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You are on page 1of 40

Hints to Problems

Chapter-1

1.18

40 kN

10 kN 20 kN

150 mm

550 mm

=

50 kN

200 mm

PL

AE

1

(40 000 X 150 + 30 000 X 550 + 50 000 X 200) = 0.224 mm

( / 4)30 X 205 000

2

1.22

Area of column =

4

Area of concrete = 246 300 4072 = 242 228 mm2

or s = 14 c

Es Ec

210 000 15 000

s X As + c X Ac = 800 000

14 c X 4072 + c X 242 228 = 800 000 or c = 2.673 MPa

s = 2.673 X 14 = 37.429 MPa

800 000

Average compressive stress =

= 3.248 MPa

246 300

We have,

or

1.23

P1

P2

P

P

P1

2

On welding, tensile stresses will be developed in 1 and 3 whereas compressive stress in 2.

From equilibrium equation,

2 P1 cos = P2

.(assuming negligible change in )

(i)

From compatibility equation, 1 = 2 cos

PL

PL

P1L2

PL

or 1 1 = 2 2 cos or

= 2 2 cos

A1E1

A2 E2

A1E1 cos

A2 E2

A1E1

PL

2 2 cos 2

L2

A2 E2

If all rods are of same material and section,

AE

AE

PL 2

P2 cos 2

P1 =

2 2 cos =

L2

AE

L2

or

P1 =

AE

3

AE cos2

2AE cos3

and P1 =

From (i), 2

P2 cos = P2 or P2 =

L2 (1 + 2 cos3 )

L2 (1 + 2 cos3 )

L2

1.24

Here, = Lt ;

AE

PL

PL

42 X 85 000

19 X 10-6 X 1200 X 40 2 2 cos2

P1 = 1 1 L2t 2 2 cos2 =

L2

A2 E2

A2 E2

1200

2 A1E1

PL

2 A1E1

PL

L2t 2 2 cos3 = P2 or

L2t 2 2 cos3 = P2

From (i),

L2

A2 E2

L2

A2 E2

2 A1E1

(L2t ) cos3

A2 E2 (L2t )

L2

or P2 =

=

2A E

A2 E2

1 + 1 1 cos3

L2 1 +

3

A2 E2

2 A1E1 cos

1.26

Aa = 20 X 4 = 80 mm2

, As = 20 X 16 = 320 mm2

a X 80 = s X 320 or a = 4 s

s Ls t +

s Ls

Es

= c Lc t

c Lc

Ec

or st +

s

Es

= ct

c

Ec

1.28

Let 3 be the stress in the direction of restraint. Then,

1 = 1/E 3/E

2 = 3/E 1/E

(i)

(ii)

3

3 = 3/E 1/E

and

However, for the given restraint, 3 = 3 ' / 2 =

3 1

E

2E

1 or 3 = 1

2E

(iii)

Substituting in (i), 1 =

1 1

2

1 = 1 2 2

E

2 2E

2E

1

=

1 2 2

Chapter-2

2.11

Both stresses are compressive,

x

120

=

= 0.816 or = 39.23o

tan =

y

180

r

= x cos 2 + y sin 2

2

= 8640 + 12959

= 147 MPa compressive

2.14

R

2.5

60

O

5

2.5

F

0.9

10.95

P

5

10

10.9

4

2.15

1

1

( x + y )

{( x y ) 2 + 4 2 }

2

2

1

1

= (100 + 60)

{(100 60) 2 + 4(50) 2 }

2

2

1

= 80

1600 + 10000

2

= 80 53.8

= 133.8 MPa (tensile) and 26.2 MPa (tensile)

2 X 50

2

tan2 =

=

= 2.5

x y

100 60

(i)Principal stress

or

or

max =

1 = 34.1

1

(133.8 26.2)

2

2 = 68.2

and

2.16

180 MPa

180 MPa

B

240 MPa

120 MPa

B

120 MPa

30

30

240 MPa

207.8 MPa

= 240 sin 30o = 120 MPa

The equivalent state of stress on the panes is shown in the figure.

180

tan =

= 1.5 or = 56.3o

120

1

1

Principal stress

= ( x + y )

{( x y ) 2 + 4 2 }

2

2

1

1

= (207.8 + 180)

{( 207.8 180) 2 + 4(120) 2 }

2

2

1

= 193.9

25600 + 10000

2

= 193.8 120.8

5

= 314.6 MPa (tensile) and 73 MPa (tensile)

2 X 120

2

=

= 8.63

tan2 =

x y

207.8 180

or

or

max =

2 = 83.4o

and

1 = 41.7o

1

(314.6 73)

2

2 = 131.7o

2.18

q

200

r

R'

400

q

60o

60o

80

60o 60

O'

Q

p

32o

O

(a)

200

80

28o

R

400

(b)

OE = 251 MPa inclined at 32/2 or 16o to 200 MPa stress

2.19

4

r

X10 -6

45o

R'

3 X10 -6

q

45o

O'

p

1.6 X 10 -6

o

45o 45

10o

10o

P

F

1.6 X 10 -6

(a)

3 X10 -6

4 X10 -6

6

Minor principal strain 2 = OE = 1.58 X 10-6 at 95o clockwise of plane p.

Chapter-3

3.13

A = (/4)X242 = 144

Diameter of the reduced section = 24/2 = 12 mm

Area of the reduced section = (/4).122 = 36

When the bar is turned down to half the diameter along half of its length, let P be

the equivalent load to induce the same maximum stress.

PX 600

PX 600

+

= 0.000 03235 P = kP

36X 205 000 144X 205 000

..... (Taking k =0.000 03235)

1

P.

2

1

W (h+ kP) = P. kP

2

P2 2WP 2Wh/k = 0

W (h+ ) =

3.15

As = ( /4)242 = 144 ;

Ab = ( /4)(362 - 242) = 180

Let x = Extension of bar in mm

s =

E s .x

E .x

and b = b

L

L

s2

b2

Es x 2

Eb x 2

As L +

Ab L = 2

As L + 2

Strain energy of the bar =

Ab L

L .2 Es

L .2 Eb

2 Es

2 Eb

Es x 2

Eb x 2

x2

=

As +

Ab =

( Es As + Eb Ab )

2L

2L

2L

x2

=

(205 000 X 144 + 98 000 X 180 ) = 24693 x2 N.mm

2 X 3000

Potential energy lost by the weight = W(h + x) = 13500 (6 + x) N.mm

Chapter-4

4.11

6 kN

8 kN

6m

1m

3m

(a)

