materiale sunt revizuite de către Lacuri
(1993a).
Cosserat or micropolar elasticity has the following consequences. Cosserat sau de
elasticitate micropolar are următoarele consecinţe.
(i) (i)
A size-effect is predicted in the torsion of circular cylinders of Cosserat elastic
materials. O mărime-efect este anunţată în torsiune de butelii circulare de materiale
Cosserat elastica.
Slender cylinders appear more stiff then expected classically (Gauthier and Jahsman,
1975); Fig. Cilindri Slender apărea mai rigid apoi de aşteptat clasic (Gauthier şi
Jahsman, 1975); Fig.
2. 2. A similar size effect is also predicted in the bending of plates (Gauthier and
Jahsman, 1975) and Un efect similar este, de asemenea dimensiune a prezis în îndoire
de plăci (Gauthier şi Jahsman, 1975) şi
of beams (Krishna Reddy and Venkatasubramanian, 1978); Fig. de grinzi (Krishna
Reddy şi Venkatasubramanian, 1978); Fig. 2. 2. No size effect is predicted in Nici un
efect dimensiune este prevăzut într -
tension. tensiune.
(ii) (ii)
The stress concentration factor for a circular hole, is smaller than the classical value,
and Factor de stres de concentrare pentru un orificiu circular, este mai mică decât
valoarea clasice, şi
small holes exhibit less stress concentration than larger ones (Mindlin, 1963). găuri
exponat de concentrare stres mai mici decât cele mai mari (Mindlin, 1963). Stress
concentration Concentraţia Stress
around a rigid inclusion in an flexible medium is greater in a Cosserat solid than in a
classical solid. în jurul unui includerea rigid, într-un mediu flexibil este mai mare într-
un Cosserat solidă decât într-un solid clasică.
Stress concentration near cracks and elliptic holes is reduced in comparison to
classical predictions Stresul de concentrare lângă fisuri si gauri eliptice este redusă în
comparaţie cu predicţii clasice
(Kim and Eringen, 1973; Itou, 1973; Sternberg and Muki, 1967; Ejike, 1969;
Nakamura et al, (Kim şi Eringen, 1973; Itou, 1973; Sternberg şi Muki, 1967; Ejike,
1969; Nakamura et al,
1984). 1984).
(iii) (iii)
Dilatational waves propagate non-dispersively, ie with velocity independent of
frequency, Propagarea undelor Dilatational non-dispersively, adică cu viteza
independent de frecvenţă,
in an unbounded isotropic Cosserat elastic medium as in the classical case. într-un
mediu fără limite izotrop Cosserat elastice ca şi în cazul clasic. Shear waves propagate
Valuri Shear propaga
dispersively in a Cosserat solid (Eringen, 1968). dispersively într-o Cosserat solide
(Eringen, 1968). A new kind of wave associated with the micro- Un nou tip de val
asociate cu micro -
rotation is predicted to occur in Cosserat solids. rotaţie se anticipează să apară la
solide Cosserat.
(iv) The mode structure of vibrating Cosserat bodies is modified from that of classical
elastic (iv) modul de structura vibrator organismelor Cosserat este modificat de cea a
elastice clasice
bodies (Mindlin and Tiersten, 1975). (organisme de Mindlin şi Tiersten, 1975).
(v) (v)
The range in Poisson's ratio is from -1 to +0.5, the same as in the classical case
(Gauthier Gama în proporţie Poisson este de -1 - 0.5, la fel ca şi în cazul clasice
(Gauthier
and Jahsman, 1975). şi Jahsman, 1975).
(vi) (vi)
In Cosserat solids which lack a center of symmetry, called noncentrosymmetric or
chiral În solide Cosserat care nu sunt deloc un centru de simetrie, numit
noncentrosymmetric sau chiral
materials, qualitatively new phenomena are predicted. materiale, calitativ fenomene
noi sunt prezis. A rod under tensile load deforms in torsion O bară în sarcină de
tracţiune se deformează în torsiune
(Lakes and Benedict, 1982). (Lacuri şi Benedict, 1982). Wave speed for transverse
circularly polarized waves depends on the Wave de viteză pentru transversală circular
polarizată valuri depinde de
sense of polarization. sentiment de polarizare. This leads to rotation of the principal
plane of elliptically polarized transverse Acest lucru duce la rotaţie a planului
principal al elliptically polarizat transversal
waves (Lakhtakia, Varadan, and Varadan, 1988; 1990). valuri (Lakhtakia, Varadan, şi
Varadan, 1988; 1990). Examples of chiral materials include Exemple de astfel de
materiale chiral includ
crystalline materials such as sugar which are chiral on an atomic scale, as well as
composites with Materiale de cristalin, cum ar fi de zahăr, care sunt chiral la o scară
atomică, precum şi a materialelor compozite cu
helical inclusions or spiraling fibers. incluziuni de elicoidale sau fibre de spirala.
Chirality has no mechanical effect in classical elasticity. Chiralitate nu are nici un
efect mecanice în elasticitate clasice.
Page 6 Page 6
Void theory gives rise to the following. Teoria Void dă naştere la următoarele.
(i) (i)
Size effects are predicted by Cowin and Nunziato (1983) in the bending of rods but
not in Dimensiune efecte sunt prezise de Cowin şi Nunziato (1983), în indoire de tije,
dar nu în
torsion or tension. torsiune sau de tensiune.
(ii) (ii)
The stress concentration factor for a hole in a planar region under tension is greater
than the Factor de stres de concentrare pentru o gaură într-o regiune planar sub
tensiune este mai mare decât
classical value (Cowin, 1984a). Valoarea clasice (Cowin, 1984a).
(iii) (iii)
Dilatational waves in an unbounded medium propagate dispersively (Puri and Cowin,
Valurile Dilatational propaga într-un mediu fără limite dispersively (Puri şi Cowin,
1985). 1985). There are two kinds of such waves. Există două tipuri de astfel de
valuri. Shear waves exhibit no dispersion. Valurile de forfecare prezintă nici o
dispersie.
Microstructure (micromorphic) elasticity gives rise to the following. Microstructura
(micromorphic) Elasticitatea dă naştere la următoarele.
(i) (i)
Dispersion of both dilatational waves and shear waves occurs in solids obeying Atât
de dispersie a undelor dilatational şi valuri de forfecare apare în ascultarea de solide
microstructure elasticity (Mindlin, 1965). elasticitate microstructură (Mindlin, 1965).
Cut-off frequencies for acoustic waves are predicted. Cut-off spectrului de frecvenţe
pentru undele acustice sunt prezis.
(ii) (ii)
The stress concentration factor for a spherical cavity can be greater than the classical
value Factorul de stres de concentrare pentru o cavitate sferică poate fi mai mare decât
valoarea clasice
(Bleustein, 1966) (Bleustein, 1966)
Nonlocal elasticity gives rise to the following. Elasticitate Nonlocal dă naştere la
următoarele.
(i) (i)
The stress concentration near a crack is alleviated (Eringen, et al, 1977). Concentraţia
de stres lângă un crack este îmbunătăţită (Eringen, et al, 1977).
(ii) (ii)
Dispersion of elastic waves is predicted (Eringen, 1972). Dispersia de unde elastice se
anticipează (Eringen, 1972).
(iii) (iii)
Size effects are predicted in tension and bending, as described below. Efectele
Dimensiune se prognozează în tensiune şi de îndoire, aşa cum este descris mai jos.
For certain short Pentru anumite scurt
range nonlocal behaviors, these size effects can be thought of as surface or 'skin'
effects. comportamente gama nonlocal, aceste efecte dimensiuni pot fi gandit ca
suprafaţă sau "efecte de piele".
