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Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08

SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470

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Grading Sheet

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ MIME 3470—Thermal Science Laboratory ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Laboratory № 14 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Students’ Names / Section

 

POINTS

SCORE

TOTAL

 

APPEARANCE, ORGANIZATION, ENGLISH/GRAMMAR

5

   
 

ORDERED DATA, CALCULATIONS & RESULTS

 
 

ORDERED DATA

5

 
 

CALCULATE HOT & COLD AVERAGED MEAN TEMPS,

T

m

5

 
 

INTERPOLATED PHYSICAL DATA AT APPROPRIATE TEMPS

5

 
 

CALCULATE HOT AND COLD FLOW RATES, C max , C min , and C r

5

 
 

CALCULATE TUBE-SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

5

 
 

CALCULATE AVERAGE FLOW AREA ON SHELL SIDE

5

 
 

CALCULATE SHELL-SIDE HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

5

 
 

INTERPOLATE C 1 & m BOTH VERTICALLY & HORIZONTALLY

5

 
 

CALCULATE OVERALL HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT

5

 
 

CALCULATE NTU

5

 
 

CALCULATE EFFECTIVENESS

5

 
 

CALCULATE OUTLET HOT WATER TEMPERATURE

5

 
 

CALCULATE OUTLET COLD WATER TEMPERATURE

5

 
 

CALCULATE PERCENTS ERROR

5

 
 

SUMMARY TABLE OF RESULTS

5

 

DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

 
 

HOW GOOD IS THE NTU METHOD?

5

 
 

EXPLAIN SOURCES OF ERROR

5

 
 

CONCLUSIONS

5

 

ORIGINAL DATASHEET

5

   
 
 

TOTAL

100

     
   
 

COMMENTS

POINTS SCORE TOTAL APPEARANCE, ORGANIZATION, ENGLISH/GRAMMAR ORDERED DATA, CALCULATIONS & RESULTS ORDERED DATA CALCULATE HOT &
 
 

GRADER—d

Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08

SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470

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MIME 3470—Thermal Science Laboratory ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Laboratory №. 14

SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

LAB PARTNERS:

NAME

NAME

NAME

NAME

NAME

NAME

SECTION

EXPERIMENT TIME/DATE:

TIME, DATE

IMPORTANT—When using the Heat Exchanger Performance Test Bench, there are some important items to remember for your safety and the safety of others.

  • 1. Make sure the proper inlet and outlet valves are open before the heat exchanger is operated. Failure to do this will pressurize the system and rupture the heat exchanger seams. As a rule of thumb, do not close any of the outlet ball valves more than half way. In particular, make sure the outlet valves that allow the water to go to the drain are open prior to turning on water.

  • 2. For meaningful data, bleed taps will need to be opened and closed to allow air to escape while the experiment is going on. Outlet valves may be closed SLIGHTLY to help keep the heat exchanger full.

OBJECTIVE of this experiment is to measure the two inlet tempera- tures and the mass flows through the shell and tubes, in order to predict the two outlet temperatures using the NTU method and compare these predicted values with actual measured outlet temperatures.

INTRODUCTION—Many engineering applications involve a process of heat exchange between two fluids. Heat exchangers are devices used to promote the heat transferred between two fluids; e.g., a car radiator and the condenser units on air conditioning systems. Space heating, air conditioning, power production, and chemical processing are typical areas of application. There are many heat exchanger designs. The laboratory setup for this experiment contains three heat exchanger types: a shell-and-tube exchanger, a concentric tube exchanger, and a tube bank exchanger in cross flow. This particular experiment employs the shell-and-tube type heat exchanger (see Figure 1). A shell-and-tube heat exchanger is constructed of tubes that are attached on each end by a plate, called the tube sheet, through which the tubes pass. One fluid streams into the inlet of the heat exchanger, flows through the tubes, and exits through the tube sheet at the opposite end of the heat exchanger.

Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08 SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470 Page 2 MIME

Figure 1—Schematic of shell-and-tube exchanger

A shell encloses the internal volume where the tubes are housed. Another, fluid flows through the shell and heat is exchanged between the tube-side fluid and the shell-side fluid. In a power plant, most heat exchangers are of the shell-and-tube design. The number of passes commonly presents a further description of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger. A single pass means the fluid flows straight through the entire heat exchanger without changing direction and so, in this design, the fluid moves past the length of the heat exchanger only a single time. In a two-pass heat exchanger the fluid in the tubes goes in one end, flows to the other end, reverses direction then flows back to the same end that the fluid entered through a second set of tubes. Thus, the fluid travels the full length of the heat exchanger twice. Similarly, multiple pass heat exchangers are so named because

they make many passes. This experiment employs a shell-and-tube heat exchanger consisting of two tube passes and one shell pass.

THEORY: HEAT EXCHANGER ANALYSIS

Thermodynamics and the First Law dictate the overall energy transfer in a heat exchanger. There are two widely used methods of heat exchanger analysis, the NTU-Effectiveness method and the Log-Mean-Temperature-Difference (LMTD) method. These are briefly discussed below.

Log-Mean-Temperature-Difference (LMTD) Method For a heat exchanger between two fluids with given inlet and outlet temperatures, there are three equations for the rate of heat transfer, Q,

where,

Q = Rate of heat transfer, W

m

j

=

=

=

m c

1

p

1

T

1

,

i

T

1

,

o

m

2

c

p

2

T

2

,

i

T

2

,

o

UA

T

1

,

i

T

2

,

o

T

1

,

o

T 2 ,
T
2 ,

i

T

1

,

i

T

2

,

o

ln

 

T

1

 

,

o

T

 

,

2

i

 

T

lm

= mass flow rate of fluid j, kg/s

  • c p

= specific heat of fluid j, J/(kgK) T = temperature, C

j

i

inlet

o

outlet

U = overall heat transfer coefficient, W/(m 2 K) A = area of surface across heat transfer occurs, m 2

For known specific heats, U, A, and entering temperatures, the three equations above can be solved for three unknowns—T 1,o , T 2,o , and Q —by successive substitution of one of the equations for Q onto another. It is a simple matter to use the log-mean-temperature- difference method of heat exchanger analysis when the fluid inlet temperatures are known and the outlet temperatures are specified or readily determined from the energy balance expressions. The value of T lm for the exchanger may then be determined. However, if only the inlet temperatures are known, use of the LMTD method requires

an iterative procedure. In such cases, it is preferable to use an

alternative approach, termed the NTU-Effectiveness method.

NTU- E FFECTIVENESS M ETHOD Often, when working with a given heat exchanger one must predict the outlet temperatures given the inlet temperatures. As the dimensions of the exchanger are known, the NTU-effectiveness method is a popular way to perform this task. This is an easy method to calculate the overall heat transfer rate, Q. The number of (heat) transfer units, NTU, is a dimensionless parameter

which precipitates form the heat exchanger analysis and is defined as:

where

U

NTU

UA

  • C min

,

Overall heat transfer coefficient (W/m 2 K)

A Area of heat transfer (m 2 )

C C

=

m

C

c

p

C

Cold fluid heat capacity rate

m

H

c

p

H

C H =

(1)

(2a)

(2b)

Hot fluid heat capacity rate C min = min(C C , C H ) Smaller of the two heat capacity rates (W/K)

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SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470

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C max = max(C C , C H ) – Larger of the two heat capacity
C max = max(C C , C H )
– Larger of the two heat capacity rates (W/K)
Note that NTU is a function of geometric and material properties,
and the mass flow rates. It does not include any fluid temperatures.
Using the calculated NTU, the effectiveness of the heat exchanger, ,
can be calculated from tables where the effectiveness formulae for
different heat exchanger arrangements can be found. In such tables,
another dimensionless term that precipitates from the analyses
appears. This is the heat capacity rate ratio, C r = C min /C max . For a
shell-and-tube exchanger with one shell pass and some multiple of
two tube passes, the effectiveness is
 1
1
/
2
2
NTU 1
 C
1
/
2
1  e
r
2
 