(b) SF Diagram

(c) BM Diagram 24

and Ra = 14 11 = 3kN

4.14

40 kN

C

2m

2m

40 kN

20 kN

E

2m

20 kN

B

1m

1m

40

20

40

20

80

and Ra = 40 + 40 + 20 + 20 40 = 80 kN

Shearing force diagram

Portion AC: Fx = Ra = 40kN

(constant )

Portion AD: Fx = 40 + 80 = 40kN

(constant )

(constant )

Portion DE: Fx = 40 40 = 0

8

Portion BE: Fx = 20 kN

Portion BF: Fx = 20 + 40 = 20kN

(constant )

(constant )

Portion AC: Mx = - 40 x

At A, x = 2 m and Ma = -80 kN.m;

Portion AD: Mx = 40 x + 80( x 2)

At D, x = 4 m and Md = 0

Portion DE: Mx = 0

Portion EB: Mx = - 20 x (x from E)

At B, x = 1 m and MB = -20 kN.m

Portion BF: Mx = - 20 x + 40( x 1) (x from E)

At F, x=2m, Mf = 0

(linear )

(linear )

(linear )

(linear )

4.17

The loading on the beam is shown in the figure

w

D

a

Ra

C

6 m Rb

10 m

B

4-a

Let distance of pier at A be a m from the end D, the other will be at B, (6-a) m from end

E.

Distance CB = CE BE = 5- (4-a) = 1+ a

Taking moments about B, 6 Ra = 10 w(1 + a ) or Ra =

5w(1 + a)

3

Bending moment

wx 2

wa 2

(parabolic); Md = 0; Ma =

Portion DA: Mx =

2

2

2

wx 5w(1 + a)

Portion AB: Mx =

+

( x a)

2

3

5w(1 + a)

=0

It is maximum when dM/dx = 0 or wx +

3

or

3x + 5(1 + a) = 0 or x = 5(1+a)/3

(negative value)

+

(1 + a ) a

2

3

3

+

w

a

25w

5

(

1

)

=

(1 + a) 2 +

(5 + 2a)

18

9

5w

[(1 + a)(5 5a + 10 + 4a)]

=

18

9

5w

[(1 + a)(5 a)]

18

5w

=

(5 + 4a a 2 )

18

The maximum bending moment will be as small as possible if the magnitudes of the

sagging and the hogging bending moment are equal.

4.19

16 kN

A

5m

8 kN/m

D

l = 15 m

C

8m

(a)

25 kN

18.33 kN

32 kN

2.33 kN

SF

5.81 m

(b)

113.9 kN.m

51 kN

114.9 kN.m

BM

13.05 m

(c)

85 kN.m

15 X 8 15 8 X 8 8

X

X

2

3

2

3

23 X 8

Ra = 25 kN and Rb = 16 +

or

25 = 83 kN

2

Shear force diagram

1 wx

8x2

x2

Portion AD: Fx = Ra

= 25

(parabolic)

x = 25

2 l

2 X 15

3.75

Fa = 25 kN; Fd = 18.33 kN

x2

16 ..(parabolic); Fd = 2.33 kN; Fb = -51 kN

Portion DB: Fx = 25

3.75

Between DB, shear force is zero when Fx = 25 x 2 / 3.75 16 =0 or x= 5.81 m

Taking moments about B, Ra X 15 = 16 X 10 +

10

Portion BC: It is convenient to deal this portion by using variable x from end C.

x2

1 wx

8x 2

x=

=

(parabolic); Fc = 0; Fb = 32 kN

Fx =

2 l

2X 8 2

Shear force diagram is shown in Fig. 4.21b.

x2 x

x3

. = 25 x

(cubic); Fa = 0; Fd = 113.9 kN.m

3.75 3

11.25

Portion AD: Mx = 25 x

x3

(cubic)

11.25

Fd(x=5) = 113.9 kN.m; Fb(x=15) = - 85 kN

Mmax(x=5.81) =

x3

5.813

25 x 16( x 5)

= 25 X 5.81 16(5.81 5)

= 114.9 kN.m

11.25

11.25

x3

= 0 or x 3 101.25 x 900 = 0

Bending moment is zero at 25 x 16( x 5)

11.25

Solving by trial and error, x = 13.05 m

Portion BC: x from end C.

x2 x

x3

= (cubic) ; Fc = 0; Fb = -85 kN.m

Mx =

2 3

6

4.20

C

wx

x'

w'x

w

B

x dx

3600

3600

6750

Let

2

Then total load = wX 6 = 4w

3

or 7200 = 4 w or w = 1800 kN/m

Taking C as origin of the parabola,

At a distance x from A or x from C,

11

w' x = kx' 2 , when x =3 m, w'x = 1800 kN or k = 200

w'x = 200 x'2 or (1800 wx ) = 200(3 x) 2

Fx = 3600 (1200 x 200 x 2 )dx = 3600 600 x 2 +

At x = 0, Fx = 3600 , C1 = 0

Fx = 3600 600 x 2 +

5

-3067

6

-3600

200 x 3

50 x 4

dx = 3600 x 200 x 3 +

M x = Fx = 3600 600 x 2 +

+ C2

3

3

At x = 0, Mx =0 C2 = 0

50 x 4

M x = 3600 x 200 x3 +

3

0

1

2

3

4

5

Mx

0

3417

5867

6750

5867

3417

6

-3600

Fx

0

3600

200 x3

3

1

3067

2

1733

200 x3

+ C1

3

3

0

4

-1733

4.21

4 kN

4 kN

8 kN.m

E

3m

3m

B

2m

D

2m

4 kN

2

5

8 kN.m

Chapter-5

5.13

12

I xx =

Zx =

(D4 d 4 )

64

(2204 2004 )

64

6

I xx

36.45 X 10

=

= 331.4 X 103 mm3

ymax

110

(0.2) 2 = 0.01 m2

4

Weight of water /m run of pipe = 0.01X 1X 9.81 = 0.3082 kN

(2202 2002 )

Area of cross-section of pipe =

= 6597.3mm2

4

Weight of pipe /m run = 0.0065973 X 70 X1 = 0.4618 kN

Total weight/m run = 0.3082 + 0.4618 = 0.77 kN

5.14

b

D

B

D

bd 2 D 2 sin 2 . cos

=

6

6

If beam is to be strongest, Z must be maximum.

D2

dZ

i.e.

