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1

Hints to Problems
Chapter-1

1.18
40 kN

10 kN 20 kN

150 mm

550 mm

Elongation is given by, =


=

50 kN

200 mm

PL
AE

1
(40 000 X 150 + 30 000 X 550 + 50 000 X 200) = 0.224 mm
( / 4)30 X 205 000
2

1.22
Area of column =

X 5602 = 246 300 mm2; Area of steel = 4 X

4
Area of concrete = 246 300 4072 = 242 228 mm2

or s = 14 c
Es Ec
210 000 15 000
s X As + c X Ac = 800 000
14 c X 4072 + c X 242 228 = 800 000 or c = 2.673 MPa
s = 2.673 X 14 = 37.429 MPa
800 000
Average compressive stress =
= 3.248 MPa
246 300

We have,

or

1.23

P1

P2

P
P

P1

X 362 = 4072 mm2

2
On welding, tensile stresses will be developed in 1 and 3 whereas compressive stress in 2.
From equilibrium equation,
2 P1 cos = P2
.(assuming negligible change in )
(i)
From compatibility equation, 1 = 2 cos

PL
PL
P1L2
PL
or 1 1 = 2 2 cos or
= 2 2 cos
A1E1
A2 E2
A1E1 cos
A2 E2
A1E1
PL
2 2 cos 2
L2
A2 E2
If all rods are of same material and section,

AE
AE
PL 2
P2 cos 2
P1 =
2 2 cos =
L2
AE

L2

or

P1 =

AE
3
AE cos2
2AE cos3

and P1 =
From (i), 2
P2 cos = P2 or P2 =
L2 (1 + 2 cos3 )
L2 (1 + 2 cos3 )
L2

1.24
Here, = Lt ;
AE
PL
PL
42 X 85 000
19 X 10-6 X 1200 X 40 2 2 cos2
P1 = 1 1 L2t 2 2 cos2 =
L2
A2 E2
A2 E2
1200

2 A1E1
PL
2 A1E1
PL
L2t 2 2 cos3 = P2 or
L2t 2 2 cos3 = P2
From (i),
L2
A2 E2
L2
A2 E2
2 A1E1
(L2t ) cos3
A2 E2 (L2t )
L2
or P2 =
=
2A E

A2 E2
1 + 1 1 cos3

L2 1 +
3
A2 E2
2 A1E1 cos
1.26
Aa = 20 X 4 = 80 mm2

, As = 20 X 16 = 320 mm2

Total compression in Al = Total tension in steel


a X 80 = s X 320 or a = 4 s

s Ls t +

s Ls
Es

= c Lc t

c Lc
Ec

or st +

s
Es

= ct

c
Ec

1.28
Let 3 be the stress in the direction of restraint. Then,
1 = 1/E 3/E
2 = 3/E 1/E

(i)
(ii)

3
3 = 3/E 1/E

and

If there is no restraint in the third direction, 3 ' =


However, for the given restraint, 3 = 3 ' / 2 =

3 1
E

2E

1 or 3 = 1

2E

(iii)

Substituting in (i), 1 =

1 1

Modified modulus of elasticity, E =

2
1 = 1 2 2
E
2 2E

2E
1
=
1 2 2
Chapter-2

2.11
Both stresses are compressive,
x
120
=
= 0.816 or = 39.23o
tan =
y
180
r

= x cos 2 + y sin 2
2

= 1202 cos 2 39.23o + 1802 sin 2 39.23o


= 8640 + 12959
= 147 MPa compressive
2.14
R

2.5

60

O
5

2.5

F
0.9

10.95
P

5
10
10.9

4
2.15
1
1
( x + y )
{( x y ) 2 + 4 2 }
2
2
1
1
= (100 + 60)
{(100 60) 2 + 4(50) 2 }
2
2
1
= 80
1600 + 10000
2
= 80 53.8
= 133.8 MPa (tensile) and 26.2 MPa (tensile)
2 X 50
2
tan2 =
=
= 2.5
x y
100 60

(i)Principal stress

or
or
max =

1 = 34.1

1
(133.8 26.2)
2

2 = 68.2
and

2 = 34.1o + 90o = 124.1o

= 53.8 MPa at 34.1o + 45o =79.1o

2.16
180 MPa

180 MPa

B
240 MPa

120 MPa

B
120 MPa

30

30

240 MPa
207.8 MPa

On plane BC, x = 240 cos 30o = 207.8 MPa


= 240 sin 30o = 120 MPa
The equivalent state of stress on the panes is shown in the figure.

Resultant stress on plane AB = 1802 + 1202 =216.3 MPa


180
tan =
= 1.5 or = 56.3o
120
1
1
Principal stress
= ( x + y )
{( x y ) 2 + 4 2 }
2
2
1
1
= (207.8 + 180)
{( 207.8 180) 2 + 4(120) 2 }
2
2
1
= 193.9
25600 + 10000
2
= 193.8 120.8

5
= 314.6 MPa (tensile) and 73 MPa (tensile)
2 X 120
2
=
= 8.63
tan2 =
x y
207.8 180
or
or
max =

2 = 83.4o
and

1 = 41.7o
1
(314.6 73)
2

2 = 131.7o

= 120.8 MPa at 41.7o + 45o = 86.7o and 176.7o

2.18
q
200
r

R'

400
q

60o

60o
80

60o 60
O'

Q
p

32o
O

(a)

200

80

28o

R
400

(b)

OF = 449 MPa inclined at 28/2 or 14o to 400 MPa stress


OE = 251 MPa inclined at 32/2 or 16o to 200 MPa stress
2.19

4
r

X10 -6
45o

R'

3 X10 -6
q
45o

O'

p
1.6 X 10 -6

o
45o 45

10o

10o

P
F

1.6 X 10 -6

(a)

3 X10 -6

4 X10 -6

Major principal strain 1= OF = 4.04 X 10-6 at 10/2 or 5o clockwise of plane p

6
Minor principal strain 2 = OE = 1.58 X 10-6 at 95o clockwise of plane p.
Chapter-3
3.13
A = (/4)X242 = 144
Diameter of the reduced section = 24/2 = 12 mm
Area of the reduced section = (/4).122 = 36
When the bar is turned down to half the diameter along half of its length, let P be
the equivalent load to induce the same maximum stress.