IV Iv
Further consequences of constitutive equations Consecinţe în continuare a
ecuatiilor constitutiv
In this section we present several new results which are relevant to experimental
methods. În această secţiune vom prezenta mai multe rezultate noi care sunt relevante
pentru a metodelor experimentale.
A slab is considered in tension and in bending for a Cosserat solid and for a nonlocal
solid. O lespede este considerat în tensiune şi în indoire pentru o Cosserat solide şi
pentru un solid nonlocal.
Cosserat solid Cosserat solide
Consider bending of an isotropic Cosserat elastic beam of rectangular section and
width B Luaţi în considerare de îndoire a unui fascicul de izotrope Cosserat elastice
de secţiune dreptunghiulară şi lăţimea B
and depth A, with the following displacement field u and microrotation field  . şi o
adâncime, cu u următoarele domeniul de deplasare şi de microrotation  teren. R is the
radius of R este raza de
curvature of the bent beam. curbură a fasciculului aplecat.
{ u (U
xx
= -(1/2R)[z = - (1/2R) [z
22
+  (x + ⊆ (x
22
-y -y
22
)], u )], U
yy
= -  xy/R, u = - XY  / R, u
zz
= xz/R } = Xz / R)
(17) (17)
{  (√
xx
=0=0
yy
= - z/R  = - Z / R 
zz
= -  y/R } = - Y  / R)
We use the semi-inverse method. Noi folosim metoda de semi-inversă. The procedure
is the same for Cosserat solids as it is for classical Procedura este aceeaşi pentru
solide Cosserat cum este pentru clasică
solids. solide. The displacement field is assumed to be the same as for the classical
elastic case, and the Câmpul de deplasare se presupune a fi aceleaşi ca şi pentru cazul
clasic elastice, precum şi
microrotation field is assumed to be the same as the classical macrorotation. câmp
microrotation se presupune a fi la fel ca macrorotation clasice. Again, size effects in
Din nou, efectele mărime în
the rigidity occur. rigiditate apar. The bending rigidity ratio (ratio of rigidity of a
Cosserat beam to that of its Raportul de îndoire rigiditate (raportul de rigiditate a unui
fascicul de Cosserat cu cel al său
classical counterpart) for a particular rectangular cross section bar of sides A and B is
found to be: în contrapartidă clasice), pentru un bar special dreptunghiulară secţiunea
transversală a părţi A şi B se dovedeşte a fi:
Ω = RM/E(BA Ω = RM / E (BA
33
/12) = [1+24(l / 12) = [1 24 (L
bb
/A) / A)
22
(1-  )]. (1 - )].
(18) (18)
Size effects in the rigidity are predicted, in which slender bars (with A ≈ l
Dimensiune efecte în rigiditatea se prognozează, în care baruri zvelte (cu o L ≈
bb
) are stiffer than ) Sunt mai acerbă decât
expected classically. de aşteptat clasic. The displacement and rotation fields give rise
to an exact solution only if / = De deplasare şi câmpurile de rotaţie da naştere la o
soluţie exactă numai în cazul în  /  =
−ν . -Ν. If β/γ ≠ −ν , then they are valid if a system of couple stresses were applied to
the lateral În cazul în care β / γ ≠-ν, atunci acestea sunt valabile în cazul în care un
sistem de subliniază cuplu au fost aplicate pentru a laterale
surface. de suprafaţă. The exact solution for the general case is not known. Soluţia
exactă pentru cazul general, nu este cunoscută. If these stresses are not applied, the
Dacă aceste subliniază nu sunt aplicate,
displacement field will be different: the inclined lateral surfaces will exhibit some
bulge rather than câmp de deplasare va fi diferit: înclinat laterale suprafeţele va
expune unele umfla, mai degrabă decât
being straight as they are in the classical case, or in the Cosserat case with / = − .
a fi dreaptă în care acestea sunt, în cazul clasic, sau, în cazul Cosserat cu  /  =−.
Hence De aici înainte
Cosserat elasticity predicts a change of shape of the cross section of the bent beam,
for / ≠ − . Elasticitate Cosserat prezice o schimbare a formei de secţiunea
transversală a fasciculului aplecat, pentru  /  ≠−.
The bending rigidity will also be different from the above. Rigiditatea îndoire va fi, de
asemenea, diferite de cele de mai sus.
The rigidity size effects in other situations such as bending of a plate or circular rod,
or Efectele rigiditate mărime în alte situaţii, cum ar fi Îndoirea o placă de tijă sau de
circulare, sau de
torsion of a circular rod, have a similar form. torsiune de o bară circulară, au o formă
similară. For example, Gauthier and Jahsman (1975) give, for De exemplu, Gauthier
şi Jahsman (1975) da, pentru a
cylindrical bending of a plate, cilindrice Îndoirea o farfurie,
Ω = 1 + 24 Ω = 1 + 24
lL
bb
22
(1-  ) (1 - )
h ore
22
(19) (19)
Page 7 Page 7
with h as the plate thickness. , cu h ca grosimea plăcii. The length parameter of
Gauthier and Jahsman was converted into the Parametru lungime de Gauthier şi
Jahsman a fost transformată în
characteristic length for bending defined above. lungime caracteristic pentru îndoire
definite mai sus. In plate bending, the anticlastic curvature due to În placa de îndoire,
curbura anticlastic din cauza
the Poisson effect is constrained, in contrast to beam bending. efectul Poisson este
constrânsă, în contrast cu fascicul de îndoire. A similar kind of solution for Un tip
similar de soluţie pentru
bending of a void solid was constructed by Cowin, 1984b. Prelucrare de un gol solidă
a fost construit de Cowin, 1984b.
Nonlocal solid Nonlocal solide
Chirita (1978) has examined Saint Venant's problem in nonlocal elastic solids; this
includes Chirita (1978) a examinat problema Saint Venant în nonlocal solide elastice;
aceasta include
simple tension, bending, and torsion of a slender bar. Tensiunea simplu, îndoire,
precum şi de o bară de torsiune de subţire. Chirita writes the constitutive equation
much Chirita scrie ecuaţia constitutiv de mult
as in Eqs. la fel ca în SCM. (8,9) but with x' called z', 〈 called K, and extra terms
outside the integral, (8,9), dar cu x "numit z", 〈 numit K, iar termenii suplimentare în
afara integrantă,
corresponding to classical elasticity. corespunzătoare elasticitate clasice. For both
tension and bending, the displacement field is Pentru ambele tensiune şi de îndoire,
domeniul de deplasare este
predicted to be identical to the classical displacement field. anticipat a fi identic în
domeniul clasice de deplasare. So, nonlocal elasticity predicts no Deci, elasticitatea
nonlocal prezice nici o
shape changes in comparison with classical elasticity for bending. modificările forma
în comparaţie cu elasticitate clasice de indoire. Compare the bending of a Comparaţi
indoire a unei
Cosserat elastic bar, considered above. Cosserat bar elastica, luate în considerare de
mai sus. Chirita gives integral forms for the rigidities but not explicit Chirita dă forme
integrantă pentru rigidităţile, dar nu în mod explicit
forms or interpretation. forme sau interpretare.
In the following, consider the origin of coordinates to be the center line of the slab,
which În cele ce urmează, ia în considerare originea de coordonate pentru a fi linia de
centru al lespede, care
has width W and breadth V >> W. are lăţimea W şi lăţimea V>> W.
In simple tension , we have uniform strain so (away from a boundary), În tensiune
simplu, ne-am atât de tulpina uniformă (departe de o graniţă),
σ (x) σ (X)
=E=E
εε
∫∫
x-x'=-a x-x "=- un
a un
α (x - x') dx' α (x - x ') DX "
(20) (20)
σ (x) = 1 σ (x) = 1
EE
ε , from Eq.10. ε, de la Eq.10.