= 0 or

sin 3 + cos .2 sin cos = 0

d

6

2

or sin = 2 cos2 or tan 2 = 2 or tan = 2 or sin = 2 / 3 or cos = 1 / 3

BC = DX 2 / 3 = 0.816 D and AB = D 1 / 3 = 0.577 D

BC = D sin and AB = D cos ; Z =

5.16

13

y

20 mm

x

120 mm

y

80 mm

I xx =

1

X 80 X 1203 (40) 4 = 11.394 X 106 mm4

12

64

= 1050 N ; Rb = 1950 1050 = 900 N

3

Bending moment between CB,

x2

M x = 1050 x 450( x 1) 500 = 600 x + 450 250 x 2

2

dM x

For maximum value,

= 0 or 600 500 x = 0 or x =1.2 m

dx

M max = 600 X 1.2 + 450 250(1.2) 2 = 810 N.m

Ra =

5.17

30

20

30

30

Ix =

64

I

31907

250 000

Z x = xx =

= 2127.1 mm3; max = M / Z =

= 117.5 MPa

ymax

15

2127.1

For composite section,

Moment of inertia about neutral axis,

4

14

5.18

M max

W 'l

l

ymax =

ymax =

ymax .W ' = kW '

I

4I

4I

ymax

W l

W

I

2 4I

2

W ' l Wl

+

If W is considered, ' =

8

4

W

k W '+ kW '

W /2

'

2

X 100 =

X 100 =

X 100

%Error =

W

'

W '+W / 2

k W '+

2

W /2

or e =

X 100 or 100W = 2eW '+ eW or (100 e)W = 2eW '

W '+W / 2

or

W ' 100 e

=

2e

W

5.21

t'

t'

b/2

As the neutral axis of the section is to be at the dividing line,

t

1

t b t'

= 0.707

bt. = t '. or . =

t'

2 2 2

2

5.22

28

20

If the stress in steel reaches to maximum value, the stress induced in brass

150 10

=

X = 61.22 MPa

1.75 14

M r = M steel + M brass

284 204

3

= 150 X

+ 61.22 X .20 = 287 200 N.mm

28

32

32

15

5.25

x

10 m

160

80

160 80

s = 80 +

.x or x = 125( s 80) mm

10000

s4

mm4

Moment of inertia about the diagonal or the neutral axis =

12

Bending moment at the section = 1000x =1000 X 125 (s-80) N.mm

s 1.5 X 106 ( s 80)

125 X 103 ( s 80)

X

=

=

.

MPa

s 4 / 12

s3

2

2

d

=0

For bending stress to be maximum,

ds

Chapter-6

6.12

Area = 2bt + t(2b-2t) = 4bt - 2t2 = 4bt (Neglecting higher values t)

2

8

b(2b)3 (b t )(2b 2t )3 2 4

= b (b t ) 4 = b 4 (b 4 4b3t ) = b3t

Ix =

12

12

3

3

3

Ay

shear stress (maximum) at neutral axis, = F

zI

2

2

2

t t (b t )

b t 3b t

= b 2t +

=

neglecting higher powers t.

Ay = bt b +

2

2

2

2

=F

Ay

=F

3b 2 t / 2

3

9F

zI

t.(8 / 3)b t 16bt

Average shear stress = F/4bt

Max

= 2.25

Average

6.15

] [

16

z

55 X 5

5 X 60

+ 2

+ 55 X 5 X 27.52 = 507.1X 103 mm4

12

12

F .zt. X 27.5

F . Ay

At a distance z from the tip, =

=

= 54.2 X 10 6 F .z

3

tI

tX 507.1X 10

Total force in each flange,

Refer Fig., I x =

27.5

z2

Ff = .tdz = 54.2 X 10 Fzt.dz = 54.2 X 10 F X 5

2 0

6

= 0.448 F

Chapter-7

7. 9

dF

x

= w = p sin

dx

l

pl

dM

x

Integrating, F = cos + C1 =

dx

l

2

pl

x

Integrating, M = 2 sin + C1.x + C2

l

At x =0, M=0 , C2 = 0; At x =l, M=0 , C1 = 0

pl 2

Maximum bending moment = 2

pl

7.10

W=wl

l

C

l/2

17

Taking moments about A, Rb Xl = PX 3l / 2 + W .l / 2 or Rb = (3P + W ) / 2

Consider a cross-section at distance x from C,

l w

l

d2y

EI 2 = Px + Rb x x

2 2

2

dx

Integrating, EI

x2 R

l w

l

dy

= P + b x x + C1

dx

2

2

2 6

2

3

x 3 Rb

l

w

l

Integrating again, EIy = P + x x + C1.x + C2

6

6

2 24

2

7.15

6 kN

4 kN/m

A

2m

3m

3m

E

3m

8m

4 kN/m D

A

2m

3m

6 kN

E

3m

3m

8m

To apply Macaulays method, uniformly distributed load has to be continuous upto the

end of the beam. To compensate the same an upward uniformly distributed load has to be

considered from D to E as shown in the figure.

Taking moments about A, Rb X 8 = 6 X 11 + 4 X 3 X 3.5 or Rb = 13.5 kN

and Ra = 18 13.5 = 4.5 kN

At any section x from A, EI

Integrating,

EI

d2y

4( x 2) 2 4( x 5) 2

=

4

.

5

x

+

13.5( x 8)

dx 2

2

2

4.5 x 2

4( x 2)3 4( x 5)3 13.5( x 8) 2

dy

=

+ C1 +

2

6

6

2

dx

At A, (x=0), y = 0, C2 = 0

4( x 2) 4 4( x 5) 4 13.5( x 8)3

4.5 x 3

+ C1.x + C2 +

24

24

6

6

(consider only first part)

4(8 2) 4 4(8 5) 4

4.5 X 83

; C1 = 22.69

+ 8C1 +

24

24

6

slope and deflection equations are as follows:

At B, (x=8m), y = 0, 0 =

18

EI

dy

2( x 2)3 2( x 5)3 13.5( x 8) 2

= 2.25 x 2 + 22.7 +

dx

3

3

2

4.5 x3

( x 2) 4 ( x 5) 4 13.5( x 8)3

+ 22.7 x +

EIy =

6

6

6

6

Deflection at E, x=11m

EIy =

4.5 X 113

(11 2) 4 (11 5) 4 13.5(11 8)3

+ 22.7 X 11 +

=68.2 kN.m3

6

6

6

6

68.2 X 1012

y=

= 22.7 mm

200 000 X 15 X 106

For maximum deflection at distance x, making slope equal to zero,

2( x 2)3

0 = 2.25 x 2 + 22.7 +

or 2( x 2)3 6.75 x 2 + 68.1 = 0 x = 3.27m

3

4.5 X 3.273

(3.27 2) 4

EIy =

+ 22.7 X 3.27 +

= 48.4 kN.m3

6

6

12

48.4 X 10

y=

= 16.1 mm

200 000 X 15 X 106

7.16

Ma

A

Mb

B

Mb

Ma

BM diagram

A'

ymax

B'

zab

D'

As the intercepts on a given line ( on BD) between the tangents to the elastic

curve of a beam at any two points is equal to the net moment taken about that line of the

area of the bending moment diagram between the two points divided by EI.

l 1

l

l2

1

(

)

[2M a + M b ]

zab =

M

l

M

M

l

=

.