PX 600
PX 600
+
= 0.000 03235 P = kP
36X 205 000 144X 205 000
..... (Taking k =0.000 03235)

Using the energy equation


1
P.
2
1
W (h+ kP) = P. kP
2
P2 2WP 2Wh/k = 0
W (h+ ) =

(multiplying throughout by 2/k)

3.15
As = ( /4)242 = 144 ;
Ab = ( /4)(362 - 242) = 180
Let x = Extension of bar in mm

s =

E s .x
E .x
and b = b
L
L

s2

b2

Es x 2
Eb x 2
As L +
Ab L = 2
As L + 2
Strain energy of the bar =
Ab L
L .2 Es
L .2 Eb
2 Es
2 Eb
Es x 2
Eb x 2
x2
=
As +
Ab =
( Es As + Eb Ab )
2L
2L
2L
x2
=
(205 000 X 144 + 98 000 X 180 ) = 24693 x2 N.mm
2 X 3000
Potential energy lost by the weight = W(h + x) = 13500 (6 + x) N.mm

Chapter-4

4.11
6 kN

8 kN

6m

1m

3m

(a)

(b) SF Diagram

(c) BM Diagram 24

Taking moments about end A = Rb X 6 8 X 9 + 6 X 1 = 0 or Rb = 11kN ;


and Ra = 14 11 = 3kN
4.14
40 kN

C
2m

2m

40 kN

20 kN

E
2m

20 kN

B
1m

1m

40

20

40

20
80

Taking moments about end A = Rb X 5 + 40 X 2 = 20 X 6 + 20 X 4 + 40 X 2 or Rb = 40kN ;


and Ra = 40 + 40 + 20 + 20 40 = 80 kN
Shearing force diagram
Portion AC: Fx = Ra = 40kN
(constant )
Portion AD: Fx = 40 + 80 = 40kN
(constant )
(constant )
Portion DE: Fx = 40 40 = 0

8
Portion BE: Fx = 20 kN
Portion BF: Fx = 20 + 40 = 20kN

(constant )
(constant )

Bending moment diagram


Portion AC: Mx = - 40 x
At A, x = 2 m and Ma = -80 kN.m;
Portion AD: Mx = 40 x + 80( x 2)
At D, x = 4 m and Md = 0
Portion DE: Mx = 0
Portion EB: Mx = - 20 x (x from E)
At B, x = 1 m and MB = -20 kN.m
Portion BF: Mx = - 20 x + 40( x 1) (x from E)
At F, x=2m, Mf = 0

(linear )
(linear )

(linear )
(linear )

4.17
The loading on the beam is shown in the figure
w
D
a

Ra

C
6 m Rb
10 m

B
4-a

Let distance of pier at A be a m from the end D, the other will be at B, (6-a) m from end
E.
Distance CB = CE BE = 5- (4-a) = 1+ a
Taking moments about B, 6 Ra = 10 w(1 + a ) or Ra =

5w(1 + a)
3

Bending moment
wx 2
wa 2
(parabolic); Md = 0; Ma =
Portion DA: Mx =
2
2
2
wx 5w(1 + a)
Portion AB: Mx =
+
( x a)
2
3
5w(1 + a)
=0
It is maximum when dM/dx = 0 or wx +
3
or
3x + 5(1 + a) = 0 or x = 5(1+a)/3

(negative value)

w[(5 / 3)(1 + a )]2 5w(1 + a ) 5

+
(1 + a ) a
2
3
3

+
w
a
25w
5
(
1
)
=
(1 + a) 2 +
(5 + 2a)
18
9
5w
[(1 + a)(5 5a + 10 + 4a)]
=
18

Maximum bending moment =

9
5w
[(1 + a)(5 a)]
18
5w
=
(5 + 4a a 2 )
18

The maximum bending moment will be as small as possible if the magnitudes of the
sagging and the hogging bending moment are equal.
4.19
16 kN
A
5m

8 kN/m

D
l = 15 m

C
8m

(a)
25 kN

18.33 kN

32 kN

2.33 kN

SF

5.81 m
(b)
113.9 kN.m

51 kN

114.9 kN.m

BM
13.05 m
(c)

85 kN.m

15 X 8 15 8 X 8 8
X

X
2
3
2
3
23 X 8

Ra = 25 kN and Rb = 16 +
or
25 = 83 kN
2

Intensity of distributed loading at any cross-section at a distance x from A = (w/l).x=wx/l


Shear force diagram
1 wx
8x2
x2
Portion AD: Fx = Ra
= 25
(parabolic)
x = 25
2 l
2 X 15
3.75
Fa = 25 kN; Fd = 18.33 kN
x2
16 ..(parabolic); Fd = 2.33 kN; Fb = -51 kN
Portion DB: Fx = 25
3.75
Between DB, shear force is zero when Fx = 25 x 2 / 3.75 16 =0 or x= 5.81 m
Taking moments about B, Ra X 15 = 16 X 10 +

10

Portion BC: It is convenient to deal this portion by using variable x from end C.
x2
1 wx
8x 2
x=
=
(parabolic); Fc = 0; Fb = 32 kN
Fx =
2 l
2X 8 2
Shear force diagram is shown in Fig. 4.21b.

Bending moment diagram


x2 x
x3
. = 25 x
(cubic); Fa = 0; Fd = 113.9 kN.m
3.75 3
11.25

Portion AD: Mx = 25 x

Portion DB: Mx = 25 x 16( x 5)

x3
(cubic)
11.25
Fd(x=5) = 113.9 kN.m; Fb(x=15) = - 85 kN

Mmax(x=5.81) =
x3
5.813
25 x 16( x 5)
= 25 X 5.81 16(5.81 5)
= 114.9 kN.m
11.25
11.25
x3
= 0 or x 3 101.25 x 900 = 0
Bending moment is zero at 25 x 16( x 5)
11.25
Solving by trial and error, x = 13.05 m
Portion BC: x from end C.
x2 x
x3
= (cubic) ; Fc = 0; Fb = -85 kN.m
Mx =
2 3
6
4.20
C
wx

x'

w'x

w
B

x dx

3600
3600
6750

Let

w = rate of loading at the midspan


2
Then total load = wX 6 = 4w
3
or 7200 = 4 w or w = 1800 kN/m
Taking C as origin of the parabola,
At a distance x from A or x from C,

11
w' x = kx' 2 , when x =3 m, w'x = 1800 kN or k = 200
w'x = 200 x'2 or (1800 wx ) = 200(3 x) 2

or wx = 1800 200(3 x) 2 or wx = 1800 200(9 + x 2 6 x) = 1200 x 200 x 2


Fx = 3600 (1200 x 200 x 2 )dx = 3600 600 x 2 +
At x = 0, Fx = 3600 , C1 = 0
Fx = 3600 600 x 2 +

5
-3067

6
-3600

200 x 3
50 x 4
dx = 3600 x 200 x 3 +
M x = Fx = 3600 600 x 2 +
+ C2
3
3

At x = 0, Mx =0 C2 = 0
50 x 4
M x = 3600 x 200 x3 +
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
Mx
0
3417
5867
6750
5867
3417

6
-3600

Fx

0
3600

200 x3
3
1
3067

2
1733

200 x3
+ C1
3

3
0

4
-1733

4.21
4 kN

4 kN

8 kN.m

E
3m

3m

B
2m

D
2m
4 kN

2
5
8 kN.m

Chapter-5
5.13

12

I xx =
Zx =

(D4 d 4 )
64

(2204 2004 )

= 36.45 X 106 mm4

64
6

I xx
36.45 X 10
=
= 331.4 X 103 mm3
ymax
110

Internal area of pipe =

(0.2) 2 = 0.01 m2

4
Weight of water /m run of pipe = 0.01X 1X 9.81 = 0.3082 kN
(2202 2002 )
Area of cross-section of pipe =
= 6597.3mm2
4
Weight of pipe /m run = 0.0065973 X 70 X1 = 0.4618 kN
Total weight/m run = 0.3082 + 0.4618 = 0.77 kN
5.14
b
D