(21) (21)
The nonlocal region of influence has dimensions ±a and is shown in Fig. Regiunea
nonlocal de influenţă are dimensiuni ± a şi este prezentată în fig. 4. 4. To first order
there is Pentru a comanda primul nu este
no size effect in tension, however to second order there will be a size effect due to
integration over nici un efect dimensiune în tensiune, cu toate acestea la comanda
secunde, va exista un efect de mărime datorită integrării pe
part of the domain as a result of interception of a portion of the nonlocal influence by
the o parte din domeniu, ca urmare a interceptării o parte din influenţa nonlocal de
către
boundaries. limite. We remark that this effect has been neglected in prior treatments
of crack problems in Noi remarcă faptul că acest efect a fost neglijată în tratamente
anterioare de probleme crack în
nonlocal elasticity (see Eringen, 1983). elasticitate nonlocal (a se vedea Eringen,
1983).
Let us now consider the surface effect of interception of a portion of the kernel's
region of Haideţi, acum, ia în considerare cu efect de suprafaţă de interceptare a unei
părţi a regiunii kernel-ului de
influence. influenţă. In the one dimensional slab geometry, the problem is tractable. În
geometria o lespede dimensionale, problema este uşor de mânuit.
σ (x) σ (X)
=E=E
εε
∫∫
x-x'=-a x-x "=- un
a un
α (x - x') dx', α (x - x ') DX ",
for pentru
- W/2 + a < x < W/2 - a - W / 2 + a <x <W / 2 - o
(22) (22)
σ (x) σ (X)
=E=E
εε
∫∫
x-x'=-W/2 - x x-x "=- W / 2 - x
a un
α (x - x') dx', α (x - x ') DX ",
for pentru
- W/2 + a > x - W / 2 + a> x
(23) (23)
σ (x) σ (X)
=E=E
εε
∫∫
x-x'=-a x-x "=- un
W/2 - a W / 2 - o
α (x - x') dx', α (x - x ') DX ",
for pentru
x > W/2 - a. x> W / 2 - a.
(24) (24)
Near the surface, only a portion of the kernel's region of influence is integrated over,
hence Aproape de suprafaţă, doar o parte din regiune kernel-ului de influenţă este
integrat de peste, prin urmare,
contributes to the stress. contribuie la stres. Suppose that the kernel is positive definite
throughout its range, as has Să presupunem că kernel-ul este pozitiv definit în întreaga
gama sa, aşa cum a
been done in several analyses of stress around cracks. a fost făcut în mai multe analize
de stres în jurul crăpături. Then there is a surface layer of depth a in Apoi, există un
strat de suprafaţă de la o adâncime
which the stress is less than pe care stres este mai mică decât
EE
ε . ε. Such a surface effect has a negligible effect on the rigidity if a << Un astfel de
efect de suprafaţă are un efect neglijabil asupra rigiditatea în cazul în care o <<
W, however it becomes progressively more important for thinner slabs. W, cu toate
acestea, devine treptat mai importante pentru plăci subţiri. For such a kernel, the
Pentru o astfel de nucleu,
stiffness is smaller for a slender specimen than for a thick one. rigiditate este mai
mică pentru un exemplar subţire decât pentru o grosime. The tensile force is, for the
Forţa de tracţiune este, pentru
constant kernel of Eq. kernel-ului constantă de ecuaţia. 13, 13,
F = ∫⌠ dx dy = E ∑ V((W-2a)+ (2)3a/4) = E ∑ V(Wa/2). F = ∫ dy ⌠ dx = E ∑ V
((W-2a) + (2) 3a / 4) = E ∑ V (WA / 2).
(25) (25)
The stress drops to half its central value at the edge of the slab (Fig. 5), since half the
nonlocal Stresul scade la jumătate valoarea sale centrale de la marginea de lespede
(fig. 5), deoarece jumătate din nonlocal
zone of influence then extends beyond the edge, where there is no material. zonă de
influenţă, apoi se extinde dincolo de margine, în cazul în care nu există nici un
material.
So the normalized rigidity Ωis, for W ≥ 2a, Deci, ∧ normalizat rigiditate este, pentru
W ≥ 2a,
Ω = [E ε V(Wa/2)]/E ε VW = 1 - a/2W. Ω = [E ε V (WA / 2)] / E ε VW = 1 - a/2W.
(26) (26)
Page 8 Page 8
The size effects above are of softening of small specimens, but that need not always
be the Efectele mărime de mai sus sunt de inmuiere de specimene mici, dar care nu
trebuie întotdeauna să fie
case. caz. For example consider the kernel De exemplu, ia în considerare kernel-ului
α (|x|) = 2 δ (x) - α (| x |) = 2 δ (x) --
11
2a 2a
, for |x| < a; 〈 (|x|) = 0, for |x| > a. , Pentru | x | <a; (〈 | x |) = 0, pentru | x |> a.
(27) (27)
The delta function represents classical behavior but the negative term gives a surface
effect of the Funcţia de Delta reprezinta comportamentul clasice, dar, pe termen
negativ dă un efect de suprafaţă a
opposite sign as that considered above, hence a stiffening effect of thin specimens.
semn opus ca a considerat de mai sus, prin urmare, un efect de rigidizare de
specimene subţire.
The above analysis is one dimensional. Analiza de mai sus este una dimensionale. In
two dimensions the nonlocal region of influence În două dimensiuni regiunea
nonlocal de influenţă
may be circular and in three dimensions it may be spherical. poate fi circulară şi în
trei dimensiuni, poate fi sferice. Computation of segments intercepted Calculul de
segmente interceptate
by such boundaries would be more complex, however we expect that, as in Eq. cu
limite ar fi mult mai complex, cu toate acestea ne aşteptăm ca, la fel ca în ecuaţia. 26,
the rigidity 26, rigiditatea
would depend on some fraction of a/W. s-ar depinde de o fractiune de / W.
In cylindrical bending of a plate, ∑ = gx and we consider one dimension only. În
cilindrice Îndoirea o farfurie, ∑ = GX şi luăm în considerare doar o singură
dimensiune.
We consider first x = 0. Noi considerăm primul x = 0.
Then, ⌠ (0) Apoi, ⌠ (0)
=E=E
∫∫
x'=-a x "=- un
a un
α (x - x')gx' dx'. α (x - x ') GX "DX".
(28) (28)
σ (0) σ (0)
=E=E
∫∫
x'=-a x "=- un
a un
α ( - x')gx' dx'. α (- x ') GX "DX". If α is an even function, then the integral is zero. În
cazul în care α este o funcţie, chiar, atunci integrala este zero. For example, De
exemplu,
σ (0) σ (0)
=E=E
∫∫
x'=-a x "=- un
a un
(x' (x "
22
)gx' dx' = [(x' ) DX GX '= [(x "
44
)/4] ) / 4]
-a -o
a un
= 0. = 0.
(29) (29)
So in cylindrical bending of a plate, in which the classical displacement field gives
rise to Deci, în cilindrice Îndoirea o farfurie, în care câmpul clasice de deplasare dă
naştere la
strains varying in one direction, the one dimensional nonlocal theory predicts stresses
at the origin tulpini de variabile într-o singură direcţie, teoria un dimensional nonlocal
prezice subliniază, la originea
identical to the classical values. identice cu valorile clasice.
Consider now the stress distribution. Luaţi în considerare acum de distribuţie de stres.
σ (x) σ (X)
=E=E
∫∫
x'=- ∞ x ∀∞ =-
∞∞
α (x - x') gx' dx' α (x - x ') GX "DX"
(30) (30)
Suppose that the kernel is constant over a range as in Eq. Să presupunem că kernel-ul
este constantă într-o gamă la fel ca în ecuaţia. 13. 13.