.

+

.

.

a

b

a

EI

2 2

3 6 EI

Slope of A, a =

l2 1

l

(2M a + M b )

. [2M a + M b ] =

6 EI l

6 EI

19

Now, the difference of slopes between any two points on an elastic curve of a beam is

equal to the net area of the bending moment diagram between these two points divided by

EI.

At C, the section at which deflection is maximum, slope is zero,

x

x 1

x2

1

(

)

(M b M a )

Slope of A, a =

=

+

.

.

M

x

M

M

M

x

+

a

b

a

a

EI

l

2 EI

2l

x2

l

1

(2M a + M b )

a =

M a .x + (M b M a ) =

EI

2l

6 EI

6 M a .xl + 3 x 2 (M b M a ) = l 2 (2 M a + M b )

x2 +

l 2 (M b + 2 M a )

2lM a

.x

=0

Mb Ma

3(M b M a )

2X 8X 8

82 (10 + 2 X 8)

.x

= 0 or x 2 + 64 x 277.3 = 0 ; x= 4.07 m

10 8

3(10 8)

x x

x 2 x x2

1

2x

(

)

(M b M a )

Deflection at A= a =

M

.

x

.

M

M

. =

3M a +

+

a

b

a

EI

2 l

2 3 6 EI

l

2

4.07

2 X 4.07

3 X 8 X 103 +

X 103 X (10 8) = 5.76 X 10 3 m or 5.76mm

=

6

6 X 12 X 10

8

or x 2 +

7.18

4 kN.m

6 kN/m

A

4 kN.m

5m

+ wl2/8

4 kN.m

4 kN.m

As the loading is symmetrical, area of half the bending moment diagram can be

considered.

Moments of the bending moment diagram about A

2 l wl 2 5l

l l 5wl 4 Ml 2

= . .

. M . 2 . 4 = 384 8

3 2 8 16

Deflection at A

5 X 6000 X 54 4000 X 52

1 5wl 4 Ml 2

1

= 0.363 X 10 3 m = 0.363mm

=

EI 384

8 100 X 10

384

8

7.20

20

Let l be the length. Then maximum bending moment is 3000l at the fixed end (the

strongest section of 40 mm diameter).

3000l

Thus 75 =

X 20 or l = 157mm

( / 64) X 404

Let d be the diameter at a distance x from the free end of cantilever. Then for

uniform strength throughout,

3000 x

d

75 =

X

or d 3 = 407 x

4

( / 64) Xd

2

Moments of the bending moment at x about A= 3000 x.x

l

157

157

1

1

0.291

x2

2

2

Deflection =

3000

x

.

dx

=

.

3000

x

.

dx

=

.dx

EI 0

210000 X ( / 64)d 4 0

407 4 / 3 0 x 4 / 3

= 96.5 X 10

157

x5/ 3

= 57.9 X 10 6 (4569) = 0.265 mm

x

.

dx

96

.

5

X

10

=

0

5 / 3 0

157

2/3

7.22

W

4I

4l

4Wl

5 EI

B.M.

Wl

Wl

5EI

4Wl

5 EI

Wl 2.5l

.

5 EI 4l

Reaction at A = Wl/5; Reaction at B = 4Wl/5

Bending moment diagram for the real beam is shown in Fig. b.

Now, in the conjugate beam method, this diagram is to be considered as loading diagram

and a new bending moment diagram is to be drawn which will give the deflection of the

beam. For the same, first we need to find the reaction on the supports.

4Wl l

2

l Wl 4l

Wl 2

. . 4l + +

. . 4lX or Rb = 0.56

Rb X 5l =

5 EI 2

3 5 EI 2

3

EI

2

2

4Wl l Wl 4l

Wl

Wl

= 0.24

. +

. 0.56

Ra =

5EI 2 5EI 2

EI

EI

Slope at A= shear force at A for conjugate beam

21

6000 X 20002

Wl 2

= 0.24 X

= 0.0014rad

= 0.24

205000 X 20 X 106

EI

Deflection at midspan = bending moment at C for conjugate beam

Wl 2

Wl 3

6000 X 20003

Wl 2.5l 2.5l 2.5l

0.24

X 2.5l

.

X

.

=

0

.

47

=

0

.

47

= 5.5 mm

EI

EI

2 3

205000 X 20 X 106

5 EI 4l

For maximum deflection, the bending moment is to be maximum or shear force is to be

zero.

7.23

W

16I

l/2

Wl

16 EI

Wl

32 EI

For portion AC, I ac =

l/2

Wl/2

Wl

B.M.

Wl

2 EI

64

(d / 2) 4

d 4 = 16 I ,

64

The cantilever is shown in the figure a. Bending moment diagram for the real beam in

Fig. b. the conjugate beam in Fig. c. The fixed end is transformed into a free end and the

free end into a fixed end.

Wl l

Wl l 1 3Wl 2

. +

. . =

Slope at C= shear force at C for conjugate beam =

32 EI 2 32 EI 2 2 128EI

3Wl 2

Wl l 1 19Wl 2

. . =

Slope at B= shear force at B for conjugate beam =

+

128EI 2 EI 2 2 128EI

Deflection at C = bending moment at C for conjugate beam

5Wl 2

Wl l l

Wl l 1 l

. . +

. .

=

=

32 EI 2 4 32 EI 2 2 3 768EI

Deflection at B = bending moment at B for conjugate beam

22

Wl l 3l

Wl l 1 5l Wl l 1 l Wl 2 (9 + 5 + 32) 23Wl 2

. . +

. .

