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Journal of Telecommunications, ISSN 2042-8839, Volume 28, Issue 1, November 2014 www.journaloftelecommunications.co.uk

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- OFDM for Mobile Data Communication
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- MartinBraun_GNURadio_OFDM
- Error Correction Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks
- Rainfall Variability and Impact on Communication Infrastructure in Nigeria
- Mimo Ofdm Book
- Radio Wave Propagation Path Loss Modelling in Mobile Communications Environment: a Case Study of Ogun-state in Nigeria
- SFN Monitoring for DVB-T/T2 Networks
- 2016 PhD PKPradhan
- MartinBraun_GNURadio_OFDM
- Blocking probability minimization in WDM with optimal placement of wavelength converters using ETGA
- Eigenvalue Based Selection of Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions for Pulse Shape Modulation
- MartinBraun_GNURadio_OFDM
- Study of UWB On-Body Radio Channel for Ectomorph, Mesomorph, and Endomorph Body Types
- The Basic Principles of OFDM
- Co Mimo Ofdm
- Rep2ort
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- Comparative Evaluation of Bit Error Rate for Different Ofdm Subcarriers in Rayleigh Channel
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- Optimization of Passive FTTH Network Design Using Vertical Micro Ducting
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- Micro Controller Based Remote Sensing and Controlling using Cellular Network
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- Controlled Sink Mobility for Efficient Design of a Wireless Sensor Network
- Implementation scenarios for an adaptable LTE turbo decoder based on BLER
- Optimal Pilot Matrix Design for Training- Based Channel Estimation in MIMO Communications
- DMVPN (Dynamic Multipoint VPN): A Solution for Interconnection of Sites IPv6 over an IPv4 Transport Network
- Analysis of spurious RF signal caused by retardation in optical two-tone signal generator utilizing polarisation manipulation
- Blackhole Attack Effect Elimination in VANET Networks Using IDS-AODV, RAODV and AntNet Algorithm
- Rural Area Development and Society Performance Improvement in Ghana
- Applying Optimum Combining to a DS/CDMA Code Diversity System
- Patient Monitoring Using Bluetooth and Wireless LAN: A Review
- Simulation of a communication system using Verilog Language
- Automated Teaching Step-by-Step the Operations of TCP/IP Model (A-Step-TPC/IP)
- Learning an Online Control Experiment Platform Using Labview Software
- QoT Aware Dynamic Routing and Wavelength Assignment Technique using Fuzzy Logic Controller in WDM Networks
- Improving the Performance of DWDM Free Space Optics System under Worst Weather Conditions
- Development of a Sign language Tutoring System for People with Hearing Disability
- Programming Considerations for the Design of Token Ludo Game Using Petri Nets
- SFN Monitoring for DVB-T/T2 Networks
- Blocking probability minimization in WDM with optimal placement of wavelength converters using ETGA
- Study of UWB On-Body Radio Channel for Ectomorph, Mesomorph, and Endomorph Body Types

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8

**Broadband Pulse shapes for PAPR
**

Mitigation Technique

Ashwini Saykar and Debashis Adhikari

Abstract—The desire for higher data rates of transmission has resulted in the evolution of many new communication

technologies over the years. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) is one such technology which is capable of

achieving a high rate system. Although OFDM has many advantages of being a bandwidth efficient and high rate system, the

problem of peak to average power ratio (PAPR) has resulted in a considerable disadvantage to this technology. In this paper we

discuss a pulse shaping method to reduce the PAPR. Few broadband pulse shapes are analysed that can be used to modulate

the sub-carrier frequencies. It is established that PSWF based pulses could lead to minimize the problem of PAPR.

Index Terms— PAPR, OFDM, PSWF.

—————————— ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

W

**IRELESS multimedia applications has emerged as
**

the fastest growing voice and data communication

technology. This rapid development of wide areamultimedia networks has built up general greed for

higher data rates. However such a goal is bound by optimal spectrum utilization and major channel impairments

like delay spread, noise, interference and channel variations as well as battery life of portable devices.

