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1.

. ,
,
.
, ,
.
. , y 1 2

= 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 + (1)

= 0 + 1 1 + . (2)
, = 0 + 1 1
.
1 . ,
1 = (1 , )/(1 ).
(1)-

1 =

( 1 , )

( 1 , 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 + )

( 1 )
1 , 2
=1 + 2
( )
1

( 1 )
1 ,
( 1 )

1 , 0 + 1 1 + 2 1 , 2 + 1 ,
( 1 )

- - 1 2
1 , =0.

1 = 1 + 2

1 , 2
( 1 )

, (1) 2
(2) ,
1 1 . .
, 2 (2)
. ,
1 , 2 = 0.


. , B
, .

2.
.
, . :
-

, , ;
-

;
1

,
.

,
, , .
- ,
.
.

. ,

= 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 + +
, , , - ,
z , -
. - z-
= +
, . -
z-
= + +
, z .
, .

, = + + , .
,
.

3.
,
. ,

= +

(1)


= + + .

(2)

, ,
:
) B ;
) 2 2 = ( )/( 1)
) , ,
.

(1)-(2)
,
.
= 0 + 1 1 + (3)

= 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 + . (4)
2 -

(3) (4) ,

n
:
= 1 1 + ,
= 1 1 + 2 2 + .
,

(3) (4) 1
.

4.

, . ,

, , ,
, , .

, .
:
.

, ,
.

.

,
. -
.

, , ,
2 - . 2 -
2 -
.

..
,

.
- AIC,
- BIG.
1
=

2 +
1

2( + 1)


1
=

2 +
1

( + 1)


, ,
.

5. ,
.
,

.
, .
1 = 1 + 2 2 , 1 = 1 + 2 2 = 22 (2 ),
1 , 2 = 1 + 2 2 = 2 (2 ) - , =
22 1 2 2 2

= 0. , 1 2

, .
,
,
.
,
. ()
.

. , ( )
.
2
: 1 2 (1 12
).

12 : 12 =

1 ,2
(1 )(2 )

(1 ) =

2
2
(1 12
) 1
4

2
2
(1 12
) 2
,
(2 ) =


.
. ,

.
:
1)
.
2)
.
3) ,
.

6.

.
.
1
12 1
21
1 2
=


1 2 1
,
. ,
, 0,8-,
.
.
,
,
.
,
, .. m-2 .

. m-2
m-2
.
,
.

1 , 2 3 = 12|3 -.
,
12 13 23
12|3 =
,
2
2
(1 13
)(1 23
)
12 , 13 23 .
1 , 2 3 , 4 = 12|34 -.
, 12|34
12|4 13|4 23|4
12|34 =
,
2
2
(1 13|4 )(1 23|4 )
m-,
m-2

|12

1 +1 1 +1

, ,
.

7.
-
m-1
2 .
, 2
= 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 + +
( )
2
1
=

,
( ) 1 2
,
, 2 ( )
, .
, -
, .

1
12

. ,


1
=
.
1 2
= 1-, .
= , . > 4,
. ,
, > 10.
6

8.
1.
.
.
. , ,
, ,
,

1
01 02 0
10
1
12 1
20 21
1 2
,


0 1 2 1

. 0 0
,
.
2 .
F ,
1 . 2
:
=

2
1

.
1

. 2 ,
.

9. ()
1 , 2 , ,
,
.

. ,
- .
.
:
.
1 , 2 , ,
, .. 1
-.

2

:
()

1
,
1
2
,
.
()
2
2

= 1 1
()

. 1 , 2 , ,
,
. 1
. 1 -
2 , 1 -
.
( 1 , 2 ) 3 ..

10. ;
.
,
, ,
.
, .

, . ,
B
= ( )1 , :
= ( + +1 )1 ,
; +1 .
.

. , ,
,
.

.
, , .. .

11.
,
.
:
= 0 + 1 + 2 2 + ;
= 0 + 1 + 2 2 + 3 3 + ;
= 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 + 3 1 2 + 4 2 2 + 5 1 2 + ,
.
8


()
() .
, -3
.
.
, ,
. 0 , 1 +
2 2 + 3 3 . 1
, 2 - , 3 -
.
1 = 2 = 2 1 2
:
= 0 + 1 1 + 2 2 +

.

12.

1
= 0 + 1 + ,
0 < <.

, -
0 -.
0
, .
1 , 0 - .
,
, ,
= 1 ,
= 0 + 1 + ,
. ( 0 > 1 1 > 0, 0 > 1 1 < 0, 0 <
1 1 > 0)

1
0
=
( < < )
0 + 1 +
1

1
=
( < < )
0 + 1 +
0
= 1 ,
= 1 = 1 .
-

1
( < < )
0 + 1 +
: = 1 , = .
= 0 + 1 +
()
=

13.
,
. .
-
= 0 + 1 +
= 0 + 1 +
, ,
- .
= 0 + 1 + .
. ,
= , = ,
= 0 + 1 + .
, u ,
.
- , 1
- - .
1

.

14.

.
,
.
:

= 0 1 1 2 2 ,

= 0 +1 1 + + ,

= 0 1 1 2 2 ,
.
.
,
= 0 + 1 1 + + .
10

= , = , = 0,1, , = ,
= 0 + 1 1 + + .
, ,
.
, ,
,

,
.

15. -


= ,
, - , -
, , ,
.
- :

1) .
,
.
. , = 0 = 0, = 0;
2) , ,
, .
, > 0, > 0, > 0,

> 0

> 0. ,

, .
, - .
, - .
, 0 < < 1 0 < < 1.
3) , , ,
;
,
.
,
.
4) - (
- ) - .
. , ,
. = 1, . > 1,
, < 1, -
11

.
, .. = + .

16.
=
. , , =
. , . -
,
= + ,
.
- ,

= ,

= 1 .
= -

= + + + .
= 1 , ,

, - .

ln

= ln + ln + ln


ln = , ln = , = , ln = .

= + + .

17.

, .
,

.
.

.
, :
1) ;
12

2) , ,
;
3) ,
.
,

)2

=1

( )2 ,
=1

2 .
2 - .

18. . .

.

.

, .
.
,
.
,
= 0 + 1 +
= 0 + 1 + .
. ,
:
1. ,
= , = 1,2, , ,
.
2.
= 0 + 1 + , = 1,2, , ,
= 0 + 1 + = 1,2, , ,

.
3.

:

( ) ;
=1

( )2 ;

=
=1

13

4. ,
. , ,

, = |ln
(2 1.
2 .

19.


.
,
. ,

= 0 1 1 2 2 + ,
1 1
=
,
0 + 2 2

= 0 + 1 1 1 + 2 2 2 + ,
= 0 + 1 1 1 + 2 2 2 +
.. , ,

.

14