σ (x) σ (X)
=E=E
∫∫
x-x'=-a x-x "=- un
a un
gx'/a dx' = GX '/ a DX' =
EE
∫∫
x'=x+a x '= x + a
xa xa
gx'/a dx' GX '/ a DX "
(31) (31)
σ (x) = σ (x) =
gEx' GEX "
22
2a 2a
[[
x+a x + a
xa xa
==
gE gE
2a 2a
((xa) ((Xa)
22
- (x+a) - (X + a)
22
)=)=
gE gE
2a 2a
(x (x
22
- 2ax +a - 2AX + a
22
- (x - (X
22
+ 2ax +a 2AX + + a
22
)) (32) )) (32)
σ (x) = σ (x) =
gE gE
2a 2a
(-2ax) = -gEx (-2AX) =-GEX
(33) (33)
There is no influence of nonlocality on the stress field (away from the free surfaces);
the stress Nu există nici o influenţă a nonlocality pe câmpul de stres (departe de drum
liber suprafeţe); de stres
field is purely classical for this kernel. câmp este pur clasice pentru acest kernel-ului.
Consequently there are no size effects in rigidity except for În consecinţă, nu există
efecte mărime în rigiditate, cu excepţia
those associated with surface phenomena, as was the case in tension. cele asociate cu
fenomene de suprafaţă, cum a fost cazul în tensiune. The surface effects will be
Efectele de suprafaţă va fi
similar to those for tension, provided that a<<W; so size effects in bending can consist
of a similare cu cele pentru tensiune, cu condiţia ca o <<W; efecte atât în mărime de
îndoire poate consta dintr-un
softening effect of thin specimens for a positive definite kernel, or a stiffening effect
of small inmuiere efect de exemplare subţire pentru un nucleu pozitiv definit, sau un
efect de rigidizare mici
specimens for a kernel which goes negative over part of its range. exemplare pentru a
kernel-ului care depăşeşte cu negativ peste o parte din gama sa.
Since the nonlocal theory is linear, we may consider a more general kernel as a Având
în vedere că teoria nonlocal este liniar, putem considera un nucleu mai general, ca o
superposition of functions of the form in Eq. suprapunere de funcţii de forma în
ecuaţia. 13, but with different values of a. 13, dar cu valori diferite de a. Specifically, 〈
În mod specific, 〈
jJ
(|x|) (| x |)
==
11
2a 2a
jJ
, for |x| < a , Pentru | x | <a
jJ
, 〈 (|x|)= 0, for |x| > a , ℑ (| x |) = 0, pentru | x |> A
jJ
. . Then the superposed kernel is Apoi, kernel-ului este suprapuse
αα
jJ
(|x|) =  (| x |) = 
jJ

jJ
2a 2a
jJ
, for |x| < a , Pentru | x | <a
jJ
, 〈 (|x|)= 0, for |x| > a , ℑ (| x |) = 0, pentru | x |> A
jJ
, with  , Cu 
jJ

jJ
= 1. = 1.
(34) (34)
A wider variety of functional forms of the kernel could be accommodated by passing
to the limit as O mai mare varietate de forme funcţionale a kernel-ului ar putea fi
cazaţi prin trecerea la limită, în măsura
an integral. parte integrantă. Since each component of such a superposition gives rise
to a classical stress field away Din moment ce fiecare componentă a unei astfel de
suprapunere dă naştere la un domeniu clasic de stres departe
from the edges, then the superposed kernel as well gives rise to a classical stress field.
de la marginile, apoi kernel-ului suprapuse, precum şi dă naştere la un câmp clasice de
stres.
Page 9 Page 9
We remark that for a Poisson's ratio of zero, the displacement field for bending of a
bar is Ne remarcă faptul că, pentru un raport de zero a lui Poisson, domeniul
deplasarea de indoire de un bar este
identical to that for cylindrical bending of a plate (which we have considered), but for
nonzero identică cu cea pentru cilindrice Îndoirea o placă (pe care le-am considerat),
dar pentru nenul
Poisson's ratio, strains in a bent bar are nonzero in all three coordinate directions.
Raportul lui Poisson, tulpini într-un bar aplecat sunt nenul în toate cele trei direcţii de
coordonate.
Observe that the Cosserat bending equation differs from Eq. Se observă faptul că
Cosserat de îndoire ecuaţia diferă de ecuaţia. 26 for nonlocal size effects in 26 pentru
efecte dimensiunea nonlocal în
that the latter has a linear term in the length scale ratio, for simple kernels. că aceasta
din urmă are un termen liniară în raport lungime de scară, pentru nucleele de simplu.
Consequently nonlocal În consecinţă nonlocal
and Cosserat solids can be distinguished by the functional form of the size effects. şi
solide Cosserat se distinge prin forma funcţională a efectelor dimensiune. A
comparison O comparaţie
between predicted size effects is shown in Fig. între prezis efectele mărime este
prezentată în fig. 6. 6. Observe that the Cosserat and nonlocal curves Se observă
faptul că curbele Cosserat şi nonlocal
cross each other and have different shape. încrucişate între ele şi au diferite forme.
VV
Physical causes of mechanical behavior Cauzele fizice de comportament
mecanice
Continuum theories make no reference to structural features, however they are
intended to Teorii Continuum nu fac nicio referire la caracteristicile structurale, cu
toate acestea ele sunt destinate să
represent physical solids which always have some form of structure. reprezintă solide
fizice care au întotdeauna o formă de structură.
The ultimate origin of elastic behavior is the electromagnetic force between atoms in
a solid. Originea final de comportament elastic este forţa electromagnetică dintre
atomi într-un solid.
The uniconstant theory was derived assuming that such interatomic forces were
central forces Teoria uniconstant a fost derivat presupunând că o astfel de forţe au fost
interatomic centrale forţele
along lines connecting pairs of atoms, and that the movement of atoms was affine. de-
a lungul liniilor care conectează de perechi de atomi, şi că mişcarea a fost de atomi de
afine. Since the Având în vedere că
Poisson's ratio for most materials differs experimentally from 1/4, it can be concluded
that in most Raportul lui Poisson pentru cele mai multe materiale diferă experimental
de la 1 / 4, se poate concluziona că, în majoritatea
materials either the interatomic forces are non-central, or non-affine deformation
occurs, or both. materiale, fie forţele interatomic sunt non-centrale, sau non-deformare
afine are loc, sau ambele.
The couple stresses in Cosserat and microstructure elasticity represent spatial
averages of Cuplul subliniază, în Cosserat şi elasticitatea microstructură reprezintă
mediile spaţială a
distributed moments per unit area, just as the ordinary (force) stress represents a
spatial average of momente distribuite pe unitate de suprafaţă, la fel cum ordinare
(vigoare), stresul reprezinta o medie spaţială a
force per unit area. forţa pe unitatea de suprafaţă. Such moments can occur as a result
of the fact that the interatomic forces Astfel de momente poate apărea ca urmare a
faptului că forţele interatomic
propagate further than one atomic spacing (Kröner, 1963). propaga mai departe decât
o spaţiere atomice (coroane, 1963). Such effects will occur in all solids, Aceste efecte
se vor produce în toate solide,
but the corresponding characteristic lengths would be of atomic scale and not
amenable to dar lungimi corespunzătoare caracteristică ar fi de scară atomică, şi nu şi
factorii de succes
macroscopic mechanical experiment. Experimentul macroscopice mecanice. Moments
may be also transmitted on a much larger scale Momente pot fi transmise, de
asemenea, pe o scară mult mai mare
through fibers in fiber-reinforced materials, or in the cell ribs or walls in cellular
solids. prin fibre in fibre-materiale ranforsate, sau în coaste de celule sau pereţi în
solide celulare. The
Cosserat characteristic lengths would then be associated with the physical size scales
in the Lungimi Cosserat caracteristică ar fi apoi asociate cu baremele dimensiunea
fizică în
microstructure, and be sufficiently large to observe experimentally. microstructura, şi
să fie suficient de mare pentru a observa experimental.
