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Joel Jamieson: Ultimate MMA Conditioning

Energy Systems Breakdown

System

Aerobic

Anaerobic Lactic

Anaerobic - Alactic

Characteristics

Generates ATP at slowest rate of all 3 systems


Is dependent on oxygen and involves the greatest number of chemical steps
Fuels low intensity activity and refuels anaerobic mechanism between efforts
Improving this system relies on both concentric and eccentric cardiac hypertrophy
When expenditure outweighs production due to increased intensity, this is anaerobic threshold

Provides energy faster than aerobic, but only lasts about a minute
More work at higher intensities produces greater concentrations of blood lactate
Lactate may actually delay fatigue by soaking up H+ ions
Lactate is also preferentially used as fuel by cardiac and tonic muscle, and the brain
Lactate is blamed for soreness/fatigue because it marks transition between systems
Higher accumulations of lactate actually indicate increased resistance/adaptation to anaerobic conditions
Improving this system relies on improving both anaerobic lactic power and lactic capacity
To improve lactic power Shorter M.E. reps w. longer recovery = Increase enzymes & glucose uptake
To improve lactic capacity Longer reps w. shorter recovery = Increase buffering capacity
When intensity is too high to continue metabolizing lactate with aerobic process, switch to lactic

Reliant on small amounts of ATP & PCr within muscle, can only generate for 10-12s at max intensity
Will be better suited for repeat efforts with a capable aerobic system
Produces energy most readily due to the fewest chemical steps of all 3 systems
Is least trainable of all 3 systems, largely influenced by genetic and physiological predispositions
Increasing volumes of rate-limiting enzyme Creatine Kinase can improve the system capacity
Active rest is best between sets to augment aerobic recovery process
Efficient specific fiber selection and contractile (contraction/relaxation) mechanisms improve capacity

Aerob
ic

Lactic

A lacti
c

Transition between these phases is simply a function of the intensity dictating whether or not they are capable of maintaining adequate energy
production through either power (intensity) or capacity (duration.) The entire concept of energy systems revolves around maintaining
homeostasis, and the system of majority contribution is in effort to make energy available based on the present conditions, namely intensity
and duration.
The central governor model of fatigue is a theory which states that rather than lack of oxygen or accumulation of metabolic byproducts, it is the
brain and central nervous system which carefully monitors and moderates output to prevent damage to the working muscle fibers.

Components of Conditioning

Rate of
Energy
Production
(Power)

Central
Governing
Control (Power
Regulation)

Energy
Production

Energy
Utilization

Duration of
Energy
Production
(Capacity)

Total
Potential of
Energy
Production
(Biological
Power)

Efficiency of
Energy
Expenditure
(Skill/Technique
)

Neuromuscular
Contractility
(Mechanical)

Conditioning as a whole is essentially tuning energy production to effectively and efficiently serve energy utilization as dictated by the demands
of duration and intensity by the activity in question.
Components of Aerobic Energy Production
Aerobic Power
Oxygen Supply
Cardiac Output
Peripheral Vascular Network
Respiratory System

Aerobic Power & Aerobic Capacity


Oxygen Utilization
Number and Size of Slow/Fast Fibers
Oxidative Abilities of Fast Twitch Fibers
Aerobic Enzymes

Aerobic Capacity
Substrate Availability
Efficiency of Aerobic Energy Production
Substrate Storage Capacity
Hormonal Regulation

Anaerobic Lactic Adaptations


Anaerobic Lactic Power
Amount of Glycolytic Muscle Tissue
Number of Glycolytic Enzymes
Nervous System Development

Anaerobic Lactic Capacity


Availability of Energy Substrates
pH Buffering Ability
Rate of Clearance of Byproducts (Metabolizing lactate for further use)

Anaerobic Alactic Adaptations


Rate of Alactic Energy Production
Alactic Enzymes

Capacity of Alactic Energy Production


Phosphocreatine Stores

External Power Output


Muscular Contractility

Aerobic System Methods


Method

Purpose

Cardiac Output

Cardiac Power Intervals

Tempo

High Intensity Continuous


Training (HICT)

Threshold Training

High Resistance Intervals


(HRI)

Aerobic Plyometrics

Improves oxygen supply


by increasing how
effectively the heart can
deliver oxgen and
develop peripheral
vascular network.

Mechanism
Stimulates eccentric
cardiac hypertrophy
through volume overload
of cardiac fibers causing
them to stretch. Increases
left ventricular cavity
volume.

Improves oxygen supply


at higher intensities and
improves the power
endurance of the cardiac
muscle.

Stimulates increase in
contractile strength
concentric cardiac
hypertrophy, along with
corresponding increase in
mitochondria.

