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REPORT

2013e

DATA SERIES

Environmental performance
indicators 2013 data

DECEMBER
2014

Disclaimer
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REPORT

2013e

DATA SERIES

Environmental performance
indicators 2013 data

Revision history
VERSION

DATE

AMENDMENTS

1.0

December 2014

First release

DECEMBER
2014

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Acknowledgements
Environment Committee
Environmental Data Subcommittee

Contents
Executive summary

Gaseous emissions
8
Energy consumption
9
Flaring 9
Aqueous discharges
9
Non-aqueous drilling fluids retained on cuttings discharged to sea
10
Spills 10

Introduction 11
Scope of data submissions

12

1. Gaseous emissions

17

Detailed review

17

1.1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) 20


1.2 Methane (CH4)

22

1.3 Greenhouse Gas (GHG)

24

1.4 Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs)

26

1.5 Sulphur dioxide (SO2) 28


1.6 Nitrogen oxides (NOX) 30

2. Energy consumption
3. Flaring
4. Produced water

32
34
36

4.1 Quality (oil content) of produced water discharges

38

4.2 Quantity of oil discharged in produced water per unit of production

40

4.3 Produced Water Injection

5. Non-aqueous drilling fluids retained on cuttings discharged to sea


6. Spills

42

44
47

6.1 Oil spills

47

6.2 Chemical spills

56

APPENDIX A: Data Tables

57

Scope of data submissions


Detailed review

58
59

Gaseous emissions

59

Energy Consumption

62

Flaring 64
Produced water

65

Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids retained on cuttings discharged to sea

69

Spills

70

Glossary

79

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Contributing companies
The environmental statistics for 2013 were derived from data provided by the
following companies:
ADNOC

Marathon Oil Company

Bashneft

MOL

BG

Nexen

BP

Oil Search

Cairn Energy

OMV

Chevron

Pan American Energy

CNOOC

Perenco

ConocoPhillips

Petrobras

Dolphin Energy

Petronas

DONG E&P

Premier Oil

Dragon Oil

PTT EP

E.ON

Qatar Petroleum

Eni E&P Division

Repsol

ExxonMobil

RWE

Galp

Shell Companies

GDF SUEZ E&P International

Statoil

Hess Corporation

Suncor

Husky

Total

INPEX

Tullow

Kosmos

Wintershall

Kuwait Oil Company

Woodside

Maersk Oil

Executive summary

Executive summary
The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP) has collected
environmental data from its member companies every year since 1999. The
objective of this programme has been to allow member companies to compare
their performance with other companies in the sector leading, it is hoped, to
improved and more efficient performance. The programme also contributes to the
industrys wish to be more transparent about its operations.
This report summarizes information on exploration and production (E&P) activities
carried out by contributing IOGP member companies in 2013.
Data have been submitted for the report by 43 of IOGPs 63 member operating
companies working in 84 countries worldwide. This total includes three companies
reporting for the first time this year and 39 of the 43 companies that contributed
data in 2012.
Information is aggregated at both global and regional levels and is expressed
within 6 environmental indicator categories:
gaseous emissions
energy consumption
flaring
aqueous discharges
non-aqueous drilling fluids retained on cuttings discharged to sea
spills of oil and chemicals.
These data represent oil and gas wellhead production of 2,077 million tonnes
(in the region of 15.5 billion BOE), about 29% of 2013 global production sales*.
This is a 7% decrease in the production represented in this report compared with
2012. Regional coverage is uneven, ranging from 95% of known production in
Europe to 10% in the Former Soviet Union (FSU).

* Source: BP Energy Review 2014

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Gaseous emissions
Releases of gases to the atmosphere are an integral and inevitable part of
exploration, production and processing operations.
In 2013 participating IOGP member companies reported emissions of:
259 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent to 128 tonnes of
carbon dioxide per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production
1.9 million tonnes of methane (CH4) equivalent to 1.0 tonne of methane
per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production
921 thousand tonnes of non-methane volatile organic compounds
(NMVOC) equivalent to 0.5 tonnes of NMVOC per thousand tonnes of
hydrocarbon production
400 thousand tonnes of sulphur dioxide (SO2)* equivalent to 0.2 tonnes
of SO2 per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production
801 thousand tonnes of nitrogen oxides (NOX) equivalent to 0.4 tonnes
of NOX per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production.
Including the effects introduced by changes in the companies reporting between
2013 and 2012:
CH4 emissions per unit of production decreased in 2013 by 27% compared
with 2012
SO2 emissions per unit of production increased in 2013 by 24% compared
with 2012
NOX emissions per unit of production decreased in 2013 by 7% compared
with 2012
CO2 emissions per unit of production decreased by 4% and NMVOC per unit
of production increased by 2% in 2013 compared with 2012.

* In this report SO2 refers to the sum of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3)
expressed as SO2 equivalent.

Executive summary

Energy consumption
Production of oil and gas requires significant quantities of energy for extraction,
processing and transport. In many oilfields those energy needs are met by locally
produced gas.
In 2013, IOGP reporting companies consumed on average 1.5 gigajoules of
energy for every tonne of hydrocarbon produced; a 4% increase compared with
the 2012 average.
As in previous years, data indicate that onshore production in 2013 was more
energy intensive than offshore production.

Flaring
Flaring is the controlled burning of hydrocarbons produced in the course of
petroleum exploration and production operations. It includes the controlled and
safe burning of gas that, for safety or technical reasons or for lack of export
infrastructure, is not used or exported.
In 2013, 15.1 tonnes of gas was flared for every thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon
produced versus 13.9 tonnes in 2012 and 15.7 in 2011.

Aqueous discharges
Produced water is the most significant water discharge associated with E&P
Operations. For every tonne of hydrocarbon produced in 2013 (including oil,
condensates and gas), 0.6 tonne of produced water was discharged and 1.1 tonne
of produced water was re-injected.
The quality of produced water discharges is measured in terms of oil content. In
2013, the average concentration of oil in produced water was 10.5 mg/l for onshore
discharges and 13.4 mg/l for offshore discharges. When expressed in terms of oil
production, overall, these discharges are equivalent to 8.2 tonnes of oil for every
million tonnes of hydrocarbon produced.
Comparison with 2012 data indicates that the average concentration of oil in
produced water discharged remains essentially unchanged in 2013. The average
quantity of oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production increased by 18%.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

10

Non-aqueous drilling fluids retained on cuttings


discharged to sea
While much of the offshore drilling is achieved using water-based drilling fluids,
some technical requirements during well drilling operations favour the properties
that are only available from non-aqueous drilling fluids (NADFs)*.
In 2013, reporting companies discharged 15,347 tonnes of non-aqueous base fluids
(NABF) on drill cuttings to sea. 96% of these discharges contained Group III base
fluids and 4% contained Group II fluids.
There have been no reports of discharges of Group I fluids retained on cuttings
since the reporting of NABF by Group I, II and III classification began in 2003.

Spills
For the purpose of this report, a spill is defined as any loss of containment that
reaches the environment, in other words, is not retained within secondary or other
containment, irrespective of the quantity recovered.
In 2013, participating IOGP member companies reported 2,270 oil spills greater
than 1 barrel in size, resulting in a normalized spill rate of 1.2 oil spills per million
tonnes of hydrocarbon production (0.8 in 2012, 1.5 in 2011).
The reported oil spills >1 barrel resulted in the release of a total of 7,585 tonnes of
oil. The quantity of oil spilled per unit of hydrocarbon production has fallen to
4.1 tonnes per million tonnes production, 13% lower than the rate for 2012 and
48% lower than the rate for 2011.

* Definitions of Group I, II and III base fluids are provided in section 5.

Introduction

11

Introduction
The International Association of Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP) has collected
environmental data from its member companies every year since 1999.
The ultimate aim of this effort is to provide a representative statement on the
environmental performance of the contributing IOGP member companies.
Subsidiary objectives are to provide a basis for individual member companies to
compare their environmental performance, thereby helping them to identify areas
for improvement and to demonstrate the industrys wish for greater transparency
concerning its activities.
Environmental information relating to emissions and discharges is collected under
the following six categories:
gaseous emissions
energy consumption
flaring
aqueous discharges
non-aqueous drilling fluids retained on cuttings discharged to sea
spills of oil and chemicals.
Data are collected annually for each of the categories above, on the basis of a set
of definitions agreed by the IOGP membership. These definitions align with the
IPIECA/API/IOGP Oil and gas industry guidance on voluntary sustainability reporting,
IOGP Report No. 437. The definitions are provided via a users guide that is
reviewed at regular intervals and updated to reflect improvements in reporting and
to provide additional clarification.
Annual reports of activities in the years 2003 to 2012 and summary reports for
activities in 2001 and 2002 have previously been published and are available from
the IOGP website at www.iogp.org/our-library.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

12

Scope of data submissions


43 IOGP member companies reported environmental information for, on average,
8 countries each. Data from 84 countries are represented in the report.
To show the data from a geographical perspective, 7 regions have been defined.
This report only reflects the performance of the IOGP member companies that
have provided data. The data represent 2,077 million tonnes of hydrocarbon
production, approximately equivalent to 29% of 2013 world production as reported
in the BP Statistical Review 2014. There is substantial variation in regional
coverage as shown in Figures 1 and 2.
In Europe, where a high percentage (95%) of hydrocarbon production
is represented, the information can be taken to approximate industry
performance in that region.
In Africa (62%), Asia/Australasia (33%) and South & Central America (34%),
the data give a broad indication of industry performance.
For the Middle East (23%) and North America (20%), the regional coverage is
less comprehensive, giving a weaker indication of industry performance.
For the Former Soviet Union (FSU), the largest oil producing region in the
world, data reported by participating companies represent just 10% of the
total sales production for that region and thus may not be representative of
the regions performance, see Figure 3.

South & Central


America 8%

Africa 23%

North America
14%

Middle East
19%

Asia/
Australasia
14%

FSU 5%

Europe 17%

Figure 1: Percentage of total


production in this database

Scope of data submissions

13

FORMER
FORMERSOVIET
SOVIETUNION
UNION
(FSU)
(FSU)

NORTH
AMERICA

EUROPE
EUROPE

NORTH
AMERICA
ASIA/
ASIA/
AUSTRALASIA
AUSTRALASIA

AFRICA
AFRICA

SOUTH &
CENTRAL
SOUTH
&
AMERICA
CENTRAL
AMERICA

Africa

Asia/Australasia

72
62%

DATA SETS

20

Europe

63
33%

DATA SETS

20

MIDDLE
MIDDLE
EAST

FSU

77
95%

DATA SETS

Middle East

18
10%

25

DATA SETS

14

North America

S&C America

33

37

30
23%

DATA SETS

16

20%

DATA SETS

13

34%

DATA SETS

16

Legend
Country represented/Not represented

Note: Regional allocations for some countries differ from those used in the IOGP Articles of Association

% of known production (as reported in BP Statistical Review)

n
DATA SETS

Note: Production figures given in this report relate to gross production whereas world data extracted from the BP
Statistical Review represent net production. Thus the data are not directly comparable, but the percentage of world
production figures are given as indicative of the relative regional contributions in the database.

In this context a data set is a set of data with distinct company, country and location
(onshore/offshore) where there is both hydrocarbon production data and a positive return (zero or
greater) of either atmospheric emissions, aqueous discharges, energy consumption or spills.
Number of companies providing data

Figure 2: Data provided for the 7 geographic regions

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

14

million tonnes hydrocarbon production

2000

Total 2013 known


production as
published in BP
Statistical Review
2014 (106t)

1500

Production in this
report as percentage
of total known
production for region

1000

500
62%
0

Africa

33%

23%

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Note: IOGP production figures in this report represent wellhead production, which includes oil and gas
volumes consumed in operations. The BP Statistical Review provides data on production exported for sale.

Figure 3: Production associated with IOGP database and 2013 production in BP


Statistical Review of World Energy by region

Changes in results between years may not necessarily reflect actual changes in
performance.
The number of companies reporting has fluctuated between years, as shown
in Table 1.
Not all metrics are reported consistently by all companies, as shown in Table 2.
Performance indicator results may be influenced by changes in mixtures of
assets held by the participating companies between years.
Differences between years for participating companies may also, in some
cases, reflect changes in calculation methodology applied or reporting
definitions.

Scope of data submissions

15

Year
2009

2010

2011

2012

2013

Companies Reporting

35

36

41

43

43

Companies Joining
(did not report previous year)

Companies Leaving
(reported previous year)

Note: This represents the number of companies reporting hydrocarbon production. Some companies
that reported hydrocarbon production did not report e.g. atmospheric emission or produced water
discharge data for all countries consistently each year.