The nonlocal theory incorporates long range interactions between particles in a
continuum Teoria nonlocal încorporează interacţiunile dintre particule pe distanţe
lungi într-un continuum
model. model. Such long range interactions occur between charged atoms or
molecules in a solid. Astfel de interacţiuni Long Range să apară între atomi percepute
sau molecule într-un solid. Long Lung
range forces may also be considered to propagate along fibers or laminae in a
composite material Forţele gamă pot fi, de asemenea, considerate a se propaga de-a
lungul fibrelor sau lamelă într-un material compozit
(Ilcewicz, et. al, 1981, 1981). (Ilcewicz, et. Al, 1981, 1981).
Analytical predictions of Cosserat characteristic lengths have been developed for a
variety Predicţii analitică de lungimi Cosserat caracteristici au fost dezvoltate pentru o
varietate
of structures. de structuri. In fibrous composites, the characteristic length l may be the
on the order of the În compozite fibroase, l caracteristică lungime poate fi pe ordinea
de
spacing between fibers (Hlavacek, 1975); in cellular solids it may be comparable to
the average cell Spaţierea între fibre (Hlavacek, 1975); în solide celulare, poate fi
comparabilă cu celula medie
size (Adomeit, 1967); in laminates it may be on the order of the lamination thickness
(Herrmann mărime (Adomeit, 1967); în laminatelor acesta poate fi pe ordinea de
grosime laminare (Herrmann
and Achenbach, 1967). şi Achenbach, 1967). Structure, however, does not necessarily
lead to Cosserat elastic effects. Structura, cu toate acestea, nu conduce neapărat la
Cosserat efecte elastica.
Composite materials containing elliptic or spherical inclusions are predicted to have a
characteristic Materiale compozite care conţin eliptice sferice sau incluziuni se
prognozează de a avea o caracteristică
length of zero (Hlavacek, 1976; Berglund, 1982). lungime de zero (Hlavacek, 1976;
Berglund, 1982).
A schematic diagram of force increments upon ribs (in the structural view)
corresponding Un Diagrama schematică a incremente vigoare la coaste (din punctul
de vedere structurale), care corespund
to stress (in the continuum view) and moment increments corresponding to couple
stress is shown la stres (în ecranul continuu), precum şi creşteri moment
corespunzătoare cuplu de stres este afişată
in Fig. în fig. 1. 1.
One may distinguish the continuum view from the structural view. Se poate face
distincţia de vedere continuum de la ecranul structurale. The continuum view is View
continuum este de
useful for making engineering predictions and for visualizing global response of
materials. utile pentru a face previziuni de inginerie şi pentru vizualizarea de răspuns
la nivel mondial de materiale. The
structural view is relevant to the underlying causes of the behavior. vedere structural
este relevant pentru cauzele profunde ale comportamentului. One may link these
views by Se poate link-ul aceste puncte de vedere de către
developing an analytical model of the material microstructure, and obtaining
approximations dezvoltarea unui model de analiză a microstructurii materialului,
precum şi obţinerea de aproximări
(possibly by series expansions for local deformation fields) in order to obtain average
values. (eventual prin dezvoltările în serie pentru domenii de deformare locale), în
scopul de a obţine valori medii.
Retention of only the lowest order terms in such analysis gives classical elasticity as a
continuum Păstrarea doar termenii cel mai scăzut ordinea în astfel de analiză oferă
elasticitate clasice ca un continuum
representation. de reprezentare. When higher order terms are retained, a generalized
continuum representation (such În cazul în termeni de ordin superior sunt păstrate, o
reprezentare generalizată continuum (cum ar
as Cosserat elasticity) is obtained. ca elasticitatea Cosserat) se obţine. In either case
the predicted elastic constants are functions of the În orice caz, a prezis constantele
elastice sunt funcţii ale
structure and properties of the constituents. structură şi proprietăţi ale componentelor.
This is how the microphysics is introduced. Acesta este modul în care microphysics
este introdus.
V Experimental Procedures for Cosserat elastic solids V proceduri
experimentale pentru solide Cosserat elastice
Methods based on size effects Metode bazate pe efecte dimensiunea
The bending and torsion rigidities of a classically elastic rod are proportional to the
fourth De îndoire şi a rigidităţii torsiune de o bară clasică elastice sunt proporţionale
cu al patrulea
power of the diameter. de putere al diametru. In a thin classical elastic plate the
bending rigidity is proportional to the Într-o placă subţire clasică elastice rigiditatea de
îndoire este proporţională cu
Page 10 Page 10
third power of the thickness. puterea a treia grosime. The rigidity depends on size in a
different way in Cosserat elastic Rigiditatea depinde de dimensiunea într-un mod
diferit în Cosserat elastice
materials as discussed above. Materiale de cum sa discutat mai sus. Thin specimens
are more rigid than would be expected classically. Exemplarele Thin sunt mai rigide
decât s-ar fi de aşteptat clasic. It El / ea
is possible to determine one or more of the Cosserat elasticity constants by
measurements of este posibil să se stabilească una sau mai multe dintre constantelor
de elasticitate Cosserat prin măsurători de
specimen rigidity vs size. faţă de mărimea specimen rigiditate. This approach, which
we call the method of size effects, has been used Această abordare, pe care o numim
metoda de efectele dimensiuni, a fost utilizată
to experimentally determine Cosserat elastic constants. pentru a determina
experimental constante Cosserat elastica. The method of size effects makes use of
Metoda de efecte mărimea face uz de
analytical solutions for the dependence of rigidity upon size. soluţii analitice pentru
dependenţa de rigiditate la dimensiune. Most of these solutions have dealt Cele mai
multe dintre aceste soluţii s-au ocupat
with isotropic materials. cu materiale izotrop. Specifically, Gauthier and Jahsman
(1975) demonstrated that no size În mod specific, Gauthier şi Jahsman (1975) a
demonstrat că nu dimensiunea
effects occur in tension, so that E and  are determined from a tension test as in the
classical case. efectele să apară în tensiune, astfel încât E şi  sunt determinate de la
un test de tensiune ca şi în cazul clasic.
Size effects occur in torsion, and the isotropic Cosserat constants G, l Dimensiune
efecte apar la torsiune, precum şi constantele izotropă Cosserat G, L
tT
, N, ¬ can be obtained from , N, ¬ pot fi obţinute de la
size effect data for torsion of rods of circular section. Datele dimensiunea efectului de
torsiune de tije de sectiune circulara. Bending of circular section rods of different
Prelucrare de tije sectiune circulara din diferite
size (Krishna Reddy and Venkatasubramanian, 1978) gives E, l mărime (Krishna
Reddy şi Venkatasubramanian, 1978) dă E, L
bb
, N. Cylindrical bending of a , N. cilindrice indoire a unei
plate gives E and l placă dă E şi L
bb
, according to Gauthier and Jahsman (1975). , În conformitate cu Gauthier şi Jahsman
(1975). Bending of a circular plate with a Îndoirea o placă circulară, cu o
clamped edge depends on E, l marginea fixata depinde de E, L
bb
, N, according to Ariman (1968). , N, în conformitate cu Ariman (1968). Gauthier and
Jahsman (1976) Gauthier şi Jahsman (1976)
show that bending of a curved bar depends on E and l arată că indoire de o bară de
curbe depinde de E şi L
bb
. . Park and Lakes (1987) show that size Park şi a lacurilor (1987) arată că mărimea
effects in torsion of a square cross section bar depend on G, l efectele în torsiune de-
un bar pătrat secţiunii transversale depind G, L
tT
,N. , N.