. . . =

+

=

=

32 EI 2 4 32 EI 2 2 6 2 EI 2 2 3

768 EI

384 EI

Chapter-8

8.12

15 kN

20 kN

8 kN/m

A

B

3m

6m

6m

Fixing moment for point load,

Wa 2b

Wab 2

M b = 2 and M a = 2

l

l

By combination,

15 X 3 X 122 20 X 9 X 62 8 X 152

+

+

= 207.6 kN.m

Ma =

152

152

12

15 X 32 X 12 20 X 92 X 6 8 X 152

+

+

= 200.4 kN.m

Mb =

152

152

12

Maximum bending moment = 207.6 kN.m

200.4 X 106

= 1.977 X 106 mm3 or 0.00198 m3

Section modulus =

105

wl 2

(Example 8.2)

12

(Example 8.3)

8.13

80 kN/m

C

5m

4m

200 kN

Fixing moment for point load,

Wa 2b

Wab 2

M b = 2 and M a = 2

l

l

By combination,

200 X 5 X 42 80 X 92

+

= 342.5 kN.m (hogging)

Ma =

92

12

wl 2

(Example 8.2)

12

(Example 8.3)

23

200 X 52 X 4 80 X 92

+

= 293.1 kN.m (hogging)

Mb =

92

12

To find reactions, take moments about B,

80 X 9 2

R a X 9 + 200 X 4

342.5 = 293.1 or R a = 341.7 kN

2

Rb = 80 X 9 200 341.7 = 178.3 kN

8.15

W

C

A

B

l/2

l/2

Wl/4

Ma

Mc =

(Ma+ Mb)/2

Mb

As the slope at A is equal to slope at B =0, net area of the moment diagram must be

zero, i.e.

(M a + M b ) / 2 + M b l

1 Wl l

1 Wl l

M a + (M a + M b ) / 2 l

= . .

+ . .

+

.

.

2

2 EI a

2

2 EI b 2 4 2 EI a 2 4 2 EI b

or (3M a + M b )

l

l Wl 2 Wl 2

+ ( M a + 3M b ) =

+

Ia

Ib 2I a 2Ib

3 1

1 3 Wl 1 1

+

M a + + M b + =

I a Ib

I a Ib 2 I a Ib

3I + I Wl I a + I b

(i)

M a + M b a b =

3

2

3

I

I

I

I

+

+

b

b

a

a

Deflection of A relative to B is zero, so net moments of areas about B must be zero, i.e.

M al 3l ( M b M a ) l 1 l 1 l ( M a + M b ) l

l

. +

.

. + . +

.

.

2 EI a 4

2

2 EI a 2 2 3 2

2

2 EI b 4

( M b M a ) l 1 l 1 Wl l l l 1 1 Wl l l 2

.

. = . .

. + . + . .

.

2

2 EI b 2 6 2 4 2 EI a 2 2 3 2 4 2 EI b 2 3

24

3M al 2 ( M b M a )l 2 ( M a + M b )l 2 ( M b M a )l 2 Wl 3 Wl 3

+

+

+

=

+

8I a

12 I a

16 I b

48 I b

24 I a 48I b

3

1

1

1

1

1

1 Wl 1

1

+ M b

=

+

+

+

M a

2 I a 3I a 4 I b 12 I b

3I a 4 I b 12 I b 6 I a 2 I b

2( I a + I b ) Wl I a + 2 I b )

(ii)

Ma + Mb

=

2 I a + 7 I b

I a + 7 Ib

Wl I a ( I a + 3I b )

Wl I b (3I a + I b )

2

and M b =

2

2 I a + I b + 14 I a I b

2 I a2 + I b2 + 14 I a I b

8.20

10 kN/m

6 kN/m

A

I

4m

25.5

2I

5m

31.25

12

30.1

5.625

19.9

18.375

8.22

w

2l

The load diagram is shown in Fig. Applying the three moment equation for uniformly

distributed loads to the spans AB and BC,

wl 3 w(2l )3

+ 6 EI c a

4

4

2l2 l1

In this equation, M a = 0,

and M c = M b ; c = 0

(From symmetry of the beam, B and C have same load, so level of C is the

same as of B)

M al + 2 M b (l + 2l ) + M c X 2l =

25

9wl 2

3EI a2

The above equation reduces to M b =

32

4l

Also, Ra = Rd ; Rb = Rc

Thus, W = Ra + Rb + Rc + Rd = 2 Ra + 2 Rb

or

and a = Rb

(i) becomes, M b =

(i)

4wl

Ra =

Rb = 2wl Rb

2

9wl 2

R .

3EI b 2

32

4l

Bending moment at B,

wl 2

W

W

M b = M a + Ral

= 0 + l Rb

2

8

2

3W

M b = l Rb

or

12 wl 2

9 wl 2

R .

=

l Rb

3EI b 2

8

32

4l

(ii)

W

W

= l Rb

8

2

(hogging)

57 wl

57 wl 4

57 wl

R .

wl 57l 3

32

3

Rb =

3EI b 3 or Rb =

= 3 8

=

3EI 4l + 3EI

32

4l

8 4l + 3EI

1+

4l 3

3

W

wX 4l wl 57l

3

Ra = Rb =

2

8 4l + 3EI

2

wl 7l 3 + 48EI

wl

57l 3

=

16 3

8

4l + 3EI 8 4l 3 + 3EI

8.28

(iii)

26

60kN/m

A

6m

197.3

_

4m

180

+

32.7

80

+

Maximum bending moment for the spans AB and BC treating as simply supported

beams,

wl 2 60 X 62

=

= 270 kN.m

For span AB, M max =

8

8

wl 2 60 X 42

=

= 120 kN.m

For span BC, M max =

8

8

For fixing moments, assume the continuous beam ABC to be made up of fixed beams

AB and BC.

wl 2

60 X 62

=

= 180 kN.m

For span AB: Fixing moments at A, M a =

12

12

wl 2 60 X 62

=

= 180 kN.m

Fixing moments at B, M b =

12

12

wl 2

60 X 42

=

= 80 kN.m

For span BC: Fixing moments at B, M b =

12

12

wl 2 60 X 42

=

= 80 kN.m

Fixing moments at C, M c =

12

12

In span AB, moments at A and B due to sinking of support B by 8 mm,

6 EI

M = 2

(Example 8.7, -ve being counter-clockwise)

l

6 X 205 000 X 400 X 106 X 8

= 109.3 X 106 N.mm or -109.3 kN.m

or M =

2

6 000

Due to sinking of support B by 8 mm, moments at B and C (Refer example 8.7),

6 EI

M = 2

(-ve being counter-clockwise)

l

6 X 205 000 X 400 X 106 X 8

M=

= 246 X 106 N.mm or 246 kN.m

or

2

4 000

Distribution factors at B:

27

Stiffness factor for AB, sba =

and for BC, sbc =

4 EI

= 2 EI / 3

6

3EI 3EI

=

4

4

sab

2 EI / 3

8

=

=

sab + sbc 2 EI / 3 + 3EI / 4 17

sbc

3EI / 4

9

=

=

Distribution factor for BC, kbc =

sab + sbc 2 EI / 3 + 3EI / 4 17

Distribution factors

16/31 15/31

Fixed end moments

-180

180

-80

Moments due to sinking -109.3

-109.3 246

Initial moments

-289.3

70.7

166

Release C

Carry over

-163

Net moments

-289.3

70.7 3

Distribute

-38

-35.7

Carry over

-19

Final moments

-197.3

32.7

-32.7

Distribution factor for AB, kba =

80

246

326

-326

0

0

Chapter-9

9.16

M =WR (1-cos )