High data rates are primarily governed by the symbol

rate and transmit constellation complexity. Also a dispersive multipath channel results in severe intersymbol interferernce (ISI), thereby limiting the signaling rate. This

would call for complex equalizers as the data rates are

higher. For a single carrier system, the increase in signal

bandwidth due to increase in symbol rate results in frequency selective fading as the coherence bandwidth becomes less than the signal bandwidth.

Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)

is one such technology that is best suited to achieve this

goal of high data rate. It can be viewed as a kind of multicarrier system with a narrow-band transmission scheme.

OFDM has the advantage of combating multipath fading

by virtue of multiplexing serial data into large number of

subcarrier frequencies, each of narrow bandwidth. Thus,

with a large number of subcarriers (N), the subcarrier

bandwidth (B/N, with B as the total bandwidth) becomes

much less than the coherent bandwidth thereby satisfying

the conditions of a frequency flat fading channel. In contrast, a multi-carrier transmission scheme uses fewer subcarrier frequencies resulting in broader subcarrier bandwidths as in the case of HSPA. A proper choice of symbol

duration and carrier spacing makes the OFDM technology an efficient one. The system complexity largely reduces by IDFT – DFT process. OFDM is bandwidth efficient

————————————————

** Ashwini Saykar is with Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis
**

International University, Lavle, Pune, India.

D. Adhikari is a Faculty at Synbiosis Institute of Technology, Symbiosis

International University, Lavle, Pune.

**signaling system as the spectra of orthogonal subcarriers
**

are overlapped.

However there are few limitations of OFDM inspite of

the avantages of being a high rate system. One of the major limitations is the high peak-to-average power ratio

(PAPR) and its sensitivity against carrier frequency offset

(CFO). An outcome of CFO is loss of orthogonality

among the carriers resulting in inter carrier interference

(ICI).

In this paper PAPR and its mitigation techniques using

different pulse shapes is presented. In Section 2 the problem of PAPR and many proposed reduction techniques in

literature is discussed. Section 3 discusses about the system model of PAPR reduction scheme with different

pulse shapes for OFDM symbols. In Section 4 we discuss

few broadband waveforms that can be used as pulse

shapes and analyze these pulse shapes with simulation

results in Section 5.

**2 PEAK TO AVERAGE POWER RATIO IN OFDM
**

2.1 PAPR mathematical foundation

A major drawback in OFDM because of multiple carriers

is the non-constant envelope with high peaks leading to

high peak – to – average power ratio (PAPR). PAPR is

defined as the ratio between the maximum power and the

average power of a complex bandpass signal s(t)
𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅

{𝑠̌ (𝑡)} =
𝑚𝑎𝑥

|𝑅𝑒(𝑠̌ (𝑡)𝑒 𝑗2𝜋𝑓𝑐 𝑡 )|2 𝑚𝑎𝑥|𝑠(𝑡)|2

=
𝐸

{|𝑅𝑒(𝑠̌ (𝑡)𝑒 𝑗2𝜋𝑓𝑐 𝑡 )|2 }
𝐸

{|𝑠(𝑡)|2 }

(1)

**For a single carrier system with BPSK modulated symbols
**

x(0), x(1) .. x(N-1) the average power in each symbol is

given as
𝐴𝑣

. 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐸{|𝑥(𝑘)|2 } = 𝑎2

(2)

**where the power in each symbol is 𝑎2 which is also the
**

peak power. The PAPR for a single carrier system is

9

therefore
𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅

|𝑆𝑖𝑛𝑔𝑙𝑒 𝑐𝑎𝑟𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑟 =
𝑃𝑒𝑎𝑘

𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

= 1 = 0 𝑑𝐵
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒

𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

(3)

**This indicates that there is no significant deviation from
**

the mean power level for a single carrier system.