Table 1: Company participation


Data are presented on a normalized basis to help control for these effects.
Normalized analyses are only possible when data are available for both the metric
to be normalized (emissions, discharges, spills) and the normalizer (hydrocarbon
production, produced water).
Some of the analyses will cover less than 100% of the total production reported
because some companies did not submit data for all metrics covered in the survey.
This is particularly relevant to the normalized produced water discharge results in
the Middle East region where around 18% of reported production is included.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

16

Region
Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

All
regions

100

99

83

100

100

100

100

97

CH4

100

85

83

96

100

100

100

95

NMVOC

96

84

82

96

87

100

94

91

SO2

96

98

82

100

93

99

94

94

NOX

98

98

83

100

93

100

95

94

Energy
consumed

98

98

98

100

100

100

98

99

100

98

100

96

100

99

98

99

Oil discharged in
produced water

79

93

89

72

18

71

95

70

Oil spills

98

94

78

96

74

91

100

88

Gas emissions

CO2

Flaring

Green: (90%100%): data fairly representative of participating companies in the region


Yellow: (65%89%) data moderately representative
Orange: (30%64%): lower confidence that data are representative
Red: (0%29%): lowest confidence that data are representative

Table 2: Percentage of reported production included in normalized analyses 2013


In 2009, data on the source types of gaseous emissions (energy, flare, vent, fugitive
emissions and other) were collected for the first time. It was recognized that not all
participating companies would be able to contribute data at that level of detail in
the beginning; nevertheless, data broken down by source cover roughly half of the
gaseous emissions reported each year. It is expected that this information will be
helpful in understanding some of the trends in the data as well as to help indicate
areas for improvement.
The current year data shown in this report are based on the best available
information that member companies are able to provide at time of publication.
In some cases, reporting companies have provided corrections to previous
years data, and the changes have been included in this report where they affect
previously published regional or global results. The changes are listed at the end
of Appendix A.

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

17

Detailed review
1. Gaseous emissions
Gaseous emissions covered in this report are those considered most relevant from
process control as well as regulatory perspectives:
CO2: carbon dioxide released to the atmosphere from any source
CH4: methane released to the atmosphere, from any source
GHG: greenhouse gas is CO2 + CH4 expressed as CO2 equivalent
NMVOCs: Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds are all hydrocarbons,
other than methane, released to the atmosphere
SO2: the sum of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide (SO3) expressed as
SO2 equivalent
NOX: the sum of nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) expressed as NO2
equivalent. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is not included as a component of NOX.
As nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride
contribute only a small fraction of greenhouse gas emissions from E&P activities,
they have not been included here.
Given the wide range of sources of gaseous emissions, it is not practicable
(or possible) to measure every single release individually. Industry has, however,
developed and updated detailed guidance methodologies to calculate and
estimate emissions and losses*. Since companies may use a variety of estimation
techniques care must be taken when interpreting aggregated data.
A number of factors affect the quantity of gases emitted from E&P petroleum
industry operations. Consequently, understanding the variations in performance in
terms of normalized emission ratios is complex.
These factors include:
presence or absence of infrastructure for gas sales
gasoil ratio
reservoir and field characteristics
use of hydrocarbon recovery techniques
regulatory and contractual aspects
location and logistics
age of the fields
emissions controls.
*See for example: Petroleum Industry Guidelines for Reporting Greenhouse Gas Emissions
(2003) Joint IPIECA/API/IOGP report (in revision); Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emission
Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry, API, 2009; SangeaTM Energy and
Emissions Estimating System, API, http://GHG.API.org

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

18

Emissions from the generation of energy (electricity, steam) purchased from third
parties are not reported.
Normalized figures for 20072013 emissions are shown in Figures 4 and 5:
128 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2) per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon
production
1.0 tonne of methane (CH4) per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production
0.5 tonne of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) per
thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production
0.2 tonne of sulphur dioxide (SO2) per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon
production
0.4 tonne of nitrogen oxides (NOX) per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon
production.
In 2013, participating IOGP member companies reported emissions of:
259 million tonnes of CO2
1.9 million tonnes of CH4
921 thousand tonnes of NMVOC
400 thousand tonnes of SO2
801 thousand tonnes of NOX.

Emissions - tonnes per thousand tonnes

1.5

2013
2012

1.2

2011
2010

0.97

0.9

2009
2008

0.6

2007

0.49
0.40

0.3

0.0

62%

33%
CH4

23%

95%
10%
NMVOC

SO2

0.21

20%

34%
NOX

Figure 4: Atmospheric emissions per thousand tonnes hydrocarbon production

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

19

Emissions - tonnes per thousand tonnes

200

CH4 expressed
as CO2 Equivalent
(CH4 21)

150

20

CO2

128
100

50
62%
0

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 5: CO2 and CH4 expressed as CO2 equivalent per thousand tonnes
hydrocarbon production
The following sub-sections present the overall emission data for the years 2007
to 2013, regional emission data for 2009 to 2013 and atmospheric emissions
categorized by the source of the gas release for 2013.
The reporting options for the allocation of source categories are Energy, Flare,
Vents, Fugitive losses and Other/Unspecified (see Glossary).

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

20

1.1 Carbon dioxide (CO2)


Emissions of carbon dioxide occur principally from the combustion of fuels for
energy production and from flaring. Carbon dioxide releases may also occur where
CO2 is used for enhanced petroleum recovery or where it is stripped from the
natural reservoir gases to meet sales specifications.

1.1.1 Emissions per unit of production


Global CO2 emissions normalized to hydrocarbon production for 2013 participating
companies were 128 tonnes of CO2 per thousand tonnes of production, a 4%
reduction compared with that for the 2012 participating companies, as shown in
Figure 6.

Tonnes CO2 per thousand tonnes production

160
140

142

142

135

133

132

133

128

120
100
80
60
40
20
0

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 6: CO2 emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (20072013)


Regional averages for the quantity of carbon dioxide emissions per unit of
production vary from 43 to 205 tonnes of carbon dioxide per thousand tonnes of
hydrocarbon production, as shown in Figure 7.
In 2012 the range was between 58 and 217 tonnes per thousand tonnes of
production. The wide range across regions points towards the strong influence of
different types of production assets on greenhouse gas metrics.

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

21

Tonnes CO2 per thousand tonnes production

250

2013 overall
(128)
204

205

2013

200

2012

162

2011

150

Overall 128
94

100

81
67

50

62%

Africa

33%

23%

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

43

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 7: CO2 emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (by region)

1.1.2 Emissions by source


The source was specified for 57% of the carbon dioxide emissions reported for 2013.
As shown in Figure 8, 61% of the reported carbon dioxide emissions where the
source was specified were from energy use, 35% were from flaring and 4% were
from venting.

Vents 4%

Fugitive losses 0.01%

Flare 35%

Figure 8: CO2 emissions by


source 2013
Energy 61%

Note: based only on emissions where


the source is specified.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

22

1.2 Methane (CH4)


Methane is emitted from sources including process vents, gas-driven pneumatic
devices and tank vents. It also escapes as fugitive emissions from process
components (valves, flanges, etc.). In addition, some methane emissions result
from incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons in flares.

1.2.1 Emissions per unit of production


Participating companies in 2013 reported normalized emissions of 0.97 tonnes of
CH4 per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production. This is 27% lower than the
average result for the 2012 participating companies as indicated in Figure 9.
This increase is principally due to changes in the companies reporting CH4 data in
2013. When companies that did not report CH4 data consistently for the years 2011,
2012 and 2013 are excluded from the calculation, the CH4 emissions are 1.09, 1.02
and 1.07 tonnes per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production respectively.

Tonnes CH4 per thousand tonnes production

1.4
1.14

1.2
1.04
1.0

1.18

1.24

1.33

1.02

0.97

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 9: CH4 emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (20072013)


Regional averages for methane emissions expressed per unit of production vary
from 0.1 to 2.6 tonnes of methane per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production,
as shown in Figure 10. In 2012, the range was between 0.2 and 2.7 tonnes per
thousand tonnes of production. The wide range across regions points towards the
strong influence of different types of production assets on greenhouse gas metrics.
The aforementioned change in companies reporting in 2013 significantly affected
the results for the Asia/Australasia region, resulting in a drop of average intensity
for the region of 58%.

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

23

Tonnes CH4 per thousand tonnes production

3.0

2013 overall
(0.97)

2.56

2013

2.5

2012
2.0

2011

1.5
1.13

1.04

Overall 0.97

1.0
0.57

0.5
0.0

62%

Africa

33%

0.45

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

10%
FSU

0.90

23%
0.12

Middle
East

20%
North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 10: CH4 emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (by region)

1.2.2 Emissions by source


The source was specified for 49% of the total methane emissions reported in 2013.
Where the source was specified, 42% were from vents (including venting, vessel
loading, tank storage, etc.), 27% of methane emissions were from fugitive losses,
26% were from flaring and 5% were from energy use, as shown in Figure 11.

Vents 42%

Energy 5%

Flare 26%

Figure 11: CH4 emissions by


source 2013
Fugitive losses 27%

Note: based only on emissions where


the source is specified.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

24

1.3 Greenhouse Gas (GHG)


For E&P activities, CO2 and CH4 are the principal contributors to greenhouse
gas emissions.
The CO2 and CH4 data presented above are used to calculate an estimate of
the GHG emissions for the contributing IOGP reporting companies, using the
conversion to CO2 equivalent (GHG = CO2 + 21 CH4).

1.3.1 Emissions per unit of production


Participating companies in 2013 reported normalized emissions of 148 tonnes
of GHG per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production. This represents an 8%
reduction in intensity compared with the average for 2012 participating companies
(see Figure 12).

Tonnes GHG per thousand tonnes production

180

164

163

160

159

158

158

161
148

140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

GHG: Total Greenhouse Gases (CO2 + CH4 expressed as CO2 equivalent)

Figure 12: GHG emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (20072013)


Regional averages for quantity of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of production
vary from 46 to 258 tonnes of greenhouse gas per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon
production, as shown in Figure 13. In 2012, the range was between 61 and 271
tonnes per thousand tonnes of production. The wide range across regions points
towards the strong influence of different types of production assets on greenhouse
gas metrics.

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

25

Tonnes GHG per thousand tonnes production

300

2013 overall
(148)

258

250

2013

227

2012

192

200

2011
Overall 148

150
106

91

100
50
0

62%

Africa

33%

23%

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

86
46

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

GHG: Total Greenhouse Gases (CO2 + CH4 expressed as CO2 equivalent)

Figure 13: GHG emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (by region)

1.3.2 Emissions by source


The source was specified for 56% of the total reported greenhouse gas emissions.
Where the source is specified, 55% of the reported greenhouse gas emissions are
from energy use, 34% are from flaring, 6% are from venting or vents and 5% are
attributable to fugitive losses, as shown in Figure 14.

Vents 8%
Fugitive losses 3%

Figure 14: GHG emissions by


source 2013
Flare 34%

Energy 55%

Note: based only on emissions where


the source is specified.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

26

1.4 Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs)


NMVOC emissions mainly occur from non-combustion sources such as flaring,
venting and fugitive releases (including crude oil loading). In addition, to a lesser
extent NMVOCs are emitted in the exhaust of combustion equipment.

1.4.1 Emissions per unit of production

Tonnes NMVOC per thousand tonnes production

Global normalized NMVOC emissions for 2013 participating companies were 0.49
tonnes per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon, essentially unchanged compared with
the average for 2012 participating companies. See Figure 15.

0.8
0.7

0.68
0.58

0.6

0.53

0.5

0.50

0.49

0.48

0.49

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 15: NMVOC emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (20072013)


Regional averages for quantity of NMVOC emitted per unit of production vary from
0.23 to 0.83 tonnes per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production, as shown in
Figure 16.
In 2012, the range was between 0.22 and 0.71 tonnes per thousand tonnes of
production.

Tonnes NMVOC per thousand tonnes production

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

27

0.9

0.83

0.8

0.76

2013 overall
(0.49)
2013

0.7

2012

0.62

0.6

2011

Overall 0.49

0.5

0.43

0.4
0.3

0.25

0.2
0.1
0.0

62%

Africa

33%

23%

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

0.26

0.23

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 16: NMVOC emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (by region)

1.4.2 Emissions by source


The source was specified for 51% of the total NMVOC emissions reported in 2013.
Where the source is specified, 35% of NMVOC emissions reported for 2013 come
from venting or vents, 30% from flaring, 26% from fugitive losses and 9% from
energy use, as shown in Figure 17.

Energy 9%
Vents 35%

Flare 30%

Figure 17: NMVOC emissions


by source 2013
Fugitive losses 26%

Note: based only on emissions where


the source is specified.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

28

1.5 Sulphur dioxide (SO2)


Sulphur oxide emissions by the E&P industry arise through oxidation during
combustion of sulphur naturally contained within fuels or flared gas (H2S content)
and diesel (sulphur content).

1.5.1 Emissions per unit of production


Global SO2 emissions for 2013 participating companies were 0.21 tonnes per
thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production, a 24% increase compared with the
average for 2012 participating companies. See Figure 18.
This increase is principally due to changes in the companies reporting SO2 data.
When companies that did not report SO2 data consistently for the years 2011, 2012
and 2013 are excluded from the calculation, the SO2 emissions are 0.18, 0.17 and
0.18 tonnes per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production respectively.

Tonnes SO2 per thousand tonnes production

0.25
0.21
0.20

0.18

0.18

0.18

0.17

0.17

0.17

0.15

0.10

0.05

0.00

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 18: SO2 emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (20072013)


Regional averages for quantity of SO2 emissions expressed per unit of production
vary from 0.02 to 0.57 tonne per thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon production, as
shown in Figure 19.
In 2011, the range was between 0.03 and 0.64 tonne per thousand tonnes of
production. The wide range across regions points towards the strong influence of
different types of production assets on the metric.

