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Streamline Simulation

Handles Larger Models, Faster


Case study: Chevron integrates ECLIPSE FrontSim software
to accelerate reservoir management workflow
Challenge

Improve reservoir descriptions

Capture fine-scale heterogeneities


for more accurate multimillion-cell,
stochastic model simulations to
investigate potential remaining
reserves or drilling opportunities
in large U.S. reservoirs.

Chevron uses reservoir simulation for waterflood design, infill/horizontal well planning,
and coning studies. The accuracy of the reservoir simulation is largely controlled by
inherent geological heterogeneities. The need to capture these fine-scale heterogeneities
for improved reservoir descriptions prompted Chevron reservoir engineers to create
large geological models with millions of cells.
Traditional finite-difference simulation is impractical for assessing the dynamic
behavior of very large reservoir models. One Chevron 500,000-cell sandstone reservoir
had more than 500 wells and 50 years of production history, with continuous drilling
and frequent workover programs followed by a phased waterflood. Chevron reservoir
engineers conducted comprehensive field-performance analyses to determine
whetherin a number of U.S. reservoirs such as the super-giant sandstone reservoir
there were unrecovered reserves, bypassed oil, and infill drilling possibilities.

Solution
Chevron integrated ECLIPSE*
FrontSim software into its reservoir simulation workflow for
more accurate, flow-based model
screening, with 3D streamline
paths to guide nonuniform coarsening and flow paths to guide
history matching.

Results
Streamline simulation of the
super-giant sandstone reservoir
model was completed in only
14 hours, and a Rocky Mountain
high-permeability fractured
reservoir simulation was run
23 times faster than with traditional finite-difference methods.

Enable fast, accurate simulation


Chevron decided to integrate ECLIPSE FrontSim streamline simulation software into
its reservoir simulation workflow because of the simulators versatile functionality.
Streamline simulation offers a practical alternative technology for simulating multimillion-cell models, enabling fast and accurate simulation of large reservoir models and
visualization of fluid flow paths throughout the reservoir as described in the following
Chevron workflow.
AHM
(Assisted History
Matching)

Geological
Model
Screening

Geological
Model
Building

Initial
Model
Scoping

Reservoir
Simulation

Scaleup

Chevron uses streamline simulation in five of the six reservoir simulation workflow steps
(highlighted in blue).

Schlumberger Information Solutions

Case study: Chevron integrates ECLIPSE FrontSim software


to accelerate reservoir management workflow
I

Geological model screening and buildingin addition to being large, current geological
models are also stochastic; multiple, equiprobable realizations or models are obtained
from the property distributions in 3D space. Ranking these realizations to identify the
optimal realization for history matching is important. There is a range of ranking methods.
In the ad hoc method, screening is minimal or even nonexistent; the history-matching
process replaces the screening process. Another technique uses a simple statistical
measure, such as connected volumes. Streamline simulation provides a more accurate
flow-based screening of these large stochastic models. The screening process is prior
to scale-up and is included in the geological model construction.

UpscalingChevrons scale-up technique uses homogenization with nonuniform coarsening methods. The 3D streamline paths produced by streamline simulation can be used
to guide nonuniform coarsening.

Assisted history matchingstreamline simulation produces flow paths that can be used
to guide history matching. This technique improves on ad hoc assumptions by explicitly
identifying grid blocks that require modification.

Reduce costs and time, increase accuracy

These two water saturation


streamlines belowfrom 1966
(top) and 1994 (bottom)
illustrate aquifer and peripheral
injection influence.

Chevron ran several tests proving that for two-phase


problems the streamline results were virtually identical
to those of finite difference methods. However, speed
advantages of streamline simulators and the ability
to simulate large reservoir models gives it an edge
over finite-difference simulators. In the super-giant
sandstone reservoir model with 500,000 cells and more
than 50 years of production history, the simulation
was completed in only 14 hours. In another example,
a Rocky Mountain high-permeability fractured reservoir
simulation run was 23 times faster than traditional
finite-difference methods.
ECLIPSE FrontSim softwarewhich runs on Linux
or Windowsenables reservoir engineers to perform
very fast and accurate simulation runs on large reservoir models, reducing costs and history match cycle
time. Streamline simulation, an effective solution at
all stages of the reservoir characterization workflow,
can be used in conjunction with conventional finitedifference methods as an assisted history-matching
process and as a validation of upscaling techniques.
Used alone, ECLIPSE FrontSim software enables
screening of geological model realizations.

The ECLIPSE FrontSim results


reproduce the behavior of the
finite-difference model, even
allowing for bigger time-steps
in the streamline model. These
watercut profiles show a very
close agreement between the
two methods.

FrontSim lets us quickly and


accurately simulate and
analyze reservoir models with
millions of cells.
Chevron reservoir engineer

These two water saturation streamlines


belowfrom 1966 (top) and 1994 (bottom)illustrate
aquifer and peripheral injection influence.

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