For N sub-carrier OFDM system, the kth sample of

IFFT is given as
𝑁

−1
𝑖

1
𝑥

(𝑘) = ∑ 𝑋(𝑖) 𝑒 𝑗2𝜋𝑘𝑁
𝑁

(4) 𝑖

=0

**where 𝑋(𝑖) is the ith information symbol. The average
**

power is given as
𝐴𝑣

. 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟 = 𝐸{|𝑥(𝑘)|2 }
𝑁

−1

= 𝑖

2

1

∑ 𝐸{|𝑋(𝑖)|2 } 𝐸 {|𝑒 𝑗2𝜋𝑘𝑁 | }

2
𝑁
𝑖

=0
𝑁

−1
𝑁

−1 𝑖

=0 𝑖

=0

1

1
𝑎

2

= 2 ∑ 𝐸{|𝑋(𝑖)|2 } = 2 ∑ 𝑎2 =
𝑁
𝑁
𝑁

(5)

**To find the peak power for the zeroth sample
𝑁**

−1
𝑁

−1 𝑖

=0 𝑖

=0 𝑖

1

1
𝑥

(0) = ∑ 𝑋(𝑖) 𝑒 𝑗2𝜋𝑘𝑁 = ∑ 𝑋(𝑖)
𝑁
𝑁

(6)

If 𝑋(0) = 𝑋(1) = ⋯ = 𝑋(𝑁 − 1) = 𝑎 then
𝑁

−1
𝑥

(0) = 𝑁

−1

1

1
𝑎𝑁

∑ 𝑋(𝑖) = ∑ 𝑎 =

=𝑎
𝑁
𝑁
𝑁
𝑖

=0

(7) 𝑖

=0

**Therefore the peak power is 𝑎2 . The PAPR for the OFDM
**

system with N sub-carriers is given as
𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅

|𝑂𝐹𝐷𝑀 =
𝑃𝑒𝑎𝑘

𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

=𝑁
𝐴𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑔𝑒

𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟

(8)

**In general for MPSK modulated symbols in an OFDM
**

system with N subcarriers, the maximum power occurs

when all of the N subcarrier components add up with

identical phases. This results in a high peak value signal

causing different types of non-linearities.

The sources of non-linearity can be [1] in the FFT and

IFFT blocks due to limited binary word lengths, signal

clipping and quantization errors and non-linearity of

power amplifiers (PA). Of these, the non-linearity in the

PA is most dominant in a multicarrier modulations system, because of high PAPR.

As long as the signal swing is within the dynamic range

of the PA, no problem is encountered. However due to

high peaks encountered in OFDM, the peak signals resulting in high PAPR is likely to drive the PA into saturation. An input back-off (IBO) is required to shift the operating point to the left [2], where,

2
𝑃𝑠𝑎𝑡
𝑥𝑠𝑎𝑡
𝐼𝐵𝑂

(𝑑𝐵) = 10 log10 (

) = 10 log10 (

)
𝑃𝑎𝑣
𝐸

{|𝑥(𝑡)|2 }

(9)

**To ensure that the amplified peaks of the OFDM signal do
**

not exceed the saturation level, IBO should be atleast

equal to PAPR.

**2.1 PAPR reduction techniques
**

The PAPR reduction techniques is classified as clipping

techniques, coding technique, probabilistic (scrambling)

technique, adaptive predistortion technique and DFT

spreading technique.

In the first technique the peak of the resultant summed

carrier output is clipped by block-scaling, filtering, peak

cancellation, Fourier projection and decision aided reconstruction techniques. The coding technique reduces the

PAPR without causing any distortion and out-of band

noise, but suffers from bandwidth efficiency [1]. The

probabilistic technique is to scramble an input data block

of OFDM symbols and transmit the one with minimum

PAPR. This reduces the probability of incurring high

PAPR. This technique includes selective mapping (SLM),

partial transmit sequence (PTS), tone reservation (TR) and

tone injection (TI). In the adaptive pre-distortion technique the non-linear effects of the HPA is compensated

by automatically modifying the input constellation with

the least hardware requirement. In the DFT spreading

technique, the input signal is spreaded with DFT which

can be subsequently taken as IFFT. This reduces the

PAPR of OFDM signal to the level of single carrier transmission. This technique, also known as Single Carrier–

FDMA (SC-FDMA) is adopted for uplink transmission in

3GPP LTE standard.