Larger slow twitch fibers


contribute to aerobic and
anaerobic endurance as
well as static strength.

Stimulates hypertrophy of
the slow twitch fibers by
causing localized hypoxia
to working muscles
through controlled tempo.

Offers high intensity and


volume.

Stimulates greater oxygen


utilization and results in
increased endurance of
fast twitch fibers.
Raises the anaerobic
threshold, and power at
the anaerobic threshold.
This delays the point at
which these processes
take over.

Increases maximum rate


of ATP generation in
aerobic system (increase
aerobic power.)

Improving aerobic abilities


of fast twitch fibers means
high power can be
maintained longer.

Recruits highest threshold


motor units and increases
oxidative abilities of the
fibers by supplying them
with constant oxygen.

Improving aerobic abilities


of the fast twitch fibers
means high power can be
maintained longer.

Recruits highest threshold


motor units using low
intensity plyos and
improves their endurance.

Improves fast twitch

Guidelines
130-150bpm
Below ANT
30-90minute
sessions
Increase volume
for progression
1-3x/week total
Maximal HR
each rep
Rest 2-5min or
to 120-130bpm
4-12
Reps/Session
1-2x/Week
2s Ecc/Conc.
No Pausing
3-5 Sets
8-10 Reps/Set
3-4
Exercises/Day
Max. Resistance
Low Speed
10-20min/Set
1-2 Sets/Day
1-2x/Week
+/- 5bpm ANT
Stay in Range
3-10min/Rep
2-5 rep/Wkout
1-2x/Week

HR below ANT
Max Intensity
Rest to 130140bpm
10-12s/Rep
15-20rep/Wkout
HR below ANT
Mod. Intensity
10-30s Rest int.
5-10min/Set
1-3Sets/Ex.
Increase work,
decrease rest for

Exercises
Low intensity activity:
Jogging, Biking,
Swimming, Jumping
Rope. All is fine as long
as heart rate is in the
correct range
Sprinting or high intensity
sport-specific exercise
which maximally elevates
the heart rate

Any major compound


movement

Spin Bike, Versaclimber,


Gradient imposed
resistance

Any cardio activity


including specific drills.

Uphill Sprint, Sled Drags,


Spin Bikes, High
Resistance Cardio
Machines.

Lower Body: Double leg


bound. Upper Body:
Explosive Pushups, MB
Rebounding.

Lower Body: Squat

Explosive Repeat

How quickly fast twitch


fibers can recover
between explosive bursts.

aerobic abilities and


repetitive power outputs
by developing lactate
oxidation in slow twitch
fibers.

Purpose

Mechanism
Stimulates increase in the
enzymes involved in
anaerobic glycolysis and
shifts metabolism of
working muscles to rely
more on anaerobic vs.
aerobic metabolism.

prog.
8-10min active
rest btwn series
1-2 Series
6-10 Set/Ex.
1-3 Ex./Wkout
1-2x/Week.

Jumps, Split Squat Jumps


w. KB or BB
Upper Body: Explosive
Pushups or Bench Press

Lactic System Methods


Method

Lactic Power Intervals

Lactic Capacity Intervals

Circuit Training

Lactic power output


during prolonged high
intensity periods.

Ability to sustain
anaerobic energy
production for extended
periods of time.

Can improve lactic power


and capacity of many
different muscle groups in
a time effective manner.

Stimulates increase in the


buffering mechanisms
involved in allowing
anaerobic glycolysis to
continue. Also increases
glucose storage and
utilization potential.

Produces very rapid rate


of ATP turnover and high
levels of blood lactate
when large muscle
groups are used.
Stimulates increase in
Lactic Power or Capacity.

Increases enzymes
involved in lactic ATP

Guidelines
Max
intensity/Speed
each rep
20-40s per Rep
2-4 sets of 3
8-15min rest
btwn series.
90-120s/Rep
2-4 Sets of 3
Incomplete rest
intervals
1-2min btwn
reps
4-6min active
rest btwn sets.
Goal: Complete
Fatigue
Power
20-30s/Ex.
60-90s/Circuit.
1-3min btwn
Circuits
Repeat Circuit 24 times.
8-10min before
changing
circuits.
Capacity
30-60s/Ex.
1-2min/Circuit
60-90s btwn Ex.
6-8min btwn
circuits.
Increase work,
decrease rest
each week for
prog.
1-3 series of 610 sets per
exercise
1-3 ex./wkout.

Exercises
Anything from sprints to
specific sport drills as long
as its done at max speed
and intensity.

Anything goes.

Lower Body: Squat Jumps


& Split Squat Jumps w.

Lactic Explosive Repeat

Ability to maintain
repetitive explosiveness.

production as well as
buffering mechanisms to
improve lactic capacity.