B
D

bd 2 D 2 sin 2 . cos
=
6
6
If beam is to be strongest, Z must be maximum.
D2
dZ
i.e.
= 0 or
sin 3 + cos .2 sin cos = 0
d
6
2
or sin = 2 cos2 or tan 2 = 2 or tan = 2 or sin = 2 / 3 or cos = 1 / 3
BC = DX 2 / 3 = 0.816 D and AB = D 1 / 3 = 0.577 D
BC = D sin and AB = D cos ; Z =

5.16

13
y

20 mm
x

120 mm

y
80 mm

I xx =

1
X 80 X 1203 (40) 4 = 11.394 X 106 mm4
12
64

450 X 2 + 500 X 3 X 1.5


= 1050 N ; Rb = 1950 1050 = 900 N
3
Bending moment between CB,
x2
M x = 1050 x 450( x 1) 500 = 600 x + 450 250 x 2
2
dM x
For maximum value,
= 0 or 600 500 x = 0 or x =1.2 m
dx
M max = 600 X 1.2 + 450 250(1.2) 2 = 810 N.m
Ra =

5.17

30

20

30

30

M max = Wl / 4 = 1000 X 1 / 4 = 250 N.m


Ix =

(304 204 ) = 31907 mm4

64
I
31907
250 000
Z x = xx =
= 2127.1 mm3; max = M / Z =
= 117.5 MPa
ymax
15
2127.1
For composite section,
Moment of inertia about neutral axis,

431907 + 302 202 X 152 = 481056 mm4


4

14

5.18
M max
W 'l
l

ymax =
ymax =
ymax .W ' = kW '
I
4I
4I

ymax
W l
W

= W '+ . ymax = k W '+


I
2 4I
2

Neglecting self weight W of the beam, =

W ' l Wl
+
If W is considered, ' =

8
4
W

k W '+ kW '
W /2
'
2
X 100 =
X 100 =
X 100
%Error =
W
'
W '+W / 2

k W '+
2

W /2
or e =
X 100 or 100W = 2eW '+ eW or (100 e)W = 2eW '
W '+W / 2
or

W ' 100 e
=
2e
W

5.21

t'

t'

b/2

Modular ratio is 2. The equivalent steel section is shown in the figure.


As the neutral axis of the section is to be at the dividing line,
t
1
t b t'
= 0.707
bt. = t '. or . =
t'
2 2 2
2
5.22

28

20

If the stress in steel reaches to maximum value, the stress induced in brass
150 10
=
X = 61.22 MPa
1.75 14
M r = M steel + M brass
284 204

3
= 150 X
+ 61.22 X .20 = 287 200 N.mm
28
32

32

15

5.25
x
10 m

160

80

At a section x-x, at a distance x from the top, side of the square,


160 80
s = 80 +
.x or x = 125( s 80) mm
10000
s4
mm4
Moment of inertia about the diagonal or the neutral axis =
12
Bending moment at the section = 1000x =1000 X 125 (s-80) N.mm
s 1.5 X 106 ( s 80)
125 X 103 ( s 80)
X
=
=
.
MPa
s 4 / 12
s3
2
2
d
=0
For bending stress to be maximum,
ds
Chapter-6
6.12
Area = 2bt + t(2b-2t) = 4bt - 2t2 = 4bt (Neglecting higher values t)
2
8
b(2b)3 (b t )(2b 2t )3 2 4

= b (b t ) 4 = b 4 (b 4 4b3t ) = b3t
Ix =
12
12
3
3
3
Ay
shear stress (maximum) at neutral axis, = F
zI
2
2
2
t t (b t )
b t 3b t

= b 2t +
=
neglecting higher powers t.
Ay = bt b +
2
2
2
2

=F

Ay

=F

3b 2 t / 2
3

9F

zI
t.(8 / 3)b t 16bt
Average shear stress = F/4bt
Max
= 2.25
Average
6.15

] [

16
z

55 X 5

5 X 60
+ 2
+ 55 X 5 X 27.52 = 507.1X 103 mm4
12
12

The shear stress in the flanges,


F .zt. X 27.5
F . Ay
At a distance z from the tip, =
=
= 54.2 X 10 6 F .z
3
tI
tX 507.1X 10
Total force in each flange,

Refer Fig., I x =

27.5

z2
Ff = .tdz = 54.2 X 10 Fzt.dz = 54.2 X 10 F X 5
2 0
6

= 0.448 F

Chapter-7
7. 9
dF
x
= w = p sin
dx
l
pl
dM
x
Integrating, F = cos + C1 =
dx

l
2
pl
x
Integrating, M = 2 sin + C1.x + C2

l
At x =0, M=0 , C2 = 0; At x =l, M=0 , C1 = 0
pl 2
Maximum bending moment = 2

Reaction at support (Value of F at x=0) =

pl

7.10

W=wl
l

C
l/2

17
Taking moments about A, Rb Xl = PX 3l / 2 + W .l / 2 or Rb = (3P + W ) / 2
Consider a cross-section at distance x from C,
l w
l
d2y

EI 2 = Px + Rb x x
2 2
2
dx

Integrating, EI

x2 R
l w
l
dy
= P + b x x + C1
dx
2
2
2 6
2
3

x 3 Rb
l
w
l
Integrating again, EIy = P + x x + C1.x + C2
6
6
2 24
2
7.15
6 kN

4 kN/m
A
2m

3m

3m

E
3m

8m
4 kN/m D
A
2m

3m

6 kN

E
3m

3m

8m

To apply Macaulays method, uniformly distributed load has to be continuous upto the
end of the beam. To compensate the same an upward uniformly distributed load has to be
considered from D to E as shown in the figure.
Taking moments about A, Rb X 8 = 6 X 11 + 4 X 3 X 3.5 or Rb = 13.5 kN
and Ra = 18 13.5 = 4.5 kN
At any section x from A, EI
Integrating,

EI

d2y
4( x 2) 2 4( x 5) 2
=

4
.
5
x
+

13.5( x 8)
dx 2
2
2

4.5 x 2
4( x 2)3 4( x 5)3 13.5( x 8) 2
dy
=
+ C1 +

2
6
6
2
dx

Integrating again, EIy =


At A, (x=0), y = 0, C2 = 0

4( x 2) 4 4( x 5) 4 13.5( x 8)3
4.5 x 3
+ C1.x + C2 +

24
24
6
6
(consider only first part)