A modified SLM technique for PAPR reduction of coded OFDM signal is proposed in [3]. In this technique the

phase sequence is embedded in check sequence of coded

data blocks. Based on SLM approach, [4] proposed a post

IFFT PAPR reduction technique for determining a unique

set of time-domain sequences per OFDM block that can

minimize PAPR. In [5] a semi-blind SLM technique is

proposed where the same PAPR as that of a classical SLM

is maintained while increasing the overall throughput. A

non-linear companding technique to reduce high PAPR of

OFDM signals is discussed in [6]. A non-linear companding transform (NLT) technique is proposed in [7] for

further reducing the PAPR of SC-FDMA. Modification of

dummy subcarriers to reduce PAPR is proposed in [8].

Attempts have also been made to reduce the problem

of PAPR by adopting suitable pulse shaping techniques.

An efficient technique based on proper selection of time

waveforms of the different subcarriers of an OFDM modulation scheme to reduce PAPR is proposed in [9]. It was

shown that with broadband pulse shaping the PAPR of

OFDM modulated signals can be made very close to that

of single carrier signals. The complimentary CDF (CCDF)

of PAPR to ascertain the reduction in performance was

derived in [10] with pulse shaping filters.

10

**3 SYSTEM MODEL FOR PAPR MITIGATION BY
**

PULSE SHAPING TECHNIQUES

The system model is shown in Fig. 1. For a N – subcarriers

system with pulse-shaping. The incoming data is fed to

the constellation mapper to obtain the baseband modulated output. The modulation technique selected should

be bandwidth efficient. The baseband modulated stream

is then split into N parallel sreams. Each stream is shaped

by a pulse shape and transmitted over a given carrier. The

OFDM transmitted signal is expressed as [11]
𝑁

−1 𝑡 𝑥

(𝑡) = ∑ 𝑋𝑛 (𝑘)𝑝𝑘 (𝑡)𝑒 𝑗2𝜋𝑘𝑇 , 𝑛𝑇 ≤ 𝑡 ≤ (𝑛 + 1)𝑇

(10)

shapes that mitigate the problem of PAPR. 𝑖

=0

**where 𝑋𝑛 (𝑘) is the modulated data symbol for sub-carrier
**

k and T is the duration of the OFDM block. The pulse

shape 𝑝𝑘 (𝑡) is of duration T having a bandwidth equal to

or less than the OFDM signal x(t) used with subcarrier k

with
𝑇

2

∫|𝑝𝑘 (𝑡)| 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑇

(11)

0

**From the definition of PAPR in (1) we have
𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅**

=

**Using phase shift keyed modulated symbols in the constellation mapper and considering (1) we obtain from
**

above
𝑁

−1

2

1

= max (∑|𝑝𝑘 (𝑡)|)
𝑁

0≤𝑡≤𝑇

(12) 𝑛

=0

**The above equation signifies that the PAPR depends on
**

the number of sub-carriers N as well as the pulse shape
𝑝𝑘

(𝑡) used for each sub-carrier.

As shown in [slimanne] the above expression reduces to

the following if the same pulse shape is used for each subcarrier,
𝑁

−1
𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅𝑚𝑎𝑥

**4.1 Gaussian Pulse shapes
**

Gaussian pulse shapes are derived from the Gausssian

function

1
𝑥

2
𝐺

(𝑥) =
𝑒𝑥𝑝

(− 2 )

(15)

2𝜎

√2𝜋𝜎 2

InFig.