Instrumentation capable of determining bending and/or torsion rigidity may be used in
the Instrumentation capabile de determinare a îndoire şi / sau rigiditate la torsiune pot
fi utilizate în
method of size effects. Metoda de efecte dimensiune. Rigidity is to be determined
over a considerable range, so it is necessary to Rigiditate este de a fi stabilită într-o
gamă considerabilă, astfel încât este necesar să se
make sure that parasitic errors such as those due to instrument friction are minimized
or eliminated. asiguraţi-vă că erorile de parazitare, cum ar fi cele din cauza frecării
instrument sunt minimizate sau eliminate.
Load may be applied electromagnetically or by dead weights. De încărcare poate fi
aplicat electromagnetic sau prin greutăţi mort. Cantilever bending is appropriate
Consolă de îndoire este adecvat
since there is no friction associated with dead weight loading. deoarece nu există nici
o frecare asociat cu încărcare greutate mort. If dead weights are used in torsion, În
cazul în care ponderile morţi sunt utilizate în torsiune,
the pulleys used to redirect the load could introduce errors due to friction. Roata de
transmisie utilizate pentru a redirecţiona sarcinii ar putea introduce erori din cauza
frecării. Such errors would be Astfel de erori ar fi
more important for thin specimens and would obscure the size effects. mult mai
important pentru specimenele subţiri şi ar obscur efectele dimensiune. Frictional
errors could be Erori antiusura ar putea fi
eliminated by the use of air bearings. eliminate prin utilizarea de rulmenti de aer.
Deformation can be measured by holographic interferometry, Deformare poate fi
măsurată prin interferometrie holografic,
other optical methods, strain gages, and free core LVDT's without friction error. alte
metode optice, GAGES tulpina, şi gratuit de bază LVDT fără erori de frecare. Spring
loaded De primăvară încărcate
LVDT's with sleeve bearings would by contrast introduce friction errors which are
more LVDT cu rulmenţi maneca ar fi, prin contrast introducă erorile de frecare, care
sunt mai
problematical in thin specimens. problematice cu exemplare subţire.
Size effect methods have been used by several authors to obtain only one Cosserat
elastic Metodele Dimensiune scop au fost folosite de mai mulţi autori pentru a obţine
un singur Cosserat elastice
constant. constantă. A particular form of the method of size effects was found to be
useful by the present O formă specifică de metoda de efectele dimensiunea sa dovedit
a fi util prin prezenta
author. autor. The rigidity of the same circular rod specimen was tested in both torsion
and pure bending Rigiditatea modelului aceeaşi tija circulară a fost testat în ambele
torsiune pură şi de îndoire
using the same apparatus, which makes use of electromagnetic torque generation and
utilizând aceeaşi aparatură, care face uz de generare de cuplu electromagnetice şi
interferometric detection of angular displacement. detectarea interferometric de
deplasarea unghiulară. Each specimen was then cut to a smaller size and
the rigidities again determined. All six of the Cosserat elastic constants can be
determined this way.
Moreover, cross verification of the results is possible, in a manner similar to the
measurement of
E, G, and  in classical elasticity, with verification of their interrelation.
Specimen preparation for size effect method
In the method of size effects a set of specimens of different diameter or thickness is
used. If Dacă
the characteristic lengths are small, thin specimens must be studied. Stiff materials,
such as bone
and the stiffer polymer foams, may be successfully cut on a lathe with conventional
cutting tools.
Circularly cylindrical specimens thinner than about 3 mm in diameter down to 0.2 -
0.5 mm are
prepared on a lathe by an abrasive machining technique. The lathe is operated at high
speed and a
strip of abrasive cloth is applied to the surface using a small force. Rectangular
section specimens
may be cut with a low speed saw, and the surfaces polished with graded abrasives.
Flexible Flexibilă
polymer foams can be cut into circular cylinders by use of a coring tool driven by a
power drill.
The coring tool consists of a metal tube with a sharpened end and thin walls.
Rectangular section
specimens of foam can be cut from these by compressing the foam between platens
and cutting
with a scalpel.
Since surface damage to the specimen would cause a softening size effect, the
opposite of
that expected in Cosserat solids, considerable care should be taken to avoid surface
damage. In the In
case of cellular solids, a layer of damaged or incomplete cells has been shown to
cause such a
Page 11 Page 11
softening size effect by Brezny and Green (1990). To minimize the effect of surface
damage,
removal of the damaged layer by polishing is recommended if it is possible.
Data reduction for size effect method
Data analysis in the method of size effects makes use of the exact analytical solutions
for
the geometry used in the experiments. For torsion of a circular cylinder (Gauthier and
Jahsman,
1975), the ratio of rigidity to its classical value is
Ω = 1 + 6(l
tT
/r)
22
[1 - 4 ¬⋅ /3)/(1 - ¬⋅ )],
(35) (35)
with r as the rod radius, ¬ = (  +  )/( 〈 +  +  ) and ⋅ = I
11
(pr)/pr I
00
(pr), and p
22
= 2  /( 〈 +  +
γ ). I Eu
11
and I si eu
00
are the modified Bessel functions of the first kind. A special case of interest, referred
to as 'couple stress elasticity', is for N = 1 (  → ∞ ) in which the [] bracket in equation
4 becomes
unity. unitate. If the rod diameter is large, the corresponding rigidity ratio is Ω ≈ 1 +
6(l
tT
/r)
22
..
For bending (Krishna Reddy and Venkatasubramanian, 1978) of a circular section rod
of
radius r, the rigidity ratio Ωis
Ω = 1 + 8(l
bb
/r)
22
(1 - ( / )
22
) + [ (8N
22
( / +  )
22
/ (  (  a) +N
22
(1 -  ))(1 +  ) ]
(36) (36)
with  (  r) = (  r)
22
[(  r I
00
(r)-I
11
(  r)) / (  r I
00
(  r) - 2I
11
(  r))], and  = N/l
bb
..
Data may be plotted as Ωvs radius; however one may also plot rigidity divided by the
square of the diameter vs. the square of the diameter for torsion (Fig. 2) and bending
(Fig. 3).
Such plots are useful since the characteristic lengths can be extracted from the
intercept of the
extrapolated straight portion of the curve upon the ordinate. They are not stress strain
curves.
In classical elasticity, the torsion size effect plot is a straight line through the origin
with
slope proportional to the shear modulus G. The Young's modulus E is obtained from
the slope in
the bending case. Comparison of experimental plots and theoretical curves permit the
determination
of the Cosserat elastic constants. The characteristic lengths are obtained by intercepts
as described
above, and as indicated in the figures, either graphically or by numerical procedures.
The shape of
the torsion plot is then used to extract the coupling number N. A large value of N (the
upper bound
is 1) leads to a large apparent stiffening for slender specimens. The structure of the
torsion plot in
the vicinity of the origin is used to determine ¬ ; this is difficult since it requires very
thin
specimens. specimene. In our laboratory, a numerical algorithm has been used to
minimize the mean-square
deviation between the experimental data and the theoretical graphs, to extract the
elastic constants.
For some combinations of elastic constants, the apparent modulus tends to infinity as
the
bar or plate size goes to zero. Large stiffening effects might be seen in composite
materials
consisting of very stiff fibers or laminae in a compliant matrix. However, infinite
stiffening effects
are unphysical. For very slender specimens, it is likely that a continuum theory more
general than
Cosserat elasticity; or use of a discrete structural model, would be required to deal
with the
observed phenomena.
In the bending of long rods, one can invoke Saint Venant's principle in order to
eliminate
the need to consider end effects. For that reason, we consider rod bending to be a
more attractive
experimental modality than plate bending. Moreover, the same rod can be used for
bending,
torsion, and tension experiments.
