Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
Page 1
Grading Sheet
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ MIME 3470—Thermal Science Laboratory ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Laboratory № 14 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
SHELLANDTUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
POINTS 
SCORE 
TOTAL 

APPEARANCE, ORGANIZATION, ENGLISH/GRAMMAR 
_{5} 

ORDERED DATA, CALCULATIONS & RESULTS 

ORDERED DATA 
_{5} 

CALCULATE HOT & COLD AVERAGED MEAN TEMPS, 
T m 
5 

INTERPOLATED PHYSICAL DATA AT APPROPRIATE TEMPS 
_{5} 

CALCULATE HOT AND COLD FLOW RATES, C _{m}_{a}_{x} , C _{m}_{i}_{n} , and C _{r} 
_{5} 

CALCULATE TUBESIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 
_{5} 

CALCULATE AVERAGE FLOW AREA ON SHELL SIDE 
_{5} 

CALCULATE SHELLSIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 
_{5} 

INTERPOLATE C _{1} & m BOTH VERTICALLY & HORIZONTALLY 
_{5} 

CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT 
_{5} 

CALCULATE NTU 
_{5} 

CALCULATE EFFECTIVENESS 
_{5} 

CALCULATE OUTLET HOT WATER TEMPERATURE 
_{5} 

CALCULATE OUTLET COLD WATER TEMPERATURE 
_{5} 

CALCULATE PERCENTS ERROR 
_{5} 

SUMMARY TABLE OF RESULTS 
_{5} 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 

HOW GOOD IS THE NTU METHOD? 
_{5} 

EXPLAIN SOURCES OF ERROR 
_{5} 

CONCLUSIONS 
_{5} 

ORIGINAL DATASHEET 
_{5} 

TOTAL 
_{1}_{0}_{0} 

COMMENTS 



GRADER—d 
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
Page 2
MIME 3470—Thermal Science Laboratory ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Laboratory №. 14
SHELLANDTUBE HEAT EXCHANGER
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
LAB PARTNERS: 
NAME 
NAME 
NAME 
NAME 