4(8 2) 4 4(8 5) 4
4.5 X 83
; C1 = 22.69
+ 8C1 +

24
24
6
slope and deflection equations are as follows:
At B, (x=8m), y = 0, 0 =

18

EI

dy
2( x 2)3 2( x 5)3 13.5( x 8) 2
= 2.25 x 2 + 22.7 +

dx
3
3
2

4.5 x3
( x 2) 4 ( x 5) 4 13.5( x 8)3
+ 22.7 x +

EIy =
6
6
6
6
Deflection at E, x=11m
EIy =

4.5 X 113
(11 2) 4 (11 5) 4 13.5(11 8)3
+ 22.7 X 11 +

=68.2 kN.m3
6
6
6
6

68.2 X 1012
y=
= 22.7 mm
200 000 X 15 X 106
For maximum deflection at distance x, making slope equal to zero,
2( x 2)3
0 = 2.25 x 2 + 22.7 +
or 2( x 2)3 6.75 x 2 + 68.1 = 0 x = 3.27m
3
4.5 X 3.273
(3.27 2) 4
EIy =
+ 22.7 X 3.27 +
= 48.4 kN.m3
6
6
12
48.4 X 10
y=
= 16.1 mm
200 000 X 15 X 106
7.16
Ma
A

Mb
B

Mb

Ma
BM diagram
A'

ymax

B'
zab
D'

As the intercepts on a given line ( on BD) between the tangents to the elastic
curve of a beam at any two points is equal to the net moment taken about that line of the
area of the bending moment diagram between the two points divided by EI.
l 1
l
l2
1
(
)
[2M a + M b ]
zab =
M
l
M
M
l
=
.
.
+

.
.
a
b
a
EI
2 2
3 6 EI

Slope of A, a =

l2 1
l
(2M a + M b )
. [2M a + M b ] =
6 EI l
6 EI

19
Now, the difference of slopes between any two points on an elastic curve of a beam is
equal to the net area of the bending moment diagram between these two points divided by
EI.
At C, the section at which deflection is maximum, slope is zero,

x
x 1
x2
1
(
)
(M b M a )
Slope of A, a =
=
+
.
.
M
x
M
M
M
x
+

a
b
a
a

EI
l
2 EI
2l

Equating the two,

x2
l
1
(2M a + M b )
a =
M a .x + (M b M a ) =
EI
2l
6 EI
6 M a .xl + 3 x 2 (M b M a ) = l 2 (2 M a + M b )
x2 +

l 2 (M b + 2 M a )
2lM a
.x
=0
Mb Ma
3(M b M a )

2X 8X 8
82 (10 + 2 X 8)
.x
= 0 or x 2 + 64 x 277.3 = 0 ; x= 4.07 m
10 8
3(10 8)
x x
x 2 x x2
1
2x
(
)
(M b M a )
Deflection at A= a =
M
.
x
.
M
M
. =
3M a +
+

a
b
a

EI
2 l
2 3 6 EI
l

2
4.07
2 X 4.07

3 X 8 X 103 +
X 103 X (10 8) = 5.76 X 10 3 m or 5.76mm
=
6
6 X 12 X 10
8

or x 2 +

7.18
4 kN.m

6 kN/m
A

4 kN.m

5m

+ wl2/8
4 kN.m
4 kN.m
As the loading is symmetrical, area of half the bending moment diagram can be
considered.
Moments of the bending moment diagram about A
2 l wl 2 5l
l l 5wl 4 Ml 2

= . .
. M . 2 . 4 = 384 8
3 2 8 16
Deflection at A
5 X 6000 X 54 4000 X 52
1 5wl 4 Ml 2
1

= 0.363 X 10 3 m = 0.363mm
=

EI 384
8 100 X 10
384
8

7.20

20
Let l be the length. Then maximum bending moment is 3000l at the fixed end (the
strongest section of 40 mm diameter).
3000l
Thus 75 =
X 20 or l = 157mm
( / 64) X 404
Let d be the diameter at a distance x from the free end of cantilever. Then for
uniform strength throughout,
3000 x
d
75 =
X
or d 3 = 407 x
4
( / 64) Xd
2
Moments of the bending moment at x about A= 3000 x.x
l
157
157
1
1
0.291
x2
2
2
Deflection =
3000
x
.
dx
=
.
3000
x
.
dx
=
.dx
EI 0
210000 X ( / 64)d 4 0
407 4 / 3 0 x 4 / 3
= 96.5 X 10

157

x5/ 3
= 57.9 X 10 6 (4569) = 0.265 mm

x
.
dx
96
.
5
X
10
=
0
5 / 3 0

157

2/3

7.22
W
4I

4l
4Wl
5 EI

B.M.

Wl
Wl
5EI

4Wl
5 EI

Wl 2.5l
.
5 EI 4l

The simply supported beam is shown in the figure a.


Reaction at A = Wl/5; Reaction at B = 4Wl/5
Bending moment diagram for the real beam is shown in Fig. b.
Now, in the conjugate beam method, this diagram is to be considered as loading diagram
and a new bending moment diagram is to be drawn which will give the deflection of the
beam. For the same, first we need to find the reaction on the supports.
4Wl l
2
l Wl 4l
Wl 2
. . 4l + +
. . 4lX or Rb = 0.56
Rb X 5l =
5 EI 2
3 5 EI 2
3
EI
2
2
4Wl l Wl 4l
Wl
Wl
= 0.24
. +
. 0.56
Ra =
5EI 2 5EI 2
EI
EI
Slope at A= shear force at A for conjugate beam

21
6000 X 20002
Wl 2
= 0.24 X
= 0.0014rad
= 0.24
205000 X 20 X 106
EI
Deflection at midspan = bending moment at C for conjugate beam
Wl 2
Wl 3
6000 X 20003
Wl 2.5l 2.5l 2.5l
0.24
X 2.5l
.
X
.
=
0
.
47
=
0
.
47
= 5.5 mm

EI
EI
2 3
205000 X 20 X 106
5 EI 4l
For maximum deflection, the bending moment is to be maximum or shear force is to be
zero.
7.23
W
16I

l/2

Wl
16 EI

Wl
32 EI

Let moment of inertia of portion CB be I =


For portion AC, I ac =

l/2

Wl/2

Wl

B.M.

Wl
2 EI

64

(d / 2) 4

d 4 = 16 I ,

64
The cantilever is shown in the figure a. Bending moment diagram for the real beam in
Fig. b. the conjugate beam in Fig. c. The fixed end is transformed into a free end and the
free end into a fixed end.
Wl l
Wl l 1 3Wl 2
. +
. . =
Slope at C= shear force at C for conjugate beam =
32 EI 2 32 EI 2 2 128EI
3Wl 2
Wl l 1 19Wl 2
. . =
Slope at B= shear force at B for conjugate beam =
+
128EI 2 EI 2 2 128EI
Deflection at C = bending moment at C for conjugate beam
5Wl 2
Wl l l
Wl l 1 l
. . +
. .
=
=
32 EI 2 4 32 EI 2 2 3 768EI
Deflection at B = bending moment at B for conjugate beam

22
Wl l 3l
Wl l 1 5l Wl l 1 l Wl 2 (9 + 5 + 32) 23Wl 2
. . +
. .
. . . =
+
=
=
32 EI 2 4 32 EI 2 2 6 2 EI 2 2 3
768 EI
384 EI