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

29

Tonnes SO2 per thousand tonnes production

0.7

2013 overall
(0.21)
0.57

0.6

2013
2012

0.5

2011
0.4
0.3

0.24

Overall 0.21

0.17

0.18

0.2
0.1
0.0

0.09

62%

Africa

33% 0.02

23%

95%

0.05

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 19: SO2 emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production (by region)

1.5.2 Emissions by source


The source was reported for 55% of the total SO2 emissions in 2013.
Where the source was specified, 72% of sulphur dioxide emissions reported in
2013 were from flaring, 25% were from energy use and 3% were from venting or
vents, as shown in Figure 20.

Vents 3%

Energy 25%

Figure 20: SO2 emissions by


source 2013
Flare 72%

Note: based only on emissions where


the source is specified.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

30

1.6 Nitrogen oxides (NOX)


Emissions of nitrogen oxides, (principally nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide,
expressed as NOX), occur almost exclusively from the combustion of natural gas or
other fuels. These emissions are a function of the combustion equipment, loading
and technology.

1.6.1 Emissions per unit of production


Global NOX emissions for 2013 participating companies were 0.40 tonnes per
thousand tonnes of production, 7% lower than the average for 2012 participating
companies. See Figure 21.

Tonnes NOx per thousand tonnes production

0.5
0.41

0.41

0.4

0.39

0.40

0.41

0.43

0.40

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 21: NOX emissions per unit of hydrocarbon (20072013)


In 2013, normalized NOX emissions ranged from 0.10 to 0.80 tonne per thousand
tonnes of hydrocarbon production for participating companies, as shown in
Figure22.
In 2012, the range was between 0.13 and 0.83 tonne per thousand tonnes of
production. The wide range across regions points towards the strong influence
of different types of production assets on the metric. The large change in results
between 2012 and 2013 for South & Central America is due to the change in
companies participating between years.

Detailed review - gaseous emissions

31

Tonnes NOx per thousand tonnes production

0.9

2013 overall
(0.40)

0.80

0.8

2013

0.7

2012

0.6

2011
048

0.47

0.5

Overall 0.40

0.4

0.35
0.29

0.3
0.18

0.2
0.1
0.0

62%

Africa

33%

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

0.10

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 22: NOX emissions per unit of hydrocarbon (by region)

1.6.2 Emissions by source


The source was reported for 48% of the total nitrogen oxide emissions reported
in 2013.
Where the source was specified, 93% of nitrogen oxide emissions reported in 2013
were from energy use. The remaining 7% were from flaring, as shown in Figure 23.

Flare 7%

Vents 0.01%

Figure 23: NOX emissions by


source 2013
Energy 93%

Note: based only on emissions where


the source is specified.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

32

2. Energy consumption
The energy used to produce oil and gas covers a range of activities. These include:
powering compressors to re-inject produced gas or to export it
through pipelines
driving turbines to generate electricity needed for operational activities,
including logistics, and for living quarters (e.g. at offshore platforms)
driving pumps that produce the hydrocarbons (and any associated
produced water)
heating produced oil for separation
producing steam for enhanced oil recovery
driving the pumps to re-inject produced water, inject water for waterflooding and transport the produced oil through pipelines.
Energy consumption will vary widely depending upon the specific local
circumstances and operational conditions. For example, mature or remote fields
usually consume more energy than other fields.
In 2013, IOGP reporting companies consumed on average 1.5 gigajoules of energy
for every tonne of hydrocarbon produced, as shown in Figure 24. This is an
increase of 4% compared with the 2012 average and reflects a change in the
companies reporting data and in the number of assets operated.
As in previous years, data indicate that onshore production in 2013 was more
energy intensive than offshore production.

Gigajoules energy per tonne production

1.8

Unspecified
Purchased energy

1.5

Onsite combustion

1.2
0.9
0.6
0.3
0.0

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 24: Energy consumed per unit of hydrocarbon production by source


(20072013)

Detailed review - energy consumption

33

The majority of energy requirements were met by combustion of fuels on-site


rather than by purchase of electricity or steam, see Figure 25.
Source unspecified 16 %

9%

91%
Source specified 84%

Purchased energy
Onsite combustion

Figure 25: Energy consumed by source (20072013)


In Figure 26, the (overall) energy consumption is normalized against the quantity of
hydrocarbons produced for each region.
This analysis shows that operations in North America were the most energy
intensive (3.09 gigajoules per tonne of hydrocarbon produced), while the Middle
East was the least energy intensive (0.34 gigajoules per tonne). The wide range
across regions points towards the strong influence of different types of production
assets on the metric.

Gigajoules energy per tonne production

4.0

2013 overall
(1.46)

3.5

2013

3.09

3.0

2012

2.5

2011
1.91

2.0
1.5

1.44

1.28

0.0

1.34

1.06

1.0
0.5

Overall 1.46

62%

Africa

33%

95%

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

0.34

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 26: Energy consumed per unit of hydrocarbon production by region

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

34

3. Flaring
Flaring is the controlled burning of hydrocarbons produced in the course of
petroleum exploration and production operations. It includes the controlled and
safe burning of gas that, for safety or technical reasons or for lack of export
infrastructure, is not used or exported.
In 2013, 15.1 tonnes of gas were flared for every thousand tonnes of hydrocarbon
produced versus 13.9 in 2012 and 15.7 in 2011, as shown in Figure 27.

25

Tonnes hydrocarbon flared


per thousand tonnes production

20.4
20

18.8

17.6

16.0

15.7
13.9

15

15.1

10

62%

2007

33%
2008

23%

95%

20%

10%
2009

2010

2011

2012

34%
2013

Figure 27: Hydrocarbon flared per unit of hydrocarbon production (20072013)

Detailed review - flaring

35

Figure 28 shows flaring per unit of hydrocarbon production, as reported by the


participating companies, by region.

Tonnes hydrocarbon flared


per thousand tonnes production

60

2013 overall
(15.12)
2013

50
43.91

2012

40

2011

30
20.61

20
10
0

16.08

62%

Africa

Overall 15.12
9.75

33%

95%

5.37

3.83

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

7.09

20%

10%
FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 28: Hydrocarbon flared per unit of hydrocarbon production (by region)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

36

4. Produced water
Produced water is the highest volume liquid discharge generated during the
production of oil and gas. It consists of formation water (water present naturally
in the reservoir), floodwater (water previously injected into the reservoir) and/or
condensed water (in the case of some gas production).
After extraction, produced water is separated and treated (de-oiled) before
discharge to surface water (including seas, rivers, lakes, etc.) or to land (including
to evaporation ponds). Produced water can also be injected either into the
producing reservoir where it can enhance hydrocarbon recovery or into another
appropriate formation for disposal. The volume of produced water typically
increases as recovery of oil and gas from a field progresses, that is, the field
becomes mature.
As context, the worldwide volume of produced water reported in this database in
2013 was approximately 1.6 times that of hydrocarbon production.
Most countries regulate the discharge of produced water taking into account
differing environmental conditions and sensitivities between onshore and offshore.
The quality of produced water is most widely expressed in terms of its oil content.
There are a number of analytical methodologies in use around the world for
measuring oil in water. As a result of differences in analytical methodologies, care
should be taken when interpreting aggregated data.

Note 1: For this analysis aqueous discharges from crude oil and natural gas facilities are
categorized by the source of production and not the location where the discharges occur, in
other words where production is offshore and discharges are generated from an onshore
facility, the discharges are reported as offshore.
Note 2: For various reasons companies either discharge or re-inject produced water.
The split between the produced water injected and discharged changes over time and this
influences the quantity and quality of oil discharged to surface.
Note 3: There are marked differences in the scope of reporting for each region between the
years, onshore and offshore.

Detailed review - produced water

37

Aqueous discharge covers the discharge of produced water, mainly produced


formation water.
In 2013, participating companies reported the oil content of 841 million
tonnes of discharged produced water. Where the location was specified,
approximately 91% of water discharged was from offshore operations and 9%
was from onshore operations.
For every tonne of hydrocarbon produced in 2013, 0.6 tonne of produced water
was discharged to the surface and 1.0 tonne of produced water was
re-injected. In 2012, 0.5 tonne of produced water was discharged to the
surface and 0.9 tonne was re-injected.
The overall average oil content of produced water discharges was 13.1 mg/l,
compared with 13.3 mg/l in 2012 and 11.9 mg/l in 2011. Offshore the average
oil content in produced water was 13.4 mg/l, whilst onshore it was 10.5 mg/l
(See Figures 29, 30 and 31).
Overall 8.2 tonnes of oil was discharged per million tonnes of hydrocarbon
production in 2013 by participating companies, an 18% increase compared
with 2012 participating companies (7.0 in 2012 and 6.3 in 2011). The quantity
of oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production was 1.9 t/106 t onshore
and 10.0 t/106 t offshore (See Figures 32, 33 and 34).

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

38

4.1 Quality (oil content) of produced water discharges

20

2013

Milligrammes oil per litre


of produced water discharged

2012
2011

15

13.38

13.13

2010
2009

10.53

2008

10

2007
5
62%
0

33%
Onshore

23%

95%
10%

Offshore

20%

34%
Overall

Figure 29: Oil discharged per unit of produced water discharged


The global quantity of oil discharged per unit of produced water was 13.1 mg/l for
2013 participating companies, essentially unchanged compared with the average
for 2012 participating companies.
Onshore results show a 50% increase compared with 2012. This increase is largely
due to a change in the companies reporting offshore data. Offshore the average
has decreased by 3% compared with 2012.
A very small amount of produced water discharged was reported for the FSU and
the Middle East both onshore and offshore compared with the other regions. The
percentage of produced water re-injected in these regions was high (see Figures
36 and 37 for produced water re-injection).
The offshore database for quality of produced water for South & Central America
was affected substantially by a change in reporting scope.

39

30
57.59

80.08

2013 overall
(10.5)
2013

25

2012

20.70

20

2011
14.16

15
Overall 10.5

10

8.15

5
33%
0

Africa

no data

Milligrammes oil per litre of produced water


discharged (equivalent to tonnes per million tonnes)

Detailed review - produced water

1.20

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

FSU

Middle
East

20%
North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Milligrammes oil per litre of produced water


discharged (equivalent to tonnes per million tonnes)

Figure 30: Oil content of produced water discharged onshore (by region)

30
51.16

36.88

2013 overall
(13.4)
2013

25

2012
20
16.48

15

16.51
11.94

Overall 13.4

12.10

13.24

10
4.99

20%

33%
0

Africa

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 31: Oil content of produced water discharged offshore (by region)

2011

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

40

Tonnes oil discharged per million tonnes production

4.2 Quantity of oil discharged in produced water per unit of


production

15

2013
2012

12

11.27

2011
2010

8.18

2009
2008
2007

2.53

62%

33%
Onshore

23%

95%
10%

Offshore

20%

34%
Overall

Figure 32: Oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production


Overall the rate of oil discharged per unit of production for participating companies
in 2013 was 18% higher compared with the average for 2012 participating
companies. This is largely driven by a change in the companies reporting in the
South America region between 2012 and 2013.
Regional averages for the quantity of oil discharged by unit of production of
hydrocarbons vary, onshore (see Figure 33), from a few kg per million tonnes in
the FSU and Middle East regions to 8.0 t/106 t in Africa and Asia/Australasia, while
offshore (Figure 34) they vary from almost zero in the FSU to 20.0 t/106 t in
Asia/Australasia.
As noted above, the difference between the overall averages onshore and
offshore reflects the fact that produced water is largely re-injected onshore
(where environmental sensitivities to produced water especially salt are
generally high) while the offshore environment is generally less sensitive to
produced water discharges.

Detailed review - produced water

41

Tonnes per milliion tonnes of production

20

2013 overall
(2.5)
2013

15

2012
2011

10

8.02

8.01

5
Overall 2.5

33%
0

Africa

0.04

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

20%
0.12

FSU

Middle
East

1.06

North
America

0.91

34%

South &
Central
America

Figure 33: Oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production onshore (by region)

19.97

Tonnes oil per million tonnes of production

20

2013 overall
(11.3)
2013

15

2012
12.86

Overall 11.3

10

9.54

10.57

2011

9.13

5
33%
0

Africa

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

20%
0.09

FSU

0.62

Middle
East

North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 34: Oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production offshore (by region)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

42

4.3 Produced Water Injection

100%

2013
2012

80%

2011
2010
2009

60%

2008
2007

40%

20%

0%

62%

33%
Onshore

23%

95%

20%

10%
Offshore

34%

Overall

Figure 35: Percent of produced water re-injected overall


Expressed as percent of total produced water generated.

As stated previously, produced water is often injected back into reservoirs


(re-injection) to improve hydrocarbon recovery or into other geological strata
for disposal.
Over the 3 years shown the proportion of water re-injected by participating companies
compared with water discharged has increased offshore and decreased onshore.
Onshore, where disposal to surface is often constrained by regulatory and
environmental concerns, injection of produced water is the principal disposal route
with 88% of water being returned below ground (see Figure 36).
Offshore (Figure 37), where, in the majority of locations, de-oiled produced water
can be discharged to sea with limited impact, there is much less re-injection
(27% in 2013). Exceptions to this include locations where injection would be
beneficial to the management of the reservoir and water chemistry allows for
reinjection or where environmental sensitivity is considered to be high.
While the average is 27% offshore, there is a large variety among the regions.
For example, participating companies in the FSU and Middle East regions reported
more than 90% of the offshore produced water re-injected, while in North America
less than 2% of produced water was re-injected.