1

M 2 ds

W 2 R3

2

U =

= 2

[WR(1 cos )] R.d =

[1 cos ]2 .d

0

0

2 EI

2 EI

EI

3

u 2WR

2WR 3

2

=

[

1

cos

]

.

d

=

1 + cos 2 + 2 cos .d

Vertical deflection =

W

EI 0

EI 0

2WR 3

sin 2

1 + cos 2

0 1 + 2 + 2 cos .d = EI + 2 + 4 + 2 sin 0

3

2WR 3

3 XX 5 X 1503

3WR

=

= 3.68 mm

=

+ + 0 + 0 =

2

200 000 X (12 X 63 / 12)

EI

EI

2WR 3

=

EI

9.8

28

20 kN

10

0

8

m 0

m

20 kN

d = 80 mm ; R = 50+40 = 90 mm ; A =

2

d

d

80

1 80

+

+ ... =

+

. 2 = 439.5 mm2

2

16 128R

16 128 90

As bending moment tends to increase the curvature, it is positive.

Resultant stress = Direct stress +Bending stress

Stress at outside face (P), y = 290 - 202=88 mm

20000 90 2

40

W WR R 2 y W R 2 y

o = +

1

=

.

=

.

+

2

2

A AR

p R + y A p R + y 5026.5 439.5 90 + 40

= 22.56 MPa (tensile)

Stress at inside face (Q)

W WR R 2 y

W R2

y

i = +

=

. 2.

2

A AR p R y

A p R y

p2 =

= 105.82 X

40

= 58.67 MPa (compressive)

90 40

Chapter-10

10.12

P=

2N

1

T , If P is constant, N

T

60

d 3

1/ 3

1

1

d 5000

, If stress is same, Td ; N 3 or d 1 / 3 , a =

But =

16

db 50

d

N

T

10.16

Tsls

Tl

= aa

Gs J s Ga J a

Angle of twist per unit length,

= 4.64

29

Ts

T

= a

Gs J s Ga J a

or

32T

32T

= 0.7 X

d =50.5 mm

4

4

2Ga XX (60 d )

Ga XX 604

Also, as = 0.7 , = 0.7

l a

Gr a

l st

Gr st

G

As r is same, st = st 0.7 = 2 X 0.7 = 1.4

a Ga

As maximum limits are 65 MPa for alloy and 80 MPa for steel, the maximum stress will

reach in steel first.

10.18

Maximum shear stress occurs at smallest diameter.

X 803

6

10 X 10 =

. or = 99.5MPa

16

T l 1

1

10 X 106 1200 1

1

3 = 0.0171 rad

=

.

.

3

3

3

3 X 82000 10 60 40

= 0.98o

Chapter-11

11.13

64TDn 64 X 20000 X 100 X 12

=

= 0.3704 rad

Ed 4

200 000 X 124

0.3704

Increase in the number of turns =

= 0.059

2

32T 32 X 20000

Bending stress,

=

= 117.9 MPa

d 3

X 123

20

Torsional stiffness (torque /rad) =

= 54 N.m/rad

0.3704

Under axial torque, =

11.17

W Gd 4

80 000 X 2.54

8WD 3 n

or

s

=

=

=

= 2.441 N/mm

1

Gd 4

8D 3n 8 X (8 X 2.5)3 X 20

Gd 4

80 000 Xd '4

=

= 1.302d '

8D 3n 8 X (8d ' )3 X 15

ss

2.441X 1.302d '

s = 1 2 or 1.3 =

or 3.173 + 1.693d ' = 2.441X 1.302d ' or d ' = 2.136mm

s1 + s2

2.441 + 1.302d '

The maximum load will be that taken by the spring with smaller diameter.

s2 =

30

11.18

E =2G(1+) =2G(1+0.3)=2.6G

8WD 3 n

Gd 4

8WD 2 n

and for an open-coiled spring, o = 4

d . cos

For a closed-coiled spring, c =

cos 2 2 sin 2

+

E

G

8WD 2 n

i

Gd 4

Now, o

= 0.02 or

1

= 0.02

o

8WD 2 n cos 2 2 sin 2

+

E

d 4 . cos G

E cos

2.6G cos

1

= 0.025 or

= 0.975

2

2

E cos + 2G sin

2.6G cos 2 + 2G sin 2

2.6 cos

2.6 cos

or

= 0.975 or

= 0.975

2

2

2.6 cos + 2(1 cos )

0.6 cos 2 + 2

2.6 cos

= 0.975 or 0.585 cos 2 2.6 cos + 2 = 0

2

0.6 cos + 2

On solving, = 17.2o

11.20

M E E

=

(Eq. 11.14)

y

I

R R'

At proof load, R is infinite and thus E/R = 0

630 208 000

E

=

=

or

R = 1650 mm or 1.65 m

or

y R

10 / 2

R

Let We be the equivalent static load which produces the same maximum stress and

deflection as the impact load.

3 We l

also, =

2 nbt 2

630 3 We X 1400

As the maximum stress is one half of the proof stress,

= .

2

2 10 X 80 X 102

We = 12000 N

or

=

3 Wel 3

3

12000 X 14003

=

.

= 74.2 mm

8 nbt 3 E 8 10 X 80 X 103 X 208 000

Chapter-12

31

12.16

Assuming the deflected form under the action of the crippling load be

x

x

x

dy a

sin

=

y = a1 cos = a1 cos

and thus,

2l

400

dx 400

400

x

2

2

2

1 cos

l dy

a 180

a 180 2 x

200 .dx

.dx =

0

.dx =

0 sin

0 dx

400

2

400

400

1 a

=

2 400

1 a

2

sin

X 200 = 0.006 17a

=

x

200

200 0

2 400

x

x

= Pa cos

400

400

x

x

cos 2

cos2

2

l M

200

P 2 a 2 100

400 dx +

400 dx

dx =

0 2 EI

100

2E 0

I2

I1

180

12.18

I=

(56

64

(56

4

I 95100

=

= 317 mm2

A

300

2 EI 2 X 207 000 X 95100

= 126112 N

Euler load, Pe = 2 =

l

22002

Actual load for failure = 126112 X 0.75 = 94584 N

l

l P

2200

94584

sec = sec

= sec

= sec1.36 = sec 77.9o = 4.77

2

2 EI

2

207 000 X 95100

k2 =

l 94584 eX 28

P e. yc

X 4.77 MPa

1 +

1 + 2 . sec =

A

k

2 300

317

1 + 0.421e = 2.89

or

e = 4.49 mm

max =

or

or

12.21

I=

l

2

l

2

(40 ) = 40000

64

4

mm4; A =

(

40 ) = 400 mm2

4

2

P 3200

36 000

=

= 1.968 rad (=109.7o)