general

nth for

order

derivative

of waveforms

Gaussian pulse is

1 Systemthe

model

OFDM

with different

given recursively as
𝑚𝑎𝑥

|𝑥(𝑡)|2
𝐸

|𝑥(𝑡)|2
𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅

≤ 𝑃𝐴𝑃𝑅𝑚𝑎𝑥

**4 BROADBAND PULSE SHAPES FOR PAPR
**

MITIGATION
𝑥

(𝑛) (𝑡) = −

(𝑛 − 1) (𝑛−2) 𝑡

(𝑡) − 2 𝑥 (𝑛−1) (𝑡) 𝑥

2 𝜎 𝜎

(16)

**where 𝜎 is the scaling factor −∞ < 𝑡 < ∞ . Higher orderwaveforms are formed by highpass filtering of the
**

Gaussian pulses. The time domain plots for derivatives of

Gaussian pulses for order n = 0 to 4 is shown in Fig.2.

The Gaussian monocycle (n = 1) has a single zero-crossing

and each of the further derivatives adds one more zero

crossing. The spectrum of nth order derivative of Gaussian

2

1

= max (∑|𝑝𝑘 (𝑡)|) = 𝑁 max |𝑝𝑘 (𝑡)|2

0≤𝑡≤𝑇
𝑁

0≤𝑡≤𝑇

(13) 𝑛

=0

**The expression in (12) can therefore be minimized if the
**

sub-carrier waveforms have the following properties

[2002]

(i) Broadband pulse shapes are desirable.

(ii) All selected pulse shapes should be different and satisfy the orthogonality criterion
𝑇
𝑇

, 𝑘 = 𝑙

∫ 𝑝𝑘 (𝑡)𝑝𝑙∗ 𝑒 𝑗2𝜋(𝑓𝑘 −𝑓𝑙 )𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = {

0, 𝑘 ≠ 𝑙

0

Based on the above we propose few broadband pulse

(14)

**pulse is obtained by using the transform properties of
**

derivative of functions.

11 𝑋𝑛

(𝑓) =

(𝑗2𝜋𝑓)𝑛 𝑋

(𝑓) =

(𝑗2𝜋𝑓)𝑛

(2𝜋𝑓𝜎)2
𝑒𝑥𝑝

(−

)

2

(17)

where 𝑋(𝑓) is the Fourier spectrum of the first order derivative of the Gaussian pulse. The power spectral density on nth order derivative of Gaussian pulse is
𝜑𝑛𝐺

(𝑓) = |𝑋𝑛 (𝑓)|2 = (2𝜋𝑓)2𝑛 𝑒𝑥𝑝(−(2𝜋𝑓𝜎)2 )

(18)

**The autocorrelation function function of 𝑥 (𝑛) (𝑡) is found
**

by computing the inverse Fourier transform of 𝜑𝑛𝐺 (𝑓) to

obtain

1 𝑑 2𝑛
𝜏

2
𝑅𝑛

(𝜏) = (2𝜋)2𝑛 (−𝑗)2𝑛
𝑒𝑥𝑝

(−

)

(19)

4𝜎 2

√2𝜎 2 𝑑𝜏 2𝑛

**4.2 Modified Hermite Pulse shapes
**

Hermite pulses of nth order are obtained from derivatives

of Gaussian pulse as
𝑡

2 𝑑𝑛
𝑡

2

ℎ𝑛 (𝑡) = (−𝜏)𝑛 𝑒𝑥𝑝 ( 2 ) 𝑛 𝑒𝑥𝑝 (− 2 )

(20)

4𝜎 𝑑𝑡

2𝜎

The time domain pulse shapes are shown in Fig. 3 and 4

for even and odd orders respectively. The ACF of the

MHP is given as
𝑛
𝑅𝑛

(𝜏) = √2𝜋𝑒𝑥𝑝 (− 𝜂

2
𝑛

! 𝑛!

)∑(

) (−1)𝑘 𝜂2𝑘 (21)

2
𝑘

! 𝑘! (𝑛 − 𝑘)!
𝑘

=0

**where the scaling factor 𝜎 is assumed to be 1. Taking the
**

Fourier transform of 𝑅𝑛 (𝜏) we obtain the power spectral

density of MHP as

∅𝑛𝐻 (𝑓)
𝑛

= √2𝜋 ∑
𝑘

=0
𝑛

! 𝑛!