Detailed review - produced water

43

100%

2013
2012

80%

2011

60%

40%

20%
33%
0%

Africa

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

FSU

Middle
East

North South & Overall


America Central
America

Figure 36: Percent of produced water re-injected onshore (by region)


Expressed as percent of total produced water generated onshore.

100%

2013
2012

80%

2011

60%

40%

20%

0%

Africa

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

FSU

Middle
East

North South & Overall


America Central
America

Figure 37: Percent of produced water re-injected offshore (by region)


Expressed as percent of total produced water generated offshore.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

44

5. Non-aqueous drilling fluids retained on cuttings


discharged to sea
While much of the drilling in the offshore oil and gas industry is achieved using
water-based drilling fluids (muds), technical challenges often require the
use of non-aqueous drilling fluids (NADF) that provide higher lubricity, better
performance at higher temperatures and well-bore stability compared with
water-based muds.
These challenges arise especially with techniques such as extended-reach
and directional drilling, either or both of which may be required to develop new
reservoirs or to improve recovery from previously identified resources.
IOGP reports non-aqueous base fluids (NABFs) according to the classifications in
Table 1.
Classification

Base fluid

Aromatic (%)

PAH (%)

Group I

Diesel and Conventional Mineral Oil

>5.0

>0.35

Group II

Low Toxicity Mineral Oil

0.5 5.0

0.001 0.35

Group III

Enhanced Mineral Oil

<0.5

<0.001

Synthetics
(esters, olefins, paraffins)
Classification is defined in IOGP report Environmental aspects of the use of non aqueous drilling fluids associated
with offshore oil & gas operations, Report No. 342, May 2003.

Table 1: NABF classifications

Detailed review - non-aqueous drilling fluids

45

In the past, diesel-based and mineral oil-based fluids (Group I fluids) were used
to address these technical challenges, but it was recognized that the discharge
of cuttings with adhering diesel or oil-based muds might cause adverse
environmental impacts.
Less harmful low-toxicity mineral oil fluids (Group II, with reduced aromatic
content) and later more sophisticated drilling fluids (Group III, with low to
negligible aromatic content) were developed to deliver high drilling performance
while ensuring that any discharges of drilling fluids adhering to cuttings or whole
mud posed minimal threat to the marine environment.
Non-aqueous drilling fluids (NADF) contain more than 30% non-aqueous base
fluid (NABF) as a continuous phase (typically 50%80% by volume). The remainder
consists of brine, barite and other materials such as gels and emulsifiers.
The data gathered for this report relate to NABF adhering to cuttings that are
discharged to the marine environment. NADFs as such are not discharged.
Figure 38 provides a regional view of adhered base fluid quantities on cuttings
discharged to the sea while drilling with NADFs. Information on NABF discharges
in 2013 has been provided by less than half (21 of 43) of the reporting companies.
Regional analysis shows that, for the companies reporting NABF retained on
cuttings in 2013, cuttings with Group III fluids (14,663 tonnes, 96% of the total
reported) were discharged, and that discharges of cuttings with Group II fluids were
limited (4% of the total reported) and were reported only in Africa (684 tonnes).
Absolute values rather than normalized values are shown in Figure 38. Drilling
discharges are not normalized because drilling activity is not directly linked to
hydrocarbon production.
The number of wells that are drilled varies from year to year for various reasons
including the prices of oil and natural gas as well as other economic factors.
Absolute volumes reported can also vary with the number or mix of companies
contributing cuttings-related data between years.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

NABF Group II

3040

2011

Africa

46

2012

NABF Group III

1651

NABF Unspecified

1135

2013

23876

2011

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

14688

2012
2013

153

2011

2012

2
1365

2013

4436

2011

FSU

Middle
East

2012

2013

2011

2012

2013

0
1718

2011

North
America

2012

1210

2013

1162
2407

2011

South &
Central
America

2971

2012

11528

2013
0

5000

10000

15000

20000

25000

Tonnes

Note: NABF discharges were reported by 21 of the 43 participating companies in 2013.


No Group 1 NABF discharges to the sea were reported in the years 20082013.

Figure 38: Total base fluid (NABF) retained on cuttings discharged to the sea
(by region)

Detailed review - spills

47

6. Spills
Spills are an important environmental performance indicator for the oil and gas
industry since they can have a significant and visible impact on the environment.
The degree of environmental impact is highly dependent on the nature of the
release, where it occurred and how it was subsequently managed. Oil exploration
and production companies have spill contingency plans and measures in place to
respond to and mitigate spills.
For the purpose of this report a spill is defined as any loss of containment
that reaches the environment (i.e. is not retained within secondary or other
containment), irrespective of quantity recovered.
Spills may have a number of causes such as equipment failure (including
corrosion), operating errors, and unlawful third party damage such as sabotage
and theft.
The majority of spills reported by IOGP member companies are oil spills, which
include spills of crude, condensate and processed oil.
Chemical spills with release to the external environment occur only infrequently
and quantities released are generally small. Relatively few reports of chemical
spills have been received. The data for these are presented in Table A.34 in
Appendix A.

6.1 Oil spills


In 2013, companies reported a total of 6,666 oil spills. Of these, 4,396 (66%) were
spills of less than one barrel in volume, amounting to a total of 75 tonnes of oil.
Because of the small cumulative volume involved and, as some companies do not
report spills less than 1 barrel in size, these <1 barrel size spills are not included
in the detailed analysis provided below.
In 2013, 2,270 spills greater than 1 barrel in size were reported, representing a
total of 7,585 tonnes of oil. 77% of the reported oil spills (6,347 tonnes) occurred
onshore and 7% occurred offshore (308 tonnes). The location was not specified for
the remaining 16%.
Figure 39 shows the total number of spills normalized per unit of hydrocarbon
production onshore and offshore. The normalized rate for 2013 was 1.2 oil spills
per million tonnes of production (0.8 in 2012, 1.5 in 2011). The normalized rate of
spills onshore is higher than that offshore.

Spills per million tonnes production

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

48

4.0

2013

3.5

2012
2011

3.0

2010
2.33

2.5

2009
2008

2.0

2007

1.5

1.23

1.0
0.5

62%

0.0

33%

23%

95%
10%

Onshore

0.15

20%

Offshore

34%
Overall

Figure 39: Number of oil spills >1 barrel in size, per unit of hydrocarbon production
Figure 40 shows the number of spills normalized per unit hydrocarbon
production by region. Rates for 2013 vary from 0.2 to 3.8 spills per million tonnes of
production.

Spills per million tonnes of production

10

2013 overall
(1.23)
2013

2012
2011

6
3.76

2.51

1.79

Overall 1.23

33%0.25
0

Africa

0.50

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

20%
0.26

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

0.40

34%

South &
Central
America

Figure 40: Number of oil spills >1 barrel in size, per unit of hydrocarbon production
(by region)

Detailed review - spills

20

49

2013

46.98

Tonnes per million tonnes production

2012
16

2011
2010
2009

12

2008

8.42

2007

4.13

62%

20%

33%

10%

Onshore

34%

0.31

Offshore

Overall

Figure 41: Quantity of oil spilled, per unit of hydrocarbon production


The quantity of oil spilled per unit of hydrocarbon production in 2013, based on
reports received, has fallen to 4.1 tonnes per million tonnes of production, 13%
lower than the rate for 2012 as shown in Figure 41.

Tonnes per million tonnes of production

25

2013 overall
(4.13)
2013

20

2012
2011

15

10

10.14

6.63

Overall 4.13

5
33%0.45
0

Africa

5.18

1.92

0.67

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

FSU

Middle
East

20%
North
America

1.67

34%

South &
Central
America

Figure 42: Quantity of oil spilled (oil spills >1 barrel in size), per unit of
hydrocarbon production (by region)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

50

Figures 41 and 42 show the reported quantities of oil spilled per unit of
hydrocarbon production, onshore and offshore respectively, in the different
geographic regions.

2013 overall
(8.4)

31.7

49.63

55.53

32.5

Tonnes per milliion tonnes of production

20

2013

15

2012
2011

10

Overall 8.4

9.21

8.46

6.61

3.60
2.10

33%1.39
0

Africa

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

FSU

Middle
East

20%
North
America

34%
South &
Central
America

Figure 43: Quantity of oil spilled (oil spills >1 barrel in size), per unit of
hydrocarbon production onshore (by region)

2013 overall
(0.3)

22.1

Tonnes per million tonnes of production

20

2013

16

2012
2011

12

4
0.48

Africa

33%0.13

Overall 0.3
0.41

Asia/
Europe
Australasia

0.03

FSU

0.81

Middle
East

20%
0.15

North
America

34%0.05
South &
Central
America

Figure 44: Quantity of oil spilled (oil spills >1 barrel in size), per unit of
hydrocarbon production offshore (by region)

Detailed review - spills

1400

51

Unspecified

1265

Offshore

1200

Onshore
Number of spills

1000
800
600
404

400
243

200
0

102

1<X<10 barrels

28

93

77

10<X<100 barrels

16

>100 barrels

11

24

Unspecified size

Spill size

Figure 45: Distribution of oil spills onshore and offshore (2013) number of spills
in each size category
Figure 45 shows the distribution of spills larger than 1 barrel in terms of number
of spills in each size category for 2013. In terms of number of events, the
distribution is dominated by the number of spills between 1 and 10 barrels in size.
However, the quantity released overall (for those spills where a size category was
specified) is dominated by a few relatively large events; spills >100 barrels in size
represent 62% of the total oil spilled.
In addition to the data shown in Figures 46 and 47, a total of 4,396 spills
(3,176 onshore, 725 offshore, and 495 unspecified location) of less than 1 barrel
in size were reported by participating companies.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

1400

52

Unspecified size

1265

>100 barrels

1200

10<X<100 barrels
Number of spills

1000

1<X<10 barrels

800
600
404

400

243

200

77

102
28

11

Onshore

93

24

16

Offshore

Unspecified

Figure 46: Distribution of oil spills onshore and offshore, by size (2013) number
of spills

Quantity of oil spilled (tonnes)

4500

Unspecified size

4095

4000

>100 barrels

3500

10<X<100 barrels
1<X<10 barrels

3000
2500
2000

1640

1500
1000

588

500
0

22

Onshore

46

97

145

Offshore

19

129

306

493
0

Unspecified

Figure 47: Distribution of oil spills onshore and offshore, by size (2013) quantity
of oil spilled (tonnes)

Detailed review - spills

53

6.1.1 Spills greater than 100 barrels in size


In 2013, 100 spills in which more than 100 barrels of oil was released (77 onshore,
7 offshore, 16 unspecified location) were reported by participating companies
amounting to 4,734 tonnes. Participating companies provided incident descriptions
for 78 of the 100 individual incidents.
The 4 largest of the 78 were:
367 tonnes (~2,738 barrels) of crude oil was spilled in a single sabotage/theft
incident in Nigeria
306 tonnes (~2,281 barrels) of crude oil was spilled in a single incident in
Nigeria. This incident was categorized as other: operational but no detailed
information was available
280 tonnes (~2,087 barrels) of crude was spilled in a sabotage incident in Nigeria
231 tonnes (~1,723 barrels) of crude oil flowed into an emergency pit as a
result of a failure to the power supply to a treatment plant control system.
168 tonnes of the oil was recovered
Cause (excluding intentional third party damage)
A specific cause was provided for 77 of the spills >100 barrels in size in 2013.
Excluding the 32 categorized as third party damage, the remaining 45 spills >100
barrels in size were collectively associated with 24% of the total oil spilled (1,833
tonnes). Figure 48 shows the distribution of cause for operational spill incidents
>100 barrels in size, where the cause was reported, for 2013.
Of the 8 spill incidents categorized as other in 2013, 1 was due to an unplanned
third party electrical failure, 1 was due to interference by livestock, 2 were the
result of freezing conditions and 4 were operational but no details were available.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Other 18%

Operator or
technical
error 29%

54

Corrosion 20%

Equipment failure
(excluding corrosion)
33%

Figure 48: Operational spills


>100 barrels in size, by cause
excluding third party damage
(2013)
As % of spill incidents >100 barrels
where cause was indicated

Intentional third party damage (sabotage, theft, vandalism, etc)


Incidents caused by third party damage account for 32 of the spills >100 barrels in
size where the cause was reported in 2013. These third party spills represent 2,076
tonnes of oil, 27% of the total oil spilled.

Detailed review - spills

55

6.1.2 Spills between 10 and 100 barrels in size


Detailed information has been reported for spills between 10 and 100 barrels in
size since 2010.
In 2013, 525 spills in this category were reported in total (404 onshore, 28 offshore,
93 unspecified location).
The quantity of oil recovered was reported for 82% of the 10100 barrel spills.
424 (66%) of the 640 tonnes of oil spilled in those incidents was reported to have
been recovered.
Cause (excluding intentional third party damage)
A specific cause was provided for 176 spills between 10 and 100 barrels in size
in 2013, excluding those categorized as third party damage. Collectively these
operational spills for which cause was provided represent 718 tonnes of oil spilled
(599 tonnes of crude oil, 60 tonnes of condensate, 26 tonnes of processed oil and
33 tonnes of unspecified oil).
Figure 49 shows the distribution of cause for operational spill incidents between
10 and 100 barrels in size, where the cause was reported, for 2013.