2
1
C
1
C
.
r
r
1
/
2
2
NTU 1
 C
1  e
r
 
 
Heat Exchanger Effectiveness—is defined as
Actual rate of heat transfer
Q actual

Q
  Maximum possible rate of heat transfer that an 
max
exchanger of infinite heat transfer area
would have if it had the
same inlet temps
, flow
rates, & specific heats as actual case
  
The maximum heat transfer occurs in the fluid with the least
capacity to absorb or give off heat. This is the fluid with the
minimum value of   = C min . If this fluid is the cold fluid,
m C
p
its temperature cannot rise above the hot-side, inlet temperature.
Alternately, if the fluid is the hot fluid, it cannot be cooled below
the cold-side, inlet temperature. Thus,
Q
Q
actual
actual
 
.
Q
mc
T
T
max
p
hot,in
cold,in
min
As the actual heat transfer is the same for both fluids—one
gaining thermal energy and the other loosing an equal amount—
the actual heat transfer rate is defined by both
Q
mc
T
T
actual
p
C o
,
C i
,
C
Q
mc
T
T
.
These last two relations yield the outlet temperatures desired.
and
actual
p
H
,
i
H
,
o
H
LABORATORY PROCEDURE
1.
Verify the dimensions and features of Figure 2.
2.
Generally, small flow rates will generate better results but may
take longer to reach steady state. Also, do not let the air that comes
out of entrainment accumulate in shell. Use bleed taps as needed.
3.
For a hot water flow of about 15% of the maximum rotameter
reading and a cold water flow of about 30%, take inlet and outlet
temperatures of both flows until no further changes in tempera-

ture are noted. This is the steady-state condition—use only the associated flow rates and temperatures for calculations.

DETAILED COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURE The NTU method will be described using just one tube; but that single tube could represent an entire tube bundle. The NTU method calculation procedure for a shell-and-tube heat exchanger follows:

1. a. Determine cold and hot water flow rates,

m

H

and

m

C

(from

rotameter readings), and their specific heats,

c

p

H

and

c

p

C

(look up values based on the average of the inlet and outlet

tempe-ratures). The units of mass flow, m

, are kg/s and those

of specific heat, c p , are J/(kgK). [NOTE: Some tables list

specific heat as kJ/(kgK)—so always check units!!]

Hot water inlet thermometer Cold water outlet thermometer (inside face to inside face) 5 Baffles, 1.2
Hot water inlet thermometer
Cold water
outlet
thermometer
(inside face to inside face)
5 Baffles, 1.2 thick. Equally spaced to form 6
chamber. 23 tube penetrations per baffle.
30 Tubes, each 0.25 diameter
neglect wall thickness
Distance between Tube Sheets, 16-1/8
Shell: 5 OD
thermometer
Cold water
Hot water
outlet
inlet
4.5 ID
thermometer
S D S L S T S L = 0.475 S T = 0.548 S D
S D
S L
S T
S L = 0.475
S T = 0.548
S D = 0.548
The width of the
flow course
varies & thus
the average
velocity

Figure 2—Experimental apparatus with dimensional data

b. Calculate a temperature specific energy flow known as the

heat capacity rate, C, for both the cold and hot flows

C

cold

C

hot

mc

coldp

cold

mc

hotp

hot

 

The larger of these is C

and the smaller C

min

max

.

c. Calculate the heat capacity rate ratio, C r = C min /C max .

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SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470

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2. Calculate the heat transfer coefficients at the inside and outside

surfaces of the tubes, h inside and h outside . These are used to compute

the overall heat transfer coefficient, U. (See Figure 3) h outside h inside
the overall heat transfer coefficient, U. (See Figure 3)
h
outside
h
inside

Figure 3—Heat transfer coefficients at inside and outside tube surfaces

a. Flow Inside Tubes: Even though there are many tubes in the

bundle and there are parallel and counter flows in this two-pass

exchanger, the calculation may be performed by considering the

flow in just one of the tubes WITH THE CAVEAT THAT one must

account for the direction of the flow. That is, half of the tubes are

associated with parallel flow and half the tubes are associated

with counterflow. Thus, the mass flow in the equivalent tubes is

m

total tube side flow

-

m

Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08 SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470 Page 4 2.

N

  • 2 inside

  • 1 tube

where, N = total number of tubes.