EI

2

200 000 X 40000

32

wEI l 0.8 X 200 000 X 40000

sec109.7o 1

sec 1 =

P

2

36 000

6

= 0.5585 X 10 X (2.967 1) = 2.215 X 106 N.mm

M=

max =

P M . yc

36 000 2.215 X 106 X 20

= 28.7 352.7

A

I

400

40000

- 381.4 MPa (compressive) and -324 MPa compressive

Chapter-13

13.13

Internal volume of cylinder =

4

pd 4.5 X 800

pd

c =

=

= 180 MPa (tensile) and l =

= 90 MPa (tensile)

2t

2 X 10

4t

V

Increase in volume, v = ( l + 2 c ).V = [( l . c ) + 2( c . l )]

E

V

( / 4) X 8002 X 1500

1245 X 103 = [(90 X 180) + 2(180 X 90)] =

(450 360 )

E

2050000

754 X 106

1250 X 103 =

(450 360 )or 450 360 = 340

205000

= 0.306

13.16

Internal volume of shell =

For tube:

3

(1 ) = 3 pd (1 ) (13.9)

4tE

E

3 pd

(1 )V = 3 X 2 X 1500 (1 0.3)V = 1575V / tE

Decrease in volume, =

4tE

4tE

For water:

p

Increase in volume, v = w .V = .V

K

1575V p

Thus change volume of water =

+ V

tE

K

1575

2

X 1767 X 106 or

t=6.23mm

or 4000 X 103 =

+

200 000t 2000

Volumetric strain = 3 X hoop strain = =

13.20

33

2002 + 1502

d 2 + d i2

=

surface and is c = o2

.

p

or

= 3.57 p

c

d o d i2

2002 1502

Thus 3.57 p = 44 or p =12.32 MPa

ri 2 . p

752 Xp

= 1.2857 p

(ro2 ri 2 ) 1002 752

220000

or p =12.43 MPa

1.2875 p =

X (2002 1502 )

4

Maximum pressure =12.43 MPa

Longitudinal stress =

13.22

d o2 + d i2

The maximum hoop stress is at d=di, c = 2

. pi

d o d i2

or

d o2 + 602

55 = 2

X 35

d o 602

or

d o2 602 =

or

2

o

pi d

2

(d o d i2 )

35 2

(d o + 602 )

55

d o = 84.8 mm

or

50 =

35d o2

(do2 602 )

10d o2 10 X 602 = 7d o2 or

d o = 109.5 mm

109.5 60

= 24.75 mm

Thickness =

2

or

13.25

(i) Increase of inner diameter of the collar

pd

d 2502 + 1502

c + r

[2.125 + 0.3] = 2.425 pd

p

p

.d =

.

d =

+

=

2

2

E

E 250 150

E

E

2.425 X 150 p

0.1 =

or

p = 55 MPa

or

200 000

13.27

=

or

pi (d o3 + 2d i3 )

2(d o3 d i3 )

or

75 =

t = 16.4/2=8.2 mm

d o3 + 2 X 803

X 30

2(do3 803 )

or

4d o3 = 7 X 803 or

do = 96.4 mm

34

Chapter-14

14.12

Let the shrinkage pressure between the disc and the shaft at stand still be p.

Ri = 0.09 m and Ro = 0.4 m

Shrink allowance = 0.08 mm

At stand still, the hollow disc acts similar to a thick cylinder subjected to

internal pressure (Refer section 13.9).

2 pRi Ro2

(Eq. 13.31)

Shrinkage allowance (initial difference in radii) =

E ( Ro2 Ri2 )

2 pX 90 X 4002

0.08 =

or p = 86.9 MPa

or

206 000(4002 902 )

Maximum hoop stress is at the inner radius and is given by Eq. 13.7.

0.42 + 0.092

R 2 + Ri2

= o2

.

p

=

. p = 1.107 p = 1.107 X 86.9 = 96.2 MPa

i

Ro Ri2

0.42 0.092

(ii)

When the disc rotates and the shrink fit loosens, radial pressure is zero and thus

the radial stress is also zero.

2

4

[(1 ) R

2

i

+ (3 + ) Ro2

(Eq. 14.17)

14.13

2X 3000

= 100

60

At stand still

Let the shrinkage pressure between the disc and the shaft at stand still be p.

At stand still, the hollow disc acts similar to a thick cylinder subjected to internal

pressure only and thus the results of the same may be used.

- For the outer disc, hoop stress at the inner radius (50 mm),

Ri = 0.08 m and Ro = 0.24 m

Ro2 + Ri2

0.242 + 0.082

.

p

=

. p = 1.25 p N/mm2

i

2

2

2

2

Ro Ri

0.24 0.08

1.25 p + 0.3 p 1.55 p

=

Hoop strain =

Es

Es

14.15

Let t be the thickness of the disc at radius r. Now as t = A.e .

2 2

At r = 0, 180 = A.e . .0 / 2 = A

.r 2 / 2

(i)

35

At r = 0.2 m, t = A.e .

Dividing (ii) and (i),

.0.2 2 / 2

(ii)

A.e . .0.2

t = 180 X

A

2

/ 2

= 8.e .

( 0.04 ) / 2

0.04

2X 3000

where X 0.04 / 2 = 7500 X

= 0.1234

X

60

2 X 120 X 106

t = 8e 0.1234 = 159 mm

2

Chapter-15

15.6

C=

Et 3

200 000 X 153

=

= 61.8 X 106

2

2

12(1 )

12(1 0.3 )

0 .4 x 2

wx 2 2 x 2

x2

2

R =

300

y=

32C

2 32 X 61.8 X 106

2

Deflections at different cross-sections are tabulated below:

x (mm)

y (mm)

0

0

60

0.064

120

0.24

180

0.48

240

0.72

300

0.82

0.9

0.6

0.3

0

60

120 180

r (mm)

240

300

(t / 2) E w 12(1 2 )

3 w

. .

(1 + ) R 2 (3 + ) x 2 = . 2 (1 + ) R 2 (3 + ) x 2

2

3

1 16

Et

8 t

3 0.4

= . 2 (1 + 0.3) X 3002 (3 + 0.3) x 2 = 0.000667 117000 3.3 x 2

8 15

x =

(t / 2) E w 12(1 2 )

3w

. .