Operator or
technical error 27%

Other 3%

Corrosion 32%

Figure 49: Operational spills


10100 barrels in size, by
cause excluding third party
damage (2013)
Equipment failure
(excluding corrosion) 38%

As % of spill incidents 10100 barrels


where cause was indicated.

Intentional third party damage (sabotage, theft, vandalism, etc)


Incidents caused by third party damage account for 9 (5%) of the spills
10-100 barrels in size where the cause was reported in 2013. These spills caused
by third parties represent 28 tonnes of oil

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

56

6.2 Chemical spills


In the E&P sector chemical spills with release to the external environment occur
infrequently and quantities released are generally small.
In 2013, participating companies reported 849 chemical spills greater than 1
barrel in size, totalling 4,495 tonnes. Data for these are presented in Table A.34 in
Appendix A.

Appendix A

57

APPENDIX A: Data Tables


The following tables provide the data from which the figures and charts throughout
the report are compiled.
Results that differ from those published in the Environmental Performance
Indicators report for 2012 data (2012e) as a result of changes to historical data by
the submitting companies are noted at the end of this Appendix.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

58

Scope of data submissions


Production in this
report (106 t)

BP Review
production (106 t

Production as % of BP
Review production

Africa

373

603

62%

Asia/Australasia

271

832

33%

Europe

362

380

95%

FSU

141

1388

10%

Middle East

431

1841

23%

North America

318

1599

20%

South & Central


America

181

533

34%

TOTAL

2077

7174

29%

Africa

505

644

78%

Asia/Australasia

319

821

39%

Europe

381

399

96%

FSU

113

1370

8%

Middle East

417

1776

23%

North America

311

1534

20%

South & Central


America

187

538

35%

TOTAL

2233

7080

32%

Africa

387

600

64%

Asia/Australasia

355

819

43%

Europe

452

406

111%

FSU

127

1366

9%

Middle East

411

1775

23%

North America

295

1454

20%

South & Central


America

194

531

37%

2221

6950

32%

Region
2013

2012

2011

TOTAL

NB: Production figures given in this report relate to gross production whereas world data extracted from the BP Statistical
Review represent net production. Thus the data are not directly comparable, but the percentage of world production figures
are given as indicative of the relative regional contributions in the database.

Table A.1: Production associated with IOGP database and 2013 production in BP Statistical Review
of World Energy by region (Figures 2 and 3)

Appendix A

59

Detailed review
Gaseous emissions
2013

2012

2011

Emission per
103 t production
t/103 t

Hydrocarbon
production 106 t

Emission per
103 t production
t/103 t

Hydrocarbon
production 106 t

Emission per
103 t production
t/103 t

Hydrocarbon
production 106 t

CO2

127.53

2011

132.80

1904

132.27

2177

CH4

0.97

1968

1.33

1762

1.24

2127

NMVOC

0.49

1882

0.48

1694

0.49

2050

SO2

0.21

1945

0.17

1772

0.17

2097

NOX

0.40

1963

0.43

1809

0.41

2100

GHG*

147.94

160.68

158.23

*GHG: Total greenhouse gases (CO2 + CH4 expressed in CO2 equivalent: GHG = CO2 + (21 CH4)).
NB: Data only included where gas quantity and production level are both reported.

Table A.2: Emissions per unit of hydrocarbon production


(Figures 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21)

2013

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

77.3

45.3

28.9

11.7

18.5

65.1

12.2

259.03

391.6

260.8

178.7

61.5

54.0

814.3

162.7

1923.59

223.6

98.3

75.4

32.5

96.9

263.0

129.2

918.83

SO2 (103 t)

31.6

5.9

14.0

34.1

229.3

55.0

30.1

399.88

NOX (10 t)

179.6

132.8

108.5

28.1

41.7

259.3

50.7

800.65

85.5

50.8

32.6

13.0

19.7

82.2

15.6

299.43

CO2 (106 t)

78.84

49.48

31.58

11.53

13.41

62.65

7.13

254.62

CH4 (10 t)

481.92

745.47

197.22

69.25

37.12

747.17

62.87

2341.02

NMVOC (103 t)

268.62

101.81

90.17

24.60

73.18

220.47

38.44

817.30

SO2 (103 t)

27.85

13.10

12.29

31.77

147.27

60.46

11.41

304.14

NOX (10 t)

165.80

145.06

125.02

26.44

31.62

259.83

41.89

795.67

GHG* (106 t)

88.96

65.13

35.72

12.98

14.19

78.34

8.45

303.78

CO2 (106 t)

79.72

64.69

34.01

12.95

17.74

53.32

26.56

288.98

CH4 (10 t)

565.24

861.66

185.89

72.54

58.36

648.87

237.74

2630.30

NMVOC (103 t)

305.25

196.72

98.03

22.68

87.71

180.38

120.36

1011.13

SO2 (10 t)

31.59

9.49

16.30

30.49

199.20

57.04

20.35

364.46

NOX (103 t)

151.00

130.94

127.01

32.58

55.59

228.63

138.45

864.20

91.59

82.78

37.91

14.47

18.97

66.95

31.55

344.22

CO2 (106 t)
CH4 (103 t)
NMVOC (10 t)
3

GHG* (106 t)
2012

2011

GHG* (106 t)

Table A.3: Gross emissions of gases per region

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

2013

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

205.40

167.97

93.59

81.14

43.00

203.91

66.84

127.53

Production (10 t)

372

268

301

141

430

318

181

2011

CH4 emissions (t/103 t)

1.04

1.13

0.57

0.45

0.12

2.56

0.90

0.97

Production (10 t)

372

230

301

136

430

318

181

1968

NMVOC emissions (t/103 t)

0.62

0.43

0.25

0.23

0.26

0.83

0.76

0.49

Production (106 t)

358

227

296

136

377

318

171

1882

SO2 emissions (t/10 t)

0.09

0.02

0.05

0.24

0.57

0.17

0.18

0.21

Production (106 t)

358

265

296

141

400

315

171

1945

NOX emissions (t/103 t)

0.47

0.48

0.35

0.18

0.10

0.80

0.29

0.40

Production (10 t)

366

265

300

141

400

318

172

1963

*GHG emissions (t/103 t)

227.33

191.76

105.62

90.61

45.62

257.64

85.68

147.94

CO2 emissions (t/103 t)

158.00

151.56

82.63

102.13

57.87

216.65

92.91

132.80

Production (10 t)

498

319

380

113

230

289

76

1904

CH4 emissions (t/103 t)

1.21

2.68

0.52

0.61

0.16

2.58

0.83

1.33

Production (106 t)

398

278

379

113

230

289

76

1762

NMVOC emissions (t/103 t)

0.70

0.42

0.24

0.22

0.35

0.71

0.59

0.48

Production (106 t)

386

238

376

113

206

311

65

1694

SO2 emissions (t/10 t)

0.07

0.04

0.03

0.28

0.64

0.19

0.17

0.17

Production (106 t)

394

279

380

113

229

311

66

1772

NOX emissions (t/103 t)

0.41

0.43

0.33

0.23

0.13

0.83

0.62

0.43

Production (10 t)

394

316

380

113

230

311

66

1809

*GHG emissions (t/103 t)

183.40

207.90

93.57

115.02

61.25

270.93

110.28

160.68

CO2 emissions (t/103 t)

205.78

183.53

74.95

99.95

47.48

180.57

136.11

132.27

Production (10 t)

387

351

452

127

371

295

194

2177

CH4 emissions (t/103 t)

1.46

2.81

0.41

0.59

0.16

2.20

1.22

1.24

Production (106 t)

387

307

451

123

371

295

194

2127

NMVOC emissions (t/103 t)

0.82

0.72

0.22

0.18

0.25

0.61

0.62

0.49

Production (106 t)

372

274

448

122

347

295

193

2050

SO2 emissions (t/10 t)

0.08

0.03

0.04

0.24

0.54

0.19

0.10

0.17

Production (106 t)

382

277

452

126

371

295

194

2097

NOX emissions (t/103 t)

0.39

0.47

0.28

0.24

0.15

0.77

0.71

0.41

Production (10 t)

382

280

452

126

371

295

194

2100

236.49

242.51

83.61

112.30

50.76

226.72

161.80

158.23

CO2 emissions (t/103 t)


6

2012

2011

60

*GHG emissions (t/103 t)

NB: Data only included where gas quantity and production level are both reported.
*GHG: Total Greenhouse Gases (CO2 + CH4 expressed in CO2 equivalent: GHG = CO2 + 21 CH4).

Table A.4: Emissions per unit of production (Figures 7, 10, 13, 16, 19 and 22)

Appendix A

2013

2012

2011

61

CO2 (106 t)

CH4 (103 t)

NMVOC (103 t)

SO2 (103 t)

NOX (103 t)

GHG* (106 t)

Energy

90.19

47.65

40.71

55.84

357.43

91.19

Flare

51.69

246.41

144.46

159.34

26.20

56.86

Fugitive losses

0.02

250.96

121.42

0.00

0.00

5.29

Vents

5.40

399.72

167.15

6.03

0.05

13.80

Other/Unspecified E&P

111.73

978.86

445.09

178.67

416.97

132.29

OVERALL

259.03

1923.59

918.83

399.88

800.65

299.43

Energy

91.08

45.46

16.74

46.53

342.10

92.04

Flare

48.62

197.28

123.93

91.96

21.97

52.76

Fugitive losses

0.03

271.89

65.64

0.00

0.00

5.74

Vents

8.94

322.02

184.79

5.79

0.19

15.70

Other/Unspecified E&P

105.95

1504.37

426.20

159.86

431.42

137.54

OVERALL

254.62

2341.02

817.30

304.14

795.67

303.78

Energy

92.07

192.44

15.84

50.54

388.14

96.11

Flare

57.07

384.45

138.42

115.59

29.94

65.15

Fugitive losses

0.03

384.90

76.02

4.70

0.00

8.11

Vents

8.09

462.56

197.36

12.28

0.16

17.81

Other/Unspecified E&P

131.72

1205.95

583.50

181.35

445.96

157.05

OVERALL

288.98

2630.30

1011.13

364.46

864.20

344.22

Table A.5: Emissions by source (Figures 8, 11, 14, 17, 20 and 23)

CO2

CH4

NMVOC

SO2

NOX

GHG*

Onshore Offshore

Onshore Offshore

Onshore Offshore

Onshore Offshore

Onshore Offshore

Onshore Offshore

2013
Emissions
(t/103 t)

143.02

108.50

1.36

0.55

0.59

0.41

0.39

0.08

0.39

0.36

171.88

119.63

Production
(106 t)

782

1081

782

1038

724

1011

747

1050

752

1063

782

1081

Emissions
(t/103 t)

118.56

134.26

1.49

0.77

0.60

0.45

0.30

0.12

0.53

0.37

144.95

149.83

Production
(106 t)

668

977

564

939

544

923

574

972

577

972

668

977

Emissions
(t/103 t)

142.73

126.50

1.52

1.12

0.65

0.45

0.32

0.10

0.52

0.35

174.48

149.12

Production
(106 t)

745

1230

740

1185

709

1139

739

1156

742

1156

745

1230

2012

2011

NB: Data only included where gas quantities in production activities and production levels are both reported.
*GHG: Total Greenhouse Gases (CO2 + CH4 expressed in CO2 equivalent: GHG = CO2 + 21 CH4).

Table A.6: Gas emissions in production activities per unit of hydrocarbon production
onshore and offshore

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

62

Energy Consumption
2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

77

76

81

80

80

% purchased

% unspecified

16

19

16

16

16

Total Energy Consumption (GJ/t)

1.46

1.40

1.54

1.47

1.48

Production (106 t)

2053

2047

2024

2092

2151

% onsite combustion

NB: Data only included where energy consumption and production level are both reported.