As for the cross sectional shape of the rod, circular sections currently have the
advantage
that the available analytical solutions are exact and not excessively complex. However
square cross
section rods can also be studied and the results interpreted using the analysis
presented by Park and
Lakes (1987).
Page 12 Page 12
Field methods
Discrimination among generalized continuum theories can also be accomplished by
examining the distribution of strain in deformed objects. This is in contrast to the
above method of
size effects in which the rigidity, a global quantity, is measured. For example, Park
and Lakes
(1987) presented analysis of the distribution of strain in a bar of rectangular cross
section under
torsion. The surface strain does not vanish at the corner of the cross section, in
contrast to the case
of classical elasticity. A screening method based on this prediction was developed by
Lakes, et al
(1975): a holographic image of a small notch in the corner discloses any motion of the
notch under
torsion. Such motion would occur in a Cosserat solid but not in a classical one. A
lecture
demonstration based on displacement of a corner notch was presented by Lakes
(1985b). Another Alt
field method involves measuring the distribution of strain around a stress concentrator
such as a
circular hole, for which analytical solutions are available in classical elasticity
(Sokolnikoff, 1983;
Fung, 1968) and for Cosserat elasticity (Eringen, 1968, Cowin, 1970; Mindlin, 1963).
Wave methods
The propagation of stress waves can be used as a probe into the constitutive equation
governing materials with structure. Plane waves in an unbounded classically elastic
material
propagate without dispersion: their speed is independent of frequency. The elastic
moduli can be
extracted from the speeds of transverse and longitudinal waves and from the material
density.
Dispersion of waves is predicted to occur in Cosserat solids (Eringen, 1968), in
micromorphic/
microstructure solids (Mindlin, 1964), in nonlocal solids (Eringen, 1972), and in void
solids (Puri
and Cowin, 1985). Measurement of wave dispersion could be used to determine
generalized
continuum characteristics of a material. A wave method was used by Gauthier (1982)
to examine
the particulate composite which had appeared classical in the size effect studies of
Gauthier and
Jahsman (1975). The micro-inertial characteristics were determined, and it was found
that N
22
==
0.0039, so small that the static behavior would indeed appear classical.
A drawback of wave methods is that wave dispersion also arises from viscoelasticity
of
materials. materiale. Therefore wave methods are most suitable if the wave
attenuation due to viscoelasticity
is small enough to be neglected. By contrast, the method of size effects can be made
independent
of viscoelasticity by conducting all measurements at the same time following loading,
or at the
same frequency. If a material exhibits Cosserat viscoelasticity, the time or frequency
dependence of
the six Cosserat coefficients can be extracted from size effect plots generated at
different times or
frequencies. spectrului de frecvenţe. This cannot be done in wave methods, since the
wavelength which governs the strain
gradient cannot be decoupled from the frequency. However wave methods can be
used for large
scale structures such as layered rock formations, which are too large to study in the
laboratory.
Resolution of the characteristic length l
In all methods there is a limit to the smallest value of characteristic length l which can
be
resolved. In the method of size effects, preparation of very thin specimens can present
difficulties.
In field methods the specimen can be large but the effects of generalized continuum
mechanics
depends on strain gradients, and measurement of strain in the presence of the large
strain gradients
required to reveal a small l is difficult. One can examine the strain at the corner of a
square section
bar in torsion, as a null experiment, but again the resolution is limited by the fact that
strain can be
measured only over a nonzero length. In wave methods, the resolution of small l
requires waves of
high frequency, but in many materials the attenuation of stress waves becomes large
at sufficiently
high frequency.
VI VI
Experimental Results: a review
Cosserat elastic constants
The results of some published experimental studies of materials as Cosserat solids are
presented in Table 1. The relationship between Cosserat characteristic lengths and the
structure size
is evident. Characteristic lengths on the millimeter scale are not observed unless there
are
corresponding structural features of a similar size scale. For example polymethyl
methacrylate
(PMMA) is an amorphous polymer for which the relevant structure scale is atomic
and molecular.
Page 13 Page 13
It was used as a control in experiments upon bone (Yang and Lakes, 1981), which is a
natural
composite in which the largest structural elements are large fibers up to 250 µm in
diameter. No Nu
macroscopic evidence of Cosserat elasticity was expected or found in PMMA.
Although structure
appears to be necessary to produce Cosserat elastic effects, it is not sufficient. Particle
reinforced
composites exhibit Cosserat characteristic lengths of zero (Gauthier and Jahsman,
1975). That Acela
observation is in harmony with micromechanical analysis (Hlavacek, 1976; Berglund,
1982)
which predicts characteristic lengths of zero. We remark that the syntactic foam
which was found
to be nearly classical, is composed of glass micro-balloons in an epoxy matrix, a
structure which is
particulate in nature.
Several authors have used 'couple stress theory' for interpretation. This corresponds to
a
Cosserat solid for which N = 1. Since the characteristic lengths are defined
differently, the
characteristic length in Cosserat elasticity is √ 3 times the length in couple stress
theory. Results Rezultatele
have been converted to the Cosserat form in Table 1. In the study of the PVC foam, a
resonant
thickness shear size effect approach was used. Viscoelasticity could be a confounding
variable here
since as the layer thickness was reduced, the resonant frequency increased. In
viscoelastic
materials, stiffness increases with frequency even if they are classical. The graphite
was nonlinear
in its stress-strain relation, but most of the others were studied in the linear domain.
The studies of
bone and dense polyurethane and syntactic foams incorporated error analysis from
which a
meaningful discrimination between Cosserat and classical behavior was achieved.
Cosserat viscoelasticity has been studied in human bone. In a Cosserat viscoelastic
solid,
the characteristic lengths as well as the stiffnesses can depend on time or frequency.
The torsional
characteristic length in bone was a factor of 1.6 larger under quasistatic conditions
equivalent to a
frequency of about 0.1 Hz (Yang and Lakes (1981) than at 32 kHz (Lakes, 1982).
This was
attributed to the viscoelastic attributes of the cement substance between the large
fibers (osteons) in
bone. osoase.
Study of predictive power
The experimental determination of Cosserat elastic constants is useful if it permits one
to
predict stresses and strains under conditions which differ from those in the
experiments used to
find the elastic constants. Several experimental tests of predictive power have been
conducted.
Cosserat elastic constants (based on isotropic theory) for bone, which is actually
anisotropic, were
used to predict the strain distribution around a hole in a strip under tension, and the
results were
compared with experiment. Reasonable agreement was found by Lakes and Yang,
(1983) even
though the anisotropic solution was not available. The same Cosserat elastic
constants, derived
from size effect studies, were used to predict strain distributions in a square bar under
torsion.
Comparison with experimental results by Park and Lakes (1986) was favorable. In
this case, În acest caz,
anisotropy is less of a problem, since the same elastic constants
lL
tT
and N are relevant in this
geometry as in the torsion size effect study. Consequently, with the specimen aligned
the same
way in both cases, the same elastic constants appear in both cases.
In torsion of a Cosserat square cross section bars a small notch in the corner of the
cross
section is predicted to displace as the bar is twisted. The displacement should be zero
in a classical
solid, since the stress is zero at the corner (Park and Lakes, 1985). Holographic
studies were
conducted, and corner notch displacement was zero in solid polymethyl methacrylate
(PMMA), but
was nonzero in dense polyurethane foam (Lakes, et al, 1985) which was shown by
size effect
studies to be Cosserat elastic (Lakes, 1986). Similar displacements were easily
observed visually
in large cell foams (Lakes, 1986) which had been identified as Cosserat elastic
(Lakes, 1983).
Interpretation via void, nonlocal, and microstructure theories
If we attempt to interpret the size effect results in Table 1 with the void theory of
Cowin
and Nunziato (1983), there arises the difficulty that the theory predicts size effects in
bending but
not in torsion. Among the materials studied, none exhibits a size effect only in
bending. We Noi
conclude that a material describable by the void theory has not yet been found.
