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1.

This question is about some of the planets in the solar system.


Four of the planets in the solar system are Mars, Venus, Jupiter and Neptune.
(a)

List these planets in order of increasing distance from the Sun.

(2)

(b)

List these planets in order of decreasing diameter.

(2)
(Total 4 marks)

2.

This question is about the density of the universe.


(a)

Explain, with reference to the possible fate of the universe, the significance of the critical
density of matter in the universe.
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(3)

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(b)

Suggest one reason why it is difficult to estimate the density of matter in the universe.
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

3.

This question is about cosmology.


(a)

State how the observed red-shift of many galaxies is explained.


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(1)

(b)

Explain how the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation is consistent with the
Big Bang model.
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(2)

(c)

Calculate the temperature of the universe when the peak wavelength of the CMB was
equal to the wavelength of red light (7.0 107 m).
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(2)
(Total 5 marks)

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4.

This question is about the main sequence star Khad (Phi Orionis).
The luminosity of Khad is 2.0 104 LS, where LS is the luminosity of the Sun.
(a)

Assuming that the exponent n in the massluminosity relation is 3.5, show that the mass
of Khad is about 17 solar masses.
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(2)

(b)

Outline the likely evolution of the star Khad after it leaves the main sequence.
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(3)
(Total 5 marks)

5.

This question is about Hubbles law and the age of the universe.
(a)

(i)

State Hubbles law.


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(1)

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(ii)

State why Hubbles law cannot be used to determine the distance from Earth to
nearby galaxies, such as Andromeda.
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(1)

(b)

(i)

Show that

1
is an estimate of the age of the universe, where H0 is the Hubble
H0

constant.
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(2)

(ii)

Assuming H0 = 80 km s1 M pc1, estimate the age of the universe in seconds.


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(1)
(Total 5 marks)

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6.

This question is about the relative population density of stars and galaxies.
The number of stars around the Sun, within a distance of 17 ly, is 75. The number of galaxies in
the local group, within a distance of 4.0 106 ly from the Sun, is 26.
(a)

Calculate the average population density, per ly3, of stars and galaxies.
Stars: ...........................................................................................................................
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Galaxies: ......................................................................................................................
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(2)

(b)

Use your answer to (a) to determine the ratio

average population density of stars


average population density of galaxies
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(1)
(Total 3 marks)

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7.

This question is about cosmology.


(a)

The diagram below represents a spherical region of space based on Newtons model of
the universe. Earth is at the centre of the region. The dark line represents a very thin
spherical shell of space distance R from Earth.

With reference to the diagram and Newtons model of the universe explain
quantitatively Olbers paradox.
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(4)

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(b)

The Big Bang theory provides a resolution to Olbers paradox. Two pieces of evidence to
support the theory are the existence of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB)
and the red-shifted light from distant galaxies.
(i)

Outline how CMB is consistent with the Big Bang theory.


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(3)

(ii)

The following data are available for the red-shift of light from a distant galaxy.
Wavelength of light from galaxy
Wavelength measured in laboratory
Hubble constant

= 130 nm
= 120 nm
= 74 km s1 Mpc1

Use the data to determine the distance of the galaxy from Earth.
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(4)
(Total 11 marks)

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8.

This question is about the star Becrux and Cepheid variables.


(a)

Describe what is meant by


(i)

the apparent magnitude scale.


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(ii)

absolute magnitude.
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(1)

(b)

Becrux is a main sequence star and is one of the stars that make up the Southern Cross.
The following data are available for Becrux.
Apparent magnitude
Absolute magnitude
Apparent brightness

= 1.25
= 3.92
= 7.00 1012 bSun

bSun is the apparent brightness of the Sun. Use the data to deduce that the
(i)

distance of Becrux from Earth is 108 pc.


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(ii)

luminosity of Becrux is 3.43 103 LSun where LSun is the luminosity of the Sun.
(1 pc = 2.05 105 AU)
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(c)

Becrux is a spectral class B star. On the axes of the HertzsprungRussell diagram label
with the letter B the approximate position of Becrux.

(1)

(d)

On the axes of the HertzsprungRussell diagram above, draw the approximate region in
which Cepheid variable stars are located.
(1)

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(e)

State the reason for the periodic variation in luminosity of a Cepheid variable.
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(1)

(f)

State the two quantities that need to be measured in order to use a Cepheid variable as a
standard candle to determine the distance to the galaxy in which the Cepheid is located.
1. ..................................................................................................................................
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(2)
(Total 14 marks)

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