NAME 
NAME 

SECTION 
№ 
EXPERIMENT TIME/DATE:
TIME, DATE
IMPORTANT—When using the Heat Exchanger Performance Test Bench, there are some important items to remember for your safety and the safety of others.
1. Make sure the proper inlet and outlet valves are open before the heat exchanger is operated. Failure to do this will pressurize the system and rupture the heat exchanger seams. As a rule of thumb, do not close any of the outlet ball valves more than half way. In particular, make sure the outlet valves that allow the water to go to the drain are open prior to turning on water.
2. For meaningful data, bleed taps will need to be opened and closed to allow air to escape while the experiment is going on. Outlet valves may be closed SLIGHTLY to help keep the heat exchanger full.
OBJECTIVE of this experiment is to measure the two inlet tempera tures and the mass flows through the shell and tubes, in order to predict the two outlet temperatures using the NTU method and compare these predicted values with actual measured outlet temperatures.
INTRODUCTION—Many engineering applications involve a process of heat exchange between two fluids. Heat exchangers are devices used to promote the heat transferred between two fluids; e.g., a car radiator and the condenser units on air conditioning systems. Space heating, air conditioning, power production, and chemical processing are typical areas of application. There are many heat exchanger designs. The laboratory setup for this experiment contains three heat exchanger types: a shellandtube exchanger, a concentric tube exchanger, and a tube bank exchanger in cross flow. This particular experiment employs the shellandtube type heat exchanger (see Figure 1). A shellandtube heat exchanger is constructed of tubes that are attached on each end by a plate, called the tube sheet, through which the tubes pass. One fluid streams into the inlet of the heat exchanger, flows through the tubes, and exits through the tube sheet at the opposite end of the heat exchanger.
Figure 1—Schematic of shellandtube exchanger
A shell encloses the internal volume where the tubes are housed. Another, fluid flows through the shell and heat is exchanged between the tubeside fluid and the shellside fluid. In a power plant, most heat exchangers are of the shellandtube design. The number of passes commonly presents a further description of a shellandtube heat exchanger. A single pass means the fluid flows straight through the entire heat exchanger without changing direction and so, in this design, the fluid moves past the length of the heat exchanger only a single time. In a twopass heat exchanger the fluid in the tubes goes in one end, flows to the other end, reverses direction then flows back to the same end that the fluid entered through a second set of tubes. Thus, the fluid travels the full length of the heat exchanger twice. Similarly, multiple pass heat exchangers are so named because
they make many passes. This experiment employs a shellandtube heat exchanger consisting of two tube passes and one shell pass.
THEORY: HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS
Thermodynamics and the First Law dictate the overall energy transfer in a heat exchanger. There are two widely used methods of heat exchanger analysis, the NTUEffectiveness method and the LogMeanTemperatureDifference (LMTD) method. These are briefly discussed below.
LogMeanTemperatureDifference (LMTD) Method For a heat exchanger between two fluids with given inlet and outlet temperatures, there are three equations for the rate of heat transfer, Q,
where,
Q = Rate of heat transfer, W
m
j
=
=
=
m c
1
p
1
T
1
,
i
T
1
,
o
m
2
c
p
2
T
2
,
i
T
2
,
o
UA
T
1
,
i
T
2
,
o
T
1
,
o
i
T
1
,
i
T
2
,
o
ln
T
1
,
o
T
,
2
i
T
lm
= mass flow rate of fluid j, kg/s
c p
= specific heat of fluid j, J/(kgK) T = temperature, C
j
i
inlet
o
outlet
U = overall heat transfer coefficient, W/(m ^{2} K) A = area of surface across heat transfer occurs, m ^{2}
For known specific heats, U, A, and entering temperatures, the three equations above can be solved for three unknowns—T _{1}_{,}_{o} , T _{2}_{,}_{o} , and Q —by successive substitution of one of the equations for Q onto another. It is a simple matter to use the logmeantemperature difference method of heat exchanger analysis when the fluid inlet temperatures are known and the outlet temperatures are specified or readily determined from the energy balance expressions. The value of T _{l}_{m} for the exchanger may then be determined. However, if only the inlet temperatures are known, use of the LMTD method requires
an iterative procedure. In such cases, it is preferable to use an
alternative approach, termed the NTUEffectiveness method.
NTU E FFECTIVENESS M ETHOD —Often, when working with a given heat exchanger one must predict the outlet temperatures given the inlet temperatures. As the dimensions of the exchanger are known, the NTUeffectiveness method is a popular way to perform this task. This is an easy method to calculate the overall heat transfer rate, Q. The number of (heat) transfer units, NTU, is a dimensionless parameter
which precipitates form the heat exchanger analysis and is defined as:
where
U –
NTU
UA
C min
,
Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m ^{2} K)
A – Area of heat transfer (m ^{2} )
C _{C}
=
m
C
c
p
– Cold fluid heat capacity rate
m
H
c
p
C _{H} =
(1)
(2a)
(2b)
– Hot fluid heat capacity rate C _{m}_{i}_{n} = min(C _{C} , C _{H} ) – Smaller of the two heat capacity rates (W/K)
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
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ture are noted. This is the steadystate condition—use only the associated flow rates and temperatures for calculations.
DETAILED COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE The NTU method will be described using just one tube; but that single tube could represent an entire tube bundle. The NTU method calculation procedure for a shellandtube heat exchanger follows:
1. a. Determine cold and hot water flow rates,
m
H
and
m
C
(from
rotameter readings), and their specific heats,
c
p
H
and
c
p
C
(look up values based on the average of the inlet and outlet
temperatures). The units of mass flow, _{m}_{}
, are kg/s and those
of specific heat, c _{p} , are J/(kgK). [NOTE: Some tables list
specific heat as kJ/(kgK)—so always check units!!]
Figure 2—Experimental apparatus with dimensional data
b. Calculate a temperature specific energy flow known as the
heat capacity rate, C, for both the cold and hot flows
CcoldChot 
mccoldpcoldmchotphot 
The larger of these is Cand the smaller Cmin 
max 
.
c. Calculate the heat capacity rate ratio, C _{r} = C _{m}_{i}_{n} /C _{m}_{a}_{x} .
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
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2. Calculate the heat transfer coefficients at the inside and outside
surfaces of the tubes, h _{i}_{n}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} and h _{o}_{u}_{t}_{s}_{i}_{d}_{e} . These are used to compute
Figure 3—Heat transfer coefficients at inside and outside tube surfaces
a. Flow Inside Tubes: Even though there are many tubes in the
bundle and there are parallel and counter flows in this twopass
exchanger, the calculation may be performed by considering the
flow in just one of the tubes WITH THE CAVEAT THAT one must
account for the direction of the flow. That is, half of the tubes are
associated with parallel flow and half the tubes are associated
with counterflow. Thus, the mass flow in the equivalent tubes is
m
total tube side flow