Materials with a
small volume fraction of voids have not, however been studied in this context.
Page 14 Page 14
As for nonlocal elasticity, some cases of wave dispersion have been interpreted via
that
theory by Ilcewicz et al (1981, 1985). In a particle board composite, the characteristic
length was
found to be about 0.3 mm, and that value was linked to the fracture toughness.
As for microstructure elasticity, little comparison has been made with experiment
since few
analytical solutions are available for this theory. However, wave dispersion and cut-
off frequencies
were observed in dynamic studies of foams, including foams with negative Poisson's
ratios (Chen
and Lakes, 1989), and the results interpreted in view of microstructure elasticity.
Wave dispersion
has been observed in several other structured materials (Sutherland and Lingle, 1972;
Kinra, et. al,
1980), without interpretation via generalized continuum mechanics.
Studies of fibrous composites
The fracture strength of graphite epoxy plates with holes depends on the size of the
hole
(Karlak, 1977). Moreover the strain around small holes and notches in fibrous
composites well
below the yield point is smaller than expected classically (Whitney and Nuismer,
1974; Daniel,
1978), while for large holes, the strain field follows classical predictions (Rowlands et
al, 1973).
Further results are given in a review by Awerbuch and Madhukar (1985). Such results
are in
harmony with the predictions of generalized continuum mechanics. However, thus far
in the
fibrous composites community, it has been fashionable to interpret results of this kind
in terms of
ad hoc criteria rather than to use generalized continua. One such criterion involves
attempting to
predict fracture by calculating the average stress in a region near a stress raiser, rather
than using
the actual maximum stress.
VII Discussion
A variety of experimental procedures are capable of revealing non-classical aspects of
the
behavior of materials and of determining the elastic constants according to
generalized continuum
theories. teorii. The procedure which has been the most used is the method of size
effects. Since the ratio
of surface area to volume of a specimen varies with its size, the experimenter is wise
to take care
with the method of cutting, since surface damage can also generate size effects.
Continuum theories are available with a range of complexity. The degree of
complexity
which is appropriate depends on what kinds of experiments are done and how
carefully we wish to
examine material response. Size effects predicted by Cosserat theory can involve
apparent torsional
or bending stiffness tending to infinity as the specimen thickness tends to zero. This is
unphysical
unless the material is a composite with one constituent very much stiffer than the
others. It is El / ea este
possible that the additional freedom of the microstructure / micromorphic theory
would be required
for a better description. However the problems of torsion and bending in that theory
have not to the
writer's knowledge, been solved.
Experimental work reveals metals, an amorphous polymer, and several particulate
composites to behave essentially classically. Cosserat elastic constants have been
found for several
cellular and fibrous materials. The characteristic lengths are on the order of the largest
structure size
as expected theoretically. However in some cellular materials, the characteristic
length can exceed
the cell size, in contrast to theory which predicts it should be smaller. There is the
intriguing
possibility that tough materials could be created with characteristic lengths
significantly larger than
the structure size (Lakes, 1993b).
VIII Conclusions
11
Determination of Cosserat elastic constants can be achieved by the method of size
effects.
22
Size effects for Cosserat and nonlocal elastic solids are predicted to differ.
33
Polycrystalline and particulate type material microstructures behave classically or
nearly
classically.
44
Several cellular solids, exhibit behavior consistent with Cosserat elasticity.
55
The continuum theory of voids does not adequately describe the microelastic effects
observed in cellular solids of solid volume fraction less than 0.5.
Page 15 Page 15
Acknowledgment Confirmarea
Partial support by the NASA/ Boeing ATCAS program is gratefully acknowledged.
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Page 19
Left, structural view of increments of force and moment upon structural elements in a
cellular solid.
Right, continuum view of stress and couple stress on a differential element.
Classical elastic
Cosserat
elastic
ψ
2
Determination of Cosserat elastic constants from size effect data in torsion of a
circular
cylindrical rod. Rigidity/ diameter squared vs diameter squared.
Page 20
β/γ = − ν
,N
Classical elastic
Cosserat
elastic
3
Determination of Cosserat elastic constants from size effect data in bending of a
circular
cylindrical rod. Rigidity/ diameter squared vs diameter squared.
Please see original publication
44
Slab geometry and nonlocal region of influence (over distance a) when that region is
entirely within the slab dimensions, from -W/2 to W/2.
Please see original publication
55
Distribution of stress for a nonlocal slab in tension, for a constant kernel over range [-
a,a].

Tutorial GG: Experimental and Simulation


Methods for the Study of Plasticity in
Small Volumes
• printer-friendly
Sunday, November 29
Room 310, Hynes Convention Center

The tutorial will provide the attendee with a state-of-the-art overview of emerging
experimental and modeling methods for the study of nanomechanical behavior of
materials. The program is divided in two parts, the morning session (8:30 am-12:00
pm: Mike Uchic, instructor; Dan Gianola; instructor; Chris Eberl) focusing on novel
experimental methods, and the afternoon session (1:30-5:00 pm: Christian Motz,
instructor; Wei Cai, instructor; Arthur Voter, instructor; and Daniel Weygand)
concentrating on selected simulation methods.
The tutorial will begin with topics on instrumentation associated with the mechanics
of small-scale experiments focusing on small-scale uniaxial compression and tension
experiments, and examining both ex-situ and in-situ experiments that operate within
the SEM, TEM, and high-brilliance X-ray radiation sources. Other discussion topics
include the identification of common errors that affect either the execution or
interpretation of small-scale experiments, as well as the subject of modern image-
based strain analysis methods. The afternoon segments of the tutorial will concentrate
on both atomistic and discrete dislocation dynamics methods that can be used to
simulate such phenomena. In particular, the basic assumptions and approximations of
the discrete dislocation dynamics method will be discussed, as well as how atomistic
acceleration techniques can be used to study mechanical deformation at the atomic
level.

Traducere:
Tutorial GG: Metode experimentale şi de simulare pentru
Studiul de plasticitate în volume mici de
• printer-friendly

Duminica, 29 noiembrie
Room 310, Hynes Convention Center

Tutorial va oferi participant cu un stat-of-the-art imagine de ansamblu a emergente


experimentale şi de modelare a metodelor pentru studiul de comportament nanomechanical de
materiale. Programul este împărţit în două părţi, sesiunea de dimineaţă (8:30-12: 00 PM: Mike
Uchic, instructor; Dan Gianola, instructor; Chris Eberl), concentrându-se pe noi metode
experimentale, precum şi sesiunea de dupa-amiaza (1:30 -- 5:00: Christian Motz, instructor;
Wei Cai, instructor; Arthur Voter, instructor; şi Daniel Weygand), concentrându-se pe metode
de simulare selectat.
Tutorial va începe cu subiecte pe instrumentare asociate cu mecanicii de mici experimente la
scară concentrându-se pe compresie la scară mică-uniaxiale şi experimente de tensiune,
precum şi examinarea atât ex-situ şi in-experimente in situ care funcţionează în cadrul SEM,
TEM, şi de mare X-stralucire surse de raze radiaţii. Alte subiecte de discuţii include identificarea
de erori comune care afectează fie execuţia sau interpretarea mici experimente pe scară largă,
precum şi obiectul unor imagini moderne bazate pe metode de tulpina de analiză. Segmente
după-amiază a tutorial se vor concentra pe dinamica atât atomistă şi metode de dislocare
discrete, care pot fi utilizate pentru a simula astfel de fenomene. În special, ipotezele de bază şi
aproximări ale metodei dislocare discrete, dinamica va fi discutată, precum şi tehnicile de modul
în care atomistă de accelerare pot fi folosite pentru a studia deformări mecanice la nivel atomic.