Table A.7: Energy consumed per unit of hydrocarbon production (Figure 24)

2013

2012

Onsite

Purchased

Unspecified

TOTAL

Africa

409.11

21.16

94.93

525.20

Asia/Australasia

310.79

9.22

191.76

511.76

Europe

402.08

47.76

6.84

456.68

FSU

94.19

12.34

46.66

153.19

Middle East

91.43

29.30

26.53

147.27

North America

780.15

90.15

114.20

984.50

South & Central America

227.21

6.76

10.81

244.78

TOTAL

2314.96

216.69

491.73

3023.38

Africa

382.05

19.74

91.68

493.47

Asia/Australasia

362.11

10.06

237.12

609.29

Europe

422.01

39.21

7.24

468.46

FSU

88.67

0.74

41.99

131.39

Middle East

40.55

27.48

25.39

93.41

822.36

54.94

112.18

989.48

85.68

0.55

8.17

94.40

TOTAL

2203.43

152.72

523.77

2879.90

Africa

355.47

16.24

88.52

460.24

Asia/Australasia

398.98

9.08

192.89

600.95

Europe

468.11

30.51

7.82

506.43

96.62

0.92

43.82

141.35

Middle East

154.33

12.06

15.96

182.35

North America

729.34

54.35

116.22

899.91

South & Central America

308.26

10.17

11.42

329.85

2511.11

133.33

476.65

3121.08

North America
South & Central America

2011

FSU

TOTAL

Table A.8: Gross energy consumption (million gigajoule) by region (Figure 25)

Appendix A

2013

2012

2011

63

% Onsite
Combustion

% Purchased

% Unspecified

Total Energy
Consumption*
(GJ/t)

Productiona
(106 t)

Africa

77.8

4.0

18.2

1.44

364

Asia/Australasia

60.5

1.8

37.7

1.91

267

Europe

88.1

10.4

1.5

1.28

356

FSU

60.3

8.3

31.4

1.06

141

Middle East

62.0

19.9

18.1

0.34

430

North America

79.2

9.2

11.6

3.09

318

South & Central America

92.6

2.8

4.5

1.34

178

TOTAL

76.4

7.2

16.4

1.46

2053

Africa

77.4

4.0

18.6

1.01

490

Asia/Australasia

59.2

1.7

39.2

1.90

319

Europe

90.1

8.3

1.6

1.24

376

FSU

67.5

0.6

32.0

1.16

113

Middle East

42.4

29.9

27.7

0.24

383

North America

83.1

5.6

11.3

3.39

292

South & Central America

90.7

0.6

8.7

1.25

75

TOTAL

76.5

5.3

18.3

1.40

2047

Africa

77.2

3.5

19.3

1.19

387

Asia/Australasia

66.4

1.5

32.1

1.72

350

Europe

92.4

6.0

1.6

1.14

444

FSU

67.3

0.7

32.1

1.11

123

Middle East

84.6

6.6

8.8

0.78

233

North America

81.1

6.0

12.9

3.06

294

South & Central America

93.4

3.1

3.5

1.69

194

TOTAL

80.4

4.3

15.3

1.54

2024

* Data only included where energy and production level are both reported.
Production is the total hydrocarbon production for data sets where one of onsite, purchased or unspecified energy is reported.

Table A.9: Energy consumption per unit of hydrocarbon production (gigajoules per tonne )
by region (Figure 26)

2013

2012

2011

Onshore (GJ/t)

1.87

1.60

2.24

Offshore (GJ/t)

1.19

1.21

1.23

Unspecified (GJ/t)

1.34

1.47

1.30

Overall (GJ/t)

1.46

1.40

1.54

Table A.10: Energy consumption per unit of hydrocarbon production (gigajoules per tonne)
onshore and offshore

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

64

Flaring
2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Total flared (t/106 t)

15.12

13.93

15.73

16.02

17.59

18.75

20.44

Production (10 t)

2058

2071

2176

2235

2327

2080

2041

Table A.11: Hydrocarbon flared per unit of production (tonnes per thousand tonnes) (Figure 27)

2013

Total flared (t/103 t)


Production (10 t)
6

2012

Total flared (t/103 t)


Production (106 t)

2011

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

43.91

16.08

3.83

20.61

5.37

7.09

9.75

15.12

373

267

360

136

430

315

177

2058

35.29

15.98

3.46

10.52

5.13

5.56

5.36

13.93

498

284

378

113

416

308

73

2071

50.73

17.56

3.64

11.69

6.43

3.42

11.29

15.73

Production (106 t)

382

345

443

121

410

283

193

2176

Total flared (t/10 t)

Table A.12: Flaring per unit of hydrocarbon production (tonnes per thousand tonnes) by region
(Figure 28)

Appendix A

65

Produced water
2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Onshore

10.53

7.02

8.12

14.24

11.60

12.80

17.49

Offshore

13.38

13.86

12.22

12.85

13.64

14.84

15.48

Unspecified

14.21

15.82

14.56

14.60

12.98

21.64

18.84

OVERALL

13.13

13.30

11.85

13.14

13.34

14.77

15.84

NB: Data only included where oil in produced water and produced water quantity are both reported.

Table A.13: Oil discharged per unit of produced water discharged (milligrammes oil per litre of
produced water discharged) (Figure 29)

2013

Onshore

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

20.70

8.15

1.20

0.00

no data

14.16

57.59

10.53

PW discharged (10 t)

7.21

55.88

0.18

1.14

0.00

11.60

0.66

76.67

Offshore

Unspecified

Oil discharged (t/10 t)

16.48

11.94

12.10

51.16

4.99

13.24

16.51

13.38

PW discharged (106 t)

129.01

317.91

162.05

0.08

5.48

37.13

99.54

751.19

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

14.21

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

14.21

PW discharged (10 t)

13.16

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

13.16

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

16.49

11.37

12.09

3.28

4.98

13.46

16.78

13.13

PW discharged (106 t)

OVERALL

2012

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

OVERALL

2011

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

OVERALL

149.38

373.79

162.22

1.22

5.48

48.73

100.20

841.01

Total Produced Water (106 t)*

195

988

267

164

335

287

2245

Oil discharged (t/10 t)

2.36

5.77

1.80

0.00

0.00

23.07

3.85

7.02

PW discharged (106 t)

7.98

58.43

4.37

0.10

0.01

8.44

0.65

79.99

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

20.08

13.11

10.58

0.00

8.20

13.63

36.88

13.86

PW discharged (106 t)

128.16

281.70

214.44

0.09

5.75

27.46

6.75

664.34

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

10.63

25.30

0.00

no data

no data

12.11

no data

15.82

PW discharged (106 t)

24.84

18.13

0.60

no data

no data

9.02

no data

52.60

Oil discharged (t/10 t)

17.74

12.53

10.38

0.00

8.18

15.10

34.00

13.30

PW discharged (106 t)

160.99

358.26

219.41

0.19

5.76

44.92

7.40

796.92

Total Produced Water (106 t)*

198

926

343

178

312

77

2040

Oil discharged (t/10 t)

3.17

5.52

2.06

1.68

80.08

29.70

0.34

8.12

PW discharged (106 t)

1.58

73.63

4.62

1.19

0.02

13.23

6.74

101.01

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

16.39

12.27

11.00

0.00

11.72

13.02

10.32

12.22

PW discharged (106 t)

106.94

280.06

222.23

0.05

8.12

31.98

108.27

757.65

Oil discharged (t/106 t)

9.86

12.45

0.00

no data

no data

33.19

no data

14.56

PW discharged (106 t)

26.18

1.20

0.21

no data

no data

6.92

no data

34.51

Oil discharged (t/10 t)

14.97

10.87

10.81

1.62

11.93

19.93

9.73

11.85

PW discharged (106 t)

134.69

354.90

227.06

1.24

8.14

52.13

115.00

893.17

172

891

368

230

295

378

2339

Total Produced Water (106 t)*

NB: Data only included where oil discharges and produced water discharges are both reported.
* Includes produced water re-injected + produced water discharged where oil content and either water re-injected or discharged are reported.

Table A.14: Oil content of produced water discharged (Figures 30 and 31)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

66

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Onshore

2.53

1.94

2.41

3.16

3.02

3.62

5.65

Offshore

11.27

9.98

8.49

9.14

10.17

11.08

12.18

OVERALL

8.18

6.95

6.33

6.99

7.48

8.54

9.77

Table A.15: Oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production (tonnes per million tonnes) (Figure 32)

2013

Onshore

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (10 t)
6

Offshore

Oil discharged (t/10 t)


6

Production (106 t)
Unspecified

Oil discharged (t/10 t)


6

Production (106 t)
OVERALL

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)

2012

Onshore

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)

Offshore

Oil discharged (t/10 t)


6

Production (106 t)
Unspecified

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)

OVERALL

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)

2011

Onshore

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)

Offshore

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)

Unspecified

Oil discharged (t/106 t)


Production (10 t)
6

OVERALL

Oil discharged (t/10 t)


6

Production (106 t)

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

8.02

8.01

0.04

0.00

0.12

1.06

0.91

2.53

41

57

58

33

155

42

393

9.54

19.97

9.13

0.09

0.62

10.57

12.86

11.27

227

197

255

43

44

47

130

942

6.78

no data

0.02

no data

no data

1.40

no data

1.99

28

no data

59

no data

no data

25

no data

112

9.07

17.29

7.25

0.04

0.41

3.05

9.95

8.18

296

253

321

101

77

226

172

1446

5.95

5.46

0.73

0.01

0.03

1.42

0.16

1.94

57

62

11

52

110

140

27

458

10.96

18.75

9.36

0.00

0.37

7.86

7.59

9.98

241

200

274

41

128

48

38

968

3.80

11.42

0.02

no data

no data

3.08

no data

3.86

48

40

68

no data

no data

51

no data

207

9.14

15.06

7.29

0.00

0.21

3.06

4.49

6.95

346

302

352

93

237

238

64

1633

6.27

5.76

0.45

0.05

0.02

2.78

0.04

2.41

65

71

21

44

114

141

50

506

7.92

13.54

8.18

0.00

0.71

6.45

11.81

8.49

229

258

342

43

134

65

141

1211

4.35

1.82

0.02

0.00

no data

6.62

no data

2.97

59

68

10

no data

43

no data

189

7.01

11.63

6.51

0.02

0.39

4.40

8.72

6.33

353

337

431

97

248

249

191

1906

NB: Data only included where oil discharges and produced water discharges are both reported.

Table A.16: Oil discharged per unit of hydrocarbon production by region (Figures 33 and 34)
2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Onshore

88

89

90

90

89

88

89

Offshore

27

28

23

22

18

17

16

Unspecified

55

33

42

42

41

11

25

OVERALL

64

65

65

65

63

63

64

Total produced water generated: produced water discharged + produced water re-injected.

Table A.17: Percent of produced water re-injected overall (Expressed as percent total produced
water generated) (Figure 35)

Appendix A

2013

2012

2011

67

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU Middle East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

Onshore

93

91

50

61

72

97

100

88

Offshore

24

19

32

98

91

16

27

Unspecified

54

no data

61

no data

no data

no data

no data

55

OVERALL

35

64

36

76

76

89

65

64

Onshore

92

90

92

97

74

97

99

89

Offshore

18

15

30

97

90

71

28

Unspecified

28

80

71

no data

no data

no data

33

OVERALL

26

66

42

97

77

89

90

65

Onshore

84

87

94

65

81

95

97

90

Offshore

19

14

29

97

84

12

23

Unspecified

34

86

87

no data

no data

no data

no data

42

OVERALL

27

63

44

73

82

86

70

65

Total produced water generated: produced water discharged + produced water re-injected.

Table A.18: Percent of produced water re-injected (Expressed as percent total produced water
generated) by region (Figures 36 and 37)

2013

2012

2011

Onshore

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

13.10

9.63

0.98

FSU Middle East

1.55

2.63

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

35.50

254.05

7.00

Offshore

0.31

0.24

0.46

52.98

9.97

0.01

0.19

0.37

Unspecified

1.19

no data

1.57

no data

no data

no data

no data

1.22

OVERALL

0.55

1.78

0.56

3.25

3.13

8.30

1.87

1.78

Onshore

11.65

8.85

11.27

31.19

2.87

31.56

79.68

7.95

Offshore

0.22

0.17

0.43

28.05

8.96

0.02

2.43

0.39

Unspecified

0.38

3.91

2.46

no data

no data

0.01

no data

0.49

OVERALL

0.35

1.91

0.72

29.74

3.38

8.13

9.37

1.89

Onshore

5.09

6.73

14.54

1.84

4.38

18.33

38.32

8.54

Offshore

0.24

0.16

0.40

32.37

5.41

0.00

0.14

0.30

Unspecified

0.51

6.29

6.55

no data

no data

no data

no data

0.72

OVERALL

0.36

1.73

0.78

2.71

4.53

6.03

2.38

1.84

Produced water re-injected/produced water discharged where both re-injected and discharged produced water, as well as hydrocarbon
production, are reported.