(3 + ) R 2 (3 + 1) x 2 = 2 (1 + ) R 2 (3 + 1) x 2

2

3

1 16

8t

Et

3 X 0.4

=

(1 + 0.3)3002 (3 X 0.3 + 1) x 2 = 0.000667 117 000 1.9 x 2

8 X 152

z =

15.8

36

Et 3

200 000 X 53

C=

=

= 2.26 X 106

2

2

12(1 ) 12(1 0.28 )

1

1

2 2 log R + 1 + (log x 1)

2

1

2000 x

1 0.28

=

2 log 100 +

(log x 1)

6

8X 2.26 X 10 2

1 + 0.28

6 2

= 35.21X 10 x [10.773 log x ]

y=

Px 2

8C

Chapter-16

16.9

60

60

10

45

A'

A

N'

N

80

10

y'

10

(mm)

(b)

(a)

Let N-A and N-A be the elastic and plastic neutral axes respectively.

60 X 10 X 5 + 70 X 10 X 45

y=

= 26.54 mm

60 X 10 + 70 X 10

10 X 703

60 X 103

I=

+ 60 X 10 X (26.54 5) 2 +

+ 10 X 70 X (45 26.54) 2 =807.76X103 mm4

12

12

5000 278383 285833 238540

Yield will start at the bottom edge,

I

807.76 X 10 3

. y = 15110 y

Moment of resistance at first yield, My= . y =

y

(80 26.54)

In fully plastic state, the neutral axis divides the total area of the beam into two

equal parts.

16.12

30

280 MPa

12

72

24

(mm)

STRESS

37

bh 2

30 X 722

My =

. y =

X 280 = 7258 X 103 N.mm or 7258 N.m

6

6

W X 1.2

Thus, y

= 7258 or Wy = 24.2 X103 N or 24.2 kN

4

h2 a 2

For elastoplastic state, moment of resistance, M = y .b

3

4

722 242

=9274 X 103 N.mm or 9274 N.m

= 280 X 30

4

3

Wy X 1.2

or

= 9274 or Wy = 30.9 X103 N or 30.9 kN

4

For this required depth of yield, let the yield occur beyond a cross-section at

distance x m from one end of the beam. Then this cross-section will be having the first

yield and thus the moment of resistance will be equal to the first yield at the midspan i.e.

7258X103 N.mm.

16.13

y. y

150 y

120 mm

15 mm

y ( y 15)

150 y

15mm

200

mm

150-y

50

mm

y

(a)

(b)

Solution

As the load increases and the yield spreads upto 50 mm from the lower edge of web,

assume that the top of the flange is still in the elastic state. Let the neutral axis be at a

distance y from the top edge. The stress distribution in the beam section will be as shown

in Fig. b.

y

Stress at the top of flange,

t =

. y .

150 y

y 15

. y .

Stress at the bottom of flange, b =

150 y

+b

Total tensile stress force = t

2

2

38

y 15

y

y 15

( y 15)

+ 7.5 y

= 900 y

+

150 y

150 y 150 y

900 y + 900 y 13500 + 7.5 y 2 225 y + 1687.5

= y

150

y

= y

150 y

Compressive force =

y

2

16.14

y

100 mm

10 mm

N

A

10 mm

80

mm

(a)

(b)

Solution

Let the neutral axis be at a distance y from the top edge. The yield starts at the bottom of

the web and will cover some portion when the top of the flange will just yield. The stress

distribution in the beam section is shown in Fig. b. Let the stress at the bottom of the

flange be when the top of flange just yields.

y 15

. y

Then =

y

+

Positive force = y

2

2

Negative force =

y

2

Chapter-17

17.8

E

50 kN

3m

B

6m

50 kN

3m

3m

A

3m

C

50 kN

50 kN

6m

50 kN

50 kN

50 kN

50 kN

39

Rb X 6 = 50 X 6 or Rb = 50 kN (upwards); Ra = 50 kN (downwards)

Rah = 50 kN

ABC = tan (3 / 6) = 26.6o

Joint A: FAB = 50kN (T) FAC = 50(T ) kN,

Joint B Considering FH = 0, 50 + FBC cos 26.6o = 0 or FBC = 55.9kN (C)

Considering FV = 0, 50 55.9 sin 26.6o + FBD = 0 or FBD = 25 kN (compressive)

17.9

50 kN

100 kN

F

2m

D

2m

B

A

2m

2m

50 kN

50 kN

100 kN

100 kN

F EG

2m

H

F CE

D

2m

100 kN

100

F GF =o

F GD

2m

2m

D

FV= 0

B

A

D

FH= 0

100

F GF =o

F GD

50 kN

FV= 0

Rb X 4 = 100 X 4 50 X 4 or Rb = 50 kN (upwards); Rav = 0

R ah = 100 kN

Joint E: FCE = 50kN (C) FEG = 100 kN (C) by judgement

Joint F: FFG = FFD = 0 (C) by judgement

Joint G Considering forces along GD,

FGD = 0, FGD + FGE cos 45o = 0 or FGD + 100 cos 45o = 0 or FGD = 70.7kN (C)

Considering FV = 0, FGD cos 45o FGC cos 45o = 0 or FGC = 70.7 (T)

40

17.11

200 kN

F

200 kN

400

D

2m

E

200

2m

400

B

4m

4m

200

400

200

400

447.1

447.2

FAH X 4 = 200 X 8 or FAH = 400 kN (inwards); FFH = 400 kN (outwards)

FCD = 200 kN (C)

tan-1(4/2)= CBE or CBE = 63.43o

Joint C: FBC cos 63.43o = 200 or FBC = 447.2 kN (C)

447.2 sin 63.43o = FCE or FEC = 400 kN (T)

Joint B: 447.2 cos 63.43o = FBE or FBE = 200 kN (T)

447.2 sin 63.43o = FAB or FAB = 400 kN (C)

Joint A: FAE = 0 FAV = 0

Joint F: FFV = 200 FEF sin 63.43o = 400 or FEF = 447.1 kN (T)

17.12

40 kN

60o

40 kN

80 kN

E

60o

40 kN

80 kN

40 kN

FDV X 12 = 40 X 2 + 80 X 6 + 40 X 3.464 or FDV = 58.21 kN; FDH = 40 kN

FAV = 120 58.2 = 61.8 kN

Joint D: FED X sin 60o = 58.21 or FED = 67.2 kN (C)

FCD = 67.2 cos 60o = 33.6 kN (T)

40 kN

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