1
𝑑

2𝑘
𝜔

2

(−1)𝑘 (𝑗)2𝑘
𝑒𝑥𝑝

(− ) (22)

2𝑘
𝑘

! (𝑛 − 𝑘)! 𝑘!

2
𝑑𝜔

2

**4.3 Raised cosine Pulse shapes
**

The mathematical equation for raised cosine pulse is

given as,
𝑡
𝑡

cos (𝜋𝛼 ) sin (𝜋 )
𝑇𝑠

.
𝑇𝑠
𝑧

(𝑡) =

(23)
𝑡
𝑡

2 𝜋

1 − (2𝛼 ) 𝑇𝑠 𝑇𝑠

**where 𝛼 is a roll-off factor and it’s value lies between zero
**

and one. As the value of 𝛼 increase from zero to one, the

pulse shape becomes sharper and the side-lobe reduces.

Fig. 6 shows the raised cosine pulse for different roll-off

factors. As the roll factor increases, side lobe level is suppressed significantly and the energy content is bound in

the main lobe only. Autocorrelation function becomes

sharper as we go on increasing the roll-off factor. Fig. 5

shows the time domain autocorrelation of raised cosine

pulse shapes of different roll-off factors.

**4.4 Prolate Spheroidal Wave Function (PSWF)
**

based pulse shape

PSWF of the form 𝜓 n(c,t) arevreal, continuous functions

of time t for 𝑐 ≥ 0 having the property of orthogonality

over the time and frequency intervals. Here n represents

the order of the pulse and c represents the timebandwidth product. The PSWF are solution of the Helmholtz’s differential equation
𝑑

2 𝜓𝑛
𝑑𝜓𝑛

(1 − 𝑡 2 )

− 2𝑡

+ (𝜒𝑛 − 𝑐 2 𝑡 2 )𝜓𝑛 = 0

(24)
𝑑𝑡

2
𝑑𝑡

**and the integral equation
**

1
𝜆𝑛

𝜓𝑛 (𝑡) = ∫

−1

sin 𝑐(𝑡 − 𝑠)
𝜓

(𝑠)𝑑𝑠
𝜋

(𝑡 − 𝑠) 𝑛

(25)

**where 𝜒𝑛 and 𝜆𝑛 are the corresponding eigenvalues.
**

The above set of equations are assumed to have a solution

of the form

∞

∑ 𝑑𝑘𝑛 (𝑐)𝑃𝑘 (𝑡)
𝑘

=0,2,..

∞

1 (𝑐,
𝑆

0𝑛
𝑡

) =

(26)

∑

{𝑘=1,23,..
𝑑𝑘𝑛

(𝑐)𝑃𝑘 (𝑡)

**For odd and even values of order k. Here 𝑃𝑘 (𝑡) represents
**

the Legendre polynomials. The final expression for the

PSWF pulse shape is given as [12]

1/2
𝜓𝑛

(𝑐, 𝑡) = ( 𝜆𝑛

(𝑐)

)

2𝑇𝑝

∞

2𝑛 + 1

(

) ∑ 𝑑𝑘𝑛 (𝑐)𝑃𝑘 (𝑡)

2

(27) 𝑘

=0,2,..

**The time domain PSWF pulse shapes are shown in
**

Fig.7 and 8. The pulse shapes are characterized by exactly

n zero crossings in the interval 𝑇𝑝 . The zero-crossings shift

towards the origin with larger values of c. This signifies

time compression of PSWF pulses and consequently a

higher change in the random process within the same

time duration.

**5 EVALUATION OF PAPR FOR BROADBAND
**

PULSE-SHAPES

The PAPR evaluated for the broadband pulse shapes discussed in the previous section is shown in in Table. 1.

(i) It is seen that the the PAPR is lowest for PSWF based

pulse shapes and highest for raised cosine pulse

shapes.