From simple flow relations, it is known that the velocity

inside a single tube is

  • V inside

m

inside

A

where, A = cross sectional area of one tube.

Given this velocity, a Reynolds number (

Re V

inside

D

) can be computed to indicate whether

the inside flow is laminar or turbulent. This will most likely

be fully-developed, laminar flow. For such with constant

surface temperature, T s , and

Pr

~

0 .6

:

Nu

D

3.66

where fluid properties are based on the mean (or bulk)

temperature across a cross section, T m .

If the flow is fully developed, turbulent (Re 10,000),

Nu

D

0023

.

/

45

Re Pr

D

n

n

n

04

.,

03

.,

T

s

T

m

.

T

s

T

m

Tube-side fluid properties should be evaluated at the

average of the mean temperatures,

T

m

T

m i

,

T

m o

,

2

.

b. Shell

Flow

Outside

of

Tubes:

For

the

staggered

tube

arrangement of the experiment shown in Figure 4, use the

following expression for the average Nusselt number

(3)

Nu

D

1 13

.

C

1

Re

m

D

,max

Pr

1

/

3

.

Use Table 1 to determine m and C 1 . Note in the report which

values of m and C 1 were used. This relation applies when there

are more than 10 tubes in a bundle (N L 10), 2000 < Re D,max <

40,000 where Re D,max is defined below, and Pr 0.7. average

mean temperature of the fluid,

T

m

, as defined above.

   

S T /D

1.25

1.5

2.0

3.0

S L /D

C 1

m

C 1

m

C 1

m

C 1

m

  • 0.600 —

0.213

0.636

  • 0.900 —

0.446

0.571

0.401

0.518

  • 1.000 0.558

0.497

  • 1.125 —

0.478

0.565

0.518

0.560

  • 1.250 0.554

0.518

0.556

0.505

0.519

0.556

0.522

0.562

  • 1.500 0.562

0.451

0.568

0.460

0.452

0.568

0.488

0.568

  • 2.000 0.568

0.404

0.572

0.416

0.482

0.556

0.449

0.570

  • 3.000 0.580

0.310

0.592

0.356

0.440

0.562

0.428

0.574

Table 1—Constants of for airflow over a staggered tube bank

D D S A 1  , T avg V S T S L A 2
D
D
S
A
1
, T
avg
V
S
T
S
L
A
2

Figure 4—Staggered tube arrangement

Re

D ,max

V

max

D

/

is

defined

for

the

maximum

velocity occurring within the tube bank, V max , which occurs

at one

of two locations—either in way of A 1 or A 2 (see

Figure 4). The maximum velocity will occur at A 2 if 2 S  D S
Figure
4).
The
maximum
velocity
will
occur
at
A 2
if
2
S
D S
D
. The factor of 2 results from the
D
T
bifurcation experienced by the fluid moving form the A 1 to
the
A 2
planes.
In
this
case,
V
S
2 S
 D

V
max
T
D
avg
, otherwise it occurs at
V
S
S
 D

V
A 1 and
max
T
T
avg
.

Note: The average velocity of flow over the tube is not

constant as the shell is not wall-sided but circular. Thus,

one needs to use some average value of area. To use the

relations for staggered tube arrangements, a free-stream, shell-

side, fluid velocity must be determined. As the sides of the shell

are circular, this free-stream velocity varies. Thus, an average

free-stream velocity must be determined based on an average

width of the shell, w avg . This can be obtained from simple

integration as

r 1   r  1  2  2 2  2  r
r
1
 
r  1
2
2
2
2
r
 x
d
x
 
0

w avg
r
1
d
x
0
At this point, wavg is determined and an answer could be listed as w avg  1.571
Allternately, the expression above could be selected and then
choose SYMBOLICS: EVALUATE : SYMBOLICALLY
1
from the menu to yield

 r
 
w avg
2

Multiplying this with the distance between baffles gives an

average cross-sectional area, A avg , for the flow and the

 

average velocity, V avg , can be determined from

V

=

A avg V avg .