Chapter-8
8.12
15 kN

20 kN

8 kN/m
A

B
3m

6m

6m

Fixing moment at each end for uniformly distributed load, M =


Fixing moment for point load,
Wa 2b
Wab 2
M b = 2 and M a = 2
l
l
By combination,
15 X 3 X 122 20 X 9 X 62 8 X 152
+
+
= 207.6 kN.m
Ma =
152
152
12
15 X 32 X 12 20 X 92 X 6 8 X 152
+
+
= 200.4 kN.m
Mb =
152
152
12
Maximum bending moment = 207.6 kN.m
200.4 X 106
= 1.977 X 106 mm3 or 0.00198 m3
Section modulus =
105

wl 2
(Example 8.2)
12

(Example 8.3)

8.13

80 kN/m

C
5m

4m
200 kN

Fixing moment at each end for uniformly distributed load, M =


Fixing moment for point load,
Wa 2b
Wab 2
M b = 2 and M a = 2
l
l
By combination,
200 X 5 X 42 80 X 92
+
= 342.5 kN.m (hogging)
Ma =
92
12

wl 2
(Example 8.2)
12

(Example 8.3)

23
200 X 52 X 4 80 X 92
+
= 293.1 kN.m (hogging)
Mb =
92
12
To find reactions, take moments about B,
80 X 9 2
R a X 9 + 200 X 4
342.5 = 293.1 or R a = 341.7 kN
2
Rb = 80 X 9 200 341.7 = 178.3 kN
8.15
W
C
A

B
l/2

l/2
Wl/4

Ma
Mc =
(Ma+ Mb)/2

Mb

As the slope at A is equal to slope at B =0, net area of the moment diagram must be
zero, i.e.

(M a + M b ) / 2 + M b l
1 Wl l
1 Wl l
M a + (M a + M b ) / 2 l
= . .
+ . .
+
.
.
2
2 EI a
2
2 EI b 2 4 2 EI a 2 4 2 EI b
or (3M a + M b )

l
l Wl 2 Wl 2
+ ( M a + 3M b ) =
+
Ia
Ib 2I a 2Ib

3 1
1 3 Wl 1 1
+
M a + + M b + =
I a Ib
I a Ib 2 I a Ib
3I + I Wl I a + I b

(i)
M a + M b a b =
3
2
3
I
I
I
I
+
+
b
b
a
a
Deflection of A relative to B is zero, so net moments of areas about B must be zero, i.e.
M al 3l ( M b M a ) l 1 l 1 l ( M a + M b ) l
l
. +
.
. + . +
.
.
2 EI a 4
2
2 EI a 2 2 3 2
2
2 EI b 4

( M b M a ) l 1 l 1 Wl l l l 1 1 Wl l l 2
.
. = . .
. + . + . .
.
2
2 EI b 2 6 2 4 2 EI a 2 2 3 2 4 2 EI b 2 3

24
3M al 2 ( M b M a )l 2 ( M a + M b )l 2 ( M b M a )l 2 Wl 3 Wl 3
+
+
+
=
+
8I a
12 I a
16 I b
48 I b
24 I a 48I b
3
1
1
1
1
1
1 Wl 1
1
+ M b
=
+

+
+
M a
2 I a 3I a 4 I b 12 I b
3I a 4 I b 12 I b 6 I a 2 I b
2( I a + I b ) Wl I a + 2 I b )

(ii)
Ma + Mb
=
2 I a + 7 I b
I a + 7 Ib

From (i) and (ii), M a =

Wl I a ( I a + 3I b )
Wl I b (3I a + I b )
2
and M b =

2
2 I a + I b + 14 I a I b
2 I a2 + I b2 + 14 I a I b

8.20
10 kN/m

6 kN/m
A

I
4m

25.5

2I
5m

31.25

12

30.1
5.625
19.9

18.375

8.22
w

2l

The load diagram is shown in Fig. Applying the three moment equation for uniformly
distributed loads to the spans AB and BC,


wl 3 w(2l )3

+ 6 EI c a
4
4
2l2 l1
In this equation, M a = 0,
and M c = M b ; c = 0
(From symmetry of the beam, B and C have same load, so level of C is the
same as of B)

M al + 2 M b (l + 2l ) + M c X 2l =

25
9wl 2

3EI a2
The above equation reduces to M b =
32
4l
Also, Ra = Rd ; Rb = Rc

(From symmetry of the beam)

Thus, W = Ra + Rb + Rc + Rd = 2 Ra + 2 Rb

or

and a = Rb
(i) becomes, M b =

(i)

4wl

Ra =
Rb = 2wl Rb
2

9wl 2
R .
3EI b 2
32
4l

Bending moment at B,
wl 2
W
W
M b = M a + Ral
= 0 + l Rb
2
8
2
3W

M b = l Rb
or

From (ii) and (iii)

12 wl 2
9 wl 2
R .
=
l Rb
3EI b 2
8
32
4l

(ii)
W
W
= l Rb
8
2

(hogging)

57 wl
57 wl 4

57 wl
R .
wl 57l 3
32
3

Rb =
3EI b 3 or Rb =
= 3 8
=
3EI 4l + 3EI
32
4l
8 4l + 3EI
1+
4l 3
3

W
wX 4l wl 57l

3
Ra = Rb =
2
8 4l + 3EI
2

wl 7l 3 + 48EI
wl
57l 3

=
16 3
8
4l + 3EI 8 4l 3 + 3EI
8.28

(iii)

26

60kN/m

A
6m

197.3
_

4m

180
+
32.7

80
+

Maximum bending moment for the spans AB and BC treating as simply supported
beams,
wl 2 60 X 62
=
= 270 kN.m
For span AB, M max =
8
8
wl 2 60 X 42
=
= 120 kN.m
For span BC, M max =
8
8

For fixing moments, assume the continuous beam ABC to be made up of fixed beams
AB and BC.
wl 2
60 X 62
=
= 180 kN.m
For span AB: Fixing moments at A, M a =
12
12
wl 2 60 X 62
=
= 180 kN.m
Fixing moments at B, M b =
12
12
wl 2
60 X 42
=
= 80 kN.m
For span BC: Fixing moments at B, M b =
12
12
wl 2 60 X 42
=
= 80 kN.m
Fixing moments at C, M c =
12
12
In span AB, moments at A and B due to sinking of support B by 8 mm,

6 EI
M = 2
(Example 8.7, -ve being counter-clockwise)
l
6 X 205 000 X 400 X 106 X 8
= 109.3 X 106 N.mm or -109.3 kN.m
or M =
2
6 000
Due to sinking of support B by 8 mm, moments at B and C (Refer example 8.7),
6 EI
M = 2
(-ve being counter-clockwise)
l
6 X 205 000 X 400 X 106 X 8
M=
= 246 X 106 N.mm or 246 kN.m
or
2
4 000
Distribution factors at B:

27
Stiffness factor for AB, sba =
and for BC, sbc =

4 EI
= 2 EI / 3
6

3EI 3EI
=
4
4

(as the beam is fixed at A)