m
N
2 inside
1 tube
where, N = total number of tubes.
From simple flow relations, it is known that the velocity
inside a single tube is
V inside
m
inside
A
where, A = cross sectional area of one tube.
Given this velocity, a Reynolds number (
Re V
inside
D
) can be computed to indicate whether
the inside flow is laminar or turbulent. This will most likely
be fullydeveloped, laminar flow. For such with constant
surface temperature, T _{s} , and
Pr
~
0 .6
:
Nu
D
3.66
where fluid properties are based on the mean (or bulk)
temperature across a cross section, T _{m} .
If the flow is fully developed, turbulent (Re 10,000),
.
Tubeside fluid properties should be evaluated at the
average of the mean temperatures,
T
m
T
m i
,
T
m o
,
2
.
b. Shell
Flow
Outside
of
Tubes:
For
the
staggered
tube
arrangement of the experiment shown in Figure 4, use the
following expression for the average Nusselt number
(3)
Nu
_{D}
1 13
.
C
1
Re
m
D
,max
Pr
1
/
3
.
Use Table 1 to determine m and C _{1} . Note in the report which
values of m and C _{1} were used. This relation applies when there
are more than 10 tubes in a bundle (N _{L} 10), 2000 < Re _{D}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} <
40,000 where Re _{D}_{,}_{m}_{a}_{x} is defined below, and Pr 0.7. average
mean temperature of the fluid,
T
m
, as defined above.
S _{T} /D 

1.25 
1.5 
2.0 
3.0 

S _{L} /D 
C _{1} m 
C _{1} m 
C _{1} 
m 
C _{1} 
m 
— — — 
— 
— 
0.213 
0.636 

— — — 
0.446 
0.571 
0.401 
0.518 

— — 0.497 
— 
— 
— 
— 

— — — 
0.478 
0.565 
0.518 
0.560 

0.518 0.556 0.505 
0.519 
0.556 
0.522 
0.562 

0.451 0.568 0.460 
0.452 
0.568 
0.488 
0.568 

0.404 0.572 0.416 
0.482 
0.556 
0.449 
0.570 

0.310 0.592 0.356 
0.440 
0.562 
0.428 
0.574 
Table 1—Constants of for airflow over a staggered tube bank
Figure 4—Staggered tube arrangement
Re
D ,max
V
max
D
/
is
defined
for
the
maximum
velocity occurring within the tube bank, V _{m}_{a}_{x} , which occurs
at one
of two locations—either in way of A _{1} or A _{2} (see
Note: The average velocity of flow over the tube is not
constant as the shell is not wallsided but circular. Thus,
one needs to use some average value of area. To use the
relations for staggered tube arrangements, a freestream, shell
side, fluid velocity must be determined. As the sides of the shell
are circular, this freestream velocity varies. Thus, an average
freestream velocity must be determined based on an average
width of the shell, w _{a}_{v}_{g} . This can be obtained from simple
integration as
Multiplying this with the distance between baffles gives an
average crosssectional area, A _{a}_{v}_{g} , for the flow and the


average velocity, V _{a}_{v}_{g} , can be determined from 
_{V} 
= 
A avg V avg .
3. a. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient, U
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
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1 