3. a. Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient, U

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SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470

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1

 

1

 

t

 

 

1

 

 

 
 

h

inner

 

k

   

tubes

0

 

h

outer

 

Assume tubes

 

are thin

-

walled

& very conductive

 

t = the tubing thickness

 

UA tubesurface

This value

 

NTU

 

C

min

should be

dimensionless

2

1

C

1

C

2

1

/

2

NTU 1

2

1

/

2

  • 1

e

r

C

1

 

 

r

r

  • 1

e

NTU 1

C

2

r

1

/

2

 

.

where,

Then NTU is

Now, the heat exchanger effectiveness, , can be determined.

For one shell pass and two tube passes the effectiveness is

 

U

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES—As the liquid (water) is moving, it

must be under a slight pressure. This experiment is interested in the

properties of liquid water density and specific heat which are both

functions of temperature and pressure. However, at low pressures,

one may assume that density and internal energy are approximately

equal to their saturated liquid values at the same temperature; i.e.,

(T, p)   f (T) and u(T, p) u f (T). Thus, density can be defined.

Enthalpy is, h(T, p) h f (T) + [p p sat (T)]/f (T). At a room temperature

of, say, 70F (~21C), p sat = 0.02487bar. Compared to atmospheric

pressure of 1.01325bar, this is small and negligible. Thus,

h(T, p) h f (T) + p/f (T). At the temperature assumed, the density of

water is 998kg/m 3 . At small pressures, say 2atm = 2.02bar,

p/f (T) = 0.202 kJ/kg while h f (T) = 88.14 kJ/kg. Thus, a fair approxi-

mation of enthalpy is h(T, p) h f (T). Finally, the definition of specific

heat is h = c(T) T; thus, C (T, p) C f (T).

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FOR THE REPORT 2. Indicate sources of error in equations as they apply to the shell-
FOR THE REPORT
2. Indicate sources of error in equations as they apply to the shell-
1. Be sure to clearly state/show the calculations along with any
and-tube heat exchanger in the lab, as well as sources of error in
assumptions made on the Mathcad worksheet in the order
the measurements.
appearing on the grading sheet. Of course, you may have other
3. Discuss how good is the NTU method.
intermediate calculations.

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SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470

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ORDERED DATA, CALCULATIONS, and RESULTS The object below is reduced to 70% of full size.

MATHCAD OBJECT--DOUBLE CLICK TO OPEN

DATA

Look Up (& Interpolate) Physical Properties For The 2 Mean Temperatures Calculated At The Right

1a. Determine Flow Rates Of Hot And Cold Fluids

1b. Calculate Heat Capacity Rates, The MAX & MIN Heat Capacity Rates, & The Heat Capacity Rate Ratio

2a. Calculate Heat Transfer Coefficient For Tube Side

2b. Calculate Heat Transfer Coefficient For Shell Side

3a. Calculate Heat Exchanger Effectiveness

3b. Calculate Outlet Temperatures

The Measured Outlet Temperatures Were

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DISCUSSION OF RESULTS

Discuss how good is the NTU method.

Indicate sources of error in equations as they apply to the shell-

and-tube heat exchanger in the lab, as well as sources of error in

the measurements

CONCLUSIONS

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APPENDICES

APPENDIX A— DATA SHEET FOR SHELL-AND-TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER LAB

Time/Date:

Lab Partners:

___________________________

___________________________

___________________________

___________________________

___________________________

Verify supplied dimensions given in Figure 2. Is anything else needed?

Is the hot flow on the tube side or shell side?

______________

Rotameter max flow rate: ________________

 

Cold

Hot

       

Volumetric

Volumetric

Hot Outlet

Hot Inlet

Cold Outlet

Cold Inlet

Flow Rate,

Flow Rate,

Temperature,

Temperature,

Temperature,

Temperature,

Run

V

C

V

H

T

H

o

T

H

i

T

C

o

T

C

i

 

,

 

,

 

,

 

,

( % of max

( % of max

(C)

(C)

 

(C)

(C)

 

rotameter rating)

rotameter rating)

   

1

2

3

4

5

APPENDIX B—PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TABLE

Last Rev.: 11 JUN 08 SHELL & TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER : MIME 3470 Page 9 APPENDICES