(as the beam is simply supported at C)

sab
2 EI / 3
8
=
=
sab + sbc 2 EI / 3 + 3EI / 4 17
sbc
3EI / 4
9
=
=
Distribution factor for BC, kbc =
sab + sbc 2 EI / 3 + 3EI / 4 17
Distribution factors
16/31 15/31
Fixed end moments
-180
180
-80
Moments due to sinking -109.3
-109.3 246
Initial moments
-289.3
70.7
166
Release C
Carry over
-163
Net moments
-289.3
70.7 3
Distribute
-38
-35.7
Carry over
-19
Final moments
-197.3
32.7
-32.7
Distribution factor for AB, kba =

80
246
326
-326
0

0
Chapter-9

9.16
M =WR (1-cos )
1
M 2 ds
W 2 R3
2
U =
= 2
[WR(1 cos )] R.d =
[1 cos ]2 .d

0
0
2 EI
2 EI
EI
3
u 2WR
2WR 3
2
=
[
1

cos

]
.
d

=
1 + cos 2 + 2 cos .d
Vertical deflection =
W
EI 0
EI 0

2WR 3
sin 2
1 + cos 2

0 1 + 2 + 2 cos .d = EI + 2 + 4 + 2 sin 0
3

2WR 3
3 XX 5 X 1503
3WR
=
= 3.68 mm
=
+ + 0 + 0 =
2
200 000 X (12 X 63 / 12)
EI
EI

2WR 3
=
EI

9.8

28
20 kN

10
0

8
m 0
m

20 kN

d = 80 mm ; R = 50+40 = 90 mm ; A =
2

X 802 = 5026.5 mm2

d
d
80
1 80
+
+ ... =
+
. 2 = 439.5 mm2
2
16 128R
16 128 90
As bending moment tends to increase the curvature, it is positive.
Resultant stress = Direct stress +Bending stress
Stress at outside face (P), y = 290 - 202=88 mm
20000 90 2
40
W WR R 2 y W R 2 y
o = +
1
=
.
=
.
+

2
2
A AR
p R + y A p R + y 5026.5 439.5 90 + 40
= 22.56 MPa (tensile)
Stress at inside face (Q)
W WR R 2 y
W R2
y
i = +
=

. 2.

2
A AR p R y
A p R y
p2 =

= 105.82 X

40
= 58.67 MPa (compressive)
90 40
Chapter-10

10.12
P=

2N
1
T , If P is constant, N
T
60

d 3

1/ 3

1
1
d 5000
, If stress is same, Td ; N 3 or d 1 / 3 , a =
But =

16
db 50
d
N
T

10.16
Tsls
Tl
= aa
Gs J s Ga J a
Angle of twist per unit length,

= 4.64

29
Ts
T
= a
Gs J s Ga J a

or

32T
32T
= 0.7 X
d =50.5 mm
4
4
2Ga XX (60 d )
Ga XX 604





Also, as = 0.7 , = 0.7

l a
Gr a
l st
Gr st

G
As r is same, st = st 0.7 = 2 X 0.7 = 1.4
a Ga
As maximum limits are 65 MPa for alloy and 80 MPa for steel, the maximum stress will
reach in steel first.

10.18
Maximum shear stress occurs at smallest diameter.
X 803
6
10 X 10 =
. or = 99.5MPa
16
T l 1
1
10 X 106 1200 1
1

3 = 0.0171 rad
=
.
.
3
3
3

3G r ' (r + r ') (r r ')


3 X 82000 10 60 40
= 0.98o
Chapter-11
11.13
64TDn 64 X 20000 X 100 X 12
=
= 0.3704 rad
Ed 4
200 000 X 124
0.3704
Increase in the number of turns =
= 0.059
2
32T 32 X 20000
Bending stress,
=
= 117.9 MPa
d 3
X 123
20
Torsional stiffness (torque /rad) =
= 54 N.m/rad
0.3704
Under axial torque, =

11.17

W Gd 4
80 000 X 2.54
8WD 3 n
or
s
=
=
=
= 2.441 N/mm
1
Gd 4
8D 3n 8 X (8 X 2.5)3 X 20

Gd 4
80 000 Xd '4
=
= 1.302d '
8D 3n 8 X (8d ' )3 X 15
ss
2.441X 1.302d '
s = 1 2 or 1.3 =
or 3.173 + 1.693d ' = 2.441X 1.302d ' or d ' = 2.136mm
s1 + s2
2.441 + 1.302d '
The maximum load will be that taken by the spring with smaller diameter.
s2 =

30

11.18
E =2G(1+) =2G(1+0.3)=2.6G
8WD 3 n
Gd 4
8WD 2 n
and for an open-coiled spring, o = 4
d . cos
For a closed-coiled spring, c =

cos 2 2 sin 2

+
E
G

8WD 2 n
i
Gd 4
Now, o
= 0.02 or
1
= 0.02
o
8WD 2 n cos 2 2 sin 2

+
E
d 4 . cos G
E cos
2.6G cos
1
= 0.025 or
= 0.975
2
2
E cos + 2G sin
2.6G cos 2 + 2G sin 2
2.6 cos
2.6 cos
or
= 0.975 or
= 0.975
2
2
2.6 cos + 2(1 cos )
0.6 cos 2 + 2
2.6 cos
= 0.975 or 0.585 cos 2 2.6 cos + 2 = 0
2
0.6 cos + 2
On solving, = 17.2o
11.20

M E E
=
(Eq. 11.14)
y
I
R R'
At proof load, R is infinite and thus E/R = 0
630 208 000
E
=
=
or
R = 1650 mm or 1.65 m
or
y R
10 / 2
R
Let We be the equivalent static load which produces the same maximum stress and
deflection as the impact load.
3 We l
also, =
2 nbt 2
630 3 We X 1400
As the maximum stress is one half of the proof stress,
= .
2
2 10 X 80 X 102
We = 12000 N
or
=

3 Wel 3
3
12000 X 14003
=
.
= 74.2 mm
8 nbt 3 E 8 10 X 80 X 103 X 208 000
Chapter-12

31
12.16
Assuming the deflected form under the action of the crippling load be
x
x
x
dy a

sin
=
y = a1 cos = a1 cos
and thus,
2l
400
dx 400
400

x
2
2
2
1 cos
l dy
a 180
a 180 2 x
200 .dx
.dx =
0
.dx =
0 sin
0 dx
400
2
400

400

1 a
=

2 400

1 a

2
sin
X 200 = 0.006 17a
=
x
200
200 0
2 400

x
x

Also, M = P(a y ) = Pa Pa1 cos


= Pa cos
400
400

x
x

cos 2
cos2
2
l M
200
P 2 a 2 100
400 dx +
400 dx

dx =

0 2 EI
100
2E 0
I2
I1

180

12.18
I=

(56
64

444 = 95100 mm4; A =

(56
4

442 = 300 mm2

I 95100
=
= 317 mm2
A
300
2 EI 2 X 207 000 X 95100
= 126112 N
Euler load, Pe = 2 =
l
22002
Actual load for failure = 126112 X 0.75 = 94584 N
l
l P
2200
94584
sec = sec
= sec
= sec1.36 = sec 77.9o = 4.77
2
2 EI
2
207 000 X 95100
k2 =

l 94584 eX 28
P e. yc

X 4.77 MPa
1 +
1 + 2 . sec =
A
k
2 300
317

290 = 100.36(1 + 0.421e )