Table A.19: Ratio of produced water re-injected to produced water discharged (tonnes per tonne) by region

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Africa

2013

Onshore

Produced water (t/t)


Production (10 t)
6

Offshore

Produced water (t/t)


Production (106 t)

Unspecified

Produced water (t/t)


Production (10 t)
6

OVERALL

Produced water (t/t)


Production (10 t)
6

2012

Onshore

Produced water (t/t)


Production (106 t)

Offshore

Produced water (t/t)


Production (10 t)
6

Unspecified

Produced water (t/t)


Production (10 t)
6

OVERALL

Produced water (t/t)


Production (106 t)

2011

Onshore

Produced water (t/t)


Production (106 t)

Offshore

Produced water (t/t)


Production (10 t)
6

Unspecified

Produced water (t/t)


Production (106 t)

OVERALL

Produced water (t/t)


Production (106 t)

68

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

0.57

8.34

2.91

0.06

0.67

2.25

4.30

2.03

16.73

65.60

15.70

69.71

294.74

157.64

44.36

664.47

0.16

0.52

0.35

0.10

0.42

0.01

0.15

0.30

143.77

131.07

208.88

42.83

131.37

33.67

124.27

815.86

0.34

no data

0.38

no data

no data

no data

no data

0.34

48.63

no data

13.01

no data

no data

no data

no data

61.64

0.24

3.13

0.52

0.07

0.59

1.86

1.24

1.05

209.13

196.66

237.59

112.54

426.11

191.31

168.63

1541.98

0.09

7.76

3.92

0.06

0.63

2.11

3.63

1.70

117.11

67.80

16.14

53.28

288.03

160.56

38.09

741.01

0.11

0.35

0.34

0.06

0.40

0.01

0.55

0.28

163.50

118.47

213.01

40.63

127.57

33.29

28.86

725.32

0.18

0.29

0.31

0.01

no data

0.00

no data

0.18

74.95

8.01

15.81

10.11

no data

3.62

no data

112.49

0.12

2.93

0.58

0.06

0.56

1.72

2.30

0.94

355.56

194.27

244.96

104.02

415.60

197.46

66.96

1578.82

0.51

6.57

4.73

0.07

0.82

1.80

5.06

2.13

19.46

75.65

17.32

46.00

271.43

150.05

51.08

630.99

0.13

0.25

0.25

0.04

0.33

0.00

0.12

0.20

150.20

155.02

289.92

42.99

133.87

41.35

127.80

941.15

0.22

0.39

0.36

0.01

no data

no data

no data

0.23

43.31

7.19

13.12

9.70

no data

no data

no data

73.32

0.19

2.26

0.50

0.05

0.66

1.41

1.53

0.94

212.97

237.86

320.36

98.69

405.30

191.39

178.88

1645.46

NB: Data only included where quantities of both produced water re-injected and production are reported.

Table A.20: Produced water re-injected per unit of hydrocarbon production by region

2013

2012

2011

Total oil
discharged per
106 t production
(t/106t)

Hydrocarbon
production 106 t

Total oil
discharged per
106 t production
(t/106t)

Hydrocarbon
production 106 t

Total oil
discharged per
106 t production
(t/106t)

Hydrocarbon
production 106 t

Onshore

15

393

12

458

18

479

Offshore

12

915

12

853

15

1,072

28

13

207

10

186

13

1,336

12

1,518

15

1,736

Unspecified
OVERALL

NB: For onshore, offshore, unspecified and overall results data are only included where oil in produced water and spills are
reported as well as production levels for the dataset.

Table A.21: Total oil discharged (discharges + spills) per unit of hydrocarbon production

Appendix A

69

Non-Aqueous Drilling Fluids retained on cuttings discharged to sea

2013

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

North
America

South &
Central
America

TOTAL

Group I

Group II

684

684

Group III

451

153

1,365

1,162

11,528

14,663

1,135

153

1,365

1,162

11,528

15,347

Group I

Group II

775

777

Group III

406

14,688

1,210

1,913

18,217

Unspecified

470

1,058

1,529

1,651

14,688

1,210

2,971

20,523

Group I

Group II

615

619

Group III

2,388

13,727

4,436

1,595

1,917

24,063

37

10,149

123

490

10,799

3,040

23,876

4,436

1,718

2,407

35,481

Unspecified
TOTAL
2012

TOTAL
2011

Unspecified
TOTAL

FSU Middle East

Table A.22: Total base fluid (NABF) retained on cuttings discharged to sea (tonnes) by region
(Figure 38)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

70

Spills

Onshore

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

Number of spills per 106 t

2.33

1.34

3.65

3.10

3.47

3.31

3.37

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)

8.42

8.62

11.97

7.16

46.98

18.27

10.67

754

735

694

798

747

747

742

Number of spills per 10 t

0.15

0.19

0.19

0.13

0.21

0.16

0.21

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)

0.31

1.19

5.59

0.69

1.61

3.01

4.02

955

977

1,114

1,174

1,193

1,203

1,042

Number of spills per 10 t

2.85

1.91

1.39

1.99

1.75

2.40

2.41

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)

7.52

7.23

6.96

18.57

17.18

7.61

10.19

124

265

199

166

178

126

129

Number of spills per 10 t

1.23

0.85

1.51

1.38

1.49

1.43

1.59

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)

4.13

4.76

7.94

4.49

18.92

8.78

7.01

1,832

1,977

2,006

2,139

2,117

2,075

1,913

Production (106 t)
Offshore

Production (106 t)
Unspecified

Production (106 t)
OVERALL

Production (106 t)

NB: Data only included where quantity of oil spilt and production level are both reported.
Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.23: Number of oil spills >1 barrel in size and quantity spilled per unit of
hydrocarbon production (Figure 39)

2013

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

1.79

0.25

0.50

3.76

0.26

2.51

0.40

1.23

10.14

0.45

0.67

5.18

1.92

6.63

1.67

4.13

Production (10 t)

367

256

282

136

320

291

181

1832

Number of spills per 106 t

1.45

0.18

0.48

0.26

0.38

2.1

0.43

0.85

13.74

0.38

2.84

0.97

4.21

4.33

0.67

4.76

393

301

370

113

308

306

187

1977

1.37

0.17

0.43

0.12

0.44

1.65

1.51

23.78

0.45

1.08

0.11

10.28

3.95

10.4

7.94

386

309

430

121

304

271

184

2006

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/106 t)
6

2012

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)


Production (10 t)
6

2011

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/10 t)
6

Production (106 t)

Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.24: Number of oil spills >1 barrel in size and quantity spilled per unit of hydrocarbon
production by region (Figures 40 and 41)

Appendix A

2013 Onshore

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

4.54

0.79

3.97

6.12

0.29

3.45

1.41

2.33

49.63

1.39

3.60

8.46

2.10

9.21

6.61

8.42

54

66

22

83

276

208

45

754

Number of spills per 106 t

0.25

0.07

0.2

0.05

0.09

0.2

0.07

0.15

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)

0.48

0.13

0.41

0.03

0.81

0.15

0.05

0.31

Production (10 t)

250

190

247

43

44

45

136

955

Number of spills per 106 t

5.54

no data

0.23

no data

no data

2.85

14.61

no data

0.58

no data

no data

7.52

63

no data

13

10

no data

38

no data

124

1.79

0.25

0.50

3.76

0.26

2.51

0.40

1.23

10.14

0.45

0.67

5.18

1.92

6.63

1.67

4.13

367

256

282

136

320

291

181

1832

3.25

0.48

5.40

0.51

0.43

2.11

1.33

1.34

55.53

1.19

15.24

2.05

4.86

4.46

1.44

8.62

65

74

16

53

266

209

53

735

Number of spills per 106 t

0.24

0.08

0.30

0.00

0.10

0.15

0.08

0.19

Quantity spilt (t/10 t)

1.15

0.13

2.80

0.00

0.05

0.23

0.37

1.19

Production (106 t)

248

182

283

41

42

47

134

977

Number of spills per 106 t

3.73

0.11

0.08

0.11

no data

3.83

no data

1.91

18.98

0.06

0.19

0.04

no data

7.58

no data

7.23

80

44

71

19

no data

51

no data

265

1.45

0.18

0.48

0.26

0.38

2.10

0.43

0.85

13.74

0.38

2.84

0.97

4.21

4.33

0.67

4.76

393

301

370

113

308

306

187

1977

3.13

0.34

4.13

0.24

0.52

2.15

32.92

3.65

32.50

0.42

7.59

0.23

12.32

5.29

31.70

11.97

75

56

25

58

254

176

50

694

0.38

0.13

0.22

0.00

0.04

0.08

0.06

0.19

22.12

0.46

0.76

0.00

0.02

0.03

2.44

5.59

Production (106 t)

250

248

336

43

50

52

134

1114

Number of spills per 106 t

3.26

0.22

0.11

0.05

no data

1.54

no data

1.39

19.89

0.27

0.30

0.01

no data

3.27

no data

6.96

61

70

20

no data

43

no data

199

1.37

0.17

0.43

0.12

0.44

1.65

9.00

1.51

23.78

0.45

1.08

0.11

10.28

3.95

10.40

7.94

386

309

430

121

304

271

184

2006

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/106 t)
Production (10 t)
6

Offshore

Unspecified

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)
OVERALL

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/106 t)
Production (106 t)

2012 Onshore

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/10 t)
6

Production (106 t)
Offshore

Unspecified

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)
OVERALL

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/106 t)
Production (106 t)

2011 Onshore

Number of spills per 10 t


6

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)
Offshore

Number of spills per 10 t


6

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)

Unspecified

Quantity spilt (t/106 t)


Production (106 t)
OVERALL

71

Number of spills per 106 t


Quantity spilt (t/106 t)
Production (10 t)
6

NB: Data only included for production level where oil quantities spilled and production are reported.
Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.25: Number of oil spills >1 barrel in size and quantity spilled per unit of hydrocarbon
production by region (Figures 41, 42, 43 and 44)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

2013

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

2012

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

2011

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

72

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

Average size (t)

10.9

1.7

0.9

1.4

7.3

2.7

4.7

3.6

Quantity spilt (t)

2677

92

80

702

580

1920

296

6347

Average size (t)

1.8

2.0

2.0

0.6

8.9

1.0

0.7

1.9

Quantity spilt (t)

124

30

101

36

11

309

Average size (t)

2.6

no data

2.5

no data

no data

no data

no data

2.6

Quantity spilt (t)

921

no data

no data

no data

929

Average size (t)

16.8

2.4

2.8

4.0

11.3

2.1

1.6

6.5

Quantity spilt (t)

3622

88

245

109

1292

933

112

6401

Average size (t)

4.7

1.7

9.2

no data

0.5

1.5

4.5

6.4

Quantity spilt (t)

285

23

793

11

49

1163

Average size (t)

5.1

0.5

2.3

0.3

no data

2.0

no data

3.8

Quantity spilt (t)

1519

14

no data

384

1919

Average size (t)

10.3

1.2

1.8

1.0

23.5

2.5

1.0

3.3

Quantity spilt (t)

2448

25

187

14

3128

928

1590

8319

Average size (t)

57.6

3.6

3.4

no data

0.6

0.4

41.0

28.7

Quantity spilt (t)

5529

114

257

328

6231

Average size (t)

6.1

0.5

2.7

0.1

no data

2.1

no data

4.9

Quantity spilt (t)

1219

21

142

1386

NB: Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.26: Quantity of oil spilled per spill onshore and offshore (tonnes) by region

Appendix A

2013

Onshore

Number
Quantity (t)

Offshore

Number
Quantity (t)

Unspecified

Number
Quantity (t)

TOTAL

Number
Quantity (t)

2012

Onshore

Number
Quantity (t)

Offshore

Number
Quantity (t)

Unspecified

Number
Quantity (t)

TOTAL

Number
Quantity (t)

2011

Onshore

Number
Quantity (t)

Offshore

Number
Quantity (t)

Unspecified

Number
Quantity (t)

TOTAL

Number
Quantity (t)

73

<1 barrel

1<X<10
barrels

10<X<100
barrels

>100
barrels

Unspecified

TOTAL

3176

1265

404

77

11

1757

60

588

1640

4095

22

6347

725

102

28

24

161

10

46

97

145

19

308

495

243

93

16

352

129

306

493

928

4396

1610

525

100

35

2270

75

765

2044

4734

42

7585

3157

681

205

69

37

992

50

292

869

5222

18

6401

2688

140

32

10

182

31

54

102

1007

1163

301

340

139

27

506

194

628

1098

1920

6146

1161

376

106

37

1680

89

540

1598

7327

18

9483

2728

2273

181

61

20

2535

38

1788

862

5668

8318

986

161

30

17

217

15

68

100

6060

6231

247

225

38

20

283

127

153

1106

1386

3961

2659

249

90

37

3035

57

1984

1115

12834

15936

Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.27: Distribution of oil spills onshore and offshore by size (Figures 45, 46 and 47)

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

2013

Africa

1<X<10
barrels

10<X<100
barrels

>100 barrels

Unspecified

OVERALL

Number

787

407

197

52

664

Quantity (t)

10.6

216.5

793.3

2705.7

6.4

3721.8

Number

252

59

68

Quantity (t)

4.0

25.4

44.8

52.2

0.0

122.5

Europe

Number

2024

110

18

10

142

Quantity (t)

22.9

42.7

63.1

73.7

9.5

188.9

Number

601

398

104

510

Quantity (t)

20.5

199.5

339.4

163.5

1.2

703.5

Middle East

Number

57

56

20

84

Quantity (t)

1.1

28.2

85.1

502.5

0.0

615.7

North
America

Number

360

523

165

29

13

730

Quantity (t)

5.8

231.3

668.8

1005.6

24.6

1930.3

South &
Central
America

Number

315

57

14

72

Quantity (t)

9.7

20.9

50.0

230.9

0.0

301.8

Africa

Number

668

341

165

69

575

Quantity (t)

16.6

201.0

757.5

4466.9

0.0

5425.3

Asia/
Australasia

Number

361

41

12

55

Quantity (t)

4.4

19.8

49.4

44.6

0.0

113.7

Europe

Number

3797

152

20

179

Quantity (t)
FSU

Middle East

2011

<1 barrel

Asia/
Australasia

FSU

2012

74

43.5

50.3

81.7

920.0

0.0

1052.0

Number

32

20

29

Quantity (t)

0.9

11.0

43.8

54.8

0.0

109.6

Number

29

66

20

26

118

Quantity (t)

0.8

32.7

68.0

1193.0

0.0

1293.7

North
America

Number

635

478

135

18

11

642

Quantity (t)

9.9

196.6

542.2

571.0

18.0

1327.7

South &
Central
America

Number

624

63

16

82

Quantity (t)

12.8

28.8

55.7

76.5

0.0

161.0

Africa

Number

635

372

98

62

533

Quantity (t)

13.6

192.3

508.9

8493.5

0.3

9195.0

Asia/
Australasia

Number

223

47

60

Quantity (t)

4.7

21.8

23.8

96.7

0.3

142.7

Europe

Number

2251

149

18

12

185

Quantity (t)
FSU

Middle East

25.9

58.2

56.3

348.6

2.5

465.6

Number

56

13

15

Quantity (t)

1.1

6.6

7.1

0.0

0.0

13.7

Number

52

89

23

20

135

Quantity (t)

1.5

39.4

89.8

3000.3

0.0

3129.5

North
America

Number

713

347

86

15

448

Quantity (t)

9.6

201.5

374.1

495.9

0.0

1071.5

South &
Central
America

Number

31

1642

15

1659

Quantity (t)

0.6

1464.0

54.7

398.8

0.0

1917.5

Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.28: Distribution of oil spills by size by region

Appendix A

75

Number of spills

Loss from primary


containment (tonnes)

Recovered (tonnes)

163

93

Equipment failure (excluding corrosion)

15

676

473

Operator or technical error

13

460

387

Third party damage (sabotage, theft, vandalism, etc.)