1 

t 
1 




h inner 
k tubes 0 
h 
outer 

Assume tubes 

are thin  walled 

& very conductive 

t = the tubing thickness 

^{U}^{A} tubesurface 
This value 

NTU 
Cmin 
should bedimensionless 

2 1 

C 


1 

C 2 
1 / 2 
NTU 1 2 1 / 2
e r C 1 


r 
r 
e NTU 1 C 2 r 1 / 2 
. 
where,
Then NTU is
Now, the heat exchanger effectiveness, , can be determined.
For one shell pass and two tube passes the effectiveness is
U
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES—As the liquid (water) is moving, it
must be under a slight pressure. This experiment is interested in the
properties of liquid water density and specific heat which are both
functions of temperature and pressure. However, at low pressures,
one may assume that density and internal energy are approximately
equal to their saturated liquid values at the same temperature; i.e.,
(T, p) _{f} (T) and u(T, p) u _{f} (T). Thus, density can be defined.
Enthalpy is, h(T, p) h _{f} (T) + [p – p _{s}_{a}_{t} (T)]/ _{f} (T). At a room temperature
of, say, 70F (~21C), p _{s}_{a}_{t} = 0.02487bar. Compared to atmospheric
pressure of 1.01325bar, this is small and negligible. Thus,
h(T, p) h _{f} (T) + p/ _{f} (T). At the temperature assumed, the density of
water is 998kg/m ^{3} . At small pressures, say 2atm = 2.02bar,
p/ _{f} (T) = 0.202 kJ/kg while h _{f} (T) = 88.14 kJ/kg. Thus, a fair approxi
mation of enthalpy is h(T, p) h _{f} (T). Finally, the definition of specific
heat is h = c(T) T; thus, C (T, p) C _{f} (T).
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
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Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
Page 7
ORDERED DATA, CALCULATIONS, and RESULTS The object below is reduced to 70% of full size.
MATHCAD OBJECTDOUBLE CLICK TO OPEN
DATA
Look Up (& Interpolate) Physical Properties For The 2 Mean Temperatures Calculated At The Right
1a. Determine Flow Rates Of Hot And Cold Fluids
1b. Calculate Heat Capacity Rates, The MAX & MIN Heat Capacity Rates, & The Heat Capacity Rate Ratio
2a. Calculate Heat Transfer Coefficient For Tube Side
2b. Calculate Heat Transfer Coefficient For Shell Side
3a. Calculate Heat Exchanger Effectiveness
3b. Calculate Outlet Temperatures
The Measured Outlet Temperatures Were
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
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DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
Discuss how good is the NTU method.
Indicate sources of error in equations as they apply to the shell
andtube heat exchanger in the lab, as well as sources of error in
the measurements
CONCLUSIONS
Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08
SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470
Page 9
APPENDICES
APPENDIX A— DATA SHEET FOR SHELLANDTUBE HEAT EXCHANGER LAB
Time/Date:
Lab Partners:
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
___________________________
Verify supplied dimensions given in Figure 2. Is anything else needed?
Is the hot flow on the tube side or shell side?
______________
Rotameter max flow rate: ________________
Cold 
Hot 

Volumetric 
Volumetric 
Hot Outlet 
Hot Inlet 
Cold Outlet 
Cold Inlet 

Flow Rate, 
Flow Rate, 
Temperature, 
Temperature, 
Temperature, 
Temperature, 

Run 
V C 
V H 
T H 
o 
T H 
i 
T C 
o 
T C 
i 

, 
, 
, 
, 

( % of max 
( % of max 
(C) 
(C) 
(C) 
(C) 

rotameter rating) 
rotameter rating) 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 
APPENDIX B—PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TABLE
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