Static Dynamic

Lactic Process leads to


fatigue if toleranc is poor

Increase tolerance to
buildup of specific fatigue
thoruhg buffering and
inorganic P buildup.

Active rest 810min btwn


series
Work Intervals of
12-40s
Rest intervals of
10-30s
1-3Ex./Wkout.
1-2x/Wk.
Mod. Speed
10sPauses
Sets of 3-10min

KB or BB
Upper Body: Exp.
Pushups or Bench Press

DB Squat, RDL, DB
Bench, Sh. Press, Lat PD
Etc.

Alactic System Methods


Method

Alactic Power Intervals

Alactic Capacity Intervals

Max Effort Method

Strength-Aerobic

Purpose

Explosive Bursts and


ability to be quick and
powerful

Helps improve ability to


maintain explosive power
for extended durations.

Mechanism
Improves maximum rate
of ATP regeneration by
alactic system by
increasing amount of
enzymes involved in
production.

Improves maximum
capacity of the alactic
system by increasing the
amount of stored
phosphocreatine.

Increase alactic power


output and results in high
level of hormonal
production.

Improves maximum
neuromuscular
recruitment and can play
a role in improving
contractility.

Fast and slow twitch fiber


strength plays a key role
in being able to sustain
repetitive high power
output.

Improves strength of both


fast and slow twitch fiber
by increasing nervous
system function and size
of slow twitch fibers.

Guidelines
2-5min btwn
reps or recover
to 120bpm or
lower
7-10s/Rep
5-6Reps/Set
1-3x/Wk.
Work interval of
10-15s
Rest interval of
20-90s
Active rest of 810min btwn
series
10-12reps/set
2-3ex/series
2-5 sets
1-5 reps/set
2-5min btwn set
2-3 ex./wkout
1-2x/wk
3-4 heavy sets of
3-5 reps and
follow with 3-4
sets of 8-10
2-3 ex./wkout
2-5min btwn
M.E.
40s btwn tempo
efforts
8-10min btwn ex.
2-3 exercises
1-2x/wk
2-3 sets
2-3 ME Reps

Exercises
Any repetitive explosive
exercise, such as jump
squats, sprinting,
bounding, exp. Pushups
etc.

Same as for power


intervals

Major Compounds

Major Compounds

Develop nervous systems


ability to maximally recruit
fibers and improve
explosive ability.

Complex

Improve maximum
amount of muscle
recruitment as well as
increase amount of alactic
enzymes to improve
alactic power.

immediately
followed by 3 x
6-8 as
explosively as
possible.
Max accel. On
all reps
2-3 ex./Wkout.
1-2x/Wk.

ME Exercises for first


sets, and recommended
alactic power interval
exercises for second
group of sets

Training Sequencing Model


4 Blocks
1. General Endurance
2. General Strength
3. Explosive Speed & Power
4. Power-Endurance
*Power-Endurance is developed after each quality is independently developed.
Order of Importance in Program Design Factors
1. Training Type
2. Methods
3. Intensity
4. Volume
5. Exercsie Selection
Each block should be divided into an A & B wherein 2 sessions per week in each block are concentrated loading for primary
adaptation and 1 day per week devoted to maintaining peripheral or secondary adaptations.
Block B
Block A

2
A Block Emphasis

General Endurance
General Endurance Block A
Cardiac Output
Tempo Method
HICT
Low Volume Intervals
Technical Work

1
4

2
5
Transition

General Endurance Block B


Threshold Method
HICT/HRI/Aerobic Plyometrics
Explosive Repeat Method
Cardiac Output

General Strength
General Strength Block A
Tempo Method
Max Effort
Strength Aerobic Method

General Strength Block B


Max Effort
Complex or Shock Method
3-5 Rep Ranges

4
B Block Emphasis

5-7 Rep Range


Longer Rest Periods

Consistent Increase in Intensity is Focal

Explosive Speed & Power Block


Exp. Speed/PWR Block A
Explosive Repeat Method
Max Effort
Max Acceleration
Rest-Pause
Longer Rest Between Sets

Exp. Speed/PWR Block B


Complex Method
Shock Method
Specific Game Exercise and Speed
8-15s Sets
Lighter Intensities at Game Speed

Power-Endurance Block
Power-Endurance Block A
Threshold Training
Explosive Repeat Method, Circuits
HICT, Tempo Method (Moderate Volume)
Keep HR +/- 5bpm of Anaerobic Threshold
Increase Power at the Anaerobic Threshold

Power-Endurance Block B
Longer Work, Shorter Rest Periods
Cardiac Power Method
Lacic Power/Capacity Intervals
Increase Volume above Anaerobic Threshold
Maximal Duration Past Fatigue