32

2076

16

534

78

77

3909

1047

Corrosion

Other (4 operational, 2 freezing, 1 livestock,


1 unplanned power outage)
Total
NB: Quantity of oil recovered is not reported for all spills.

Table A.29: Oil spills > 100 barrels in size (where cause was indicated) by cause 2013 (Figure 48)

Number of spills

Loss from primary


containment (tonnes)

Corrosion

57

209

Equipment failure (excluding corrosion)

66

275

Operator or technical error

47

211

Third party damage (sabotage, theft, vandalism, etc.)

28

Other

22

185

746

TOTAL

Table A.30: Oil spills 10100 barrels (where cause was indicated) by cause 2013 (Figure 49)

Excluding third party damage

Number of spills

Loss from primary


containment (tonnes)

149

599

14

60

Processed oil

26

Unspecified oil

33

Crude oil

13

Condensate

16

Crude oil
Condensate

Third party damage

Table A.31: Oil spills 10100 barrels (where cause was indicated) by material spilled 2013

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Excluding third party damage

Number of spills

Loss from primary


containment (tonnes)

20

74

37

13

49

FSU

Middle East

15

North America

123

503

South & Central


America

10

35

Africa

Asia/Australasia

Europe

Middle East

North America

10

Africa
Asia/Australasia
Europe

Third party damage

76

Table A.32: Oil spills 10100 barrels (where cause was indicated) by region

Excluding third party damage

Third party damage

Number of spills

Loss from primary


containment (tonnes)

Onshore

155

642

Offshore

21

75

Onshore

27

Offshore

Table A.33: Oil spills 10100 barrels (where cause was indicated) by location

2013

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

2012

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

2011

Onshore

Offshore

Unspecified

Appendix A

77

Africa

Asia/
Australasia

Europe

FSU

Middle
East

North
America

South &
Central
America

OVERALL

Average size (t)

1.19

0.77

1.80

1.93

2.70

8.26

9.03

3.20

Quantity spilt (t)

13

1048

925

271

2265

Average size (t)

58.89

5.66

13.52

no data

no data

27.95

5.50

15.92

Quantity spilt (t)

471

68

1434

224

33

2229

Average size (t)

0.56

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

no data

0.56

Quantity spilt (t)

no data

no data

no data

Average size (t)

16.13

0.52

0.35

3.60

6.62

3.92

0.80

4.19

Quantity spilt (t)

113

29

33

607

791

Average size (t)

3.02

0.54

4.22

37.58

0.64

6.11

11.94

6.95

Quantity spilt (t)

27

401

225

122

430

1210

Average size (t)

13.42

0.95

2.33

0.80

no data

5.26

no data

5.68

Quantity spilt (t)

67

no data

237

312

Average size (t)

55.76

1.16

2.23

31.27

0.08

1.52

11.83

6.91

Quantity spilt (t)

390

22

281

152

272

1127

Average size (t)

0.78

4.28

3.13

7.00

no data

3.44

12.58

4.70

Quantity spilt (t)

47

282

72

327

742

Average size (t)

2.93

14.31

no data

no data

no data

1.82

no data

3.21

Quantity spilt (t)

15

14

13

42

NB: Excludes spills <1 barrel in size.

Table A.34: Chemical spills (tonnes) onshore and offshore by region


Some of the historical results in this appendix differ from those published in IOGP Report No. 2012e,
Environmental Performance Indicators report - 2012 data. Results affected are:
2012 CO2 figures corrected for North America
2012 CO2 figures corrected for South & Central America
2012 Water discharge figures corrected for North America and South & Central America
2011 and 2012 Energy figures correction moved from onsite to purchased for Europe
2012 hydrocarbon production and related data moved from onshore to offshore for South America
2012 hydrocarbon production and related data moved from offshore to onshore for Australia.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

78

Glossary

79

Glossary
The following definitions have been used in this report. Some are generic, whereas
others are specifically applicable to this report.
API

American Petroleum Institute.

Barrel, Bbl

In the energy industry, a barrel is 42 US gallons


measured at 60 Fahrenheit. This is approximately
159 litres.

Base fluid

The continuous phase or suspending medium of a


drilling fluid formulation.

CH4

Methane, the principal constituent of natural gas. One


of the primary greenhouse gases.

CO2

Carbon dioxide, a colourless, odourless, and


non-flammable gas. CO2 emissions occur from
the combustion of fossil fuels. CO2 is a primary
greenhouse gas.

Crude oil

A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists as a liquid in


natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at
atmospheric pressure after passing through surface
separating facilities. Crude oil is the raw material that
is refined into gasoline, heating oil, jet fuel, propane,
petrochemicals, and other products.

Cuttings

The particles generated by drilling into subsurface


geologic formations and carried out from the wellbore
with the drilling fluid. Examples of drill cuttings
include small pieces of rock varying in size and texture
from fine silt to gravel.

Drilling fluid

The circulating fluid (mud) used in the rotary drilling


of wells to clean and condition the hole and to
counterbalance formation pressure. A water-based
drilling fluid is the conventional drilling fluid in which
water is the continuous phase and the suspending
medium for solids, whether or not oil is present. An
oil-base drilling fluid has diesel, crude, or some other
oil as its continuous phase with water as the dispersed
phase.

E&P

Exploration and Production (of hydrocarbons).

Emission rate

Emissions of gases per unit of hydrocarbon


production.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Energy
(as an atmospheric
emission source
category)

80

Includes emissions generated through the


consumption of fuel. Typical fuel-consuming
equipment types in E&P operations include:
Turbines (e.g. driving compressors, generators,
and pumps)
Internal Combustion Engines
Heaters
Boilers / Reboilers

Energy intensity

Energy consumed per unit of hydrocarbon production.

Exploration

Study of geological formations to detect the presence


of hydrocarbons.

Flare

Includes emissions generated by burning of gases (or


in some cases liquids) in a thermal destruction device,
including E&P flaring of associated gas (and in some
cases liquids) from oil production or well testing.
Typical equipment sources in this category include:

(as an atmospheric
emission source
category)

Flares
Thermal Oxidizers
Flaring

The controlled burning of natural gas produced


in association with oil in the course of oil and gas
exploration and production operations. It also includes
the controlled and safe burning of gas which cannot
be used for commercial or technical reasons.

Fugitive emission,
fugitive losses

Unintended emissions released to the air, other than


those from stacks or vents from the processing,
transmission, and/or transportation of fossil fuels.
They are often due to equipment leaks and evaporative
processes.

Gasoil ratio

The volume of gas at atmospheric pressure produced


per unit volume of oil produced.

Gaseous Emission

Gaseous emissions to the atmosphere from flaring


and venting, process and turbine combustion. Includes
fugitive losses from pumps, valves, flanges, pipes, etc.

Greenhouse gas

A gas that contributes to the natural greenhouse


effect. The primary six greenhouse gases (GHGs)
produced by human activities are: carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons,
perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride. For the
purpose of this report GHG considers only CO2 and
CH4.

Hydrocarbon

An organic chemical compound of hydrogen and


carbon (see petroleum).

Glossary

81

Hydrocarbon
production

Quantity of hydrocarbon gas and/or liquids produced.

IPIECA

The global oil and gas industry association for


environmental and social issues.

Mud

Common term for drilling fluid

Nitrogen Oxides

Nitrogen Oxides represent the sum of nitric oxide


(NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) expressed as NO2
equivalent. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is not included as a
component of NOX. NOX emissions occur from the
combustion of fossil fuels for industry and transport
and are a function of the type and quantity of fuel
burned and the type of combustion device in which
they are burned.

(NOX)

Non-aqueous
drilling fluid
(NADF)

A drilling fluid in which the continuous phase is a


water-immiscible fluid such as an oleaginous material
(e.g. mineral oil, enhanced mineral oil, paraffinic oil,
or synthetic material such as olefins and vegetable
esters). NADFs serve many purposes under difficult
drilling conditions. NADFs are usually reused.

NMVOC

Non-methane volatile organic compounds: all


hydrocarbons other than methane that can vaporize at
normal temperature and pressure.

Normalization

To compare emissions from different regions or


sources it is useful to relate them to the size of the
activity causing the emission. For example, tonnes of
CO2 can be presented by their ratio to tonnes of oil and
gas produced. This procedure is called normalization.

Offshore

For this report offshore refers to operations that take


place at sea, including inland seas directly connecting
to oceans. Operations in bays, in major inland seas,
e.g. the Caspian Sea, or in other inland seas directly
connected to oceans are counted as offshore.

Onshore

For this report onshore refers to operations that take


place within a landmass, including swamps, lakes,
rivers and estuaries, but excluding major inland seas.

On-site combustion

The local combustion of fuels by E&P companies to


produce energy for their operations.

Operator

Term used to describe a company appointed by


venture stakeholders to take primary responsibility for
day-to-day operations for a specific plant or activity.

Processing

The separation of oil, gas, and natural gas liquids and


the removal of impurities.

Environmental performance indicators - 2013 data

Produced water
(PW)

82

The water (generally brine) brought up from the


hydrocarbon-bearing strata during the extraction of
oil and gas, including formation water, injection water,
and any chemicals added downhole or during the oil/
water separation process.
For the purposes of this report produced water
discharges from crude oil and natural gas facilities
are categorized by the source of production and not
the location where they occur, i.e. where production
is offshore and discharges are generated from an
onshore facility, the discharges are reported as
offshore.

Production

All production activities including production drilling,


process and treatment, flaring and venting, pipeline
transport, and terminal operations.
(see Hydrocarbon production)

Purchased energy

Energy purchased in the form of electricity or steam.

SO2

The sum of sulphur dioxide (SO2) and sulphur trioxide


(SO3) expressed as SO2 equivalent.

Source of emissions

In the case of gaseous emissions refers to the


process by which the emissions are released. Source
categories are Energy, Flare, Vent, Fugitive losses and
Unspecified.

Spill

Any loss of containment that reaches the environment


(i.e. not inclusive of any released volume retained
within secondary or other confinement), irrespective
of the quantity recovered (i.e. represents the gross
volume reaching the environment, not a net volume
remaining in the environment).
Spills occurring from support and standby vessels are
included but spills of produced water or process waste
water are excluded. Includes loss of containment
resulting from acts of sabotage (such as theft of oil
from pipelines and storage, or vandalism); excludes
loss as a result of acts of terrorism/attacks on
infrastructure.

Synthetics

Synthetic material as applied to synthetic-based


drilling fluid means material produced by the reaction
of specific purified chemical feedstock, as opposed to
the traditional base fluids such as diesel and mineral
oil which are derived from crude oil solely through
physical separation processes.

Glossary

83

Synthetic-based
drilling fluid

A drilling fluid that has a synthetic material as its


continuous phase with water as the dispersed phase.
Synthetic-based drilling fluids are a subset of nonaqueous drilling fluids

Tonne

A metric tonne; equivalent to 1,000 kilograms or


2,205 pounds.

Transport

The transfer of hydrocarbons from the site of


production to the point of commercial metering or
terminal or offshore loading device.

Upstream industry

Those operations within the industry to the point


where the produced resource is metered into the
transportation system. This includes Exploration and
Production.

Venting

The controlled release of unburned gas to the


atmosphere.

Water-based drilling
fluid (mud)

A drilling fluid in which water or a water miscible fluid


is the continuous phase and the suspending medium
for solids, whether or not oil is present.

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The International Association


of Oil and Gas Producers (IOGP)
has collected environmental
data from its member companies
every year since 1999.
The objective of this programme
has been to allow member
companies to compare their
performance with other
companies in the sector leading,
it is hoped, to improved and
more efficient performance.
The programme also contributes
to the industrys wish to be more
transparent about its operations.
This report summarizes
information on exploration
and production (E&P) activities
carried out by contributing IOGP
member companies in 2013.

www.iogp.org