1 + 0.421e = 2.89
or
e = 4.49 mm
max =

or
or
12.21

w = 0.8 kN/m = 0.8 N/mm;


I=

l
2

l
2

(40 ) = 40000
64
4

mm4; A =

(
40 ) = 400 mm2
4
2

P 3200
36 000
=
= 1.968 rad (=109.7o)
EI
2
200 000 X 40000

32
wEI l 0.8 X 200 000 X 40000
sec109.7o 1
sec 1 =
P
2
36 000

6
= 0.5585 X 10 X (2.967 1) = 2.215 X 106 N.mm

M=

max =

P M . yc
36 000 2.215 X 106 X 20

= 28.7 352.7
A
I
400
40000
- 381.4 MPa (compressive) and -324 MPa compressive
Chapter-13

13.13
Internal volume of cylinder =

X 8002 X 1400 = 703.7 X 106 mm3

4
pd 4.5 X 800
pd
c =
=
= 180 MPa (tensile) and l =
= 90 MPa (tensile)
2t
2 X 10
4t
V
Increase in volume, v = ( l + 2 c ).V = [( l . c ) + 2( c . l )]
E
V
( / 4) X 8002 X 1500
1245 X 103 = [(90 X 180) + 2(180 X 90)] =
(450 360 )
E
2050000
754 X 106
1250 X 103 =
(450 360 )or 450 360 = 340
205000
= 0.306

13.16
Internal volume of shell =

X 1.53 = 1.767 m3 = 1767 X 106 mm3

For tube:

3
(1 ) = 3 pd (1 ) (13.9)
4tE
E
3 pd
(1 )V = 3 X 2 X 1500 (1 0.3)V = 1575V / tE
Decrease in volume, =
4tE
4tE
For water:
p
Increase in volume, v = w .V = .V
K
1575V p
Thus change volume of water =
+ V
tE
K
1575
2
X 1767 X 106 or
t=6.23mm
or 4000 X 103 =
+
200 000t 2000
Volumetric strain = 3 X hoop strain = =

13.20

33

Maximum circumferential stress in a tube subjected to internal pressure p is at the inner


2002 + 1502
d 2 + d i2
=
surface and is c = o2
.
p
or

= 3.57 p
c
d o d i2
2002 1502
Thus 3.57 p = 44 or p =12.32 MPa

ri 2 . p

752 Xp
= 1.2857 p
(ro2 ri 2 ) 1002 752
220000
or p =12.43 MPa
1.2875 p =

X (2002 1502 )
4
Maximum pressure =12.43 MPa

Longitudinal stress =

13.22
d o2 + d i2
The maximum hoop stress is at d=di, c = 2
. pi
d o d i2
or

d o2 + 602
55 = 2
X 35
d o 602

or

11d o2 11X 602 = 7(do2 + 602 ) or

Maximum shear stress, =

d o2 602 =

or

2
o

pi d
2
(d o d i2 )

35 2
(d o + 602 )
55
d o = 84.8 mm

or

50 =

35d o2
(do2 602 )

10d o2 10 X 602 = 7d o2 or
d o = 109.5 mm
109.5 60
= 24.75 mm
Thickness =
2

or

13.25
(i) Increase of inner diameter of the collar
pd
d 2502 + 1502
c + r
[2.125 + 0.3] = 2.425 pd
p
p
.d =
.
d =
+

=
2
2
E
E 250 150
E
E
2.425 X 150 p
0.1 =
or
p = 55 MPa
or
200 000
13.27

=
or

pi (d o3 + 2d i3 )
2(d o3 d i3 )

or

75 =

d o3 + 2 X 803 = 5(d o3 803 )


t = 16.4/2=8.2 mm

d o3 + 2 X 803
X 30
2(do3 803 )
or

4d o3 = 7 X 803 or

do = 96.4 mm

34
Chapter-14
14.12
Let the shrinkage pressure between the disc and the shaft at stand still be p.
Ri = 0.09 m and Ro = 0.4 m
Shrink allowance = 0.08 mm
At stand still, the hollow disc acts similar to a thick cylinder subjected to
internal pressure (Refer section 13.9).
2 pRi Ro2
(Eq. 13.31)
Shrinkage allowance (initial difference in radii) =
E ( Ro2 Ri2 )
2 pX 90 X 4002
0.08 =
or p = 86.9 MPa
or
206 000(4002 902 )
Maximum hoop stress is at the inner radius and is given by Eq. 13.7.
0.42 + 0.092
R 2 + Ri2
= o2
.
p
=
. p = 1.107 p = 1.107 X 86.9 = 96.2 MPa
i
Ro Ri2
0.42 0.092
(ii)

When the disc rotates and the shrink fit loosens, radial pressure is zero and thus
the radial stress is also zero.

2
4

[(1 ) R

2
i

+ (3 + ) Ro2

(Eq. 14.17)

14.13
2X 3000
= 100
60
At stand still
Let the shrinkage pressure between the disc and the shaft at stand still be p.
At stand still, the hollow disc acts similar to a thick cylinder subjected to internal
pressure only and thus the results of the same may be used.
- For the outer disc, hoop stress at the inner radius (50 mm),
Ri = 0.08 m and Ro = 0.24 m

Ro2 + Ri2
0.242 + 0.082
.
p
=
. p = 1.25 p N/mm2
i
2
2
2
2
Ro Ri
0.24 0.08
1.25 p + 0.3 p 1.55 p
=
Hoop strain =
Es
Es

14.15
Let t be the thickness of the disc at radius r. Now as t = A.e .
2 2
At r = 0, 180 = A.e . .0 / 2 = A

.r 2 / 2

(i)

35
At r = 0.2 m, t = A.e .
Dividing (ii) and (i),

.0.2 2 / 2

(ii)

A.e . .0.2
t = 180 X
A
2

/ 2

= 8.e .

( 0.04 ) / 2

0.04
2X 3000
where X 0.04 / 2 = 7500 X
= 0.1234
X
60
2 X 120 X 106

t = 8e 0.1234 = 159 mm
2

Chapter-15
15.6
C=

Et 3
200 000 X 153
=
= 61.8 X 106
2
2
12(1 )
12(1 0.3 )

0 .4 x 2
wx 2 2 x 2
x2
2
R =
300
y=
32C
2 32 X 61.8 X 106
2
Deflections at different cross-sections are tabulated below:

x (mm)
y (mm)

0
0

60
0.064

120
0.24

180
0.48

240
0.72

300
0.82

0.9
0.6
0.3
0

60

120 180
r (mm)

240

300

Figure shows the profile of the deflected plate.