(ii) The PAPR for raised cosine pulse shapes increases as

we increase the roll-off factor 𝛽 .

(iii) The variation of PAPR for PSWF based pulses is due

to the time-bandwidth product c which is governing

factor in the pulse shape design. The higher value of

PAPR for n = 7 is contributed to the asymptotic behaviour of pulse shape as the value of c and n increases.

(iv)

The higher value of PAPR in case of Gaussian

pulses compared to MHP for orders more than 2 is primarily due to smaller decorrelation time resulting in

12

higher autocorrelation value.

6 CONCLUSION

In this paper the effect on PAPR due to application of

different broadband pulse shapes in an OFDM system is

studied. It is analysed that PSWF based pulses due to

their unique property of double orthogonality both in

time and frequency domain, is best suited for a low

PAPR. Also the advantage of the time bandwidth product

as being an additional degree of freedom in the design

procedure would result in larger number of orthogonal

pulse shapes.

REFERENCES

[1]

**Yang Soo Cho et.al, “MIMO-OFDM Wireless Communication with
**

MATLAB”, John-Wiley & Sons, 2010 .

[2] Wayne Tomasi, “Electronic Communication System”, Pearson

Education India, 1998.

[3] S. H . Han, J. H. Lee, “Modified Selected Mapping Technique

for PAPR Reduction of Coded OFDM Signal”, IEEE Transactions

on Broadcasting, Vol. 50, No. 3, 2004.

[4] T. Jiang, Y. Yang, Y.H. Song, “Exponential Companding Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM Systems", IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 244 – 248, 2005.

[5] E.F. Badran, El-Helw, "A Novel Semi-Blind Selected Mapping

Technique for PAPR Reduction in OFDM," IEEE Signal Processing Letters, Vol. 18, No.9, pp. 493 – 496, 2011.

[6] S. Shukla, Saurabh Shukla, N. Purohit, “PAPR Reduction in SCFDMA Using NCT Technique” Proc. Fourth Ann. Allerton Conf.

Circuits and Systems Theory, pp. 8-16, 1994. (Conference proceedings)

[7] Jing Gao, J. Wang, Bin Wang, "PAPR Reduction with Low

Computational Complexity for OFDM Systems", Physics Procedia, Vol. 33, pp. 1401 – 1407, 2012.

[8] F.H. Juwono, D. Gunawan, “Modification of Dummy Subcarriers Method to Reduce PAPR in OFDM System”, in the Proceedings of 8th ECTI, pp. 332 – 335, 2011.

[9] SB Slimanne, “Peak-to-Average Power Ration Reduction of

OFDM Signals using Pulse Shaping”, IEEE Veh. Tech. Conf,

2000.

[10] Yasir Rahmatallah and Seshadri Mohan, “Peak-To-Average

Power Ratio Reduction in OFDM Systems: A Survey And Taxonomy”, IEEE COMMUNICATIONS SURVEYS & TUTORIALS,

vol. 15, no. 4, pp: 1567-1592, 2013.

[11] S. B. Slimane, “Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction of

OFDM Signals using Broadband Pulse Shaping”, IEEE Vehicular

Tech. Conf.2002, 56th, Vol. 2, PP. 889-893, Sept. 2002.

[12] D. Adhikari and C. Bhattacharya, "Eigenvalue Based Selection

of Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions for Pulse Shape.

**Table 1. PAPR for different pulse shapes of different
**

orders

Fig.3 MHP of even orders, n = 2, 4 and 6

Fig. 4 MHP of odd orders, n = 1, 3 and 5

13

**Fig. 5 Autocorrelation of raised cosine pulse
**

shapes

**Fig. 6 Raised cosine pulse shapes for
𝛽**

=0.25. 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0

**Fig. 7 PSWF pulses for n = 5, 6, 7 and 8 with
**

c=2

**Fig. 8 PSWF pulses for n = 5, 6, 7 and 8
**

with c = 8

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