(t / 2) E w 12(1 2 )
3 w
. .
(1 + ) R 2 (3 + ) x 2 = . 2 (1 + ) R 2 (3 + ) x 2
2
3
1 16
Et
8 t
3 0.4
= . 2 (1 + 0.3) X 3002 (3 + 0.3) x 2 = 0.000667 117000 3.3 x 2
8 15

x =

(t / 2) E w 12(1 2 )
3w
. .
(3 + ) R 2 (3 + 1) x 2 = 2 (1 + ) R 2 (3 + 1) x 2
2
3
1 16
8t
Et
3 X 0.4
=
(1 + 0.3)3002 (3 X 0.3 + 1) x 2 = 0.000667 117 000 1.9 x 2
8 X 152

z =

15.8

36
Et 3
200 000 X 53
C=
=
= 2.26 X 106
2
2
12(1 ) 12(1 0.28 )
1

1
2 2 log R + 1 + (log x 1)

2
1

2000 x
1 0.28
=
2 log 100 +
(log x 1)
6
8X 2.26 X 10 2
1 + 0.28

6 2
= 35.21X 10 x [10.773 log x ]
y=

Px 2
8C

Chapter-16
16.9
60

60

10
45

A'
A

N'
N

80
10

y'

10

(mm)
(b)

(a)

Let N-A and N-A be the elastic and plastic neutral axes respectively.
60 X 10 X 5 + 70 X 10 X 45
y=
= 26.54 mm
60 X 10 + 70 X 10
10 X 703
60 X 103
I=
+ 60 X 10 X (26.54 5) 2 +
+ 10 X 70 X (45 26.54) 2 =807.76X103 mm4
12
12
5000 278383 285833 238540
Yield will start at the bottom edge,
I
807.76 X 10 3
. y = 15110 y
Moment of resistance at first yield, My= . y =
y
(80 26.54)
In fully plastic state, the neutral axis divides the total area of the beam into two
equal parts.
16.12
30

280 MPa

12
72

24

(mm)

STRESS

Let Wy be the load at first yield at the mid-span,

37
bh 2
30 X 722
My =
. y =
X 280 = 7258 X 103 N.mm or 7258 N.m
6
6
W X 1.2
Thus, y
= 7258 or Wy = 24.2 X103 N or 24.2 kN
4
h2 a 2
For elastoplastic state, moment of resistance, M = y .b
3
4
722 242
=9274 X 103 N.mm or 9274 N.m
= 280 X 30

4
3

Wy X 1.2
or
= 9274 or Wy = 30.9 X103 N or 30.9 kN
4
For this required depth of yield, let the yield occur beyond a cross-section at
distance x m from one end of the beam. Then this cross-section will be having the first
yield and thus the moment of resistance will be equal to the first yield at the midspan i.e.
7258X103 N.mm.

16.13
y. y
150 y

120 mm
15 mm

y ( y 15)
150 y

15mm

200
mm
150-y

50
mm
y

(a)

(b)

Solution
As the load increases and the yield spreads upto 50 mm from the lower edge of web,
assume that the top of the flange is still in the elastic state. Let the neutral axis be at a
distance y from the top edge. The stress distribution in the beam section will be as shown
in Fig. b.
y
Stress at the top of flange,
t =
. y .
150 y
y 15
. y .
Stress at the bottom of flange, b =
150 y
+b

.(120 X 15) + b .( y 15)15


Total tensile stress force = t
2
2

38
y 15
y
y 15
( y 15)
+ 7.5 y
= 900 y
+
150 y
150 y 150 y
900 y + 900 y 13500 + 7.5 y 2 225 y + 1687.5

= y

150
y

7.5 y 2 + 1575 y 11812.5

= y
150 y

Compressive force =

y
2

.15 X (150 y ) + y X 50 X 15 = y (1875 7.5 y )

16.14
y

100 mm

10 mm
N

A
10 mm

80
mm

(a)

(b)

Solution
Let the neutral axis be at a distance y from the top edge. The yield starts at the bottom of
the web and will cover some portion when the top of the flange will just yield. The stress
distribution in the beam section is shown in Fig. b. Let the stress at the bottom of the
flange be when the top of flange just yields.
y 15
. y
Then =
y
+

.(100 X 10) + .( y 10)10 = 500 y + 450 + 5y


Positive force = y
2
2
Negative force =

y
2

.10 y + y (80 2 y ) X 10 = 15 y . y + 800 y

Chapter-17
17.8
E

50 kN

3m

B
6m

50 kN

3m

3m
A

3m
C

50 kN

50 kN

6m
50 kN

50 kN

50 kN

50 kN

39

To find the reaction at support B, take moments about A,


Rb X 6 = 50 X 6 or Rb = 50 kN (upwards); Ra = 50 kN (downwards)
Rah = 50 kN
ABC = tan (3 / 6) = 26.6o
Joint A: FAB = 50kN (T) FAC = 50(T ) kN,
Joint B Considering FH = 0, 50 + FBC cos 26.6o = 0 or FBC = 55.9kN (C)
Considering FV = 0, 50 55.9 sin 26.6o + FBD = 0 or FBD = 25 kN (compressive)
17.9
50 kN
100 kN

F
2m

D
2m
B

A
2m

2m
50 kN

50 kN
100 kN

100 kN

F EG

2m
H

F CE

D
2m

100 kN

100

F GF =o
F GD

2m

2m

D
FV= 0

B
A

D
FH= 0

100

F GF =o
F GD

50 kN
FV= 0

To find the reaction at support B, take moments about A,


Rb X 4 = 100 X 4 50 X 4 or Rb = 50 kN (upwards); Rav = 0
R ah = 100 kN
Joint E: FCE = 50kN (C) FEG = 100 kN (C) by judgement
Joint F: FFG = FFD = 0 (C) by judgement
Joint G Considering forces along GD,
FGD = 0, FGD + FGE cos 45o = 0 or FGD + 100 cos 45o = 0 or FGD = 70.7kN (C)
Considering FV = 0, FGD cos 45o FGC cos 45o = 0 or FGC = 70.7 (T)

40

17.11
200 kN
F

200 kN

400

D
2m
E

200

2m

400

B
4m

4m

200

400

200

400

447.1

447.2

Taking moments about F,


FAH X 4 = 200 X 8 or FAH = 400 kN (inwards); FFH = 400 kN (outwards)

Joint D: FED = 0 as there is no other horizontal member to balance the force.


FCD = 200 kN (C)
tan-1(4/2)= CBE or CBE = 63.43o
Joint C: FBC cos 63.43o = 200 or FBC = 447.2 kN (C)
447.2 sin 63.43o = FCE or FEC = 400 kN (T)
Joint B: 447.2 cos 63.43o = FBE or FBE = 200 kN (T)
447.2 sin 63.43o = FAB or FAB = 400 kN (C)
Joint A: FAE = 0 FAV = 0
Joint F: FFV = 200 FEF sin 63.43o = 400 or FEF = 447.1 kN (T)
17.12
40 kN

60o

40 kN

80 kN
E

60o

40 kN

80 kN

40 kN

Taking moments about F,


FDV X 12 = 40 X 2 + 80 X 6 + 40 X 3.464 or FDV = 58.21 kN; FDH = 40 kN
FAV = 120 58.2 = 61.8 kN
Joint D: FED X sin 60o = 58.21 or FED = 67.2 kN (C)
FCD = 67.2 cos 60o = 33.6 kN (T)

40 kN